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DOI 10.1007/s10915-015-0053-0

in Horizontal Pipe Using Level Set Method

Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Abstract Simulating coreannular flow is an important task in the oil industry. Many

attempts have been made to simulate vertical upflow or downflow. However, in the case

of horizontal pipes, simulation is likely to succeed when the effect of gravity is ignored,

because the motion of the fluid is no longer axisymmetric. This gravity-ignoring

simulation is acceptable when the density of oil is almost similar to that of water, but in

most cases, density-matching does not occur in reality. A few attempts have been made to

simulate flow in horizontal pipes (Ooms et al. in Phys Fluids 25:032102, 2013), but these

attempts used 2D cross-sectional simulation or 3D simulation of a specific moment. This

paper discusses several results for coreannular flow in horizontal pipes with gravity

effect, using full 3D simulation. Using a level set method, we express the interface of

coreannular flow and compare different cases with different parameters.

1 Introduction

The transportation of heavy crude oil through a pipe is a naturally important problem in oil

industry. Among several efficient modes of transportation, lubricating a pipe with a low-

viscosity fluid, such as water, is a well-used technique. The primary idea behind

lubricating pipes is the property of low-viscosity fluid to encapsulate high-viscosity fluid.

This type of flow is designated as coreannular flow, which features one fluid at the core

and another fluid in the annulus.

B Myungjoo Kang

mkang@snu.ac.kr

Byungjoon Lee

asone30@snu.ac.kr

1

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

13

Many attempts have experimented on [1] and simulated coreannular flow [2,3].

However, in many cases, a vertical or parallel pipe without gravity is used because it is

difficult to analyze parallel pipes owing to the effect of gravity. Additionally, in previous

simulations, many researchers assumed that the given flow was axisymmetric in a stable

regime, which is not true for a parallel pipe with gravity. Recently, one study [4] attempted

to simulate a horizontal coreannular flow by using the VOF method [2], but this

simulation examined a 2D cross-sectional plane and a 3D simulation of a specific moment.

The purpose of this study is to perform a full 3D simulation on coreannular flow in a

horizontal pipe while considering the gravity effect. To describe the interface between oil

and water, we selected a level set method [5]. In many simulations on incompressible fluid

[6,7], level set formulation is well-suited for visualizing the interface. Because oil and

water have very different viscosities, we primarily attempted to perform the simulation

based on the boundary capturing method [7,8]. This is viewed as an extension of Kangs

work [9] in terms of using a level set method. However, in 3D simulation, axisymmetric

coordinates must be transformed into regular grid coordinates with irregular boundary

domain for a cylindrical pipe, which complicates the simulation.

In this paper, we will provide numerical results on coreannular flow in a parallel pipe

in full 3D domain. This paper discusses the following: governing equation and parameters

of simulation are given in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3, information is given about the numerical

method based on level set. This section also provides a discussion on boundary conditions

when a domain has an irregular boundary. Finally, we give numerical results in Sect. 4.

Coreannular flow, as part of a two-fluid flow, can be expressed with the NavierStokes

equation:

u 1

+ u u = ( P + (2S)) + F (1)

t

where is the density, the viscosity, and S the viscous stress tensor,

1 uj

ui

+ (2)

S ij = x x j

2 i

and F is the source term, such as acceleration exerted by gravity and surface tension. In

coreannular fluid, P = f x + p for the driven pressure gradient vector f and the axis

coordinate vector x. Because oil and water are liquids, the velocity u must be subject to

the incompressibility condition:

u=0 (3)

In this paper, oil is designated as fluid 1 and water as fluid 2. Using a level set method, we

represent the interface between oil and water, which is moved by the following equation:

+ u = 0 (4)

t

Here, is a signed distance function to the interface between oil and water.

2.2 Dimensionless Form of NavierStokes Equation

For convenience, we use the dimensionless form of Eq. (1). The following variables are

used for expressing dimensionless form:

x = Rx , u = V0 u, t = R t

V0

(5)

P = P oil (V0)2, = oil , = oil

where dimensionless variables are denoted as *; R is the undisturbed reference interface

position; and V0 is the centerline velocity. Transforming Eq. (1) into dimensionless form

and dropping *, we have

px t l / \

1 (2u x )x + (u y + vx ) y + ((u z + wx 1 R

))z

ut + u u = + f1

oi V02

+ l

Re

t l (6)

p y 1 ((u y + vx ))x + (2v y ) y + (vz + w y ) z

R

=

vt + u v + Re +

/ \ V02 (7)

1 R g

f2

+

oil V02

pz t l / \

1 ((u z + wx ))x + (vz + w y ) y + 1 R

(2wz )z

wt + u w = + f3

oi V02

+ l

Re

(8)

oi l RV0

where the Reynolds number, Re = f = ( f1 , f2, f3), is driven by the pressure

oi ,

gradient. l

Because there is discontinuity at the interface between oil and water, smoothed density

and viscosity are used for this equation:

() = 1 + ( 1)H (), (9)

() = 1 + ( 1)H (), (10)

where = water /oil , = water /oil and H () is the Heaviside function, as follows:

0, if < 0,

H () = 1 , if = 0, (11)

2

1, if > 0.

The pipe radius is represented as R2 and the interface position is r = R1. Regarding the

interfacial tension , P2 P1 = /R 1 . Constant pressure gradient in the axial direction is

imposed: d P/dx = f . This constant gradient is viewed as the external force. The four

primary dimensionless parameters are given as follows:

m = 2/1, a = R 2/R 1, = 2/1, K = ( f + 1 g)/( f + 2 g), (12)

where K measures the ratio of driving forces in the core and annulus. The centerline

velocity is chosen to be

R2

V0(0) = ( f + 2 g) 1 A, A = mK + a2 1 + 2(K 1) log a. (13)

4 2

The dimensionless base velocity field is V (r), where

r1 2 2

V (r) = [a 2(K 1) log(r/a)], 1 r a,

A

r

(13)

1 A1 (mr 2 K ), r < 1.

where r is the distance from the axis of the axial direction to the interface. The velocity is

imposed only for the axial direction.

An interfacial tension parameter is J = R11/21. Reynolds numbers, Rei , are defined

by Rei = i V0(0)R1/i , i = 1, 2, where Re1/Re2 = m/ .

3 Numerical Formulation

In this simulation, we introduce two different level set functions: one for the interface

between oil and water, and the other for the cylinderical pipe. For convenience, f is set

for the former function, and c for the latter.

The level set technique is used to describe the interface [10]. We initialize f to be the

signed distance function from the interface between oil and water. Then, the interface can

be expressed as the zero level set of f as

= {x | f (x, t) = 0} (14)

The oil and water regions will be described by f < 0 and f > 0. Then, velocities in

each phase can be written as

r

uoil , f 0

u= (15)

uwater , f > 0.

where u is the velocity of fluid. When using the level set method, the level set function is

set to move along with the given velocity through the following equation:

( f )t + u f = 0. (16)

The unit normal on the interface and curvature of the interface can be computed as

f (17)

n=

| f |

= n (18)

where the unit normal is drawn from the oil into the water.

In this study, we select the initial function of the interface as follows:

where C is the amplitude and is the wave number.

3.1.2 Level Set Function for Boundary Condition

Because the current simulation is a full 3D simulation in the pipe, the boundary for com-

putation is not axis-aligned. To address the boundary conditions, we introduce the level set

function for the pipe:

c(x(r, x )) = R2 (20)

During the entire simulation, the boundary pipe is never changed, so we only use this level

set function for determining the boundary conditions of the simulation.

In Eqs. (9) and (10), density and viscosity are defined discontinuously near the interface,

which causes numerical difficulties in implementation. For this reason, we present a

numerical Heaviside function with a fixed width, which is proportional to the spatial

mesh size, as follows:

1, if > ; (21)

H () = 0, if < ;

\

1 1

t xl

1 + + sin , otherwise

2

Here, is the prescribed width. Now, we can replace () and () in Eqs. (9) and (10)

with smoothed density and viscosity functions, which are denoted as () and ().

() = + (1 )H (), (22)

() = + (1 )H (), (23)

We set = 1.56.x .

3.3 Projection Method

This method was initially proposed by Chorin [11], whereas an explicit version of the

method was presented by Fortin et al. [12]. This explicit method is a fractional step method

with first-

order accuracy in time. Let

= (un , v n , wn). In the first step, we explicitly compute a

Vn

provisional value, V , with

n

\ 1

V V

n n

+ V V (2S) F = 0 (24)

6.t

Re

which is the momentum equation with no pressure gradient. Only the discretization in time

equations

is considered here. Then, in the second step, we correct V by considering the

n+1

V

V 1 pn+1 0 (25)

+ =

6.tn+1

V =0 (26)

By using the divergence of Eq. (24) and by making use of Eq. (26) which states that V

n+1

must be a divergence-free vector, we gain the Poisson equation:

1

n+1 1

= V (27)

p

6.t

The boundary condition for p is obtained by projecting vector Eq. (26) on the outward

normal unit N to the boundary . Thus, we obtain the Neumann condition:

N (28)

pn+1 V

n+1

V

N = 6.t

where

is the value of V on . To summarize, Eq.(24) produces V ; the solution

V of

the Neumann problem [Eq. (27)] produces pn+1; finally, the velocity, V n+1, is

computed

from Eq. (25). More details are provided in a previous study [13].

We use a MAC grid to solve the NavierStokes equation as usual. All vector quantities,

such as un , are stored at cell face; scalar quantities, suchf as n , are located at the cell

center.

In one time step, we initially solve for un+1, then update fn+1. The numerical procedure

is as follows:

Step 1. Initialize f (x, t) as a signed distance function to the initial front.

Step 2. Solve the NavierStokes

n+1/2

equations [Eqs. (6),(7), and (8)] to obtain un+1.

Step 3. Propagate n to by using level set equation (16) with the velocity obtained

f f

at Step 2. n+1/2

Step 4. Reinitialize and obtain n+1.

f f

The advection terms in Eqs. (1) and (4) can be discretized as follows:

t

\ =

i +1/2, j,k ui +1/2, j,k ui +1, j,k ui,

V l

j,k

u\ 6.x

t l

v u ui +1/2, j 1/2,k

+ i +1/2, j,k i +1/2, j +1/2,k

6.y

t

wi +1/2, j,k ui +1/2, j,k+1/2 ui +1/2, (29)

l

j,k1/2

+

6.z

t t

\ vi, j,k li, j +1/2,k i, j

\ ui, j,k i +1/2, j,k i 1/2,

l

V i, j,k 1/2,k

j,k

= +

6.y

t 6.x

wi, j,k li, j,k+1/2 i, (30)

j,k1/2

+

6.z

Velocity advection for v and w are treated similarly. In Eqs. (29) and (30), ui +1, j,k

, i +1/2, j,k must be obtained by using proper approximation. Here, we use ENO 3rd

for velocity and WENO 5th for level set approximation [1416].

The viscous term (2S) in Eq. (1) can be discretized by using central differencing. For

example, in x directional velocity u,

/ t l \ (31)

1 (2ux )x + (uy + vx ) y + ((uz + wx ))z

Re

i +1/2, j,k

J Sci Comput

we have

t l

t

((u v ))

l t(u y + vx )l 1/2,j

(u

+

v )

y + x i +1/2, j,k

y i +1/2, j 1/2,k

x

y

1/2,k

6.y

i+

=

where ui +1/2, j +1,k u i

vi +1, j +1/2,k u i , j +1/2,k

(u y + vx )i +1/2, j +1/2,k

+1/2, j , k +

6.x

= 6.y

1 t l

i +1/2, j +1/2,k = i +1, j,k + i, j,k + i +1, j +1,k + i, j,k

4

The other terms in Eq. (31) and the y, z directional velocities v, w can be discretized

similarly.

Because the difference in viscosity between oil and water is relatively large, viscous terms

must be updated in a strictly small time step to ensure stability. This causes the entire sim-

ulation to be inefficient in terms of CFL time restrictions. To modify this, we used the

unconditionally stable semi-implicit technique [3] for updating viscosity terms.

In the semi-implicit method, each velocity is updated only as an implicit or explicit term.

That is,

t l t t ll

2u x + u + vn + u + wn z

\\

u un n \ n 1 y x z x

V u y + F1

6.t

= x n (32)

+ Re

+ +

\\ \ \\

2vy

n \ n

n n

v vn 1 uy + vz + z

x y

V v vx wy + F2

6.t

= R (33)

+ e

t l

t t n llx vn + w\\ + 2w z

u +

w wn n \ n 1 z+ z y z

V w wx y + F3

6.t

= R (34)

+ e

u-velocity

t

J Sci Comput

l

6.

I + u = explicit term x

Re

2 +

x x z (35)

z

y

y

v-velocity l

t

6.

I + v = explicit term y

Re

+ 2

x x y z (36)

z

y

w-velocity

l

I 6.t

Re

+ + 2 w = explicit term z

x x y

where z (37)

y z

\

explicit term x = un 6.t n 6.t t nl

t l + 6.t F1

u + Re v n + w

V n

x y

\ x z

n

\ 6.t \ \

explicit term y = vn 6.t v + Re u y

+

w + 6.t F2

n n y

n x z

V

\ 6.t

n t nl

explicit term z = wn 6.t t l

w + Re u n + v

+ 6.t F3

n

V z x \ z y

These systems are symmetric positive definite (SPD). Hence, we can solve these by

using a fast algorithm such as the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method. A

previous study [3] recommended a factorization scheme to solve these systems. When we

simulate this element, we found that the semi-implicit solver requires <30 iterations,

except for the first step because of the time step. This implies that the efficiency of the

semi-implicit step is not degraded when we solve this part directly. Hence, we solve the

semi-implicit part directly rather than using a factorization scheme.

equipped with a projection method. The Poissons equation for this problem is reformulated

as follows:

1

n+1 1

= V (38)

p

6.t

with the Neumann boundary

V

condition n+1

V N (39)

n+1

p

=

N 6.t

Because the solution of this Neumann problem is independent with the choice of V ,

we

n+1

can select V for simplicity; that is,

0 (40)

= V n+1

p

=

N

The condition of compatibility for the Neumann problem is

n+1

p N d

0=

d = V

V

n+1

N 6.t

n+1

= V V d (41)

that 6.t

is,

n

+1

V d V d = 0 (42)

=

It is important for the discretization with respect to space to conserve the preceding

compat- ibility condition.

This is the homogeneous Neumann Poisson problem, which is a singular system, Ax =

b, in discretized form. Generally, when we solve singular system with PCG, some

special

treatment must be needed. By noting that e, the vector of all ones, is a basis of null space

of A, we solved ( AN+ 1 eet )y = b, where N is the number of row, and orthogonalize y

with respect to e to have real solution x . This modification guarantees null space of A is

shifted

away and we can find the solution (unique upto constant) on the restricted space of the

Krylov sequences of CG Span.

3.6.1 Variable Coefficient Poissons Equation with Jump Condition: Surface Tension

Effect Considered

Instead of using a continuous surface tension (CSF) model [17], we use a boundary

condition capturing (BCC) model for solving pressure [7,8].

In the case of a smoothed out viscosity, the jump condition in pressure at interface is

known to be [ p] = , where

[ p] = pwater poil

oilof the

2 interface. In dimensionless

form,

RV this can be modified, [ p] = 1 , where We = = 1 (Re 1 ) 2 is the Weber

0

We J

number. Then, Eq. (38) can be written as follows:

l 1

t pn+1 = V

6.

t

p n+1 0, [ p] = (43)

=

N

where = 1 . Because the BCC method can be extended in dimension-by-dimension

fashion, we present only one case to solve this. Assume that interface is located

between xi, j,k and xi 1, j,k , i, j,k < 0, and i 1, j,k > 0. Then, the discretized version of

Eq. (43) is as follows:

/ \ / \l

p p + I

i +1/2, i +1, j,k p i, i, j,k pi 1,

j,k

i 1/2, 6.x

j,k j,k j,k

6.x 6.x

pi , j +1 , k pi , j , k

+ i, j

6.y

+1/2,k

i, j p pi , j 1 , k pi , j , k + 1 pi

1/2,k

l I i,j,k 6.y i,

+ j,k+1/2 ,j,k

6.y 6.z

pil, j , k pi , j , k

I 1 \

1

i, 6.z V i, (44)

6.z 6. j,k

j,k1/2 = t

p

In the preceding formula, ( ) has discretization with mixed sign on pressure, p. This

x x

mixing sign degrades the numerical solution of the PDE. Hence, the sign is unified by using

the jump condition on p, p = p+ ( ) .

/ \ / \l

p

p + I

i +1/2, i +1, j,k pi, i, j,k pi 1,

j,k

i 1/2, 6.x

j,k j,k j,k

6.x 6.x

/ \ / \l

p

p I

i +1/2, i +1, j,k pi, i, j,k pi 1,

i 1/2, 6.x

j,k

j,k j,k j,k

6.x 6.x

/ \ \

p p

+

i +1/2, j,k i +1, j,k pi, i 1/2, j,k i, j,k pi, j,k I

() 6.x

j,k

6.x

6.x

resolution.

(45)

( )i , j ,k |i 1, j ,k | + ( )i 1, j ,k |i , j ,k |

( )

= |i 1, j,k | + |i, j,k |

Substituting this into Eq. (44) and reorganizing the equation, we have

pi +1 , j , k pi , pi , j , k pi 1 , j , k

i +1/2, i 1/2, 6.x

j,k 6.x j,k lI

j,k

6.x

pi , j +1 , k pi , j , k

+ i, j

6.y

+1/2,k

i, j p pi , j 1 , k pi , j , k +1 pi

1/2,k

l I i,j,k 6.y i,

+ j,k+1/2 ,j,k

6.y 6.z

i , jI, k pi , j , k

pl 1 i 1/2, j,k ()

1 \

i, 6.z 6.z 6. V i, j,k (6.x)2 (46)

j,k1/2 = t +

change the matrix; that is, it should preserve the SPD system. Thus, we can apply the PCG

method for solving this formula.

3.7 Reinitialization

Although Eq. (16) will move the level set = 0 at the correct velocity, will no longer

be a distance function (i.e., || /= 1); can become irregular after a certain period of

time. Maintaining as a distance function is essential for providing the interface with a

width

fixed in time. Computation of surface tension is difficult near a steep gradient in the

distance function. The values for (), especially for large density ratios, will be greatly

distorted if

|| is far from 1.

Conventional routines for reinitializing a distance function have to explicitly find the

contour, = 0, and reset at all points close to the front. An iteration method for

reinitializing is described in the following.

Given a region, + , with 0 on + and = 0 on , evolve the equation t =

1 || until reaches steady state. If is already close to a distance function, then

one should not have to evolve too far in time.

Unfortunately, one still has to prescribe boundary conditions on + , which requires

explicitly finding the interface. However, we can eliminate the problem of finding the

inter- face. Consider the following function, 0(x), whose zero level set is the air-liquid

interface: 0(x) need not to be a distance function. We will construct a function, (x), with

the proper- ties that its zero level set is the same as 0(x) and that is the signed normal

distance to the interface. This is achieved by solving the following problem to steady state:

t = S(0 ) 1 I 2 + 2 + 2 \ (47)

x y z

(x, 0) = 0(x) (48)

where S is the signed function [6]. For numerical purposes, it is useful to smooth the sign

function as

0 (49)

SE (0) = I

2+ E2

0

However, Russo and Smereka [18] remarked that this approach can cause the zero levelset

to move into the closest grid node because of inconsistency with upwinding approximation

near interface. In order to fix this problem, they suggested the following modified version

of Eq. (47). \

n 6. t 0 \ , if (i, j, k)

n

i,

n+1 i, j,k sg |i, j,k | Di, 6.x

6.x n j,k

0 j,k

i, j,k

= n \ G ()i, , otherwise (50)

j,k

i, j,k

6.t i, j,k

sgn

where

t l t l t l

Imax a 2 , b2 + max c2 , d 2 + max e2 , f 2 1, if 0 > 0

+

G()i, j,k =I + + i, (51)

j,k

t l t l t l

max a2 , b2 + max c2 , d 2 + max e2 , f 2 1, if 0 < 0

+ + + i, j,k

0

Di, j,k = 26. i, j,k 1

\2 \2 \2 l 2

0 0 0 0

0 0

(52)

j,k 1,k j,k1

i , j , k i i +1, j ,k i

with , j ,k 6.x

a Dxi, j,k 1, j , k , b Dx+i, j,k =

= i , j +1,k i

6.x

i , j ,k i , j , d D+

y i, j,k =

, j ,k 6.x

c Dy i, j,k i , j ,k +1 i

1,k

= , f D+

z i, j,k ,j,k

6.x

= 6.x

i , j , k i , j

e D

z i, j,k , k 1

=

6.x

0 0 0 0 0 0

6.x = {(i, j, k)|i, j,ki 1, j,k < 0 or i, j,ki +1, j,k < 0 or i, j,ki, j +1,k < 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

or i, j,k i, j < 0 or i, j,k i, < 0 or i, j,k i,

< 0}

1,k j,k+1 j,k1

Instead of using Eq. (52) we used a more robust formula based on Eq. (17) in [18] to

avoid the denominator in Eq. (52) becoming very small. Since this approximation gives

only first-order accurate in space, we chose the technique in [19] to apply 3rd ENO

approximation on spatial derivatives.

Because the computational domain is not a regular grid, it is necessary to establish the

boundary conditions. This is the primary contribution of this work. We use a subcell

resolution technique for each case:

Fig. 1 Points near the boundary of the domain. Blue circles are related only to one point inside the domain,

whereas red squares are related to two points (Color figure online)

Define the interpolated boundary level set (c )i +1/2, j,k , (c )i, j +1/2,k , (c )i, j,k+1/2 as

fol- lows:

1 t l

(c )i +1/2, j,k = (c )i, j,k + (c )i 1, j,k (50)

2

1 t l

(c )i, j +1/2,k = (c )i, j,k + (c )i, j 1,k (51)

2

1 t l

(c )i, j,k+1/2 = (c )i, j,k + (c )i, j,k1 (52)

2

According to the sign of c , we can determine whether a given domain is inside or

outside. For example, consider the case when (c )i +1/2, j,k < 0, (c )i +3/2, j,k > 0,

which is represented by blue circles in Fig. 1.

For velocity advection and viscous terms, define ui +3/2, j,k as

2u + (2 2)ui +1/2, j,k + ( 2 + 1)ui 1/2, j,k

ui +3/2, j,k (53)

2+

=

where

|(c )i +1/2, j ,k | (54)

=

|(c )i +1/2, j,k | + |(c )i +3/2,

j,k |

This setup provides the velocity boundary condition on the pipe at second-order

accuracy, which is consistent with our seond-order accurate time integration. In the ENO

3rd method, we require more than one stencil point. Establish points on the stencil outside

the domain as large values with large variation. For example, in the preceding case,

establish ui +5/2, j,k = (10t)10,

where t = ((i + 5/2) (i + 1/2)).

In red squares, two different values can be assigned for one point. Instead of using these

two values independently, we use bilinear interpolation to save memory in the CPU.

Fig. 2 Cell near the boundary

p8 p7

region

C

s p6

t

p5

D

sl sp (i, j,

k) sf

p3

A p4

sb

p1 B p2

In projection step, we need to solve the Poisson equation with Neumann boundary

condition:

p =0 (55)

n

Here, we extended the direct discretization in [20] to three dimensional space. Assume that

lies in the cell Ci, j,k . Now, applying divergence theorem to the integral form of (43) on

Ci, j,k results in

l 1

t pn+1 dV pn+1 nd

V dV

Ci, =

(Ci, j,k

Ci, j,k 6.t

) S=

j,k (55)

where n is outward normal to interface.

As one example, consider a cell cut by the boundary pipe as shown in Fig. 2. In this figure,

polyhedron with bases p5C D, p1 AB is Ci, j,k . Approximating bases as 6. p5C D, 6.

p1 AB and pipe region as rectangle ABC D and applying boundary condition of no flow

normal to pipe surface s p , p n = 0, we can have the following discretization of

lefthand side of Eqn (55).

,

j,k

pl sl +i, j + 1 pt st + i, j 1 pbsb +i, 1

2

p fs f

)

i 1 ,k 2 ,k 2 j,k+

(56)

where pi 1 , j , k pi , j +1,k pi

pl pi , j , k , pt =

, j ,k

= 6.x 6.y

pi , j 1 , k , p f

pb = p i , j , k +1 pi

pi , j ,k

= ,j,k

6.y 6.z

and sl , st , sb, s f , s p are the area of each surface designated in Fig. 2. For the

discretization of righthand side of (55), we can assume that numerical quantities of 1

V is cell-wise 6.t

constant. Since general finite difference discretization is used for cells in , this

cell-wise constant assumption guarantee the consistency of discretization in whole domain.

Hence the righthand side of (55) will be

1 1

Ci, j,k

V dV ( V ) \ V olume( Ci, j,k ) (56)

6.t 6. i, j,k

t

This boundary treatment technique preserves symmetry positivity of the corresponding

matrix so we can apply efficient solver to solve poisson equation.

For time discretization, we select the second-order TVD Runge Kutta method. This can be

written as a convex combination of velocity update procedure. Let us define the update

step as

n+1 = U n\

V (61)

V

Then, the second-order TVD Runge Kutta method is

n+1 1 1 (62)

V

V

+ U

n 2

n \\ U

V =

2

It is important that all time advancing steps, including the level set update, reinitialization,

and velocity update, are approximated by the second-order TVD Runge Kutta method.

Otherwise, the order of the entire simulation can be degraded, which causes severe errors

in the final result. More details are provided in a previous study [16].

Except for the implicit term, which is unconditionally stable, a CFL time restriction may

be needed for stability. For this study, the time condition is presented in dimensionless

terms [7].

1. Advection Term

Dimensional Form

|u | |v | |w |

Ac max

= 6.x max max

+ +

Dimensionless 6.y 6.z

Form

|u | max |v | max |w| max

Ac = + +

6.x 6.y 6.z

2. External Force Term

Dimensional

Form \

I

I |g|+ 1 , |f|

min(

) water oil

Dimensionless Form

c I \

F = 6.x 1

I R

|g|+ |f|

II min(water ,oil )

V0 2

Fc = 6.x

3. Surface Tension Term

Dimensional

Form | |

Sc = oi

min( l , wat )(min(6.x 6.y 6.z))2

er , ,

Dimensionless Form

1

We | |

Sc = min(, 1)(min(6.x , 6.y, 6.z))2

From the semi-implicit viscous solver, the CFL condition for the viscous term

oi l

w at er 2

is Vc = ,

oi water (6 x) 2 + + (6.z)2

released. max . 2

l (6.y)

In our simulation, a CFL restriction of 12 is used. Hence,

/

( Ac )2 + 4(Fc )2 + 4(Sc )2 1

Ac

6.t \

+ 2

1

| |

min(6.x, 6.y,

6.z)

so that prevent large curvature near the principal axis from contributing erroneous large

surface tension forces. This ensures that CFL restriction on surface tension term is O(h3/2)

in uniform grid which is simlar as in [17].

4 Numerical Experiments

ular, we focus on the simulation of parallel pipe cases, which are not axisymmetric.

4.1.1 Example 1

We simulate the case with [Q w , Q o ] = [200, 429]cm3min1. We set a = 1.28 according

to equation (3.4) in a previous study [2], with experimental hold-up ratio h = 1.39. The

experiments are performed using a pipe of radius R2 = 0.47625, with undisturbed

interface, R1 = R2/a. By fixing a and Vo, where Vo = Qo/( R 2 ) = 10.034 cm s1, we

can use the other parameters from equation (18.15) in Li and Renardy [21] as follows:

2

Re1 = 0.9498, m = 0.00166, = 1.1, J = 0.07961, K = 0.4552

C = 0.001, = 2.0, V 0 = 16.9531

J Sci Comput

Fig. 3 Up-flow with Re1 = 0.94938, a = 1.28, m = 0.00166, = 1.1, J = 0.07961, K = 0.4552,

V0 = 10.034 cm s1, = 2.0, C = 0.001

Fig. 4 The contour of pressure field on cross sectional plane including centerline corresponding to the

interface at t = 140

performed on a 51 51 51 mesh over one spatial period on domain [1.57, 0,

1.57] [1.57, 3.14, 1.57]. Our results for this case are shown in Fig. 3. For comparison

with previous work [2,9], the pressure profile corresponding to the interface on a cross-

sectional plane,

including the centerline, is presented in Fig. 4.

(a) t= 0 (b) t = 20 (c) t = 40 (d) t = 95 (e) t = 130

Fig. 5 Up-flow with Re1 = 3.73754, a = 1.61, m = 0.00166, = 1.1, J = 0.063354, K = 2.030303,

V0 = 83.91 cm s1, = 2.4, C = 0.1

Fig. 6 The contour of pressure field on cross sectional plane including centerline corresponding to the

interface at t = 20

4.1.2 Example 2

In this example, we establish an amount of water to be relatively large compared with that

in example 1, a = 1.61. Corresponding parameters for this simulation are as follows:

C = 0.1, = 2.4, V 0 = 83.91

Fig. 7 Schematic representation of the oilwater loop, (o) oil reservoir, (w) water reservoir, (l) laminar

flowme- ter, (e) electromagnetic flow meter, (t) thermocouple, (m) two-phase mixer, (d) flow

development region, (f ) fully developed flow, (c) capacitance pressure transducer, (s) separator tank

Fig. 8 Sotgia et al. [22]. The periodicity of wave is varying depending on the oil and water velocity

[1.8326, 0, 1.8326] [1.8326, 2.618, 1.8326]. The results are shown in Figs. 5 and

6. Including the asymmetric aspect of the crest, these results agree with those in previous

studies

[2,9].

Now, we discuss the cases of horizontal flow in a pipe. In Sotgia et al. [22], they

performed experiments based on their test facility with 10-m long pipeline in Fig. 7. This

is quite long campared with its cross-sectional raidus which give us a limitation of

computation. Also, It is known that there exist parameters which make fluid motion to be

periodic for coreannular

(e) t = 55 (f) t = 65

with tRe=1 0= 3.73754, a = 1.61, m = 0.00166, = = 10

1.1, tJ = 0.063354, K =

2.030303, V0 = 83.91 cm s1, = 2.4, C = 0.01

flow by experiments in [22]. In this paper, we are focusing on periodic regime for

comparing with recent results in [4] by choosing parameters as the same with the one of

periodic regime case. We assume that the flow moves from right to left by negative

pressure gradient. (c) t = 25 (d) t = 40

4.2.1 Example 3

In this example, we add more water than in the vertical case, and let the core-centerline be

sufficiently fast for choosing similar parameter with [4,22]. Corresponding parameters are

as follows:

C = 0.01, = 2.4, V 0 = 83.91

Except for the amplitude of initial wave, parameters are as same with as those in example

2. Because water is relatively heavier than oil, a large amount levitates the oil. We can

verify this effect from Figs. 9 and 10 and we can see the flow pattern quitely agrees on

experimental case, Fig. 8.

4.2.2 Example 4

C = 0.001, = 2.0, V 0 = 53.4918

In this case, the density difference between two fluids is relatively large (1 2 =

0.090), otherwise the centerline velocity will be relatively low. Hence, we can expect that

the oil will

Fig. 10 The contour of pressure field on cross sectional plane including centerline corresponding to the

interface at t = 65

(e) t = 80

(a)

Fig. 11 Horizontal flow = 10= 0.94938, a = 1.28, m = 0.00166, (b)

witht Re = 1.1,t =

J =

200.07961, K =

0.9993, V0 = 53.4918 cm s1, = 2, C = 0.001

first move downward due to the gravity. However, a few seconds later, as the total velocity

increases, oil begins to levitate. Additionally, we can verify that the total amount of water

is increased as time passes. The results are shown in Figs. 11 and 12.

(c) t = 40 (d) t = 60

To verify the effect of changing the centerline velocity, we change K from the value in

example 4 into K = 0.4552 and K = 2.030303. Figures 6 and 7 show each result.

We

Fig. 12 The contour of pressure field on cross sectional plane including centerline corresponding to the

interface at t = 80

(e) t = 80

Fig. 13 (a)Ret 1==0 0.94938, a

Horizontal flow with = 1.28, m = 0.00166,(b)

= t1.1,

= 20J = 0.07961, K =

0.4552, V0 = 10.034 cm s1, = 2, C = 0.001

field on cross sectional plane

including centerline

corresponding to the interface at

t = 80

(c) t = 40 (d) t = 60

(e) t = 80

(a)

Fig. 15 Horizontal flow = 10 = 0.94938, a = 1.28, m = 0.00166, (b)

witht Re = 1.1,t =

J =

200.07961, K =

2.030303, V0 = 83.91 cm s1, = 2, C = 0.001

field on cross sectional plane

including centerline

corresponding to the interface at

t = 80

(c) t = 40 (d) t = 60

can conclude that the centerline velocity of the core flow affects the wavy crest and

thickness of the core flow and the height of levitation. Because the amount of water is

relatively low compared to example 3, the height of levitation is low. Additionally, we can

verify that when core flow moves around the pipe, a wavy interface occurs because of

the buoyancy force from the water near the pipe. Figs. 13, 14, 15, and 16 give results.

In this example, we vary the finite amplitude from that in example 4 to C = 0.01 and

C = 0.05. Figures 17 and 19 show each result and Figs. 18 and 20 show pressure. The

perturbed amplitude for the initial pipe can affect the pressure around the pipe wall. The

pipe

with relatively large amplitude (Fig. 19) tends to be smoother than the other, and carries

more of the core flow due to the initial pressure profile.

(e) t = 80

(a)

Fig. 17 Horizontal flow = 10 = 0.94938, a = 1.28, m = 0.00166, (b)

witht Re = 1.1,t =

J =

200.07961, K =

0.9993, V0 = 53.4918 cm s1, = 2, C = 0.01

(c) t = 40 (d) t = 60

Fig. 18 The contour of pressure field on cross sectional plane including centerline corresponding to the

interface at t = 80

Next, we verify the effect of changing the amount of water by controlling a. Let us change

a to a = 1.61. The amount of water plays an important role in the levitation of the core

flow. As the amount of fluid in the annulus grows, the buoyancy force from the annulus

strengthens. This makes the core fluid levitate from the pipe wall. Flows and pressure

profiles can be verified in Figs. 21 and 22.

(e) t = 80

(a)witht Re

Fig. 19 Horizontal flow = 10 = 0.94938, a = 1.28, m = 0.00166, (b)

= 1.1,t = = 0.07961, K

J 20 =

0.9993, V0 = 53.4918 cm s1, = 2, C = 0.05

(c) t = 40 (d) t = 60

Fig. 20 The contour of pressure field on cross sectional plane including centerline corresponding to the

interface at t = 80

Finally, we investigate the effects of several different Reynolds numbers, Re1, by varying

the Reynolds number in example 3 to Re1 = 1.5 and Re1 = 2.5. As the Reynolds number

grows, the viscosity effect of the core flow decreases. Hence, we can expect that the core

flow will levitate to a relatively high height when the Reynolds number is small. Figures

23 and 24 show that this expectation is correct.

(e) t = 55 (f) t = 65

(a)

Fig. 21 Horizontal flow = 10 = 0.94938, a = 1.61, m = 0.00166, (b)

witht Re = 1.1,t =

J =

100.07961, K =

0.9993, V0 = 53.4918 cm s1, = 2, C = 0.01

(c) t = 25 (d) t = 40

Fig. 22 The contour of pressure field on cross sectional plane including centerline corresponding to the

interface at t = 60

For simulations, we use a computer with a 3.5 Ghz Intel(R) i7-2700K processor.

Simulation is coded by using Visual C++, OpenGL as a graphical tool, and Boost as a

multithreading tool. We use eight cores for multithreading. Total and simulation times for

one step of each simulation are represented on the right edge of each figure.

(c) t = 40 (d) t = 65

Fig. 23 Horizontal flow with Re1 = 1.5, a = 1.61, m = 0.00166, = 1.1, J = 0.063354, K = 2.030303,

V0 = 83.91 cm s1, = 2.4, C = 0.01

(a) t = 0 (b) t = 25

(c) t = 40 (d) t = 65

Fig. 24 Horizontal flow with Re1 = 2.5, a = 1.61, m = 0.00166, = 1.1, J = 0.063354, K = 2.030303,

V0 = 83.91 cm s1, = 2.4, C = 0.01

(a) t = 0 (b) t = 25

pipe equipped with a level set method. Comparing this result with recent work [4], we

provide a full 3D description of coreannular flows in parallel pipes with several

examples. By selecting different parameters, we can ensure that the core fluid flows

downward due to the relatively large density difference. Additionally, in our simulation,

the oil-water interface is described accurately by means of the level set function. To the

best to our knowledge, full 3D simulations on horizontal pipes have not been conducted

before. Such simulations can anticipate real phenomena in transporting viscous liquid

such as crude oil.

Because analysis on horizontal pipes is not fully established, we have no choice but to

select parameters from the vertical case. In reality, the assumption of periodicity will not

be accurate for some regime, which is a limitation of our simulation. In future work, we

will consider finding a proper parameter for efficient transportation based on the foregoing

analysis. Additionally, we will extend the given simulation to long pipes without

periodicity assumption, and differently located pipes (such as inclined or curved).

Acknowledgments This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National

Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning

(2014R/A2A/A10050531).

References

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2. Li, J., Renardy, Y.Y., Renardy, M.: Direct simulation of unsteady axisymmetric coreannular flow with

high viscosity ratio. J. Fluid. Mech. 391, 123149 (1998)

3. Li, J., Renardy, Y.Y., Renardy, M.: A numerical study of periodic disturbances on two-layer Couette

flow. Phys. Fluids. 10(12), 30563071 (1998)

4. Ooms, G., Pourquie, M.J.B.M., Beerens, J.C.: On the levitation force in horizontal coreannular flow

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