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JUNE 2016

n Customer:
LNG producers throughout the world.

n Challenge:
Select a compression partner to ensure years
of efficient, reliable production.

n Result:
Elliott refrigeration compressors and unmatched experience
have been central to successful LNG projects for decades.

They turned to Elliott

for leadership in LNG compression.
From the first commercial LNG baseload plants to todays mega-plants in Russia, the
Middle East and Asia, LNG producers have chosen Elliott for efficient, reliable compressors
and matchless expertise. Elliotts proven experience with different processes and drivers is
supported by manufacturing centers in the US and Japan, and a global network of service
centers. Who will you turn to?

C O M P R E S S O R S n T U R B I N E S n G L O B A L S E R V I C E The world turns to Elliott.
June 2016



JUNE 2016

COMPRESSORtech2 is the premier resource for gas compression news and information.

Featured Articles
12 Ariel Compressors Finding Homes In CNG Stations

18 U-Pac For Upstream

20 GEs Bringing Such Low Vibrations

26 Wellhead-Fueled Electric Power


201606CTE1336_June_C1.indd 1 5/26/16 2:39 PM

32 L.A. Turbine Reaches 100
Cover Designed By
Alyssa Loope 38 From Mega To Small LNG plants

40 Alfa Laval ACE Introduces Vspeed Adjustable-Speed Fan Drive

COMPRESSORtech2 (ISSN 1085-2468)
Volume 21, No. 5 Published 10 issues/year
(January-February, March, April, May, June,
48a 2016 Compressor Specs-At-A-Glance
July, August-September, October, November,
December) by Diesel & Gas Turbine Publications, 54 Rotating Machinery Performance Analysis
20855 Watertown Road, Waukesha, WI 53186-
1873, USA Subscription rates are $85.00 per
year/$10.00 per copy worldwide. Periodicals TECHcorner
postage paid at Waukesha, WI 53186 and at addi-
tional mailing offices. Copyright 2016 Diesel & 44 Efficient Balancing of Active Magnetic Bearing-Supported Rotors
Gas Turbine Publications. All Rights Reserved.
Materials protected by U.S. and international 58 Identifying Double Speed
copyright laws and treaties. Unauthorized dupli-
cation and publication is expressly prohibited.
Printed in the USA.
Canadian Publication Mail Agreement # 40035419.
Return Undeliverable Canadian Addresses to:
4 Page 4 Squinch!
P.O. Box 456, Niagara Falls, ON L2E 6V2, Canada.
Email: POSTMASTER: 6 Global Perspective Coral FLNG Project Has The Green Light,
Send address changes to: Circulation Manager, With A Touch Of Yellow
COMPRESSORtech2, 20855 Watertown Road, Suite
220, Waukesha, WI 53186-1873 USA.
8 About The Business Indicators Point To Beginning Of Market Recovery
10 Events & Meetings
Follow @COMPRESSORtech2 on:
25 Featured Products

34 Prime Movers

56 Literature

68 Scheduled Downtime
69 Marketplace

70 Advertisers Index

72 Cornerstones Of Compression The Coberra Gas Turbine



From basic to complex designs, NEA listens closely to
your needs with on-going 3D modeling reviews of your
recip compressor package. As your single-contact source,
NEA provides seamless project management from start
to finish, addressing every question and request. Our
extensive packaging experience results in highly-reliable
and more efficient operations.


Located in Katy, Texas
Contact me for North and Central America:
Roger Sanchez
Engineering Team Manager
Direct line: +1 713-554-9627

NEA GROUP Headquarters in Germany

A Member of the Diesel & Gas Turbine Publications Group

Associate Publisher ................... Mark Thayer
Associate Publisher ..............Roberto Chellini
Senior Editor ................................... DJ Slater
Senior Editor ................. Michael J. Brezonick
Associate Editor ............................... Jack Burke
Associate Editor ............................Chad Elmore

Associate Editor ...................................Art Aiello
Copy Editor ............................... Jerry Karpowicz hats the mandate I give my kids in The EPA estimated the costs to im-
Digital Content Manager ...............Catrina Carne
the car when they are faced with plement the new standards at US$530
Advertising Manager .................. Katie Bivens
an imminent personal gas leak. million in 2025, but that the climate
Circulation Manager ................. Sue Bollwahn Similarly, the U.S. Environmental benefits would be worth US$690 mil-
Production Manager ................ Marisa Roberts Protection Agency (EPA) is asking the lion. The American Petroleum Institute
Graphic Artist ...........................Brenda Burbach
oil and gas industry to prevent meth- (API) argued the costs could be as
Graphic Artist .................................Carla Lemke
Graphic Artist ............................... Alyssa Loope
ane leaks at natural gas production, high as US$800 million.
processing, transmission and storage Reaction to the regulations was about
20855 Watertown Road, Suite 220 facilities. what youd expect. Environmentalists
Waukesha, Wisconsin 53186-1873 The EPA has updated and published wish the rule did more, and the industry
Telephone: (262) 754-4100 Fax: (262) 754-4175
its final ruling on emissions standards thinks its too much.
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS for new, reconstructed and modified For comic relief, consider the follow-
Norm Shade Cambridge, Ohio
Mauro Belo Schneider Rio Grande du Sul, Brazil sources. Methane is a particular target ing diverging opinions.
of the rule. Charlie Cray, a researcher at
Mark Thayer, Associate Publisher The EPA said the changes will keep Greenpeace, said, EPAs methane
12777 Jones Road, Suite 225 the Obama Administration on track regulations are a welcome first step,
Houston, Texas 77070
Telephone: (281) 890-5310
to achieve its goal of cutting methane but contain too many loopholes to be
emissions from the oil and gas sector a comprehensive check on industry
Lisa Hochkofler, Advertising Manager by 40 to 45% from 2012 levels by 2025. recklessness. Natural gas is not a
Gabriele Dinsel, Advertising Manager Wet seal centrifugal compressor- bridge fuel to a clean energy econ-
Niemllerstr. 9
affected facilities not those at well omy, but a greenhouse gangplank.
73760 Ostfildern, Germany
Telephone: +49 711 3416 74 0 Fax: +49 711 3416 74 74 sites must achieve a 95% reduction What we need to make a real con-
UNITED KINGDOM of GHG and VOC emissions by captur- tribution to reducing climate change
Ian Cameron, Regional Manager/Editor ing and routing the emissions to a con- is a complete halt on any new gas-
Linda Cameron, Advertising Manager trol device or to a process. related investments.
40 Premier Avenue
Ashbourne, Derbyshire, Rod packing on reciprocating com- Tim Benson, a policy analyst at The
DE6 1LH, United Kingdom pressors not those at well sites Heartland Institute, said, Methane
Telephone: +44 20 31 79 29 79 Fax: +44 20 31 79 29 70
must be replaced at or before 26,000 emissions keep falling while natural
ITALY hours of use or every 36 months. gas and oil production keeps increas-
Roberto Chellini, Associate Publisher
44, Via Delle Forbici
Alternatively, emissions may be routed ing, but EPA never met a burdensome
I-50133 Firenze, Italy to a process. regulation it didnt love, so here we
Telephone: +39 055 50 59 861 Fax: +39 055 57 11 55 Pneumatic controllers and pumps at are. Too bad we cant get a regula-
Roberta Prandi, Regional Manager/Editor
natural gas processing plants are al- tion that would cut down on the hot air
Via Fitta, 21a lowed to have zero natural gas bleed. emissions spewing from EPA by 45%
I-38062 Arco, Italy Pneumatic controllers at other loca- by 2025.
Telephone: +39 0464 014421 Fax: +39 0464 244529
tions may have a natural gas bleed rate Lost gas is lost money, so the in-
no greater than 6 scfh (0.17 m3/h). dustry is motivated to keep methane in
Bo Svensson, Field Editor/Business Manager
Dunderbacksvagen 20 Fugitive emissions at well sites and the pipes (unlike my children). Not only
612-46 Finspong, Sweden compressor stations must be moni- does it prevent potential harm to the en-
Telephone: +46 70 2405369 Fax: +46 122 14787
tored using optical gas imaging (OGI) vironment and keep operators in good
JAPAN or Method 21 with a repair threshold of graces with the EPA, its also good for
Akiyoshi Ojima, Branch Manager
51-16-301 Honmoku Sannotani, Naka-ku 500 ppm. Well sites are to be monitored the bottom line. CT2
Yokohama, 231-0824 Japan semi-annually and compressor stations
Telephone: +81 45 624 3502 Fax: +81 45 624 3503
every quarter. Operators must develop
KOREA and implement a monitoring plan, and
Myung-Shin Lee, Sales Manager
191-1, Pyungchang-dong, Chongno-ku
repair of fugitive emissions sources
Seoul, Korea 100-011 must be made within 30 days of discov-
Telephone: +82 2 391 4254 Fax: +82 2 391 4255 ery and re-inspected within 30 days of Mark Thayer, associate publisher
President & CEO .................... Michael J. Osenga
Executive Vice President ....Michael J. Brezonick
The power of one is what happens when many individuals join forces toward
a common goal. Its the greatness that can be achieved through a shared
purpose. For Compressor Products International, its the global footprint,
manufacturing efficiencies and product innovations that arise from the
unification of the 16 companies weve acquired since 2007. For our customers,
its the power of a single phone call for all of your oil & gas compressor needs.
Together, we are stronger. Together, we are CPI.

an EnPro Industries company | 1-800-675-6646 | 1-800-675-6646
Global Perspective

Coral FLNG Project Has

The Green Light, With A
ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER Touch Of Yellow > Multiple positive factors
trump looming setbacks

he Coral discovery is about to see some activity after sit- Research, the Coral FLNG project remains on track for its final
ting idle for the past four years. Eni, an energy company investment decision. The governments financial ability to han-
based in Rome, Italy, has approved a development plan dle its share of the project is a cause for concern. Fitch Ratings
for the Coral discovery, which sits offshore in Mozambique, downgraded Mozambiques long-term foreign and local cur-
Africa (Area 4 permit). rency issuer default ratings from B to CCC.
The countrys council of ministers also supports the plan, The collapse in oil and gas prices over the past 18 months
which, in its first phase, calls for developing 5 Tcf (142 x 106 m3) has dulled the risk appetite towards that particular sector.
of gas from the discovery area, which is more Coupled with the downgrade, the cost for financing
than 6561 ft. (2000 m) deep and 164 ft. (50 the project could significantly rise.
m) wide, located 52 miles (80 km) off The Mozambique governments share
the Palma bay in the northern prov- in the project is marginal, with a 10%
ince of Cabo Delgado. equity stake through the Empresa
The plan is the first to gain Nacional de Hidrocarbonetos
approval in the Rovuma Basin (ENH). The other stakeholders
and get an environmental li- When realized, the are Eni (50%), CNPC (20%),
cense. When realized, the area will have six KOGAS (10%) and Galp
area will have six subsea Energia (10%). The com-
wells and a floating liquefied subsea wells and an bined financial and technical
natural gas (FLNG) facility FLNG facility with a weight of these companies is
with a capacity of 3.4 million significant, providing ample
tons per annum. capacity of 3.4 million scope to carry the financing
The Coral discovery, un- tons per annum. commitments of the ENH to
covered in May 2012, is esti- go forward with the project.
mated to contain around 16 Tcf Despite the weaker price en-
(453 x 106 m3) of gas. vironment, the project also re-
Despite its potential, the project mains attractive on a cost basis. Re-
already has some setbacks looming. engineering designs for the Coral project
Mozambiques economic outlook isnt fa- has reduced the base cost, putting the capi-
vorable. The countrys government has up to tal expenditure at about US$1.3 billion per million
US$1 billion of additional external debt that it concealed from metric tonnes per annum. The feed gas, which is sweet, lean
its international creditors. and dry, also requires minimal processing. Wells drilled to
The country also faces soured investor sentiments and a date have also been highly productive.
weak credit profile, leaving many to wonder if the government Eni also hopes to lower the costs through the tendering of
can finance its large-scale energy and infrastructure projects, the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract
among them being the Coral discovery. Speculation continues for the FLNG facility. The contract, which BMI Research views
to mount that the project wont reach its targeted final invest- as the primary risk to the final investment decision, has not
ment decision by the end of the year. been crafted. BMI, however, expects to see a fall in the LNG
The situation is not entirely dire, however. According to BMI EPC costs, which would assist with the investment. CT2


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About The Business

Indicators Point To
Beginning Of Market
BY NORM SHADE Recovery > New INGAA Foundation report
forecasts compression additions
through 2035

here are some recent indications that oil and gas Henry Hub natural gas spot prices recovered to around
markets are recovering. West Texas Intermediate US$1.90/mmBtu by early May, up 28% from the March 1
(WTI) crude oil prices have increased 50% from low of US$1.49/mmBtu. Futures are even more encourag-
early February lows. Current and futures spot prices show ing, showing spot prices slightly over US$3.00/mmBtu by
oil hovering around US$44/bbl for the rest of this year. This year end. In addition to fueling exports, low oil and gas pric-
has some U.S. oil companies more optimistic and prepar- es, together with plentiful supplies of ethane, have helped
ing to increase production. For the first time in decades, the the bottom lines of U.S. chemical companies, which have
U.S. is exporting crude oil. invested in new plants or retooled existing ones.
Rapid growth of the U.S. natural gas supply from shale Infrastructure growth has been and will continue to be a
resources over the past decade led to a massive decline in critical need for moving new shale gas production to mar-
gas prices. However, this has led to rising gas exports, both ket. In April, the INGAA Foundation Inc. released a new
via pipeline to Mexico and Eastern Canada and as liquefied report, North American Midstream Infrastructure Through
natural gas (LNG) to overseas markets. Cheniere Energys 2035: Leaning into the Headwinds. It summarizes an ICF
Sabine Pass (Louisiana) LNG facility is turning the U.S. International study that looks at oil, natural gas and gas
into a strong global LNG exporter. Since starting on Feb. liquids infrastructure needs for the 20-year period end-
24 and through the end of April, Cheniere reported seven ing in 2035. A similar study was completed in 2014. The
LNG shipments. Only one of six liquefaction trains is op- new study looks at high and low cases, based on different
erational, with the others in various stages of development fundamental assumptions. Of special note are the reports
and permitting. Chenieres total permitted Federal Energy forecasts of new compression needed on pipelines and
Regulatory Commission (FERC) capacity is 4.16 Bcfd (1.18 gathering lines for moving new shale gas volumes to meet
x 108 m3/d). growing demand driven by power generation, LNG exports
LNG has been exported in relatively small volumes from and more processing facilities.
Alaska for years, but gas growth in the lower 48 states The INGAA projections focus on new infrastructure, but
has led to new LNG export terminal development. In ad- they also include at least some of the equipment replace-
dition to Sabine Pass, four more LNG export terminals are ments and upgrades expected to be required for integrity
under construction and expected to come online within the management and environmental compliance. The report
next four years. According to the U.S. Energy Information projects that average annual new compression additions
Administration (EIA), all the U.S. export terminals that are for pipelines will range from 202,000 to 295,000 hp (150,634
either finished or under construction have the capacity to to 219,985 kW), higher than the 196,000 hp (146,160 kW)
export more than 10.5 Bcfd (2.97 x 108 m3/d). In 2014, that average projected in the 2014 study. In addition, it pre-
would have placed the U.S. second worldwide for LNG ex- dicts that average annual compression additions for gas
ports, slightly behind Qatar. Another LNG export facility has gathering lines will range from 363,000 to 463,000 hp
been approved and several more are in the FERC permit- (270,694 to 345,265 kW), slightly above the 371,000 hp
ting process. However, softening of the worldwide market (276,650 kW) projected in the 2014 study. Drilling further
will likely forestall final investment in most of them. into the detail, though, shows that most of the additions
are required by 2020. After that, there will be a steep de-
Norm Shade is senior consultant and president emeritus of ACI cline, followed by somewhat of an increase again in 2025.
Services Inc. of Cambridge, Ohio. A 46-year veteran of the About 25% of pipeline and 50% of gathering horsepower
gas compression industry, he has written numerous papers additions in the 20-year period are forecast to occur in the
and is active in the major industry associations. Northeast U.S. CT2
t o g e t y o u r c o m pre s s o r
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Events & Meetings
Altronic_HHsprd_AS15_CT2.indd 1-2

Boldface indicates shows and conferences in which COMPRESSORtech2 is participating

JUNE +1 (713) 260-6492 Norman, Oklahoma

June 13-16 +1 (405) 325-3136
Nigeria Oil & Gas Conference
Abuja, Nigeria JULY gascompressor_home.html
+234 706 911 7347 July 25-27 SGA Operating Conference Sept. 13-15
Houston, Texas Wyoming Natural Gas Fair
June 13-17 +1 (972) 620-8505 Casper, Wyoming
ASME Turbo Expo +1 (307) 258-4708
Seoul, South Korea
+1 (800) 843-2763 AUGUST Aug. 23-25 Sept. 14-15
Power-Gen Natural Gas International Rotating
June 21-23
Columbus, Ohio Equipment Conference
Power-Gen Europe
+1 (918) 831-9160 Dusseldorf, Germany
Milan, Italy +49 69 66 03 12 82
+44 1992 656 637
June 21-23 Sept. 12-15 Sept. 14-15
Sensors Expo & Conference Turbomachinery Symposium/ European Forum for Reciprocating
San Jose, California Pump Users Symposium Compressors (EFRC)
+1 (617) 219-8300 Houston, Texas Dusseldorf, Germany +1 (979) 845-7417 +49 69 6603 1286
June 21-23
Developing Unconventional Gas (DUG) Sept. 13-15 Sept. 20-22
East Conference & Exhibition Gas Compressor Short Power-Gen Asia
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Course Conference Seoul, South Korea

JUNE 2016 10 COMPRESSORtech2

The future of control is in your hands!
DE-3000/3000+ and the TE-1000 Integrated Telematics Module for Gas Compressor Package Automation
Combining Altronics vast experience in control system development via an on-board Wi-Fi server. A cellular or satellite modem connec-
and production with Enbase Technologys advanced telematics and tion offers the same access and control of the DE-3000 system from
software engineering has produced a breakthrough automation plat- virtually anywhere in the world. This includes full system configura-
form that integrates local and remote engine and compressor control, tion, setpoint adjustment, and remote monitoring via
mobile field operations, and control room analytics. sophisticated telematics and predictive analytics.
Together, Altronics DE-3000/3000+ System plus the add-on/plug-in The value of this new approach to gas compressor
TE-1000 Telematics Module comprise an innovative gas compres- monitoring and controlone that combines a stable
sor package platform that provides local, area, and and proven local control with a robust, seamless
simultaneous long-distance monitoring and control communication systemis limitless.
access to the skid.
Contact your local Altronic Distributor for further
The DE-3000 platform is known for its quality and information on how the DE-TE package can deliver
stability. The seamless integration of the TE-1000 a whole new level of value to you
Telematics Module extends that wireless functionality and to your gas compressor
and control to any enabled PC, tablet, or smartphone operations.

HOERBIGER Engine Solutions

Find a distributor near you at

8/20/15 1:43 PM

For a complete listing of upcoming events, please visit our website at

+44 1992 656 656 +1 (888) 993-0302 Nov. 14-16 International Petroleum
Technology Conference
Sept. 20-23 Oct. 17-19 Bangkok, Thailand
InnoTrans 2016 Saudi Arabia International Oil & Gas +971 4 457 5800
Berlin, Germany Exhibition (SAOGE)
Dammam, Saudi Arabia
+49 30 30 38 2376
+39 06 3088 3030 Nov. 15-17
OCTOBER Oct. 24-27 Shanghai, China
Oct. 2-5 Rio Oil & Gas +86 21 65929965
Gas Machinery Conference Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Denver, Colorado +55 21 2112 9079
+1 (972) 620-4026 DECEMBER Dec. 13-15
NOVEMBER Power-Gen International
Oct. 10-13 Nov. 2-4 Orlando, Florida
International Seminar Rotor EP Shanghai 2016 +1 (918) 831-9160
Shanghai, China
Dynamics & Bearings
+852 2811 8897
Cologne, Germany
+49 2267 6585 0 JANUARY 2017 Nov. 7-10 Jan. 24-26
ADIPEC Offshore West Africa
Oct. 11-13 Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Lagos, Nigeria
HHP Summit 2016 +971 2 6970 518 +1 (713) 963-6283
Chicago, Illinois

JUNE 2016 11 COMPRESSORtech2

Ariel Compressors Finding
Homes In CNG Stations >
UPS, Nopetro nab compressors for CNG projects

riel gas compressors are becoming a popular com- The 1500 rpm JGN has a 3.5 in. (89 mm) stroke and
modity in compressed natural gas (CNG) stations is available in two models. The single-throw JGN/1 has a
across the United States. 126 bhp (94 kW) power rating, while the two-throw JGN/2
In mid-March, the JGN/JGQ line of Ariel gas compressors has a power rating of 252 bhp (188 kW).
was selected for use in 12 CNG fueling stations throughout Both models feature an 875 fpm (4.45 m/s) piston speed
the United States as part of a US$100 million UPS project. and an 18,000 lb. (80,068 N) total rod load. Tension and
In mid-April, Nopetro, a Florida-based CNG fueling in- compression rod load ratings are 9000 lb. (40,034 N) and
frastructure provider, announced the grand opening of its 10,000 lb. (44,482 N) respectively for both models. The pis-
public/private CNG fueling facility in Orlando, Florida. That ton rod diameter measures 1.125 in. (29 mm) and the center
facility features five CNG dispensers, with three Ariel JGN/ crankshaft comes in at 9.25 in. (235) for the JGN/1 and JGN/2.
JGQ gas compressors in the mix. ANGI Energy Systems The 1800 rpm JGQ has a 3 in. (76 mm) stroke and also
packaged the compressors for the station. comes in two models. The single-throw JGQ/1 and two-
Everythings gone very smoothly since we opened, said throw JGQ/2 have a 140 bhp (104 kW) and 280 bhp (209
Jorge Herrera, Nopetros chief executive office. Weve had kW) power rating, respectively.
a lot of business here. continued on page 14
JUNE 2016 12 COMPRESSORtech2
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Maybachstrasse 2 Suite 100,
39418 Stassfurt 19911 Morton Road
Germany Katy, Texas 77449
+49 3925 288100 +1 713 2445050
n New UPS and Nopetro compressed natural gas
(CNG) fueling stations use Ariels JGQ compressors,
rated between 140 and 280 bhp (104 and 209 kW).

Both models feature a 900 fpm (4.57 m/s) piston speed Transportation Authority (LYNX). It comprises two stations
and 20,000 lb. (88,964 N) total rod load. Tension and com- within one location. One serves as a private station for
pression rod load ratings are 10,000 lbs. (44,482 N) and LYNX while the other is designed for public use.
11,000 lb. (48,930 N) respectively for both models. The pis- The facility includes five CNG dispensers with the capac-
ton rod diameter matches that of the JGN models. ity to pump 40 gpm (151.4 L/min). The station has the ability
CNG fueling stations are starting to sprout up in more to add another Ariel compressor and two more dispensers if
places in North America, especially with the savings natural needed, Herrera said.
gas brings to its customers, Herrera said. While oils drop Plans for the facility surfaced nearly two years ago when
put the price of diesel fuel nearly on par with natural gas, its LYNX came to Nopetro with a partnership proposal. The
slow tick upward is positive news for CNG users, he said. partnership called for Nopetro to build the facility and pro-
CNG is a clear alternative that offers the same perfor- vide a portion of the profits to LYNX, all while the entity tran-
mance as diesel, Herrera said. When you see the numbers sitions its fleet from diesel to natural gas, Herrera said.
for a fleet of 100 trucks or buses, youre saving a lot of money. LYNXs fleet is a little more than 300 transit buses deep,
Nopetros 6.0 acre (4.2 ha) CNG facility is part of a pub- with 35 already converted to run on CNG, Herrera said.
lic-private partnership with the Central Florida Regional continued on page 16
JUNE 2016 14 COMPRESSORtech2


In an economy where it is important to reduce operational costs, the ZVI unloader does so by reducing down time, reducing maintenance costs and improving
efficiency. The ZVI piston-style unloader valve can be used in all brands of compressors, at any speed, for both lubricated and non-lubricated applications

n ANGI Energy Systems packaged the three
Ariel gas compressors used in Nopetros
Orlando CNG fueling facility.

Another 35 have been ordered, meaning about 23% of Additionally, UPS plans to add 380 new CNG tractors to its
the entitys fleet will consist of CNG buses. LYNXs transit alternative fuel and advanced technology fleet.
system runs through Orlando and the Florida counties of This is not the first time UPS has authorized the produc-
Orange, Seminole, Osceola and portions of Volusia. tion of CNG fueling stations. In April 2015, UPS announced
When it comes to the heavy duty sector, the transits, plans to construct 15 CNG fueling stations in the United
the buses, those are all being transitioned to CNG, States. Similar to this years order, Ariel, ANGI Energy
Herrera said. Systems and TruStar Energy were all involved in the pro-
UPS has noted the rising acceptance of CNG, which is cess. ANGI packaged the Ariel compressors, which TruStar
why the company is investing in 12 new stations that will installed while building the 15 stations.
be located in Arizona, Nevada, Colorado, Kansas, Texas, Twelve of those stations were placed in new natural gas
Georgia, Tennessee, South Carolina and Pennsylvania. vehicle deployment areas, with the other three replace ex-
TruStar Energy will install the Ariel compressors, which isting CNG stations with upgraded equipment, UPS said.
will be packaged by ANGI Energy Systems, at the 12 sta- The 15 stations are located in Colorado, Kansas, Texas,
tions, said Jeffry Swertfeger, TruStar Energys director Oklahoma, Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Virginia
of marketing. The company will also build the stations. and West Virginia. CT2
JUNE 2016 16 COMPRESSORtech2
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U-Pac For Upstream >
MAN Diesel & Turbo debuts compressor
package for upstream, offshore applications

n The compact layout of these single-lift

units includes a plug-and-play approach.

AN Diesel & Turbo has introduced its U-Pac com- The selection of pre-engineered sub-modules reduced
pressor package, specially designed for oil and the lead time to less than 10 months as well as lowered
gas upstream and offshore applications where product cost. It also reduced the size and weight of the
weight and footprint are at a premium. It follows the same train, resulting in minimal space requirements, which is one
pattern for standardization used to decrease time-to-market critical factor for offshore installations, MAN said.
and compressor package costs for refinery applications The general package configuration is based on a barrel
(ReTPac)(See March 2016 CT, Standardized Refinery compressor driven by an electric motor through a gearbox.
Compressor Packages, p. 74). The RB compressor, responding to API 617, features a ver-
Oil and gas companies face major challenges when it tically split forged steel casing hosting a variable number of
comes to choosing equipment for offshore installations. up to 10 impellers, depending on the required compression
Those challenges include project schedule delays, in- ratio, assembled on a solid shaft.
creasing specification and standard requirements lead- It is driven by an asynchronous electric motor (API 541
ing to higher costs and a difficult market environment. In specifications). Upon customer request, the motor can be
response, MAN Diesel & Turbo developed a simplified, supplied with low starting current capability ranging from
streamlined modular package concept that also works for 300 to 450% of the nominal current.
upstream applications. The speed-increasing gearbox features a bull wheel and
All of the equipment on the compressor packages is pinion of the double helical type assembled inside a welded
assembled on three-point mounted baseplates forming steel casing. The gearbox is connected to the electric motor
single-lift units. They are available in five different sizes (low-speed shaft) and to the compressor (high-speed shaft)
to cover applications within the 1 to 16 MW power range, by flexible multidisc couplings.
with design pressures up to 7252 psi (500 bar) and custom- A Siemens Simatic S7 control system provides package
ized flows between 7063 and 529,720 cfh (200 and 15,000 operation. The controls come in a modular setup to accom-
m3/hr). All components respond to the relevant international modate available options.
standards (API in particular) to guarantee safety and reli- A Bentley Nevada 3500 system handles vibration and
ability, MAN said. temperature monitoring for the whole train. A wide range
JUNE 2016 18 COMPRESSORtech2
of ancillary equipment is available to
customize the package to customer
The pre-engineered package lay-
out ensures a rational position of all
components, which translates into
short installation times according to
a plug-and-play concept and day-to-
day operability, the company said.
Additionally, the package facilitates
maintenance operations, which mini-
mizes running costs.
MAN Diesel & Turbo secured its
first orders for this upstream package
during the design phase. Four ma-
chines are already allocated to float-
ing, production, storage and offload-
ing (FPSO) vessels, with production
set for commencement off the coast
of Britain in mid-2017. The upstream
packages, however, are not just used
n Four of MANs upstream compressor packages are installed on a floating, offshore. An Indonesian company
production, storage and offloading (FPSO) vessel that will operate in the North Sea. has ordered a compressor for shore-
based operation. CT2


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Such Low
Vibrations >
Company crafts couple-free

E Oil & Gas is looking to shake up the recipro-
cating gas compressor market with a technol-
ogy designed to keep vibration to a minimum.
The company aims to do this with its CFH and CFR
compressors, which feature a couple-free design to
provide low mechanical vibrations, which in turn reduces
fatigue and stress.
Your primary couples are essentially zero, both horizon-
tally and vertically, said Bhupinder Dayal, senior product
manager for High-Speed Reciprocating Compression at GE
Oil & Gas. In a standard compressor, you have significant
dynamic moments and couples, and that leads to higher vibra-
tion. In a couple-free compressor, you have very little vibration.
The new gas compressors are ideal for wellhead and gas-
gathering applications. They can be placed on a compact ground
bed instead of being grouted into a cement foundation. The low vi-
brations also make them particularly suitable for offshore platforms,
trailer-mounted applications and mobile units, Dayal said.
continued on page 22
JUNE 2016 20 COMPRESSORtech2
Your primary
couples are
essentially zero,
both horizontally
and vertically.
Bhupinder Dayal

JUNE 2016 21 COMPRESSORtech2

The move to design these new compres- The tie-bar design uses the space between
sors stems from discussions with GEs cus- throws to increase frame stiffness to offer
tomers about their pain points, Dayal said, smooth operation, according to GE.
adding that many of their customers chal- Additionally, the tie-bar design also enables
lenges revolve around high vibration prob- easy maintenance of the main bearings, said
lems and associated costs throughout the life Federico Pamio, GEs engineering manager for
cycle of installed compressors. The lower High-Speed Reciprocating Compression technol-
vibrations lead to much less wear and tear ogy. You dont have to remove the tie bars to ac-
on compressor components, he said. That cess the main bearings below, he said. This is an
means an end user will have lower life-cycle advantage because it reduces the amount of time you
costs as these units operate in the field. need for maintenance. The compressors also feature a
The couple-free technology is not the lubrication system that is integrated into the frame, which
compressors only enhancement. The crank- reduces piping and helps avoid leaks, Pamio said.
case has a low center of gravity and a nar- Another feature is FlexFlow technology, which allows op-
row width, as well as a central cross tie bar. erators to quickly adjust cylinder bore sizes through the use of
continued on page 24

n Pistons on the CFH and CFR

are positioned directly opposite
each other.

Couple-Free Design

Es pair of new compressor models fea- and passes those forces to the bearings, frame,
tures a couple-free design. In mechanical foundation, cylinders and piping. Over time, the
engineering, a couple is a pair of equal resulting vibration causes damaging wear and
and parallel forces offset by a distance and act- tear on the machine.
ing in opposite direction. In a typical reciprocating The couple-free design eliminates the couples
compressor, a couple is formed where two pistons by positioning the cylinders exactly opposite each
move in opposite directions in parallel planes as other along the crankshaft, so that the reciprocat-
their connecting rods are pushed and pulled back ing pistons are moving along the same axis without
and forth by the rotation of the crankshaft. any offset. To make that possible, one of the pistons
A couple produces a moment, sometimes called is connected to the crankshaft using one thicker
a torque, or twisting motion on the body it acts on. connecting rod, while the other piston is connected
In a typical reciprocating compressor, the moment by two thinner connecting rods positioned on the
is perpendicular to the length of the crankshaft. crankshaft outside of the thicker opposing rod. The
The crankshaft takes the brunt of the twisting force result is much less mechanical vibration.
JUNE 2016 22 COMPRESSORtech2
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n The new compressors from GE
Oil & Gas are available with two or
four throws with a 5 or 6 in. (127 or
152 mm) stroke.

CFH 62 CFH 64 CFR 52 CFR 54
No. Of Cylinder Throws 2 4 2 4
Maximum speed (RPM) 1200 1200 1500 1500
Maximum Power 1360 hp (1014 kW) 2720 hp (2028 kW) 1700 hp (1268 kW) 1700 hp (1268 kW)
Rated Power Per Throw 680 hp (507 kW) 680 hp (507 kW) 850 hp (634 kW) 850 hp (634 kW)
Stroke 6 in. (152 mm) 6 in. (152 mm) 5 in. (127 mm) 5 in. (127 mm)
Piston Rod Diameter 2.5 in. (63.5 mm) 2.5 in. (63.5 mm) 2.25 in. (57.1 mm) 2.25 in. (57.1 mm)
Piston Speed At Max RPM 1200 fpm (6.1 m/s) 1200 fpm (6.1 m/s) 1250 fpm (6.35 m/s) 1250 fpm (6.35 m/s)
Maximum Internal Gas Rod Loads
55,000 lb.ft. 55,000 lb.ft. 55,000 lb.ft. 55,000 lb.ft.
Tension (MGRT)
(245,000 N) (245,000 N) (245,000 N) (245,000 N)
55,000 lb.ft. 55,000 lb.ft. 55,000 lb.ft. 55,000 lb.ft.
Compression (MGRC)
(245,000 N) (245,000 N) (245,000 N) (245,000 N)
110,000 lb.ft. 110,000 lb.ft. 110,000 lb.ft. 110,000 lb.ft.
Total Peak To Peak
(489,000 N) (489,000 N) (489,000 N) (489,000 N)
52,000 lb.ft. 52,000 lb.ft. 48,000 lb.ft. 48,000 lb.ft.
Net Road Load Allowed Max
(231,000 N) (231,000 N) (214,000 N) (214,000 N)
6500 lbs 13,500 lbs 6500 lbs 13,500 lbs
Frame Weight
(2948 kg) (6124 kg) (2948 kg) (6124 kg)
Width 73 in. (185 cm) 73 in. (185 cm) 73 in. (185 cm) 73 in. (185 cm)
Length 55.6 in. (141 cm) 99.6 in. (253 cm) 55.6 in. (141 cm) 99.6 in. (253 cm)
Height 30 in. (76 cm) 30 in. (76 cm) 30 in. (76 cm) 30 in. (76 cm)
Spacing Between Throws 44 in. (112 cm) 44 in. (112 cm)

liners in order to maintain the engine at its full horsepower as the it acquired Griffin Compressors Inc. (See January-
field conditions or flow requirements change. If you have to in- February 2001 COMPRESSORtech2, p62.)
stall new cylinders on a compressor, it takes a long time, Dayal Cameron was developing a larger couple-free
said. With FlexFlow cylinders, all you have to do is add or compressor in 2014, the same time GE Oil & Gas
remove the liners and replace piston rod assemblies. Thats acquired its reciprocating compression business.
eight hours versus two days to change complete cylinders. GE continued developing the CFH and CFR com-
GE Oil & Gas has been offering an API 618 5900 pressors, quadrupling the investment in the recip-
hp (4400 kW) fully balanced or couple-free compres- rocating business a year later, according to Diar-
sor, model SHMB, since 1991. These compressors maid Mulholland, president of GEs Reciprocating
are deployed in offshore applications. Cameron has Compression. The product team was then able to
been shipping couple-free compressor model CFA leverage GEs research and development resourc-
(150 to 650 hp or 112 to 485 kw) since 2001 after es to mold the technology into what it is today. CT2
JUNE 2016 24 COMPRESSORtech2
Electric Power > Hipower natural gas gen-sets burn wellhead
gas with minimal derate

n The Hipower HRNG-510 generator

set is one of two new units the compa-
ny has introduced that are powered by
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA)-certified, liquid-cooled Wauke-
sha natural gas engines.

enexa, Kansas-based Hipower Systems, a manu- the Waukesha engines provide flexibility that is particularly
facturer of power generation and power distribution valuable in power generation for oil and gas applications.
equipment for U.S. and Canadian markets, has devel- For decades, byproduct gas has been a challenge for
oped two new generator sets designed specifically to take oil and gas operators because the fuel required significant
advantage of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)- pre-treatment before it could be burned in the average gen-
certified, liquid-cooled Waukesha natural gas engines the erator, he said. Debuting a generator with an EPA-certified
first gen-sets on the market to do so, the company said. engine that has variable fuel capabilities greatly expands
According to Bill Balough, business development ex- the options for burning wellhead gas and extends the
ecutive for Waukesha Pearce Industries, both engines can flexibility of the generators that use them.
adapt to fuel ranging from pipeline-quality gas to propane Hipowers new HRNG-400 natural gas generator delivers
with minimal derate. They are also designed to run off most 312 kW (390 kVA) and is driven by an inline six-cylinder
wellhead gases without the need for extensive fuel condi- Waukesha F18SE-EPA engine rated 400 hp (298 kW) at
tioning or filtering. This flexibility makes the Hipower gen- 1800 rpm. The turbocharged, aftercooled engine has bore
sets suited for use in oil and gas applications, especially and stroke dimensions of 52 x 164 mm and a total displace-
those that may involve wellhead gas, such as gas compres- ment of 18 L.
sion operations, he said. The Hipower HRNG-510 gen-set is rated 408 kW (510
Generally, the compressors will be engine-driven, and kVA) and is powered by a 24 L, inline eight-cylinder Wauke-
the Hipower generator set would be used for station power sha H24SE-EPA engine rated 530 hp (395 kW) at 1800 rpm.
to run pumps, lights, heaters, communications, security, The engine is also turbocharged and aftercooled and has
etc., Balough said. The Hipower enclosed package allows the same bore and stroke dimensions as the F18SE-EPA.
for fast and easy deployment with minimal construction re- Both engines are certified to meet EPA nonroad exhaust
quired at the well site. emissions regulations in portable and stationary gen-sets
Rafael Acosta, president of Hipower Systems, said that and other mobile equipment.
JUNE 2016 26 COMPRESSORtech2
Hipower HRNG-400 & HRNG-500 Gen-Sets
60 Hz Prime Power Ratings

LPG* Natural Gas

Voltage (Vac) Phase Power
kW kVA kW kVA

120/208 3 0.8 222 277.5 312 390


120/240 Delta 3 0.8 222 277.5 312 390

277/480 3 0.8 222 277.5 312 390

347/600 3 0.8 222 277.5 312 390

120/208 3 0.8 295 369 408 510


120/240 Delta 3 0.8 295 369 408 510

277/480 3 0.8 295 369 408 510

347/600 3 0.8 295 369 408 510

Information from the manufacturer *LPG power rating is for HD 5 propane.

The Waukesha engines directly drive 60 Hz Stamford easy starting of induction motor loads, the company said.
HCI534E alternators on both gen-sets. These single- Optional alternators from Marathon Electric are also
bearing, rotating field, self-excited, brushless permanent- available. The HRNG-400 and HRNG-510 gen-sets are
magnet alternators have a high skVA rating intended for continued on page 28

- on e system:
All- in
, P L C a nd ESD
Process control
Emergency shutdown
Machine protection
Condition monitoring
for reciprocating and centrifugal compressors
n According to Waukesha Pearce Industries, the Waukesha
engines in the Hipower gen-sets can adapt to fuel ranging
from pipeline-quality gas to propane with minimal derate. available in three-phase configurations with a variety of
They can also run off most wellhead gases without the need output voltages (see related chart).
for extensive fuel conditioning or filtering. The gen-sets are protected from the elements by
sound-attenuated enclosures made of 11-gauge steel
continued on page 30

Hipower Opens
Factory Store
In Oklahoma

n Hipower Systems has opened a factory store in

Tulsa, Oklahoma, the first of several the company
plans to open in key or underserved markets.

ipower Systems is opening a factory store in Tul- We want to have a dedicated sales and service team ex-
sa, Oklahoma, in what it called the first in a line of clusively for Hipower products, said Hipower Systems Presi-
stores. The Hipower Retail Outlet will offer a com- dent Rafael Acosta of the companys decision.
bination of sales and service opportunities coupled with According to Acosta, the company chose Oklahoma for
the assistance and expertise of generator professionals, its first factory store because of its proximity to both the
Hipower said. continued on page 30

JUNE 2016 28 COMPRESSORtech2


Rod load up to 1500 kN / 335000 Ibs
Power up to 31000 kW / 42100 HP


t compres


YOU GET MORE THAN JUST A For highest availability: We recom- We are the competent partner
PROCESS GAS COMPRESSOR mend our own designed, in-house with the full range of services
engineered compressor valves and worldwide
Lubricated up to 1000 bara, key compressor components
non-lubricated up to 300 bara Designed for easy maintenance
Recognized and powder coated with a finish that Hipower said exceeds

Leader a 1000-hour salt spray test. Engine cooling for each is

achieved via remote radiator installed in a separate com-
partment with four electric-powered fans. The enclosure
can be cleaned with a pressure washer, the company said,
and is oil and fire resistant. Open sets are also available,
and the gen-sets can be mounted on either a skid or a U.S.
Dept. of Transportation (DOT)-certified trailer, depending
on the application.
An Intellivision 5 parallel control panel from ComAp
allows for management of all gen-set functions. These
include manual and automatic start/stop, a tamper-proof
engine hourmeter, voltmeter and voltage selector switch,
ammeters, frequency meter and battery charger. The
panel allows for parallel operation and load sharing be-
tween two or more gen-sets. Hipower said that the con-
troller offers many programmable automatic functions for
local or remote control via RS232 and RS485 as well as
Modbus RTU.
Hipower manufactures these gen-sets at its facility in
Lenexa. The company is currently accepting orders for
both gen-sets. CT2

Innovator in State-of-the-Art
Pipe Supports & Clamps companys Kansas headquarters and customers that
Inventor of Flywheel Lock use Hipower products for oil and gas applications.
Leaders in Field Machine Work Its a good oil and gas market that would be easy for
us to manage to start, he said. We also have some rela-
Pioneers in Casting Rapair
tionships that we could use to run the shop and custom-
ers that we could bring on. So there were a few synergies
PRODUCTS: SERVICES: for us there, and from there, we can replicate the model
n Pipe Supports & Clamps n Field Machining in other locations.
n Epoxy Grout n Casting Repair Acosta said Hipower plans to place these stores only
n Anchor Bolts n Crankshaft Machining in key markets or those that are underserved by the com-
n Flywheel Locks n Machine Shop panys nationwide dealer network. There will probably be
n Temperature & Vibration n Broken Bolt Removal about four more in the biggest markets, he said, adding
Sensors n Frame Reinforcement that California and Florida will likely be targets. Obvi-
n Spark Plugs n Alignment Services ously, Florida wont be oil and gas it will be standby
and rental.
The Oklahoma outlet is staffed with five employees,
including a service manager and several technicians.
Hipower said the facility offers a shop built specifically
for service and repairs. A sales manager is also on-site,
with the stores yard housing a variety of natural gas and
diesel generator sets that are available for purchase, the
company said.
According to Hipower, customization of gen-sets man-
918-252-7545 ufactured at the companys facility in Lenexa, Kansas, is also possible at the factory store. This includes the addi- tion of skids, subbase fuel tanks, winter packs and other
Tulsa, OK add-ons.

JUNE 2016 30 COMPRESSORtech2

ReynoldsFrench.indd 1 7/8/13 2:07 PM

PRODUCTS temperatures from 104 to 250F
(40 to 121C) at pressures of up to
2002 psi (138 bar).
up to six gas sensors. The E6000 is The FS10i is designed for use in
designed for measuring stack gases industrial processes, manufacturing
from combustion processes, such as operations, pumps, gas compressors
boilers, burners, gas and diesel en- and HVAC systems, with applications
gines, turbines, furnaces, kilns, heat- including cooling water and fluids,
ers and laboratory analysis. leak detection, ventilation verifica-
tion, nitrogen (N2) purge verifications
and compressor leak detection. continued on page 52

The analyzer features a customizable

full-color graphic display screen, a dilu-
tion pump for CO auto-range measure-
ments up to 50,000 ppm, automatic data
saving, a built-in printer, and a recharge-
able lithium-ion battery pack.

Flow Switch Monitor

Fluid Components International (FCI)
has designed a new flow switch monitor
for flow detection and alarm signaling
for air, gases and liquids.
The FS10i flow switch monitor, whose
electronics are enclosed in stainless
steel, detects whether flow rates are too
high or low, and is capable of repeatable
and responsive flow trip point or alarm
warning within seconds, the company
said. When the trip point occurs, the 10
character LED array will flash.
The instrument comes standard with
a 1A relay output for alarm and trip point
setting, and a 4 to 20 mA analog out-
put for trending and monitoring. It also
features air and gas sensitivity of up to
400 fps (122 m/s) and functions in fluid
JUNE 2016 31 COMPRESSORtech2
L.A. Turbine Reaches 100 >
Company produces 100th unit, while
collaborating with Waukesha Bearings

n The LAT 560EC is L.A. Turbines 100th turboexpander. It is a two-stage, skid-mounted L3000
turboexpander-compressor with active magnetic bearings and a common seal gas system.

Photo courtesy of Matt Waugh Photography

n its first four years, L.A. Turbine wasnt focused on product from the ground up, Mascari said. Its been an
building its own turboexpanders, opting instead to spe- exciting ride.
cialize in aftermarket services. But when 2007 arrived, That ride began in 2003 when the company used its
the company found an opening, a chance to design and machine and fabrication shop strictly for aftermarket ser-
manufacture an L2000 turboexpander destined for Tunisia. vices. Now, L.A. Turbine has a presence in the turboex-
That decision shaped the company, which has already pander landscape.
shipped six turboexpander units this year. One of those We control 95% of the process in regards to designing,
units the LAT 560EC serves as the companys 100th manufacturing, testing and servicing this equipment, Mas-
turboexpander. cari said. Weve even gone a step further in establishing
Its pretty remarkable to ship 100 units, said Danny a global technician network so we can be on site to assist
Mascari, president, L.A. Turbine. In less than 10 years, our customers.
weve become a leader in creating an engineered solution. Design and manufacturing a turboexpander is not an
The LAT 560EC is a two-stage, skid-mounted L3000 easy feat, Mascari said, adding that its an engineered cre-
turboexpander-compressor with active magnetic bearings ation, not an off-the-shelf product.
and a common seal gas system. L.A. Turbine tested the unit As an engineered solution, each project is a new proj-
at its Valencia, California, facility before shipping it to Texas, ect, he said. We evaluate the gas dynamics, develop the
where it will be used in an ethylene processing facility. aerodynamic design and design the core of the turboex-
We built our reputation with the customer by building a pander. You also have to create the auxiliary system and
JUNE 2016 32 COMPRESSORtech2
Photo courtesy of Matt Waugh Photography

determine if the customer will use oil or magnetic bear-

ings. And, of course, you have to design the controls for
the equipment.
Of the six units shipped this year, four were designated
for customer sites in the United States, with Texas ac-
counting for three units. Two of those units, which are
L2000 turboexpander-compressors with oil bearings, went
to West Texas where they are being used for processing
natural gas liquids. n The LAT 560EC is L.A. Turbines 100th turboexpander. It is a two-
But one of them didnt originate in L.A. Turbines facility. stage, skid-mounted L3000 turboexpander-compressor with active
The unit was originally built by another original equipment magnetic bearings and a common seal gas system.
manufacturer (OEM) in the 1980s, Mascari said. The unit
needed to be redesigned and refurbished to operate at an
increased gas flow. L.A. Turbine also updated the analog compressor with oil bearings went to Algeria for dew-
control system to the latest programmable logic controls to point control and Canada for LNG processing, respectively.
better operate and monitor the refurbished equipment. In addition to getting six turboexpanders out the door this
We were able to shorten the delivery time by 50% by year, L.A. Turbine also has an ongoing collaboration with
optimizing their existing equipment rather than build from Waukesha Bearings to test retrofit options for active mag-
the ground up, Mascari said. netic bearings (AMB) systems. The collaboration began last
The other U.S.-based unit an L4000 turboexpander- year, Mascari said.
compressor with an oil-bearing auxiliary system was sent It really gives advantages to the customers, Mascari
to North Dakota for natural gas liquids processing. The re- said. Together with Waukesha, weve come up with en-
maining two units an L3000 turboexpander-compressor hancements to the turboexpander and the bearings and the
with magnetic bearings and an L1000 turboexpander- control system. CT2



Catalyst elements work hard under extreme conditions, and even with regular maintenance,
a failure is always possible. And a plant operation shutdown is never a good thing.
A quick replacement with top quality DCL Metalcor products is the key to getting you out of
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MOVERS multiple roles, most recently as vice
president of industrial products. In his
bined heat and power (CHP) and
combined cooling, heat and power
new role, he is responsible for expand- (CCHP) applications. The projects,
Elliott Group ing Elliotts global service operations. which include large-scale shopping
Elliott Group has appointed Michael Scott Wilshire will follow Frye as centers and multiunit residential
Lordi as its chief operating officer. Lor- vice president of industrial products. buildings and hotels, will use the mi-
di succeeds Art Titus, who retired after He joined Elliott in 2012 as the stra- croturbines as a primary source of
nine years with the company. tegic initiatives manager for power onsite electrical and thermal power.
Lordi joined Elliott in 1987 as sales generation, moving up to manager of When deployed in a CHP/CCHP ap-
and marketing manager for the com- Elliotts power generation group one plication, the microturbines can reach
panys tube tool business in Dayton, year later. total system efficiency levels of more
Ohio. Since then, he has had sev- than 80%, according to Capstone.
eral roles, including vice president Capstone
of industrial products (2008-2011) Capstone Turbine Corp. received Jacobs Engineering
and vice president of global service multiple orders totaling eight C1000 Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. re-
(2011-2016). microturbines for projects in Indone- ceived a contract to engineer facili-
Elliott also appointed Toshihiko sia and Malaysia. ties associated with the Tuxpan-Tula
Miyashita as deputy chief executive Serba Dinamik, Capstones distrib- Pipeline Project in Mexico. The con-
officer. Miyashita, a 42-year Elliott utor for Indonesia, Malaysia and Bru- tract calls for Jacobs, a subcontrac-
Group veteran, formerly served as nei, will own and operate the installa- tor for pipeline facilities, to provide
the companys senior vice president tions, operating the microturbines as engineering, procurement and field
of engineered products and deputy power plants for its customers. The engineering support for the installa-
chief operation officer. sites are expected to be commis- tion of a compressor station, a meter
Ronald Frye succeeds Lordi as vice sioned in stages starting in late 2016. station and associated pipeline ap-
president of global service. In his 36 The natural gas-fueled C1000S mi- purtenances along the pipeline.
years with Elliott, Frye has served in croturbines will be installed in com- TransCanada owns and operates
the 155 mile (249 km), 36 in. (91 cm)
pipeline, which Comisin Federal de
Electricidad (CFE), Mexicos state-
owned power company, supports
with a 25-year natural gas transpor-
tation service contract. Bonatti S.p.A.
is the prime contractor.

Air Liquide
Air Liquide has completed an ex-
pansion and upgrade effort of its
Texas complex in the Bayport Indus-
trial District, which sits east of Hous-
ton. The process began in November
2013 and concluded in February of
this year.
The US$230 million project includ-
ed upgrades to four cogeneration
units, which are expected to increase
production capacity and extend the
life of the units by more than 20
years, the company said.
The complex, which covers 88
acres (35.6 ha), now has a 300 MW
capacity and can produce more than
1400 tons (1300 tonnes) of steam per
hour. Additional upgrades included
replacing three auxiliary boilers and
plant infrastructure enhancements
that support the existing air separa-
tion units.
JUNE 2016 34 COMPRESSORtech2
MOVERS operational and technical service
teams. Doyle also spent 18 years with
Anadarko Petroleum Corp.
The complex supplies oxygen, ni- Huntley & Huntleys current de-

trogen, argon, hydrogen, electricity, velopment area includes 76,000 net
steam, and industrial and deminer- acres (30,756 net ha) in Allegheny,
alized water to customers in several Butler, Washington and Westmore-
industries. It is also central to Air land counties.
Liquides Gulf Coast Pipeline Sys-
tem, which encompasses 2000 miles GE Oil & Gas
(3219 km) of pipeline along the Gulf GE Oil & Gas announced that
Coast of Texas and Louisiana. it will supply UEC-Gas Turbines
JSC with three compressor trains
Huntley & Huntley equipped with its HPRC units, which
Huntley & Huntley, an oil and natu- include gearboxes and dry gas seal
ral gas reserve producer, has hired M. consoles.
Christopher Doyle to lead its devel- The three trains are designated as
opment and expansion efforts of its part of the reinjection in the BCS Sred-
Marcellus and emerging core Utica nebotuobinskoe oil field in East Sibe-
plays in southwestern Pennsylvania. ria, Russia. GE Oil & Gas will manu-
Doyle, 43, has more than 20 years of facture the compressor in Florence,
experience in the oil and gas industry, Italy, with the three trains expected for
most recently as executive vice presi- delivery by December 2016.
dent of operations at Chesapeake En- GEs HPRC unit is billed as the
ergy Corp. Here, he was responsible companys smallest and lightest com-
for the companys Marcellus and Utica pressor. It requires fewer units per
developments in the Appalachian Ba- train, which reduces its footprint up to
sin, as well as leading Chesapeakes 50% and has a 30% lighter shipping
marketing, supply chain and central weight than comparable models.

MTU Maintenance
MTU Maintenance has extended its contract with Norwegian oil and gas
company Statoil for its GE (LM series) industrial gas turbines.
The US$200 million agreement calls for MTU Maintenance to handle main-
tenance, repair and overhaul for parts of Statoils fleet. The agreement stems
back to 2006, when MTU first agreed to service Statoils industrial gas turbines.
The turbines, which include the LM2500, LM2500+ and LM6000, are used
in compressor stations, as well as onshore and offshore applications for power
generation and marine propulsion.
MTU Maintenance, a provider of maintenance services for commercial en-
gines and industrial gas turbines in Germany, has been in the industrial gas
turbine business for more than 35 years.

JUNE 2016 35
Metallic Plates|Thermoplastics|Springs|Buttons|Poppets|Kits|Center Bolts|Pins|Lift Washers|O-Rings
Torrance, California USA
From Mega To Small
LNG Plants >
Modularization allows for
plug-and-play options

asan Dandashly knows
a thing or several about
the downstream market-
place. As GE Oil & Gas president
and CEO of downstream technology so-
lutions, he is responsible for supplying products to refin-
eries, petrochemical plants and export terminals. Those
products include gas and steam turbines, electric motors,
compressors, pumps, gearboxes, valves and controls.
With his experience in supplying large refrigeration
trains used in large-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG)
plants, GE has turned its sights on the other end of the
spectrum small-scale LNG plants, which the com-
pany is able to produce to satisfy the growing demand
on that side of the marketplace.
Small-scale LNG plants are used for producing LNG
on a local level, which is then allocated for fuel in long-
distance truck transportation systems, rail systems
and isolated power stations. LNG can be easily trans-
ported by cryogenic trucks from the production location
near a natural gas pipeline to the area of consumption.
Increasingly, these plants are also used in LNG export
facilities worldwide.
According to GE, the line of modular small-scale LNG

n Small-scale LNG plants are used

for the local production of LNG.

JUNE 2016 38 COMPRESSORtech2

motor drive come from GEs manufacturing plant in Italy,
France and the United Kingdom, which are all part of the
GE Store.
By standardizing all of the components, plant reli-
n An aerial view of the assembly ability and modularization has increased. It has also
of a small-scale LNG plant. accelerated the commissioning time and improved
flexibility, GE said.
The present cycle downturn affects all of us in the
oil and gas segments, Dandashly said. Any slow-
down in production creates an opportunity for GE Oil
& Gas to invest more time and resources in product
development. CT2

plants covers a wide range of applica-

tions. These plants are requested not
only in the United States to replace
diesel fuel, but also to cover the needs
for gas-to-power in South America
and other countries, such as Nigeria
and Algeria.
This business venture began with GEs
acquisition of the Salof Companies, San QUALITY LUBRICANTS YOU CAN DEPEND ON.
Antonio, Texas, in 2013. GE retained the
original modular concept, and has since
established it for fast track delivery, while
minimizing assembly time in the field. All
skid-mounted modules are designed so
their size and weight allow for road/ship
transportation from the manufacturing
plant in San Antonio to various world lo-
cations, GE said.
Based on plant capacity, the number
of modules forming the LNG plant varies
from several to more than 30. The plant
is customized, providing the purchaser
the possibility of selecting the refrigera-
tion cycle among four different options.
All modules are complete with piping Stocking
and other connections that allow a plug- locations in
and-play assembly to the other modules.
the U.S. &
Each plant is fully assembled in San
Antonio to verify the correct connectabil-
ity of the various modules, disassembled SERVICES
for shipping and reassembled on-site to Customized Lubricant Application Selection
perform commissioning.
Oil Analysis Lab and Problem Application Support
Site preparation is limited to the con-
struction of a concrete platform shaped New Product Development
to host the refrigeration plant along with PRODUCTS
pipeline and other utility connections.
Semi Synthetics Synthetic Polyalkylene Glycols (PAGs)
Should LNG demand increase in the area,
a similar line can be added in parallel. Synthetic Polyol Esters (POEs) Synthetic Diesters
Additionally, if demand decreases, the en- Synthetic Polyalphaolefin (PAOs)
tire installation can be disassembled and
transferred to a more profitable location.
Main equipment the refrigerating 866.366.5699 Fax: 281.367.5685
compressor trains formed by centrifugal
compressors, gearboxes and the electric
JUNE 2016 39 COMPRESSORtech2
Alfa Laval ACE Introduces Vspeed
Adjustable Speed Fan Drive >
New development available in air-cooled
heat exchanger technology

n The new ACE Vspeed was designed

with field retrofits in mind. On most
coolers, only the drive guard and driv-
en sheave must be modified to accept
the drive. A custom sheave may be
provided to minimize installation time.

he technology behind air-cooled heat exchangers the GCA Expo, the new drive trademarked as the ACE
has been relatively stable and dependable for many Vspeed has extended the technology of MagnaDrives ASD
years, with several respected manufacturers serving adjustable-speed drive into a unique configuration that is
the industry. One of those manufacturers, Alfa Laval ACE suited specifically for air-cooled heat exchangers.
(Air-Cooled Exchangers), has been supplying custom- The MagnaDrive power transmission concept, which is
designed air-cooled heat exchangers for upstream, mid- the heart of the ACE Vspeed, was first introduced in 1999.
stream and downstream applications in the gas compres- Instead of a physical connection between driver and driven
sion and gas processing markets for over 50 years. shafts, the interaction between rare earth magnets (within
But times are changing. Federal regulations and chal- a hub attached to the driven equipment shaft) and non-
lenging market conditions demand a smarter air-cooled ferrous conductors (in another hub attached to the driver
heat exchanger. Engine-driven, air-cooled heat exchang- shaft) creates a flux field that transmits torque across an
ers have historically been significantly oversized for air gap from driver to load. The smaller the gap, the great-
roughly 99% of their operating time because theyre de- er the torque transmitted.
signed for a worst-case scenario the dry-bulb summer By intentionally changing the air gap, the speed of
high ambient temperature. the driven equipment shaft can be efficiently varied and
With the help of MagnaDrive Inc., Alfa Laval ACE, based controlled the larger the air gap, the slower the driven
out of Broken Arrow, Oklahoma, has introduced a new ad- equipment shaft speed. MagnaDrive adjustable-speed
justable-speed, air-cooled heat exchanger fan drive that drives have been widely applied to centrifugal pumps, fans
optimizes cooler performance and efficiency, only delivering and blowers at ratings from 24 to 4000 hp (18 to 2983 kW)
air at a rate that is needed for the cooling required at any and speeds up to 3600 rpm.
particular time. First announced publicly in March 2016 at continued on page 43
JUNE 2016 40 COMPRESSORtech2
Driven Sheave

Conductor Side Assembly

Actuator #2

n The interaction between rare earth

Fan Shaft magnets (within a hub attached to the fan
shaft) and nonferrous conductors (in a
hub attached to the driven sheave) creates
a flux field that transmits torque across an
air gap from driver to load. The smaller the
gap, the greater the torque transmitted. By
intentionally changing the air gap, the ACE
Vspeed efficiently varies and controls the
speed of the fan the larger the air gap,
the slower the fan speed.

Actuator #1
Magnet Side Assembly

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n The new ACE Vspeed
adjustable-speed fan
drive is designed to
mount on new and
existing fan drives.

Alfa Laval ACE engineers said that the Vspeed adjustable- compressor package efficiency, aiding in compliance with
speed drive has been designed specifically for ease of in- potential efficiency regulations that are currently being dis-
stallation onto new and existing engine-driven cooler fan cussed by both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and
shafts. The driven sheave that is typically mounted to an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
engine-driven cooler attaches to the drive assembly, al- Reduced maintenance and downtime is the second ad-
lowing the user to maintain the existing engine-to-cooler vantage of the adjustable drive. It eliminates the need to
speed ratio, idler placement and sheave. The Vspeed is shut down in the spring and fall to manually reset the fan
also suited to be attached directly to the fan shaft in elec- blade pitch for summer and winter use. In engine-driven
tric motor-driven applications, or even directly to the shaft applications, the air gap within the ACE Vspeed isolates the
of the engine or electric motor itself. cooler fan assembly from cyclical loads transmitted from
The ACE Vspeed was designed with field retrofits in mind. the reciprocating engine crankshaft. Coupled with the
While cooler surroundings vary by application, we find benefit of the lower average fan speed, this can reduce
that only the cooler drive guard and driven sheave must the wear and extend the service intervals of cooler rotating
be modified to incorporate the Vspeed into the compression components (belts, bearings, shafts, etc.).
packages surveyed by the Alfa Laval ACE and MagnaDrive The third advantage is a reduction in cooler fan noise
engineering teams, said Blake Minton, an Alfa Laval ACE levels during sensitive time periods, especially at night,
sales engineer. The existing drive sheave may be modi- when ambient temperatures are lower and less air flow is
fied to attach to the Vspeed drive, or a custom sheave may required across the cooler sections. In some cases, the
be purchased from Alfa Laval ACE to minimize installation adjustable drive eliminates the need for other tempera-
time. A low-voltage supply power must be run to the actua- ture control devices, such as louvers and their associated
tors, and the control system must be mounted. actuators and controls. A further implication for electric
There is no limit to the cooler size to which the ACE motor-driven cooler fans is that the ACE Vspeed can be
Vspeed adjustable-speed drive can be applied. It is de- used instead of high-voltage, variable-frequency drives
signed based on the required fan torque transmission, (VFDs) that may not be suitable for stringent electrical
with initial sizes suitable for up to about 90 hp (67 kW). area classifications.
The fan drive can provide three major advantages to The ACE Vspeed adjustable-speed drive provides a
operators. First, it minimizes the power required for the fan cost-effective solution for compressor packagers and end
drive. This decreases the fuel consumption on compres- users seeking a way to adapt existing and new compres-
sor systems with engine-driven cooler fans. The reduced sor units to a wide array of dynamic shale gas well condi-
parasitic cooler shaft power consumption can be redirect- tions, said Misty Stanton, inside sales manager for Alfa
ed for increased power into the compressor to increase Laval ACE. By freeing horsepower historically used to
capacity. Similarly, on motor-driven fans, it reduces the drive the cooler fan and redirecting it to compression, the
electrical power and energy consumption. For either type ACE Vspeed provides a method for increasing compressor
of fan driver, this provides a means for increasing overall package capacity. CT2
JUNE 2016 42 COMPRESSORtech2
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Fueling the future of natural gas.
Maximum horsepower, minimal emissions. Ajax integral
engine-compressors offer a global solution to emissions
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Imagination at work.

Efficient Balancing Of Active
Magnetic Bearing-Supported
Rotors > Considerations, precautions needed
to ensure proper techniques

NDE Pedestal NDE AMB

DE Pedestal
Flexible Coupling Job Rotor
n Figure 1. Test configuration with
Motor Drive
AMBs mounted on temporary ped-
estals for high-speed balancing of
a 1 ton (0.9 tonne) rigid rotor.

hafts of high-performing rotating equipment experi- low- and high-speed balancing techniques, but some addi-
ence a certain mass unbalance distribution resulting tional considerations and precautions are typically required.
from manufacturing tolerances, component assembly Low-speed balancing performed on rollers requires dedi-
and material nonhomogeneities. The residual unbalance cated areas to support the rotor, which need to be provided
generates uneven forces on the rotor as it spins, resulting for during the design phase. Supporting and spinning the
in vibrations and the transfer of dynamic loads to the bear- continued on page 46
ings and supporting structure.
To limit the negative effects of rotor vibration, ISO and
API standards set balancing criteria and acceptance levels
for residual rotor unbalance. Whether magnetic or fluid film
bearings are used in the machine, there is a prerequisite
for spinning a rotor to its rated speed. The rotor must be
balanced to meet an acceptable residual unbalance level.
The ability of an active magnetic bearing (AMB) system to
tolerate high levels of unbalance on the rotor by applying
unbalance force rejection control algorithms does not alter n Figure 2. Zephyr
the balancing requirements. Rotors supported by AMBs controller in a cabi-
and rotors supported by fluid film bearings are subject to net with an analogue
the same balancing requirements. diagnostic module.

Low- and high-speed balancing options

AMB-supported rotors can be balanced with conventional

Andrea Masala is the systems engineering team leader in the

mechanics and dynamics department at Waukesha Magnetic
Bearings. Contact him at:

JUNE 2016 44 COMPRESSORtech2

MACHINE: Machine
From 13MAR2013 10:50:47.1 To 13MAR2013 11:07:59.2 Startup 1 rpm rotor on the soft lamination materials of a magnetic
0 2 4 6 8 10 bearing could damage the laminations and result in
1 micro m pp /div 15 deg/div

360 higher eddy current losses. The damage is even more

detrimental where sensor target areas are involved.
270 Scratches or irregularities on the sensor target surface
15 could result in high-frequency dynamic current harmon-

5 ics when the machine is rotating and residual dynamic
0 loads on the bearings. Temporary bearing surfaces
0 2 4 6 8 10
SPEED: 0.5 krpm/div
support sleeves can protect the laminations and
(a) DE J1 Axes 1X Vibration Component sensor target surfaces during balancing.
Because the position sensor target identifies the cen-
ter of the rotor during rotation, the temporary bearing
POINT: 2-DE 45 Left 1X UNCOMP NA NA surfaces must be centered about the radial position
MACHINE: Machine
From 13MAR2013 10:50:47.1 To 13MAR2013 11:07:59.2 Startup 1 rpm
sensor within a few microns. Any runout between the
0 2 4 6 8 10 balancing center and the sensor will result in an un-
1 micro m pp /div 15 deg/div

90 balance that is proportional to the runout distance and

the rotor mass. To minimize runout error between the
360 sensor target and support sleeve, the machining of the
15 sensor and sleeve should be done at the same time.

5 When high-speed balancing is required, as in the case
0 of high-speed motors or flexible rotors on multistage
0 2 4 6 8 10
compressors, there are several available techniques
SPEED: 0.5 krpm/div
(b) DE J2 Axes 1X Vibration Component that can be used for both low- and high-speed balancing.
A common choice is to balance the rotor by running it
on fluid-film bearings in a high-speed balancing bunker.
POINT: 3-NDE 45 Left 1X UNCOMP NA NA Tests conducted on several rotors and materials have
MACHINE: Machine
From 13MAR2013 10:50:47.1 To 13MAR2013 11:07:59.2 Startup 1 rpm
0 2 4 6 8 10

5 deg/div


1 micro m pp /div


0 2 4 6 8 10
SPEED: 0.5 krpm/div
(c) NDE J3 Axes 1X Vibration Component

POINT: 4-NDE 45 Right 1X UNCOMP 9.66 242

POINT: 4-NDE 45 Right 1X UNCOMP 9.66 242
MACHINE: Machine
From 13MAR2013 10:50:47.1 To 13MAR2013 11:07:59.2 Startup 900 rpm
0 2 4 6 8 10
5 deg/div

1 micro m pp /div


0 2 4 6 8 10
SPEED: 0.5 krpm/div
(d) NDE J4 Axes 1X Vibration Component

n Figure 3. Vibration amplitudes and phases captured by the cus-

tomer test equipment during the final balancing check.

JUNE 2016 46 COMPRESSORtech2

demonstrated that, in this balancing bearings and instability on fluid-film Rotor balancing on magnetic bear-
technique, the rotor can be supported bearings is expected. Practical issues ings has the advantage of achieving
on the main rotor laminations without related to the availability of fluid-film a better balancing with the fewest
detrimental effects on the magnetic bearings for testing may be a further balancing runs. The unbalance force
properties of the lamination. Although reason to use this approach. rejection algorithms typically adopt-
the fluid-film bearing stiffness and In some cases, a hybrid balancing ed on magnetic bearings can be ac-
damping properties may differ from procedure may be adopted, with low- tivated on the spinning rotor before
the magnetic bearing stiffness and speed balancing performed on fluid-film it is balanced and across the bal-
damping, high-speed balancing on bearings and high-speed balancing ancing trial runs, allowing the rotor
fluid-film bearings will balance the performed on magnetic bearings. continued on page 48
rotor to acceptable limits. That occurs
only if the rotor mode shapes with the
fluid-film bearings remain the same
with the magnetic bearings. A rotor-
dynamic analysis prior to selecting Gas
the balancing strategy can ascertain
whether this condition is met. Compressor
When significant differences be-
tween rotor mode shapes with fluid-
film bearings and magnetic bearings
are predicted, high-speed balancing Lubricants
should be performed with the job
AMBs. This approach is also advisable
when a high-peripheral speed and
low specific loads on the rotor lamina-
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n Figure 4. The Red Rig test rig

Quality Service Expertise
features a 1.5 ton (1.4 tonne)
super critical rotor. 800.749.5823 903.534.8021

JUNE 2016 47 COMPRESSORtech2

NDE Radial/Axial AMB DE Radial/Axial AMB

NDE Auxiliary Safety Rotor Safety

Brakes Brakes DE Auxiliary
Bearing Bearing
Rotor Exciter Electric Motor

n Figure 5. Radial/axial active magnetic

bearings were balanced using the Red
Rig test rig at speeds up to 7500 rpm.

to reach high speed during each trial run, even with large mount the magnetic bearings and support the rotor. In addition
amounts of unbalance. This achieves a better final bal- to providing ease of access, this solution has the benefit of
ancing in the operating speed range with a limited num- allowing the rotor balancing and the initial AMB system com-
ber of balancing runs. missioning to occur simultaneously, dramatically reducing the
On high-speed machines where the balancing planes are time required to commission the AMB system in the machine.
located close to the mid-span of the rotor, the ability to perform The efficiency of using AMB system software functional-
balancing on the assembled machine is limited, as major dis- ities to perform high-speed rotor balancing is illustrated by
assembly would be required for each trial and balancing run. two cases, one featuring a rigid rotor in an electric motor
A practical solution is to build temporary pedestals on which to and one featuring a high-speed flexible rotor.

0.04 3





0 0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Speed [rpm] Speed [rpm]
(a) DE Vibration Magnitude, mm 0-pk
(c) DE Currents Magnitude, mm 0-pk

0.06 6

0.04 4

0.02 2

0 0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Speed [rpm] Speed [rpm]

(b) NDE Vibration Magnitude, mm 0-pk (d) NDE Currents Magnitude, mm 0-pk

n Figure 6. Radial AMB vibrations and currents after low-speed balancing.

JUNE 2016 48 COMPRESSORtech2

Case 1: Pedestal-mounted AMB The main challenges in balancing the Red Rig rotor
balancing of a rigid rotor were related to the presence of a flexible mode in the op-
Rotor balancing on AMBs allows for varying levels of erating speed range and potential thermal effects on the
integration with customer resources and diagnostic plat- rotor resulting from limited cooling flow availability. Built-in
forms. In the case of a high-speed 1.5 MW electric motor harmonic capture functionalities in the controller software
rotor, the AMB system could be connected to customer allowed the extraction of the 1x revolution amplitude and
test equipment. Two radial AMBs, including position sen- phase information from the vibrations and current signals
sors and auxiliary bearings, were provided by Waukesha without external equipment and in real time.
Magnetic Bearings and mounted on temporary pedestals The rotor presented four balancing planes, two on the in-
provided by the customer. The 1 ton (0.9 tonne) rotor board thrust bearing discs located at each side of the rotor
was driven by a shop motor via the high-speed job cou- and two on the auxiliary bearing discs.
pling (Figure 1), supplied by the customer. For safety The first stage of the rotor balancing process was aimed
reasons, the rotor was tested in a restricted-access area at correcting the static and dynamic unbalance of the first
of the customer workshop, surrounded by heavy con- two rigid modes by running the rotor up to 4000 rpm with
crete blocks. different combinations of trial masses and calculating the
The job controller, a Zephyr digital controller from correction masses accordingly. The run-up vibration and
Waukesha Magnetic Bearings, was used to measure the AMB current measurements on the drive end (DE) and
radial vibration and speed based on signals from the posi- nondrive end (NDE) axes after the low-speed balancing
tion sensors and keyphasor. The vibration measurements are shown in Figure 6. While the rigid modes were bal-
and keyphasor signals were redirected from the controller anced satisfactorily with the low-speed balancing, the rotor
to an external signal analyzer through an analogue diag- still presented a significant residual unbalance to excite the
nostic module (Figure 2). The signal analyzer was used first bending mode at 6800 rpm. The increasing level of vi-
to extract the 1x revolution vibration amplitude and phase bration and current as the rotor approached the first bend-
signals required to carry out the balancing procedure. The ing mode limited the running speed to 6000 rpm, when the
AMB controller was also connected to customer test equip- continued on page 50
ment to cross-check the vibration measurements and phas-
es across each run.
In addition to performing typical AMB commissioning ac-
tivities, Waukesha Magnetic Bearings provided engineer-
ing support during the balancing process to determine the
position of trial and correction masses across each run. An
influence coefficient method combined with a least square
approach was used to determine the correction masses of
the rotor when running at the maximum speed of 10,000
rpm. Due to the rigid rotor configuration, only three balancing
planes were used: one on the midspan and two close to the
radial AMBs.
The vibration outputs from the analogue diagnostic module
and those recorded by the customer test equipment on the
final balancing check run (Figure 3) show the synchronous
(1x) vibration measured at each AMB sensor. The final syn-
chronous peak-to-peak vibrations were less than 20 m,
putting the residual unbalance well within the ISO G2.5 limit
for this rotor.

Case 2: Pedestal-mounted AMB

balancing of a flexible rotor
The commissioning of the Waukesha Magnetic Bearings
Red Rig (Figure 4), a test rig with a 1.5 ton (1.4 tonne) super-
critical rotor, used AMB controller functionalities to stream-
line the balancing process. The Red Rig rotor, supported
by two radial and two thrust AMBs mounted on pedestals
(Figure 5), runs to a maximum speed of 8000 rpm and pres-
ents a first bending mode at 6800 rpm. For safety reasons
dictated by the job configuration, the rig was evaluated at a
maximum speed of 7500 rpm during commissioning.

JUNE 2016 49 COMPRESSORtech2

conservative dynamic current trip threshold of 5A
was exceeded at the NDE bearing.
To achieve a higher rotating speed, high-speed
rotor balancing was also performed. Due to the

limitation on the maximum achievable speed, the

0.005 measurement speed range for this second stage
of the rotor balancing was bounded from 4000 and
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
6000 rpm.
Speed [rpm] Influence coefficients for the high-speed bal-
(a) DE Vibration Magnitude, mm 0-pk ancing were calculated using a least square ap-
proach, with measurements weighted according
to the rotor speed. Because the measurements
presented repeatable and smooth amplitude and
phase trends, the stochastic and optimization ca-
0.015 pabilities offered by the balancing software were
not used. An additive mass approach was adopt-
ed across the trial runs to reduce the time for trial

weight placements.
The final balancing check run measurements
0 with the added correction masses (Figure 7) con-
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
firmed a dramatic reduction of the vibration and
Speed [rpm]
current magnitudes as the rotor ran across the first
(b) NDE Vibration Magnitude, mm 0-pk
bending mode (6800 rpm). Note the difference in
scale for the magnitudes in Figure 7 compared to
Figure 6. Although some of the predicted thermal
effects increased the vibration levels above 7000
2 rpm, the balancing procedure confirmed the effec-
tiveness of using built-in controller software com-
bined with balancing algorithms to address a chal-

1 lenging balancing problem.

Summary: Planning ahead
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 for efficient balancing
Speed [rpm] Active magnetic bearings offer advanced capa-
(c) DE Currents Magnitude, mm 0-pk bilities to perform rotor balancing, especially on
challenging high-speed machines. Built-in instru-
mentation and software reduce requirements for
external instrumentation and software. The avail-
ability of special control algorithms, commonly
known as unbalance force rejection control, also
1.5 allow high-speed trial runs even with initially high

levels of residual unbalances. Customers can also
integrate their own diagnostic platforms into the
balancing for result verification. Further integration
0 of diagnostics and balancing algorithms are envis-
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
Speed [rpm]
aged for the near future, which will further simplify
(d) NDE Currents Magnitude, mm 0-pk
the balancing process for OEMs and end users.
Efficient balancing of an AMB-supported rotor
does not start with the test runs and application of
algorithms, however. It starts during the machine
design phase, with identification of the appropriate
n Figure 7. Radial AMB vibrations and currents after final balancing strategy and the required equipment and
unbalance correction. rotor features. With these provisions determined
early, customers can avoid delays in the commis-
sioning of the equipment and may be able to pack-
age balancing and commissioning services. CT2

JUNE 2016 50 COMPRESSORtech2

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Sampling Conditioning Unit
E Instruments has introduced a
new sampling conditioning unit de-
signed to remove moisture at a sam-
pling point. The unit is mounted at
the sampling probe exit before the
sampling hose, where the water can
condense and separate immediately
from the gas. This minimizes contact
of the target gases with the water, the
company said.
The unit helps minimize NOx and
SOx loss from condensation and al-
lows accurate low NO2 and SO2 mea-
surements below 10 ppm. It is avail-
able with all of E Instruments portable
emissions analyzers.

IMI Sensors has release of three new ICP accelerometers with an M12 con-
nector designed for predictive maintenance vibration monitoring.
Model 601A92 is a 500 mV/g ICP accelerometer with a measurement range of
10 g and a frequency range (3 dB) of 0.17 to 10,000 Hz. The sensor is housed
in a 316L stainless-steel enclosure with a -28 female-mounting thread and top
exit connector.
Model 602D91 is a 100 mV/g ICP accelerometer with a measurement range of
50 g and a frequency range (3 dB) of 0.5 to 8000 Hz. The sensor is housed in
a 316L stainless-steel enclosure with a -28 male-mounting thread in a thru-bolt
design and a side exit connector.
Model 603C91 is a 100 mV/g ICP accelerometer with a measurement range of
50 g and a frequency range (3 dB) of 0.5 to 10,000 Hz. The sensor is housed
in a 316L stainless-steel enclosure with a -28 female-mounting thread and top
exit connector.

JUNE 2016 53 COMPRESSORtech2

Rotating Machinery Performance
Analysis > Advanced modeling and diagnostics software
aids maintenance decisions

n A typical process screen in Cmap compressor

modeling and diagnostics software.

ne critical task for plant management is in making While intended not to replace the human experts indi-
the decision whether to service a process-rotating cations, but rather to support them, the method has been
machine during a planned plant maintenance stop applied jointly with mechanical best practices, vibrational
or to run it until the next planned outage. These evaluations machinery analysis, accurate mechanical inspections and
and decisions are in many cases still based on experts in- high quality repair processes and procedures.
dications, experience and judgment. This approach, aimed at exceeding the actual best prac-
IPC has implemented an engineering method centered tices, enabled plant management to make maintenance de-
on the concept of quantitative evaluation of machine perfor- cisions to help maximize plant return on investment.
mance in several critical maintenance activities in upstream
high-pressure compression plants in the Middle East. Method description
Using CMap, compressor modeling and diagnostics soft- Quantitative assessment of compressor performance and
ware developed by IPC, it has been possible to assess a health status requires the comparison of measured perfor-
centrifugal compressors health through quantitative com- mance to design performance adjusted for actual operative
parison of field operative parameters to parameters pre- conditions. Starting with original equipment manufacturer
dicted from a computer model. (OEM) design or test performance maps, the software helped
predict expected compressor performances in the actual in-
Massimiliano Di Febo is the operation manager at IPC. Contact let conditions (actual suction temperature and pressure and
him at: Pasquale Paganini gas mix composition). The software calculates, at the actual
is the technical manager at IPC. Contact him at: pasquale. running speed, the following expected curves, valid for ac- tual inlet conditions: discharge pressure vs. suction flow; dis-
JUNE 2016 54 COMPRESSORtech2
Transmitter Field Value Cmap Predict Value Percentage Error
PT 010 psi (bara) 322.71 (22.25) 321.98 (22.2) 0.22
charge temperature vs. suction flow;
PT 017 psi (bara) 1062.55 (73.26) 1061.68 (73.2) 0.08
compressor efficiency vs. suction flow;
TT 005 F (C) 283.77 (139.87) 286.16 (141.2) 0.95
and polytropic head vs. suction flow.
These maps are then used to cal- TT 010 F (C) 302.67 (150.37) 304.7 (151.5) 0.75

culate, at the actual flow, the values n Figure 1. Actual vs. predicted pressure and temperature.
of expected pressure, temperature,
head and efficiency, and then to
current technology (IPC patent). ficiency of the machine in a simple
compare to the measured readings.
Provide useful indications on the and immediate way.
The comparison of these values can
health of the compressor (diag- Support decisions and planning of
then detect deviations and provide
nostics) based on the capability to maintenance and activities for op-
quantitative information about the
analyze the performance and ef- timization of plant productivity. CT2
actual compressor health status and
possible operational problems.
Figure 1 compares the pressures and
temperatures from PT/TT transducers
to the value predicted by the software.
The same comparison has been exe-
cuted for head and polytropic efficiency. DESIGNED
It can be noted how the maximum error LUBRICANTS.
calculated is less than 1%.
Measured errors have been consid-
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evaluation of compressor field perfor-
mance. The analysis developed using
the software helped obtain an evalua-
tion of the efficiency deviation (differ- Tulcos Lubsoil Synthetic LPG-WS and LPG-WI
ence between the actual compressor Lubricants provide optimal performance and better
efficiency and the expected efficiency equipment protection compared to any other lubricant
in the actual operative conditions). on the market. Our field tested and formulated
Time trends of calculation results products are proven to save downtime and money, all
provided a useful analytical basis for while increasing your compressors productivity. Tulcos
compressor maintenance decisions. synthetic lubricants offer:
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mance and support planning of ma-
Improved compressor efficiency and wear protection
chinery maintenance activities.
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Excellent performance in H2S and CO2 rich or heavy
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Numerical prediction of compressor
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applied methods also helped to: decades, and manufactures petroleum, semi-synthetic
Predict the performance of a cen- and full synthetic Lubsoil brand lubricants. We
trifugal compressor under varying offer quality products with high-tech support
thermodynamic conditions of the and comprehensive service. No
inlet gas. The prediction of com- matter the challenge you have
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even at high pressures, where the team will have a solution.
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compare it with that expected pro- (800) 375-2347
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JUNE 2016 55 COMPRESSORtech2

Lubrication Lubrication
Gas Filtration Systems Spark Plugs Monitoring

TM Filtration has published A product catalog is avail- Stitt Spark Plug Co. has re- Monico has published lit-
a guide on its gas filtration able from Sloan Lubrication leased an installation manu- erature on its mGuard
products. Those products Systems. The catalogs al for installing its spark plugs LubeWatch application. The
include gas coalescing ele- products include supply in integral compressor en- app is designed to provide
ments, retro fit kits for ANSI tanks, lubrication panels, gines. The manual features continuous monitoring of
enclosures, fine particulate gauge assemblies, lubri- photos of the process, as well compressor divider block
filter elements, gas strain- cator boxes, pumps and as charts that provide details lubrication rates. By add-
ers and vane separators. electric motor drives with on spark plug port threads. ing LubeWatch to a Monico
The company is based in reducers. The company The manual also includes a Plus Gateway, a user can
Erie, Pennsylvania. also stocks replacement page of recommendations. locally and remotely config- parts for existing systems. ure reciprocating compres- sor lubrication rates.

Oil Cleaning Electric

Components Centrifuge Compressors Actuator

Fluid Power Energy has A guide on how to install Cold-start compressors,high- The Kimray Tritex II
published a brochure on its and service a Spin-Clean pressure nitrogen boosting, Electric Actuator bro-
component offerings for the oil cleaning centrifuge is compressed natural gas and chure explains how the
oil and gas and other indus- available from Fluid Power pipeline-related services are low-power actuator com-
tries. Those components in- Energy. The instructions a few of the offerings outlined bined with a Kimray high-
clude actuated temperature include a parts list, instal- in Sauer Compressors oil- pressure control valve can
control valves, centrifugal lation and operation direc- and-gas-focused brochure. provide precision control,
oil filters and thermostatic tions and steps on how to Included compressors range eliminate emissions and
control valves. service the piece. from 75 to 7250 psig (5 to communicate directly to 500 barg). the SCADA system.

JUNE 2016 56 COMPRESSORtech2


Dedicated To Gas Compression Products & Applications

Industry News Delivered Straight To Your Inbox

m pu
C o
( 1 )
o x
I n b d
r re
St a
Identifying Double Speed > TECH

Case Study: electric resonance and double
speed indication during steam turbine startup

magine commissioning a new turbine, running it up to Background
speed for the first time, and as you approach speed, A new steam turbine that was driving a wet gas compres-
the speed abruptly jumps to double the current oper- sor at a coke plant in So Jos dos Campos, Brazil, was
ating speed. Of course you know that a large steam tur- being commissioned. As the unit got close to 3000 rpm, the
bine cannot increase its speed that rapidly, but you now speed instruments suddenly doubled their value (without a
question what the real speed is and how this abrupt speed real speed increment) on the electronic governor the elec-
change happened. tronic overspeed and the protection device.
Double speed is not a widely known problem and is even The speed pickup system included noncontacting mag-
less understood in the turbomachinery industry. This phe- netic speed pickups. The target for the speed pickup was a
nomenon is only found on machinery that uses magnetic gear. At the FAT, this problem did not occur. The target gear
pickups as the speed sensors. It is a rare issue, but when has 30 teeth, but the tooth shape was not the shape recom-
it does happen it is a high-stress situation for the commis- mended by most of the governor vendors.
sioning and project personnel who have to deal with it. Two important differences to note are that the intercon-
Sometimes, as the following case shows, the unit passes necting cables between the speed pickup and the governor
the factory acceptance test (FAT) without any trouble, mak- were significantly shorter on site than at the FAT. Also, a dif-
ing the situation even more confusing and difficult to solve ferent make governor was used for the FAT than the one
in the field. supplied with the turbine.

n Figure 1. One of three speed indicators showing the double speed phenomenon (Middle).

Juan Carlos Isamu is a field service engineer, Latin American

operations, at Elliott Co. Contact him at: isamu.carlos@gmail.
com M. Theodore Gresh is president of Flexware Inc. Contact
him at: continued on page 60

JUNE 2016 58 COMPRESSORtech2

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The basic signal shape when disconnected from the Double speed incident
governor did not change with the speed; only the amplitude The sensor specifications are: a) inductance 30 mH (ref-
did. The conclusion was that the shape of the signal with erence only); b) dc resistance 240 Ohms (MAX); c) pole
the sensor disconnected from the governor depends on the diameter 0.187 in. During testing, the cable capacitance
gear tooth shape and speed pickup relative dimension only. was not measured, but was calculated from the resonance
Thus, the signal distortion (double peak) was related with frequency as:
the associated electrical circuit. An electronic resonance
was the root cause. C = 1/ { L x (2 p fo)2 }
To confirm the relationship of this problem with an elec- C = 93.8 nF
tronic resonance, a signal generator was connected in
series with the sensor as shown in Figure 4. A 20% rect- Ro = 2 x SQRT (L/C)
angular signal was used due to the second and third high
harmonic components and to match the flat of the sensor Ro = 2 x SQRT (30 x 10-3 Hy / 93.8 x 10-9 F)
signal disconnected.
Using a pulse generator (VAD) set to generate a rectan- Ro = 1131 Ohms
gular wave signal 20% duty and 20 Vpp, the signal mea-
sured after the speed pickup (VBD) has 33 Vpp. Why can x = R / Ro
a passive circuit amplify a signal? The answer is only in
electric resonance. x = 240/1131 = 0.21
Figure 5, left image, is the signal of the speed pickup
alone, disconnected from the interconnecting wires. In Troubleshooting
the right image, the signal is the composition of -1.0 sin The original speed pickups were changed to small pole-
(wt) to 0.5 sin (2wt + 10). Why is the 10, lower peak of tip sensors with the following sensor specifications: a)
the signal so much smaller than the upper side? Both inductance 210 mH (reference only), seven times higher
signals are similar, indicating that the speed pickup sig- than original; b) dc resistance 750 Ohms (MAX), three
nal has a high second harmonic component. time higher than original; c) pole diameter 0.093 in., half

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of the original. After the change, the
speed suddenly changed from 1000
Speed Pick Up rpm (500 Hz) to 2000 rpm (1000 Hz)
This Device Is Basically A Coil With => fo= 1000 Hz. The speed sensor air
A A Characteristic Inductance
gap was increased from 40 to 60 mils
without changes.
B Interconnecting
One kOhms resistor was installed
Pulse generator CCC
in parallel to the governor input (in-
creasing the damping), and the dou-
ble peaks were eliminated with the
double speed indications.
D Considering that only the sensor
was changed, the capacitance (cable
n Figure 4. In order to check for something related and governor) should remain as cal-
with an electronic resonance, a signal generator was culated in the original configurations,
connected in series with the sensor. continued on page 64

n Figure 5. (Left) The pulse generator (VAD) was set to rectangular wave signal 20% duty and 20 Vpp.
(Right) The signal measured after the speed pickup (VBD) has 33 Vpp.

n Figure 6. (Left) The waveform signal of the speed pickup alone, disconnected from the interconnecting wires that
go to the governor. (Right) The signal as the compositions of -1.0 sin (wt) to 0.5 sin (2wt + 10).

JUNE 2016 62 COMPRESSORtech2

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jL R 1 = 0.21


Very High 1.5

V1 () V2 () Impedance

Only Capacitance
Was Considered 0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

Speed Sensor, Equivalent Equivalent Cable

Circuit According With And Governor - 1.24 sin (0.5 wt 15 deg) - 1.22 sin ( wt 66 deg)
Thevenin Theorem Input Capacitance
- 1.0 sin (0.5 wt) - 0.5 sin ( wt + 10 deg)

1 0 = SQRT ( 1 / LC ) With = 0.21 The shape
T= of the signals founded
R0 = 2 SQRT ( L /C ) analytically are similar as
(1(/ 0) 2 ) + j 2 (/0)
= R / R0 founded during
troubleshooting work.

n Figure 7. Speed sensor cable and governor electrical circuit. n Figure 9. With the damping factor, z = to 0.21, the curve shape
determined analytically is the same as recorded during operation.

which means 93.8 nF. But the induc- fo = 1/{2 p SQRT (210mH 93.8 nF)} troubleshooting, reinforcing the idea
tance of the pickups was higher at fo = 1134 Hz of an electrical resonance. The induc-
210 mH. tance increment shifted the resonance
This frequency is compatible with frequency to lower values.
fo = 1/{2 p SQRT (L C)} what was actually found during the
Ro = 2 SQRT (L/C) = 2992 Ohms
= 750 / 2922 = 0.26
With at 0.26, double peaks will occur.
Experience, Reliability, Integrity...
The expressions found are similar as
the original case (without the resistor in
parallel), but the transfer function is at-
tenuated by 1/(1+x) factor. This implies
that x should be as low as possible.
Also, the resonance frequency is shift-
ed to slightly higher value by the (1+x)1/2
factor. The damping factor is more
complex, but could be adjusted with R2


R1= 750 Ohms

R0 = 2992 Ohms
R2 = 1000 Ohms
x = R1/R2 = 0.75
The AXH manufacturing complex consists of = 0.75
six plants, totaling 559,100 SF on 67 acres.
This means that with the resistor R2
added in parallel with the governor,
the higher frequency harmonic will be
(918) 283-9200 Fax (918) 283-9229 attenuated and the double peak will
not occur.

JUNE 2016 64 COMPRESSORtech2

Resistor in parallel with governor
jL R1 1 R2
0.2 jC

W/ Wo 0.7 Input Impedance

0 V1 () V2 ()
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Is Very High
Only Capacitance
Was Considered
Speed Sensor, Equivalent Equivalent Cable
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Circuit According With And Governor
0 Thevenin Theorem Input Capacitance
W/ Wo 0.0

{ {
-90, 0.2
-135, 0.4
1+ x (1(/ 0) 2 ) + j 2 (/0)

-180, Where x = R1/R1 = SQRT [(1+x) / LC ] R0 = 2 x SQRT (LC)

n Figure 8. Typical response of a resonant system. n Figure 10. Resistor R2 added in parallel with governor.

Points that support the resonance theory a. The double speed indication droops to one-third
1. With the original sensor, the actual signal is particularly of the original resonant frequency that matches
similar to the analytically found ( = 0.21). with a nine times higher inductance, but actually
2. Changing the sensor with a small pole diameter / higher was seven times higher.
inductance: continued on page 66

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JUNE 2016
Modulift_JanFeb16_CT.indd 1 65 COMPRESSORtech
1/13/16 5:23 PM
b. The new circuit configurations have a of 0.26, (high harmonic components) and electric resonance, and it
which means an amplification of the second requires a two-pronged approach to resolve it.
harmonic over the first one, indicating double Mechanical (changing the tooth shape): The tooth shape
speed reading. must be carefully designed in order to have the smallest
c. Introducing a 1000 Ohms resistor in parallel, the harmonics component on the signal generated by the pick-
is increased to 0.75, meaning the second har- ups. As a primary approach, the top area of the tooth should
monic will be attenuated over the first one. This be smaller than the sensors tip. This will minimize the flat
indicates that double speed will not happen. area of the signal which is responsible for the harmonics
high amplitude.
Conclusion Electrical: Introducing a resistor to increase the damping
Double speed is a problem related with the tooth shape factor ( more than 0.4) minimizes the resonance effect. CT2

WEG has acquired Bluffton Motor Works LLC (Bluff-
MOVERS ton), an electric motor manufacturer with headquarters
in Bluffton, Indiana. Founded in 1944, Bluffton special-
Gasmet Technologies izes in manufacturing fractional electric motors up to 5 hp
Gasmet Technologies CEMS II e continuous emissions (3.7 kW), offering a wide range of customized products to
monitoring system has completed EN 15267-3 testing. customers in the United States. Bluffton headquarters oc-
The system uses FTIR technology for analyzing low range cupies approximately 400,000 sq.ft. (37,161 m2), and the
hydrogen fluoride, low range nitrogen oxide, methane and company employs over 400 people. Net revenue in 2015
formaldehyde. was approximately US$64 million.
TV Rheinland, an inspection and auditing organization, With over 31,000 employees, WEG is one of the worlds
handled the performance tests, which included laboratory largest manufacturers of electric-electronic equipment,
and climate chamber analysis, and a six-month field test. having five main businesses: Motors, Automation, Energy,
The CEM system has been denoted CEMS II e to high- Transmission & Distribution, and Coatings. WEG has
light the extended range of certified components and its manufacturing units in 11 countries and is present in more
analytical performance. The same improvements also ap- than 100 countries, servicing all industrial segments, in-
ply to all Gasmet portable FTIR analyzers. German Type cluding oil and gas, mining, infrastructure, steel, pulp and
Approval and a QAL1 certificate from TV are pending for paper, renewable energy, among many others.
the CEMS II e system. The company is also seeking an
update to the British MCERTS certificate. ACD
Cryogenic turboexpander and pump manufacturer ACD
Wood Group has promoted Brice Lemaire to sales manager Euro-
Wood Group has secured a three-year contract with pean Market. Lemaire will be based out of the companys
Shell to deliver industrial services to the St. Fergus gas ACDCryo offices in Switzerland and will lead ACDs ef-
processing plant in Aberdeenshire and the Mossmorran forts to expand business in existing and emerging mar-
gas processing plant and Braefoot Bay marine terminal in kets. Brice has been the technical sales engineer at ACD-
Fife, Scotland. Cryo for three years.
Wood Group Industrial Services will provide fabric in- ACD, LLC manufactures cryogenic pumps and turbo
tegrity maintenance and site support under the contract, expanders for the alternative fuels, industrial gas and oil
which has the option to be extended for up to four years. industries. The companys product line includes a variety
This is the second contract Wood Group has received of cryogenic pumps for LNG, high-pressure cylinder/stor-
from Shell this year. In January, Wood Group Kenny start- age filling systems, trailer off-loading, bulk transfer, LNG
ed a three-year contract providing specialist consultancy bunkering operations, and storage tank filling. With over
services for flexible riser integrity management prior to 50 years of experience, ACD offers highly engineered so-
and during operation of Shell Australias Prelude Floating lutions to challenging problems in cryogenic equipment
Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) project. Shell said Prelude design and operation. ACD is part of the Cryogenic Indus-
FLNG, which is under construction, is the worlds first tries Inc. family of companies, which include Cosmodyne
FLNG development. LLC and Cryoquip LLC.

JUNE 2016 66 COMPRESSORtech2


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Advertisers Index
*Further information on this companys products can be found in the 2016 Edition of the Diesel & Gas Turbine Sourcing Guide
(at and/or 2016 Compression Technology Sourcing Supplement (at

ACI Services Inc. ....................................................................................41 * Hoerbiger Compression Technology ..................................Compressor

Specs-At-A-Glance Insert
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers ................................................................64
* KB Delta Compressor Valve Parts, Mfg. ....................................9, 36, 37
Altronic LLC .....................................................................................10, 11
* Kobelco Compressors America Inc. ....................................................63
* Ariel Corporation .....................................................................................1
* MAN Diesel & Turbo ................................................................................7
Armco Compressor Products Corp. ....................................Third Cover
Modulift ...................................................................................................65
The BG Service Co., Inc. .......................................................................31 MOTORTECH GmbH ..............................................................................60

* BORSIG ZM Compression GmbH .........................................................27 Murphy by Enovation Controls .................................... Fourth Cover, 17

* Burckhardt Compression AG ...............................................................29 Neuman & Esser Group ...........................................................................3

Compressor Products International .......................................................5 PROGNOST Systems GmbH .................................................................23

Cook Compression ................................................................................45 Reynolds French ....................................................................................30

Shinkawa Electric Co. Ltd. ....................................................................34

DCL International Inc. ............................................................................33
SNC-Lavalin ............................................................................................59
* Dresser-Rand .........................................................................................51
STASSKOL GmbH ..................................................................................13
E Instruments International ..................................................................49
Sullair ......................................................................................................53
* Elliott Group .......................................................................Second Cover
Summit Industrial Products ..................................................................47
Exline Inc. ...............................................................................................61
SYNTHOSOL ...........................................................................................39
Flender-Graffenstaden S.A.S. ...............................................................19 * Testo Inc. ................................................................................................25
GE Oil & Gas - Reciprocating Compression .......................................43 Tulco Oils ................................................................................................55

* Hoerbiger ................................................................................................35 Zahroof Valves Inc. ................................................................................15

Cornerstones Of Compression story continued from page 72

Cooper-Bessemer Power Turbine Models, Ratings And Production Totals (1959-1999)

Power Turbine Year Gas Nominal Rating Rated Speed
Stages Units
Model Introduced Generator hp (MW) rpm
10,500 to 12,000
RT248 1959 P&WA GG3C 5000 2 33
(7.83 to 8.95)
RT129 1962 P&WA GG12A 2700 (2.01) 9000 1 32
12,100 to 20,300
RT248R 1964 RR Avon 1533,4,5 5000 & 5500 2 292
(9.02 to 15.14)
RT165 1965 P&WA GG4A 16,000 (11.93) 4150 1 6
RT166 1970 RR Avon 1533 15,700(11.71) 3200 & 3600 1 32
3000 to 3500
RT128 1971 C-B RCT-30 9000 1 9
(2.24 to 2.61)
RT256 1973 RR Avon 1535 21,000 (15.66) 4950 2 48
30,000 to 33,600
RT256 1974 RR RB211-22,24C 4950 2 109
(22.37 to 25.06)
16,000 to 16,200
RT245 1975 RR Spey 1900 5900 & 6200 2 14
(11.93 to 12.08)
RT356 1978 GE LM2500 26,450 (19.72) 4760 3 1
35,000 to 39,700
RT262 1988 RR RB211-24C,24G 4800 2 131
(26.10 to 29.60)
RT244 1994 Solar Mars 14,100 (10.51) 6500 2 1
RT221 1998 RR 501 KC5 5500 (4.10) 13,600 2 8
RT224 1999 RR 501 KC7 7200 (5.37) 13,800 2 3
RR/Allison 1999 RR 601 KC9 9000 (6.71) 11,500 2 2
RT361 1999 RR RB211-24G-T 42,600 (31.77) 4850 3 1

Total Cooper Era Production (1959-1999): 722 units / 14,933,000 hp (11,136 MW)
Production including Rolls-Royce Energy Systems through 2005: 878 units / 21,000,000 hp (15,660 MW)
Total includes 675 compressor drives, 65 pump drives and 138 electric generator drives.
Post-2005 production not included.

Another alternative was the RT200, matched to a GE In 1987, the 35,000 hp (26,100 kW) Coberra 6462 was
LM2500 gas generator, rated at 26,450 hp (19,724 kW). The introduced, with an uprated RB211 matched to a new C-B
LM2500 had gained acceptance and was being packaged RT262 turbine. It further evolved to a maximum rating of
and marketed by Ingersoll-Rand and Dresser-Clark. C-B 39,700 hp (29,605 kW). In 1988, 22 of these units were
began to offer LM2500 packages, as a defensive move, supplied to Aramco to drive oil pumps on a new pipeline
while urging R-R to come up with a comparable gas gen- across Saudi Arabia.
erator in the 25,000 hp (18,643 kW) range. A series of development programs with Solar Turbines
As it turned out, C-B sold only one RT200. R-R accepted and later with R-Rs Allison Division were pursued in the
the challenge and industrialized its RB211 engine by 1974, 1990s, aimed at better midrange turbine and compressor
which resulted in the Coberra 264, matched to a new two- sets to compete with GE turbines. Results were mixed and
stage C-B RT256 power turbine, rated at 26,400 hp never led to significant sales. Close cooperation with R-R con-
(19,687 kW). Early RB211 problems were quickly ironed out, tinued, however, with Dry Low Emissions (DLE) technology
and this second-generation combination became very suc- developed in the 1990s, required to meet tighter standards in
cessful, improving fuel efficiency to the 34 to 35% range, com- Europe and elsewhere. In 1999, the 42,600 hp (31,767 kW)
pared to 24 to 26% in the first-generation Coberra turbines. Coberra 6761 was developed using the RB211-24G and a
In 1976, the Coberra 162 was introduced, combining three-stage RT361 power turbine. Efforts were also aimed
the R-R Spey engine with a new C-B RT245 turbine, rated at packaging the R-R Trent gas turbine, rated at 70,500 hp
at 16,200 hp (12,081 kW). The Spey was a high-cost gas (52,573 kW).
generator for R-R, and GEs successful introduction of its Approximately 722 C-B gas turbines were sold from 1959
LM1600 led to abandonment of the Coberra 162 by 1987. through 1999, totaling about 14,933,000 hp (11,135,729 kW)
In 1977, C-B shipped the largest turbine order in its his- and accumulating over 30 million operating hours. In 2000,
tory, forty-two 18,200 hp (13,571 kW) Coberra 182 units to the C-B Rotating Products Division was sold to R-R Energy
Machinoimport for the Chelyabinsk Pipeline in the USSR. In Systems, which continued to produce many more large
1978, Cooper and R-R formed a joint venture, Cooper Rolls Coberra units. Production continues today under Siemens,
Inc., to exclusively market C-B gas turbines. which acquired the business in 2014. CT2

JUNE 2016 71 COMPRESSORtech2

C ornerstones Of Compression

n In 1987, the Coberra 6462 was

introduced, with an uprated RB211
matched to a new C-B RT262 power tur-
bine, rated at 35,000 hp (26,100 kW).
It ultimately evolved to a rating of
39,700 hp (29,605 kW). In 1988, 22 of
these units were supplied to Aramco
to drive oil pumps in a new pipeline
across Saudi Arabia.

The Coberra Gas

Turbine > Cooper-Bessemer / Rolls-Royce venture served the pipeline
transmission industry for many decades.

n the 1960s, Cooper-Bessemer Corp. (C-B), then the larg- about 500 hours of operation, the Avon flame tubes started
est supplier of gas pipeline engine-compressors, success- coming loose, due to denser air at sea level than in flight,
fully fended off growing competition from industrial gas a problem overlooked in the Avon industrialization. After
turbines. GEs turbine-driven centrifugal compressor concept a modification in 1965, the Avon quickly reached its 8000
had appeared certain to overtake the reciprocating engine- hour target.
compressor for use in pipelines, and C-Bs own engine-driven Within five years, 17 different end users had logged more
centrifugal compressor could not check the swelling compe- than 1,000,000 hours of operating time. Significant prog-
tition. C-B countered by cooperating with Pratt & Whitney ress had been made in gas generator reliability and avail-
Aircraft (P&W) to apply a modified aircraft jet engine with its ability, as the high-time Avon accumulated 23,585 hours
own power turbine matched to a centrifugal compressor. before overhaul. Years later, one achieved 44,000 hours.
Introduced to the market in 1959 as the 10,500 hp In 1969, the concept was dubbed Coberra (for Cooper-
(7830 kW) RT248, this dramatic accomplishment result- Bessemer Rolls-Royce Avon). It was an immediate market-
ed in the worlds first industrial jet-powered gas turbine. ing success, with orders for 45 Coberra 125 units that year.
With a lb./hph (kg/kW) less than 5% of traditional heavy This included 10 units for the Alyeska Pipeline, which was
integral engine-compressors, it offered a lower installed 100% powered by Coberra units, with 14 more ordered in
cost and soon became the preferred approach for long- 1977. Coberra turbines were the most prevalent compres-
haul gas pipelines. sor drivers in the gas pipeline industry for decades.
The idea was so good that P&W soon moved into compe- Concurrently, C-B made a move to develop a smaller tur-
tition using its own power turbine. P&W gas generator costs bine with its own gas generator, the RCT-30. Matched to an
were increasing too, so C-B needed other options. The RT128 turbine, it was rated initially at 3000 hp (2237 kW)
Rolls-Royce (R-R) Avon aircraft engine had labyrinth seals and later 3500 hp (2610 hp). Sales were limited as the units
that promised longer service life than the P&W GG3Cs cost and thermal efficiency fell short of goals, and Solar
contact seals. Anxious to industrialize the Avon, UK-based Turbines was already dominating the market with higher
R-R priced it 30% below the GG3C. With no natural gas rated, lower cost units in that size range.
grid in the UK at the time, the first industrialized Avon was The search was also on for a larger gas turbine to coun-
tested at C-Bs Mount Vernon, Ohio facility. ter the 22,000 hp (16,406 kW) GE Frame 5 turbine. C-B
In 1963 Trans Canada Pipelines (TCPL) installed an RT248 came up with two alternatives. One was the Coberra 250,
on a trial basis. The next summer eight 12,100 hp (9023 kW) an arrangement of back-to-back Avon/RT248 sets with driv-
Avon-equipped packages were installed at TCPL, and an- en equipment in the middle, rated at 25,000 hp (18,643 kW).
other Avon replaced the GG3C on the initial package. After continued on page 71
JUNE 2016 72 COMPRESSORtech2
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ABC Compressors Arizaga, to 2465 psi (170 bar)
Bastarrica Y Cia
Aerzen USA to 750 psi (52 bar)

Ariel Corp. to 10,000 psi (689 bar)

to 2900 psi (200 bar)

Atlas Copco Gas and
to 6961 (480 bar)
Process Division
to 2900 psi (200 bar)

Bauer Kompressoren to 7250 psi (500 bar)

Blackmer to 1000 psi (69 bar)

Borsig ZM to 2176 psi (150 bar)

Compression GmbH to 14,500 psi (1000 bar)

Burckhardt to 50,760 psi (3500 bar)

Compression AG
Combined Heat & to 1200 psi (83 bar)
Power Inc.
to 319 psi (22 bar)
to 435 psi (30 bar)

to 10,000 psi (690 bar)

Elliott Group
to 725 psi (50 bar)

Emerson Process to 400 psi (28 bar)

to 2175 psi (150 bar)

to 870 psi (60 bar)

FLSmidth to 300 psi (20 bar)

FS-Elliott to 350 psi (23.1 bar)

Garo to 1305 psi (90 bar)

GEA to 754 psi (52 bar)

to 14,500 psi (1000 bar)

GE Oil & Gas to 50,760 psi (3500 bar)
to 6500 psi (448 bar)

to 1305 psi (90 bar)

Hanwha Techwin
to 728 psi (50 bar)

Haug Kompressoren AG to 4351 psi (300 bar)

Hitachi Ltd./Hitachi Plant to 10,000 psi (689 bar)

Technologies Ltd. to 35,300 psi (2413 bar)

Hofer to 90,000 psi (6000 bar)

Howden BC Compressors to 43,500 psi (3000 bar)

Howden BC to 870 psi (0 to 60 bar)

Compressors Ltd.
Howden Process to 29 psi (2 bar)
Howden Thomassen to 8700 psi (600 bar)
Compressors B.V.

Dedicated To Gas Compression Products & Applications














Hycomp Inc. 0 to 1500 psi (103 bar)

to 1200 psi (83 bar)

Ingersoll Rand
to 8250 psi (568 bar)

J.P. Sauer & Sohn to 7250 psi (500 bar)

Kobelco Compressors to 5000 psi (345 bar)

America Inc. to 15,000 psi (1034 bar)

Knox Western to 6000 psi (413 bar)

L.A. Turbine to 3000 psi (206 bar)

LeROI-RCT to 500 psi (34 bar)

LMF to 10,150 psi (700 bar)

to 14,500 psi (1000 bar)

MAN Diesel
to 725 psi (50 bar)
& Turbo SE
to 16 psi (1 bar)

Mehrer Kompressoren to 14,500 psi (1000 bar)

GmbH & Co.
Mitsubishi to 7250 psi (500 bar)

Mitsui Engineering to 9400 psi (648 bar)

& Shipbuilding to 21,200 psi (1462 bar)

MyCom to 750 psi (52 bar)

Natural Gas to 3050 psi (210 bar)

Services Group/SCS
Neuman & Esser to 90,000 psi (6000 bar)

Pedro Gil S.A. to 29 psi (2 bar)

RIX Industries to 7250 psi (500 bar)

Ro-Flo Compressors to 150 psi (10 bar)

RotorComp to 247 psi (17 bar)

Verdichter GmbH
SAFE S.p.A. to 4351 psi (300 bar)

Sertco to 500 psi (34 bar)

Siad Macchine to 8700 psi (600 bar)

Implanti S.p.A.
to 15,000 psi (1034 bar)
Siemens to 12,500 psi (861 bar)
Dresser-Rand Business
to 300 psi (21 bar)

Solar Turbines to 3750 psi (259 bar)

to 4000 psi (275 bar)

to 16,750 psi (1115 bar)

Vilter Manufacturing LLC to 950 psi (66 bar)

to 600 psi (41 bar)

York/Frick (JCI) to 348 psi (24 bar)