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# Blackburn Text, Problems 9.4, 10.1, 10.2.

Note 1: For Problem 9.4, it is not advisable to connect the grounding transformer into the
50 MVA transformer differential zone since it is small (1.2 MVA) compared to the 50
MVA transformer. Similar to the unit auxiliary transformer in a unit-connected generator
scheme, the transformer differential relay in this case would not be likely to detect faults
in the grounding transformer.

## Note 2: In Problem 9.4, dont forget the zero sequence trap!

Note 3: In Problem 9.4b, the X1 = X2 reactance to the 13.8-kV bus includes both the
source reactance and the 50 MVA transformer reactance.

Note 4: Problem 10.1 provides a lot of information that probably should have been in the
text. Blackburn introduces a margin factor and CT performance factor that modify the
basic equation I gave in my notes. However, all data needed to solve the problem is
given and its really not difficult. Also note in this problem that the reference to the CT
characteristic should be Figure 5.11, not Figure 5.10.

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10.1 High-impedance voltage-differential relays are to be applied to protect a three-
breaker bus, as shown in Figure 10.9. The CTs are all 600:5 multi-ratio type with
characteristics per Figure 5.11. For this application, determine the relay pickup
setting voltage and the minimum primary fault current for which the relays will
operate. The maximum external fault is 8000 A rms. Assume that the lead
resistance RL = 0.510 for the maximum resistance from any CT to the junction
point. For the particular relays applied, the pickup setting voltage is
IF
VR 1.6k ( RS pRL ) volts
N
where 1.6 is a margin factor, k is a CT performance factor (assume k = 0.7 for this
problem), p = 1 for three-phase faults and p = 2 for single-phase-to-ground faults
(Figure 5.10), IF is the primary rms external maximum fault current, and N is the CT
ratio. RS is the CT resistance. p = 2 should be used to determine the value of the VR
setting. The maximum setting of the relay voltage element should not exceed 0.67
times the secondary exciting voltage of the poorest CT in the differential circuit at
10 A exciting voltage.

## where n is the number of circuits, Ie is the exciting current of the individual CT at

the pickup voltage, IR is the relay current at the pickup setting voltage and IT is the
current required by a high-voltage protective device across the relay coil (not shown
in Figure 10.9). For this problem, assume IT = 0.2 A. The relay impedance and
generally negligible resistance of the leads from the junction to the relay is 1700 .
nIe is applicable in this problem since all three breaker CTs are the same; otherwise,
this is a summation of the different CT exciting currents at the VR pickup voltage.

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10.2 A feeder circuit is added to the bus of Problem 10.1, making a four-circuit bus.
The new breaker has the same type 600:5 multi-ratio CTs. With this addition, the
maximum external fault current increases to 10,000 A rms. All other circuit
values remain the same. For this change, calculate the relay pickup setting
voltage and the minimum primary fault current for which the relays will operate.

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