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Mariano Marcos State University

College of Engineering
Department of Chemical Engineering
Batac City, Ilocos Norte

Canning Industry

Bruce Dominique G. Siggaoat

Engr. Eric R. Halabaso

December 2, 2015
1. Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
1.1.1 Canning
It is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are
processed and sealed in an airtight container. Canning provides a
shelf life typically ranging from one to five years, although under
specific circumstances it can be much longer. A freeze-dried canned
product, such as canned dried lentils, could last as long as 30 years
in an edible state.
1.1.2 History of canning
1795: In 1795 the French Directory (the final phase of the nations
government following the French Revolution) Emperor Napoleon
Bonaparte decided that something needed to be done about the
militarys food supply. During that year French forces fought battles
in Italy, the Netherlands, Germany and the Caribbean, highlighting
the need for a stable source of food for far-flung soldiers and
sailors. The Directorys leaders decided to offer a 12,000-franc prize
through the Society for the Encouragement of Industry for a
breakthrough in the preservation of food.
1800: Nicolas Appert, a French confectioner and brewer, who had
worked as a chef for the French nobility, dove into the study of food
preservation. His innovation, when it arrived, came packed in the
strongest airtight containers he had access to: champagne bottles,
sealed with an oddly effective mixture of cheese and lime. Apperts
discovery built on earlier imperfect techniques, which either
removed air or preserved food by heat but hadnt managed to do
1803: Running a bustling lab and factory, Appert soon progressed
from champagne bottles to wide-necked glass containers. He
preserved foods (which came to include vegetables, fruit, meat,
dairy and fish) were sent out for sea trials with the French navy.
However, glass containers presented challenges for transportation.
1804: Apperts factory had begun to experiment with meat packed
in tin cans, which he soldered shut and then observed for months
for signs of swelling. Those that didnt swell were deemed safe for
sale and long-term storage.
1806: Legendary gastronomist Grimod de la Reynire wrote
glowingly of Appert, noting that his canned fresh peas were green,
tender and more flavorful than those eaten at the height of the
1809: Nicolas Appert had succeeded in preserving certain foods
through canning and presented his findings to the government.
Before awarding the prize, the government required that his
findings be published.
1810: Nicolas Appert published Le Livre de to us les Menages, ou
l'Art de Conserver pendant plesieurs annees toutes les Substances
Animales et Vegetables. (The Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal
and Vegetable Substances for Several Years). Upon publication, the
Directory presented him with the 12,000 franc award.
Although Appert could never explain why his food preservation
process succeeded, he is, nevertheless, credited with being the
father of canning. It would be another half century before his
countryman, Louis Pasteur, explained the relationship between
microbes and food spoilage, further validating Appert's basic
After winning the prize, Appert spent many more years working to
improve his method amidst the chaos of post-Napoleonic France.
His factories remained innovative but unprofitable, and he died a
poor man in 1841 and was buried in a common grave.
1810: Peter Durand (England) receives a patent from King George
III. The patent includes pottery, glass and tinplated iron for use as
food container.
1812: Peter Durand introduces his tinplated iron can in America.
1819: Thomas Kensett and Ezra Gagett start selling their products
in canned tinplate cans.
1825: Kensett receives an American patent for tinplated cans.
1856: Gail Borden is granted a patent on canned condensed milk.
1866: J. Osterhoudt patented the tin can with a key opener.
1875: Sardines first packed in cans.
1926: Canned ham ("SPAM") was introduced.
1962: Beverage can pull-tab was introduced.
1965: Aluminum beverage cans introduced and Tin-Free-steel (TFS
chromium) cans developed.
1989: Retained ring pull ends for the beverage industry are
1.1.3 Facts about canning
In 1974, samples of canned food from the wreck of the Bertrand, a
steamboat that sank in the Missouri River in 1865, were tested by
the National Food Processors Association. Although appearance,
smell and vitamin content had deteriorated, there was no trace of
microbial growth and the 109 year-old food was determined to be
still safe to eat.
Canned foods do not require salt or sodium for preservation, and
manufacturers are increasingly answering the demand for lower
sodium varieties of your favorite canned foods.
Not all canned foods have added salt. In fact, many canned food
products are available in low-sodium and no-salt added
Canning preserves most of the nutrients in foods. Proteins,
carbohydrates, and fats are unaffected, as are vitamins A, C, D, and
B2. The retention of vitamin B1 depends on the amount of heat
used during canning. Some vitamins and minerals may dissolve into
the brine or syrup in a can during processing, but they retain their
nutritive value if those liquids are consumed.
A 1997 study found that canned fruits and vegetables are as rich
with dietary fiber and vitamins as the same corresponding fresh or
frozen foods, and in some cases the canned products are richer
than their fresh or frozen counterparts.
October 23 is National Canning Day!

1.2 Limitations

This report focuses only on canning tuna in brine. The description is

related to canning plant with a capacity of 20 tons whole raw fish (bluefin
or yellowfin tuna) per 8 hours. The overall yield is approximately 50-55%
which gives approximately 10 000 450 g (1 pound) cans or 20 000 225 g
(1/2 pound) cans per 8 hours. Simplified flow sheets for canning tuna in
brine are shown in Figure 1.

2. Manufacturing Process
2.1 Raw materials
2.1.1 Fish
Many types of fish, and other marine foods are suitable for canning,
the size of the individual fish varying from that of the smallest
sardines to that of the largest tuna species. For some species like
tuna and sardines canning is the most important processing
method. The Codex Alimentarius Commission recommends the
following species of Tuna to be canned:

Canned Tuna and Bonito (CODEX STAN 70-1981)

Thunnus alalunga Euthynnus affinis

Thunnus albacares Euthynnus alletteratus

Thunnus atlanticus Euthunnus lineatus

Thunnus obesus Euthynnus pelamis (syn: Katsuwonus pelamis)

Thunnus thynnus maccoyii Sarda chiliensis

Thunnus thynnus orientalis Sarda orientalis

Thunnus thynnus thynnus Sarda Sarda

Thunnus tongoll Sarda velox

2.1.2 Ingredients and additives Potable Water or Seawater
Water is used for washing and cleaning the raw materials used
in the processing of fish. It can also be used for such purposes
as producing steam, cooling heat exchangers and fire protection. Salt
Salt is used on the canning of tuna in brine. Packaging Materials
The most common material used for manufacturing containers
for fish products are tin plate, aluminium and lacquered steel
plate (TFS). Flexible packaging as an alternative to metal cans
has become more common during the last years and glass jars
are sometimes used for specialty packs.
2.2 Processing
Figure 1 Flow sheet for canning tuna in brine
Sequential processing operations for canning tuna are described as follows:
2.2.1 Frozen tuna is thawed, preferably, by means of running water at a
temperature of 10-15 C. Loss during thawing is 0.5-1.0%.
Holding of frozen tuna for long periods before thawing may lead to
oxidation of fat resulting in a yellow to orange discolouration on the
surface of the cooked loins. Usually this surface discolouration can
be removed when the fish is cleaned.
2.2.2 Longitudinal cuts are common with large sized tuna and the viscera
are removed from the fish on board fishing vessels prior to freezing.
Bonito and skip jack are frozen with viscera. Once thawed, the tuna
is washed and inspected for spoilage. If tuna is not eviscerated on
board vessels this must be done in the plant. The splitting and
evisceration procedure is the only butchering operation performed
on the tuna while it is in the raw condition. All other cleaning is
performed after the tuna has been cooked. Loss of weight is
approximately 24-27%.
2.2.3 The tuna is given a pre-cook by heating at a temperature in range
of 102 to 104 C. This operation is necessary to make it possible to
hand pick the light meat from the carcass and also to remove some
of the oil from oily fish.
The fish is placed in baskets which are placed on racks. The racks of
butchered fish are rolled into the cookers which are usually of
rectangular cross section and made of reinforced steel plate with a
door, or doors, at one or both ends. The pre-cooking is a batch type
Steam is admitted through a steam spreader on the floor of the
cooker. Steam vent and drain valves are provided to permit removal
of air and condensate. Pre-cooking may also be carried out in
boiling brine.
The pre-cooking time for individual batches varies widely according
to the size of tuna. For example, the cooking time may vary from 1
1/2 hours for small tuna to 8 to 10 hours, or more, for larger tuna.
Loss of weight is approximately 22-26%.
2.2.4 Tuna is cooled thoroughly to firm the flesh before the manual
cleaning operation can be performed. Loss of weight is
approximately 3-5%.
2.2.5 After the pre-cooking and cooling operations, tuna is individually
cleaned. The head is removed and the fish is skinned and split into
halves before removing the tail and backbone. The loins are
produced by splitting the halves of the fish along the median line.
Red meat is then removed from each loin; the blood and dark meat
are scraped away and the loins, edible flakes and waste products
are separated; of these portions approximately 15% is flake tuna.
2.2.6 The production of solid packs was formerly a hand-packing
operation, but is now carried out by machines. This machine
produces a cylinder of tuna loins of uniform density from which can
be cut can-zised segments of uniform weight.
Chunk packs are produced from loins which are cut on a moving
belt by means of reciprocating cutter blades. The cut loins are then
filled into cans by tuna filler machines.
Flakes and grated tuna, which are produced from broken loins and
flakes, are J packed in the same way as chunk packs.
2.2.7 The open cans next pass the line where additives such as salt,
vegetables and finally either water or oil are added. Oil should be
added slowly over a sufficient stretch of the line to permit its
thorough absorbtion by the tuna meat. When oil is not added an
equivalent amount of water replaces it. The oil temperature is
recommended to be 80 C-90 C.
2.2.8 Small cans may be closed, without a vacuum, and processed
directly, whereas larger ones must be vacuum sealed.
As the pressure in the can increases considerably during heat
processing , the vacuum is necessary to minimize the pressure
increase in order to reduce the chance of distortion (peaking) and
damage to the double seam.
After processing and cooling the formation of .the vacuum causes
the ends of the can to assume a concave profile which is
characteristic of vacuum packed and hermetically sealed cans. The
vacuum also reduces the residual oxygen content in the can and
therefore the extent of internal corrosion.
In order to form a vacuum, cans are seamed by using either
vacuum seamers or an exhaust system.
When using the exhausting method the lids of the cans are first
clipped or clinched on to the body in such a way as to allow free
passage of gases and vapours out of the can. The can and contents
are then heated by passage through an exhaust box. The lid is
seamed to the can immediately it emerges from the exhaust box,
so that when the contents cool a vacuum is obtained. Thus the
system relies on sealing the can while the contents are hot and
allowing product contraction to create the vacuum.
An alternate method of achieving a vacuum in sealed cans is by
using vacuum seamers. These machines close the cans and while
so doing draw the air out thus creating a vacuum.
2.2.9 The double seaming method is usually used to seal metal
containers. The seam is created in two operations. See Figure 2.
"Seaming Operation -Double Seam (CAC/RCP 10-1976). The can, with the lid (can end) placed or clinched on top, stands
on a base plate which is raised so that a chuck fits into the
countersink part of the lid, holding both in position.
The can end which is lined with a plastisol sealing compound is
crimped into place so that it forms the so-called "cover-hook"
around the lip of the container body. The "cover-hook" and the enclosed lip of the container are
folded down against the container and interlock about the
"body-hook". Both hooks overlap to form a strong joint which
acts as a hermetic seal.

The sealing compound renders the seam air tight (hermetic).

Around its circumference the double seam consists of five layers
of metal -three layers of the can end and two layers of the can
body, however at the intersection with the side seam there are
seven layers of plate, the extra two being due to side seam
The seaming operation must be monitored throughout the
processing and visual inspections should be carried out at least
every 30 minutes (Warne, 1993).
Good manufacturing practice indicates that the. Overlap should
be at least 45 % of the internal seam length to ensure that the
seam will function correctly and resist to minor abuse.
Figure 2 Seaming operations: double seam

2.2.10 The sealed cans are transferred by a conveyor through a can

washer which cleans the cans in detergent and water before
discharging them into retort baskets. The retort baskets are
transferred into the retort and the cans sterilized.
Figure 3 Examples of retorting temperatures and times for canned tuna

Nominal capacity Alternative Processing temp. conditions time

of cans (C) (min)

1.8 kg (4 pound)
I 116 230
II 121 190

450 g {l pound)
I 116 95

II 121 80

225 g (l/2 pound )

I 116 75

II 121 45

112 g (l/4 pound)

I 116 65

II 121 40

All canned fish products are sterilized at temperatures above 100

C. Sterilization takes place in retorts, with or without water.
Overpressure is between 2-3 kg/cm. Processing conditions shown
are suitable for those canneries, operating under conditions of good
manufacturing practice. Individual canneries may select different
processing times and/or temperatures to suit their manufacturing
The simplest and most common retorts today are horizontal, or
vertical, batch retorts.
The following general description applies to processing in batch
retorts using saturated steam as the heating medium.
After the retort is loaded the door or lid is closed and the seal is
checked to confirm that all the lugs are fastened securely. The
temperature recorder is checked to ensure that it is working
correctly. Following this the vents and bleeders are opened and the
drain and overflow are closed {unless the over flow is used for
The retort is now ready for operation during which the following
operational procedures should be adopted:
Steam is admitted by gradually opening the controller and the
steam by pass lines.
When the correct venting temperature is reached (>100 C)
and/or the specified, vent time has elapsed, the vents are
closed. It is bad practice to vent less than the recommended
time; nor should reliance be placed on agreement between the
mercury thermometer and pressure gauge readings as a
criterion for complete air elimination, as this is not necessarily
a true indication of the required condition. If the pressure
gauge is reading high while the temperature is reading low,
there is still air in the retort and venting should be continued
until agreement between pressure reading and the
corresponding retort temperature is reached.
Gradually close the bypass as the retort approaches the
processing temperature. This will prevent a sudden drop in
temperature as the steam supply is cut when the retorting
temperature is reached.
When the retort has reached the processing temperature,
check the temperature indicated on the mercury and recording
thermometers. While it is not serious if the thermograph
indicates a temperature slightly lower (say 1 C) than the
mercury thermometer, it is most important that it never reads
higher. At all times the mercury thermometer should be used
as the reference, for indicating true retort temperature.
At the start of the process, record on the production records
the time, the mercury thermometer reading, the pressure, and
the temperature indicated by the recording thermometer.
Keep a record of the come-up time to make certain it has been
long enough to . allow sufficient venting.
Maintain the retort temperature at the recommended
processing temperature.
Throughout the process, check that the specified temperature
is being maintained.
Leave all bleeders wide open during the entire process.
When the recommended processing time has elapsed, turn off
the steam and immediately start the cooling cycle.
1.1.1 When processing medium sized or larger cans (say greater than
250 g) in retorts using steam it may be necessary to cool the cans
under pressure so that the ends do not peak during cooling. Steam
may be used to maintain the pressure but compressed air is more
usual. The cooling time depends on the processing temperature,
the temperature of the water used for cooling, the can size and the
nature of the pack (i.e., liquid to solid ratio).
1.1.2 If necessary the cans should be washed before temporary storage,
however under no conditions should the processed cans be
manually handled while wet.

1.2 Products
Important canned fish products are tuna packed as solid pack, chunks,
flakes, grated or shredded in brine solution.
Styles of tuna are pre-cooked (packs prepared from cooked fish without
skin) and not pre-cooked (solid packs prepared directly from raw fish)
which may be presented as" skin-on).
1.3 Equipment Used
1.3.1 Retorts
As briefly described previously retorts are used to sterilize the
contents of the cans.
1.3.2 Seaming machines
The double seam is made using a double seamer, which can have
just one or a number of heads or seaming stations. The double
seam is formed by mechanically interlocking five layers of material
together: three layers of the can end and two layers of the can
1.3.3 Can washing & drying machine
Can washing and drying machines are used to clean cans after
sterilization in order to remove residual oils that may have adhered
to the can surfaces during filling and retorting.
1.3.4 Cartoning machine
Cartoning machines are used for packing cans into individual
1.3.5 Racks
Racks are used in the pre-cooking process. Baskets with tuna are
placed on the racks before they are loaded into the cooker.
The main characteristics of racks used for tuna are given in the
The racks are equipped with two fixed and two swivel wheels.
The holding capacity of each rack is determined by the
requirements of production.
1.3.6 Baskets for cooking tuna
Baskets filled with tuna are placed in racks and loaded into the
1.3.7 High-speed tuna filler
A high speed tuna filler is a fully automatic machine designed to cut
and fill pre-cooked tuna meat into round and/or oval cans.
1.3.8 Exhaust box
Exhaust boxes are used for heating cans to ensure that when
sealed and cooled a vacuum is produced in the container.
1.4 Quality Control
1.4.1 Quality requirements for water
All water available for use in those parts of an establishment
where fish and shell fish are received, kept, processed, packaged
and stored should be potable water or clean sea water and should
be supplied at pressure of no less than 1.4 kg/cm.
An adequate supply of hot water of potable quality at a
minimum temperature of 82C should be available at all times
during the plant operation (CAC/RCP 9-1976).
The cold water supply used for cleaning purposes should be
fitted with an in-line chlorination system allowing the residual
chlorine content of the water to be varied at will in order to reduce
multiplication of micro-organisms and prevent the build-up of fish
Water used for washing or conveying raw materials should not
be recirculated unless it is restored to a level of potable quality.
Non-potable water may be used for such purposes as producing
steam, cooling heat exchangers and fire protection. It is very
important that both-systems of storage and distribution of potable
and non-potable water are entirely separate and there is no
possibility for cross-contamination or for inadvertent usage of non-
potable water in the fish or shellfish processing areas. Only potable
water should be used for the supply of hot water. The same
requirements for the separation of systems would apply to clean
sea water when it is used in the processing of fish (CAC/RCP 9-
1.4.2 Quality requirements for other ingredients and additives
Salt used for making brine or other purposes should be pure and
not contain appreciable quantities of magnesium chloride, a
common contaminant of unrefined salt. If the salt contains too
much magnesium chloride the risk of struvite formation increases;
this may concern consumers as struvite can form crystals
resembling glass in the canned fish.
Salt should comply with the "Codex Alimentarius Specifications
for Food Grade Salt" (being-developed by the Codex Committee on
Food Additives).
1.4.3 Fish Handling on land
Information about fish handling prior to canning is given in detail
in Planning and Engineering Data, Fresh Fish Handling, FAO Fish.
Circ. 735. In this context these data are of most value where they
concern operations of special importance for canning.
The processes and principles involved in preparing fresh fish for
canning are, for the most part, similar to those that would be
involved in preparing them for marketing as fresh fish. Therefore
the general instructions described in the Recommended
International Code of Practice should be used as a guide for the
handling and preparation of fresh fish for canning (CAC/RCP 9-1976
and CAC/RCP 10-1976).
Frozen fish can be thawed by immersion in chilled water
(temperatures above 15 C are not advisable), water spraying or air
current exposure. Thawing of frozen fish is an important step in
canned fish manufacture. For larger species, like tuna, thawing up
to 12 hours or more is not unusual. As thawing of the fish is
progressive, smaller species, and exterior parts of larger species
may reach the desired state of thaw while the inner parts of larger
species remain frozen.
Deterioration of fresh fish, especially whole eviscerated tuna is
rapid at temperatures sufficient to hasten thawing. The quality of
the fresh tuna begins to diminish before the last thawed portions
have become unfrozen.
1.4.4 Product
On opening, the cans shall be well filled with fish. The products
shall be practically free from skin (except when presented as "skin-
on" pack), scales, prominent blood streaks, blood-clots, bones,
bruises, the red muscle known as red meat. and honey-combing.
The colour, texture, odour and flavour shall be characteristic of
good quality canned tuna and bonito of the particular species.
For the solid form of pack, the proportion of free flakes broken in
the canning operation shall not exceed 18 percent of the weight of
the flesh.
For canned tuna designated as light, the product shall be
practically free of dark meat.
1.4.5 Equipment
Fatal errors in low-acid canned food manufacture are rare,
which, given the volume of production, suggests that traditional
process control measures (achieved through staff education and
training, inspection of facilities and operations and testing or
examinations) are effective. This comes as no surprise; for
ultimately it is in the canners` interests to assure that their
products are not only safe to eat, but also that they are of the
expected quality. At the worst, failure to regulate end product
quality will lead to outbreaks of food poisoning and expensive
recalls; at best, it will gradually undermine the image of the
product, and it will limit the ability of the manufacturer to supply to
an agreed specification.
2. Environment, Health and Safety
2.1 Occupational Health and Safety
2.1.1 Physical Hazards
Causes of accidents in fish processing operations include falls
caused by slippery floors and stairs; equipment safety issues
associated with filleting knives and other sharp tools; and cuts from
sharp edges on process equipment (e.g. stainless steel basins).
2.1.2 Biological Hazards
Workers involved in manual gutting, skinning, and general
handling of fish and shellfish may develop infections and or allergic
reactions resulting from exposure to the fish itself, or bacteria on
the fish. Water spraying processes may result in the formation of
aerosols with bacteria that can be inhaled.
2.1.3 Lifting, Carrying, and Repetitive Work
Fish processing activities may include a variety of situations in
which workers can be exposed to lifting, carrying, and repetitive
work, and work posture injuries. Many of the manual operations in
less mechanized fish processing plants include lifting heavy boxes
of raw materials. Repetitive strain injuries may result from manual
filleting and trimming operations. Poor working postures may result
from the design of the workspace, furniture, machinery, and tools.
2.1.4 Chemical
Exposure to chemicals (including gases and vapors) includes
handling chemicals such as chlorine, lye, and acids that are related
to cleaning operations and disinfection in process areas. In fish
smoking facilities, workers could be exposed to smoke particles that
contain potential or confirmed carcinogens such as polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
2.1.5 Heat and Cold
Exposure to extreme heat and cold is common because fish
processing is often conducted in air-conditioned plants under low
temperature, even in tropical locations. Improper work clothes in
combination with stationary work locations can result, or be an
additional factor, in respiratory and musculoskeletal ailments.
2.1.6 Confined Spaces
Occupational health and safety impacts associated with confined
spaces in fish processing operations (e.g. storage areas, boat holds)
are common to most industries.
2.1.7 Noise and Vibrations
Noise and vibration exposure may result from proximity to noisy
machinery (e.g. compressors, automatic packing machinery,
condensers, ventilation units, and pressurized air).
2.2 Environmental Impact
2.2.1 Wastewater Industrial Process Wastewater
Fish processing requires large amounts of water, primarily for
washing and cleaning purposes, but also as media for storage
and refrigeration of fish products before and during processing.
In addition, water is an important lubricant and transport
medium in the various handling and processing steps of bulk fish
processing. Fish processing wastewater has a high organic
content, and subsequently a high biochemical oxygen demand
(BOD), because of the presence of blood, tissue, and dissolved
protein. It also typically has a high content of nitrogen
(especially if blood is present) and phosphorus.
Detergents and disinfectants may also be present in the
wastewater stream after application during facility cleaning
activities. A range of chemicals is typically used for cleaning,
including acid, alkaline, and neutral detergents, as well as
disinfectants. The disinfectants commonly used include chlorine
compounds, hydrogen peroxide, and formaldehyde. Other
compounds also may be used for select activities (e.g.
disinfection of fishmeal processing equipment). Other Wastewater Streams & Water Consumption
Contaminated streams should be routed to the treatment
system for industrial process wastewater.
2.2.2 Emissions to Air Odor
Odor is often the most significant form of air pollution in fish
processing. Major sources include storage sites for processing
waste, cooking by-products during fish meal production, fish
drying processes, and odor emitted during filling and emptying
of bulk tanks and silos. Fish quality may deteriorate under the
anaerobic conditions found in onboard storage on fishing vessels
and in the raw material silos of fish processing facilities.
This deterioration causes the formation of odorous
compounds such as ammonia, mercaptans, and hydrogen sulfide
gas. Exhaust Gases
Exhaust gas emissions (carbon dioxide [CO2], nitrogen oxides
[NOX] and carbon monoxide [CO]) in the fish processing sector
result from the combustion of gas and fuel oil or diesel in
turbines, boilers, compressors and other engines for power and
heat generation. Particulates
Particulate emissions are generally not a serious problem in
the fish processing sector. The primary process source is the fish
smoking process, which is relevant if the gas from this process is
not treated effectively in the cleaning process.
2.2.3 Energy Consumptions and Management
Fish processing facilities use energy to produce hot water,
steam, and electricity for process and cleaning applications.
Electricity is used for electrical equipment, air conditioning, cooling,
freezing, and ice production.
3. Industry and Market Profile
4.1 Economics of Production
3.1.1 Local Market Contribution to National Economy, 2013
The fishing industrys contribution to the countrys Gross
Domestic Products (GDP) were 1.7 % and 1.9% at current
and constant 2000 prices, respectively. This translates to
some P199.3 billion for current prices and P131 billion for
constant prices of the countrys GDP of P11 548 billion
(current prices) and P6 765 billion (constant prices).
The industry also accounted for 15.4% (P199.3 billion) and
18.5% (P131 billion) of the Gross Value Added (GVA) in
Agriculture, Hunting, Forestry and Fishing Group of P1,297
billion and P706.6 billion at current and constant prices,
respectively, the largest share next to agricultural crops. Employment in the Fishing Industry
The industry employed a total of 1,614,368 fishing
operators nationwide (NSO 2002 Census for Fisheries) of
which the municipal fisheries sector accounted for more than
one million (1,371,676) operators while the commercial and
aquaculture sectors added some 16,497 and 226,195
operators, respectively. Performance of the Fishing Industry
Total volume of fisheries production in the Philippines from
January to December 2013 reached 4,705,413 metric tons.
Fisheries production drops down by 0.2% from 5 million
metric tons in CY 2008 to 4.7 million metric tons in CY 2013.
Average annual production growth rate within that period
was registered at 0.03%. In terms of value, the 2013 fisheries
production was valued at 244.6 billion pesos as compared
with the 215.8 billion pesos in 2008, an average yearly
increment of 5.38 billion pesos.
The 2013 fisheries production also showed a 3.28% decrease
from the previous years production of 4.9 million metric
tons. The 2013 production was valued at 244.6 billion pesos.
The annual performance of the fishing industry was
attributed to the production of the three (3) sectors. The
commercial sector has an increased production of 2.43 %
(1.07 million MT) as compared to last year s production of
1.04 million MT while the aquaculture sector was 6.63%
(2.373 million MT) lower than the previous year s level
(2.541 million MT) followed by the municipal sector with
1.28 % (1.26 million MT).
At the regional level, the Autonomous Region for Muslim
Mindanao (ARMM) registered the highest production among
all regions with its 17.8% or 836,568 metric tons share to the
total fisheries production, where seaweed was the major
commodity produced followed by Region IX with a 12.2%
share or 574,585 metric tons. Region IV-B (MIMAROPA)
recorded an output of 550,759 metric tons or 11.7% to the
total fisheries production.
In terms of value, the industry has contributed P244.6 billion
in 2013 as compared to P237.7 billion in 2012. The top three
(3) regions were Region III with P30.44 billion, followed by
Region VI with P28.47 billion and Region XII with P25.6 billion.
The Aquaculture fisheries sub-sector contributed the highest
value of about P 93.7 billion or 38 %. Next is municipal
fisheries sub-sector with a total production of P 80.9 billion.
Total fish caught by marine fishermen was valued at P71.9
billion while inland fisheries production was valued at P8.99
billion. The commercial sub-sector contributed P69.9 billion
or 29% to the total fishery output.

3.1.2 Global Market World Scenario: Philippine Fisheries
In 2012, the Philippines ranked 7th among the top fish
producing countries in the world with its total production of
4.87 million metric tons of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and
aquatic plants (including seaweeds). The production
constitutes 2.66% of the total world production of 182.9
million metric tons (FAO website).
The Philippines 0.791 million metric tons aquaculture
production of fish, crustaceans and mollusks in 2012 ranked
11th in the world and a 1.19% share to the total global
aquaculture production of 66.63 million metric tons. In terms
of value, the countrys aquaculture production of fish,
crustaceans and mollusks has amounted to over 1.95 billion
dollars (FAO website).
Similarly, the Philippines is the worlds 3rd largest producer
of aquatic plants (including seaweeds) having produced a
total of 1.75 million metric tons or nearly 7.36% of the total
world production of 23.78 million metric tons (FAO website). Philippines Export
Foreign trade performance of the fishery industry in 2013
registered a net surplus of 1,036 million dollars total export
value of 1,386 million US dollars and import value of 300
million US dollars.
Export volume increased by 101.7% from 165,324 MT in
2012 to 333,465 MT in 2013. The three major export
commodities (tuna, seaweeds, shrimp/prawn,) combined for
69% (231,130 MT) of the total export volume (333,465 MT)
and 69% (US$967 million) of the total export value US$ 1,386
million in 2013.
Tuna remained as the top export commodity with a collective
volume of 165,757 MT for fresh/chilled/frozen, smoked/dried,
and canned tuna products valued at US $681.618 million.
Canned tuna, though, constitutes bulk of tuna products being
exported. In general, tuna export is up by 192% in terms of
volume and higher in terms of value, 65% than the previous
year. Major markets for this commodity include USA, Japan
and United Kingdom.
Among the major destination of Philippine fish and fishery
product exports (in terms of value) with percentage share are
12 USA, 25.3%; Japan, 13.4%; Germany , 7.2%; Hongkong
5.9%; UK, 6%; Spain, 4.5% ; France, 6.7%, , Taiwan (ROC)
2.3%, Canada, 1.2%, and China, Rep Of 3%; . Other countries
have a cumulative share of 16%. Philippines Import

Fifty percent of the total import value for 2013 was
contributed by three major commodities in chilled/frozen fish,
1.1% in prawn feeds, ; as well as flour, meals and pellets of
fish, crustaceans, and mollusks fit and unfit for human
consumption, 2.1%. These commodities have an aggregated
value of US$ 100.6 million out of the US$ 299.6 million total
import value.
Chilled/frozen fish comprise of tuna, mackerel and sardines
with a total of US$ 150.9 million. Tuna has an import value of
US $90.92 million, the largest among the three major imports
with a share of 30%. These were mostly supplied by Papua
New Guinea 8 %; Taiwan (ROC) 10.2%; Japan 2.5%; Marshall
Island, 0.5% and Korea Rep, 1.7%. Other fishery imports
include mackerel, 14.7% and sardines 5.3%.
In terms of value, in general, the Philippine fishery imports
originated from the following major countries: China, 24%;
Indonesia, 5%; Taiwan (ROC), 11%; Papua New Guinea, 8%;
Vietnam, 14%; Japan 6% ; ; Korea, 4%; USA, 5%; and
Denmark, 1%. Other countries contributed 20.5% to the total
import value of fish and fishery products. World Top exporters
3.2 Future Market Outlook
While 2014 continued to be positive for canned/preserved
food, compared with previous review periods, growth was
seen to slow down slightly in 2014. Canned/preserved food,
especially those with more affordable prices, remains a
staple in local households. Growth is also maintained with the
increase in variants as manufacturers with various brands
benefit and make up for products in decline. COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE
Sales continued to be led by Century Canning Corp in 2014. It
maintained its lead at 23% of total retail value sales, largely
due to its canned/preserved fish/seafood products. The
popularity of canned/preserved fish/seafood products in the
Philippines greatly benefits Century Canning Corp, alongside
its establishment as a trusted brand name for
canned/preserved food products. PROSPECTS
Positive growth continues to be expected for
canned/preserved food over the forecast period. As a staple,
this product will continue to be purchased by Filipino
3.3 Local Industries
Philbest Canning Corporation is one of the 50 business units under the
RD Corporation, which in turn is becoming the fastest growing and
probably now the largest Filipino-owned conglomerate in Southern
Mindanao, Philippines. Presently, it has the capacity to process an average
of 140 metric tons per day of Tuna raw materials that is converted into
high quality tuna products for its customers worldwide.
PhilBest Canning Corporation is located in Purok Saydala Barangay
Tambler, General Santos City. Situated in 2.5 hectares of land overlooking
Sarangani Bay, the Company is looked up by the community as a major
source of employment, growth and development.
4. Research
Kenyan scientists release five new canning bean varieties after sixty-year

Speaking to the private sector players in the canning bean sector in Kenya
one cannot fail to note their excitement over the new canning bean
varieties that were released in 2015. Beans are the most important
source of protein, iron and zinc for resource poor communities in Eastern
Africa. With a growing middle class and steady international market,
canning beans has potential to become a major cash crop for farmers.
However production of canning beans is hampered by lack of high quality
seeds. Bio-Innovate supported scientists from universities and national
research organizations to produce new high yielding, disease and drought
tolerant canning bean varieties that have been released in Kenya and
Ethiopia and are being tested in Tanzania, Burundi and Rwanda. This
initiative was done in collaboration with private sector partners in the
canning beans industry that are expected to provide the eventual market
to the farmers.
5. References