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Religious Perspectives on Bioethics, Part I

Laura Jane Bishop, Mary Carrington Coutts

Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, Volume 4, Number 2, June 1994, pp.

155-183 (Article)

Published by Johns Hopkins University Press


For additional information about this article

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Scope Note 2$

Religious Perspectives on Bioethics, Part I


This is Part One of a two part Scope Note on Religious Perspectives on Bioethics.
Part Two will be published in the December 1994 issue of this Journal. This Scope
Note has been organized in alphabetical order by the name of the religious tradi-


Part 1 Part 2

I. General I. Native American

II. African Religious Traditions Religious Traditions
III. Bah'- Faith II. Protestantismwill
rV. Buddhism and Confucianism include a general section
V. Eastern Orthodoxy and sections focused on
VI. Hinduism specific denominations.
VII. Islam III. Roman Catholicism
VIII. Jainism
IX. Judaism


The many religions of the world bring diverse, and occasionally divergent, atti-
tudes to bioethical issues. These beliefs may guide patients and health care profes-
sionals as they seek or provide health care. In an attempt to facilitate understand-
ing of and access to information about these beliefs in our pluralistic and global
society, this Scope Note identifies literature by the world's major religious groups
on topics relating to bioethics.
Topics covered by this Scope Note include general attitudes to health and

Produced at the National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature, Kennedy Institute of Ethics,
Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057. The Center is supported by funds provided under
grant number LM04492 from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
Literature available through February 1994 is represented in this Scope Note.

Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal Vol. 4, No. 2,155-183 1994 by

the National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature

health care, the physician-patient relationship, treatment refusal, abortion, con-

traception, sterilization, reproductive technologies, genetics, mental health,
human experimentation, organ transplantation and donation, death, euthanasia,
suicide, and prolongation of life. Material was not available on all of these topics
for each religion.
The literature gathered here represents only a small portion of the available
writing on religion and medicine, and is limited to that which comments explicit-
ly on bioethical issues. Some faiths have a rich tradition of writing in bioethics;
for others the literature is more limited. Variation in coverage is not intended to
indicate the relative importance of a faith, but reflects accessibility and space con-
straints. Individuals interested in obtaining additional information are encouraged
to contact the National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature.
Specific citations about a region or country were chosen because of the pre-
dominance of a religious tradition within the population. In all cases, variation in
spelling represents author usage. This Scope Note treats only the literature pub-
lished in English, and every attempt has been made to identify English language
sources for these faiths.
It is important to remember that doctrinal and theological differences exist
even within the same denomination and that views of individual patients, family
members, and health care providers should be sought.


Melton, J. Gordon, ed. Encyclopedia Bioethics. New York: Free Press,

of American Religions. Fourth edi- Macmillan, 1978. 4 volumes.
tion. Detroit: Gale Research, 1993. Articles on all the major religions as
1217 p. they relate to bioethics are included in
Basic information about the his- this highly-regarded encyclopedia. In
tory, sacred texts, membership, educa- addition, many of the topical essays
tional facilities, publications, and feature a section on the views of vari-
North American addresses are provid- ous faiths on the topic under discus-
ed for 1,730 churches, denominations, sion. For the best use of the
sects, and cults. Bibliographies for Encyclopedia, see the subject index in
many faiths supplement this extensive volume 4. (Note: a revised, second edi-
tion is due to be published by Mac-
Reich, Warren T., ed. Encyclopedia of milhninlate 1994.)


American Psychiatric Association. Journal of Psychiatry 147 (4): 542,

Committee on Religion and Psy- April 1990.
chiatry. Guidelines Regarding The American Psychiatric Associa-
Possible Conflict Between Psychia- tion recommends that psychiatrists
trists' Religious Commitment and respect their patients' religious beliefs
Psychiatric Practice. American and that they not impose their own


beliefs on their patients. Buddhism, Islam, Judaism, and

Bankowski, Z., and Bryant, J. H. Christianity are discussed, with an
Health Policy, Ethics and Human emphasis on the concept of sacrifice
Values: Proceedings of the XVIIth some embryos will be sacrificed in
CIOMS Round Table Conference, embryo research aimed at improving
Athens Greece. Geneva: Council reproductive and genetic technologies.
for International Organizations of Brody, Baruch A. Current Religious
Medical Sciences, 1985. 336 p. Perspectives on the New Repro-
Many sections of this volume ductive Techniques. In Beyond
address issues where religion impacts Baby M: Ethical Issues in the New
health policymaking. Africa, the Mid- Reproductive Techniques, ed. Dianne
dle East, Europe, Latin America, and M. Bartels, Reinhard Priester,
Asia are highlighted for the varied Dorothy E. Vawter, and Arthur L.
ways in which their religions and cul- Caplan, pp. 45-63. Clifton, NJ:
tures are integrated into the provision Humana Press, 1990.
of health care. Brody summarizes the common
Batchelor, Edward, ed. Abortion: The concerns expressed by religious com-
Moral Issues. New York: Pilgrim munities regarding reproductive tech-
Press, 1982. 246 p. nologies: (1) reproductive technologies
Batchelor compiles a collection of sever the conjugal act from the procre-
essays by experts on religious ethics as ative act; (2) they introduce third par-
they relate to abortion. Includes some ties into reproduction; (3) they may
feminist perspectives. confuse biological lineage; (4) some
technologies involve discarding
Black, John. Broaden Your Mind embryos, which many faiths construe
about Death and Bereavement in
as immoral abortion; (5) the technolo-
Certain Ethnic Groups in Britain. gies dehumanize the reproductive
British Medical Journal 295 (659): process; and (6) the association of
536-39, 29 August 1987. some technologies with commercial-
Black summarizes Hindu, Sikh, and ization and exploitation makes them
Moslem views on health care and the illicit. Brody also addresses the specif-
end of life including: imminent death, ic concerns of Catholics, Lutherans,
mourning, funerals, autopsies, abor- Jehov-ah's Witnesses, Anglicans,
tion, genetic screening, and stillbirths. Greek and Eastern Orthodox,
Bowker, John W. Religions and the Muslims, and Jews.
Status of the Embryo. In Human Brody, Baruch A., ed. Suicide and
Embryo Research: Yes or No?, ed. Euthanasia: Historical and Con-
Gregory Bock and Maeve O'Con- temporary Themes. Boston: Kluwer
nor, pp. 164-84. New York: Academic, 1989. 286 p.
Tavistock Publications, 1986. Both Jewish and Christian perspec-
After briefly commenting on the tives on euthanasia and suicide
impact of religious attitudes on scien- through the ages are covered in this
tific research, Bowker outlines the historical survey.
tenets of several religions as they relate
to human embryo research. Hinduism, Cahill, Lisa Sowie. In Vitro Fertiliza-


tion: Ethical Issues in Judaeo- John D.; and DeCherney, Alan H.,
Christian Perspective. Loyola Law eds. Foundations of In Vitro Fertili-
Review 32 (2): 337-56, Summer zation. Washington, DC: Hemis-
1986. phere Publishing, 1987. 383 p.
Cahill raises some moral questions The final section of this manual on
regarding in vitro fertilization and gen- in vitro fertilization is devoted to
eral fertility therapies, including: the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim atti-
natural meanings of sexuality, procre- tudes toward reproductive technolo-
ation, parenthood, and marriage; the gies, including sperm donation, oocyte
psychological effect that fertility treat- aspiration and donation, surrogate
ment has on a couple; the relative motherhood, and freezing of embryos.
social importance of fertility treat- Gillon, Raanan. Principles of Health
ments; and the disposition of embryos Care Ethics. Chichester: John Wiley
created in a laboratory. Jewish and & Sons, 1993. 1118 p.
Catholic responses to some of the Gillon, a leading British ethicist,
questions are addressed. compiles a well-received anthology on
Cahill, Lisa Sowie. Theology and medical ethics and the four traditional
Bioethics: Should Religious Tradi- ethical principles of beneficence, non-
tions Have a Public Voice? Journal maleficence, respect for autonomy,
of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (3): and justice. Theologians from the Ro-
263-72, June 1992. man Catholic, Anglican, Jewish,
In the introduction to an issue of Islamic, and Buddhist religions address
the Journal on Theology and Bio- the way in which their traditions inter-
ethics, Cahill wonders whether reli- pret the four principles. The balance of
gious traditions have anything distinc- the text discusses topical issues in
tive to say about bioethical issues and bioethics.
asks whether it is tolerable for reli-
Green, Jennifer. Death With Dignity:
gious thinkers to become involved in Sikhism. Nursing Times 85 (7): 56-
public policy debates. 57, 15 February 1989.
Campbell, Courtney S. Religious Green briefly describes five symbols
Ethics and Active Euthanasia in a of great importance to Sikhs (uncut
Pluralistic Society. Kennedy Insti- hair, a wooden comb, an iron wrist
tute of Ethics Journal 2 (3): 253-77, band, a short sword, and short
September 1992. trousers), which should not be dis-
Campbell explores the relevance of turbed because of their religious signif-
religious perspectives to debates over icance. She also highlights the con-
public policy, specifically that on cerns of Sikh women for modesty,
active euthanasia, and concludes that Sikh diet, death rituals, and funeral
religious traditions can provide a con- considerations. There are no religious
text of ultimacy and meaning to this objections to blood transfusion, organ
debate. A table of the views of various transplantation, or autopsies.
denominations with regard to Greenspahn, Frederick E., ed. Cow-
euthanasia is included.
temporary Ethical Issues in the
Fredericks, Christopher M.; Paulson, Jewish and Christian Traditions.

158 ]

Hoboken, NJ: Ktav Publishing Kjellstrand, Carl M., and Dossetor,

House, 1986. 233 p. John B., eds. Ethical Problems in
Science, technology, sexuality, and Dialysis and Transplantation.
social justice are analyzed from the Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic,
Jewish, Protestant, and Catholic per- 1992. 235 p.
spectives. Michael Kaye's chapter on the reli-
Hamel, Ronald P. Views of the Major gious aspects of stopping dialysis
Faith Traditions. In Active Euthan- includes the views of Islam, Judaism,
asia, Religion, and the Public and Christianity. Other sections of this
Debate, ed. Ronald P. Hamel, pp. book cover dialysis and transplanta-
45-77. Chicago: Park Ridge Center, tion in various countries and regions
1991. (Africa, Japan, Eastern Europe, United
A thorough survey of the attitudes Kingdom, and China); religious per-
of the major religions regarding active spectives are discussed where relevant.
euthanasia is provided, along with the Kogan, Barry S. A Time to Be Born, A
edited texts of many documents and Time to Die. New York: Aldine de
policy statements. Gruyter, 1991.267 p.
Kaufman, Howard H., ed. Pediatric Jewish, Catholic, and Protestant
Brain Death and Organ/Tissue views on the beginning and end of life
Retrieval: Medical, Ethical, and are discussed by David Ellenson,
Legal Aspects. New York: Plenum Richard McCormick, and Martin
Medical Book Co., 1989. 365 p. Marty.
The first section of this work covers Larue, Gerald A. Euthanasia and
Jewish, Catholic, and Protestant per- Religion: A Survey of the Attitudes
spectives on brain death and organ of World Religions to the Right-to-
retrieval. Die. Los Angeles: Hemlock Society,
Kay, Margarita Artschwager. Health 1985.155 p.
and Illness in a Mexican American The President of the Hemlock
Barrio. In Ethnic Medicine in the Society has gathered policy statements
Southwest, ed. Eleanor Bauwens and commentaries by religious author-
and Edward H. Spicer, pp. 99-166. ities regarding religious attitudes
Tucson: University of Arizona toward the right-to-die. A bibliogra-
Press, 1977. phy is included.
Kay describes the social and reli- Lustig, B. Andrew; Brody, Baruch A.;
gious setting of urban Mexican- Engelhardt, H. Tristram; and
American neighborhoods and high- McCullough, Laurence B., eds.
lights ways in which health care Center for Ethics, Medicine and
providers might encounter divergent Public Issues (Houston, TX). Bio-
attitudes to health and medicine. ethics Yearbook, Volume 1: Theo-
Barrio medicine incorporates western logical Developments in Bioethics,
medicine and certain rituals for life 1988-1990. Boston: Kluwer Aca-
crises influenced by "Sonora Catholi- demic, 1991.224 p.
cism," Native American and Mexican Bioethics and religious scholars sur-
customs, and American folk medicine. vey the intersection of medical ethics

159 ]

with the world's major religions. L. Health/Medicine and the Faith

Faiths represented include: Roman Traditions: An Inquiry into Reli-
Catholic, Latter-day Saint, Buddhist, gion and Medicine. Philadelphia:
Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, Islamic, Fortress Press, 1982. 350 p.
Lutheran, Methodist, Baptist-Evan- An introduction to the series men-
gelical, Judaic, and Reformed Church. tioned above, this book sets the
Most articles include extensive bibli- ground for a study of the many ways
ographies. religion and theology are intertwined
with medical ethics.
Marty, Martin E.; Vaux, Kenneth L.;
and Wind, James P., eds. May, Larry, and Sharratt, Shari
Health/Medicine in the Faith Tradi- Collins, eds. Applied Ethics: A
tions. New York: Crossroad Press, Multicultural Approach. Engle-
1984-1994. (Further volumes of wood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall,
this series will be published by 1994.553 p.
Trinity Press International.) The authors address various topics
An outgrowth of Project Ten at the in applied ethics from Western and
Park Ridge Center for the Study of non-Western perspectives. Of particu-
Health, Faith, and Ethics, this is the lar interest are the sections on AIDS,
most important series published to abortion, and euthanasia, which
date on religious aspects of medical include discussions of AIDS vaccine
ethics. Each book covers one religious trials in Africa, late-term abortions in
tradition's view on concepts such as China, the morality of abortions in
well-being, sexuality, passagese.g., Japan, Buddhist views of suicide and
aging, baptism, marriage, and preg- euthanasia, and resource allocation in
nancymorality, dignity, madness, Africa.
healing, caring, suffering, and dying. Meilaender, Gilbert. Morality in
To date, the series includes books by: Plague Time: AIDS in Theological
Martin E. Marty (Lutheranism), Perspective. Linacre Quarterly 55
Richard A. McCormick (Catholicism), (3): 23-32, August 1988.
Kenneth L. Vaux (Reformed Church), Meilaender provides moral and
David M. Feldman (Judaism), David religious rationales for the argument
H. Smith (Anglicanism), E. Brooks that physicians have an obligation to
Holifield (Methodism), Fazlur Rah- treat persons infected with HIV.
man (Islam), Robert Peel (Christian
Science), Prakash N. Desai (Hindu- Melton, J. Gordon and Ward, Gary L.,
ism), Stanley S. Harakas (Eastern comps. The Churches Speak On:
Orthodoxy), ke Hultkrantz (North AbortionOfficial Statements
American Shamanic Medicine), Lester from Religious Bodies and Ecu-
E. Bush (Church of Jesus Christ of the menical Organizations. Detroit,
Latter-day Saints). A forthcoming vol- MI: Gale Research, 1989. 199 p.
ume, due in August 1994, is by Policy statements on abortion from
Leonard I. Sweet (Evangelicism). Each many Judeo-Christian organizations
of these books is described in the and churches are collected here. Also
included are statements from
appropriate section below.
American Muslim, Buddhist, Unitar-
Marty, Martin E., and Vaux, Kenneth ian, and Mormon groups.
[ 160]

Melton, J. Gordon, comp. The Oosthuizen, G. C; Shapiro, H. A.; and

Churches Speak On: AIDS Strauss, S. A., eds. Genetics and
Official Statements from Religious Society. Capetown, South Africa:
Bodies and Ecumenical Organiza- Oxford University Press, 1980. 200 p.
tions. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, Religious perspectives on medical
1989. 203 p. genetics are provided for Roman
Melton compiles organizational Catholicism, Islam, Judaism, Zoroas-
policies from many Jewish and trianism, Buddhism, Hinduism, and
Christian organizations regarding the Anglican and Reformed Churches.
AIDS and HIV infection. A few other
Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard R.
religions are covered. Aztec Medicine, Health, and Nutri-
Melton, J. Gordon, and Manning, tion. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers
Christel, comps. The Churches Speak University Press, 1990. 308 p.
On: EuthanasiaOfficial State- The Aztecs believed in an intercon-
ments from Religious Bodies and nection between cosmic events and
Ecumenical Organizations. Detroit, events in the human realm. Topics
MI: Gale Research, 1991. 212 p. include coverage of the Aztec religion,
Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jew- world view, and medicine; the diagno-
ish, Buddhist, Christian Scientist, and sis and explanation of illness; the cur-
Unitarian policies on euthanasia are ing of illness; and the synthesis of
provided. Aztec beliefs into Mexican folk medi-
cine. The influence of these beliefs is
Murphy, Timothy F. Is AIDS a Just
felt in Meso-American cultures.
Punishment? Journal of Medical
Ethics 14 (3): 154-60, September Pellegrino, Edmund D.; Mazzarella,
1988. Patricia; and Corsi, Pietro, eds.
Murphy argues that there is no Transcultural Dimensions in Medi-
sound theological or philosophical cal Ethics. Frederick, MD: Univer-
basis for the theory that AIDS is a just sity Press of America, 1990. 221 p.
punishment for homosexual behavior, An outgrowth of a 1990 Sym-
which is judged immoral by some posium on Transcultural Dimensions
Christians. in Medical Ethics, this volume pro-
Numbers, Ronald L., and Amundsen, vides international religious and cul-
tural views of medical ethics. It
Darrel W., eds. Caring and Curing:
Health and Medicine in the includes coverage of Jewish, Islamic,
Western Religious Traditions. New and American minority perspectives
on biomedical ethics as well as cultur-
York: Macmillan, 1986. 601 p.
Religious understandings of the al/religious aspects of medical ethics in
nature of well-being, sexuality, rites of Argentina, India, China, Japan, Thai-
passage, morality, dignity, madness, land, and developing countries.
healing, caring, suffering and death are Regan, Tom, ed. Animal Sacrifices:
compiled. Faiths include Judaism, Religious Perspectives on the Use of
Roman Catholicism, "mainline" Pro- Animals in Science. Philadelphia:
testant denominations, Anabaptist, Temple University Press, 1986.270 p.
Adventist, Mormon, Pentecostal, and The teachings of Judaism,
African-American traditions. Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Jain-
[i 6i]

ism, Buddhism, and Confucianism on sick, the suffering, and the poor, Shelp
animals and their use in science and and Sunderland provide a view of
biomedical research are presented. what the church's response to AIDS
should be.
Schenker, Joseph G. Jewish and
Moslem Aspects of In Vitro Fertili- Shelp, Earl E., ed. Theology and
zation and Embryo Transfer. Annals Bioethics: Exploring the Founda-
of the New York Academy of tions and Frontiers. Boston: D.
Sciences 442: 601-7, 28 May 1985. Reidel, 1985. 314 p.
Schenker provides details on the Theologians and philosophers
Jewish and Moslem laws that relate to examine the contributions that theolo-
in vitro fertilization, artificial insemi- gy has made to the field of bioethics.
nation, oocyte or embryo donation, The impact of specific theological tra-
surrogate motherhood, and human ditions (Christian, Jewish, Catholic,
embryo research. and Hindu) on medical moral decision
Schenker, Joseph G. Research on making is highlighted.
Human Embryos. European Jour- Spero, Aryeh. Therefore Choose Life:
nal of Obstetrics and Gynecology How the Great Faiths View
and Reproductive Biology 36 (3): Abortion. Policy Review 48: 38-44,
267-73, September 1990. Spring 1989.
Schenker briefly summarizes ethical Spero summarizes the attitudes of
concerns about research on human Judaism, Catholicism, Eastern Ortho-
embryos and provides succinct expla- doxy, Protestantism, Islam, Hinduism,
nations of Jewish, Christian, Islamic, and Buddhism to abortion. Although
Buddhist, and Hindu reactions to these faiths differ over when abortion
embryo research. is allowed, they all share a disdain for
elective abortion and a fundamental
Schenker, Joseph G., and Rabenou,
Vicki. Family Planning: Cultural belief that, absent extreme circum-
and Religious Perspectives. Human stances, abortion is wrong.
Reproduction 8 (6): 969-76, June Sullivan, Lawrence E., ed. Healing and
1993. Restoring: Health and Medicine in
After a discussion of the develop- the World's Religious Traditions.
ment of contraceptive methods through- New York: Macmillan, 1989.468 p.
out history, the authors address the Non-Western religious traditions
religious aspects of contraception for and their approaches to suffering and
Judaism, Roman Catholicism, Protes- healing are surveyed. Buddhism, Islam,
tantism, Islam, Hinduism, and Bud- Hinduism, Taoism, Confucianism, and
dhism. the local traditions of Asia, Africa,
Shelp, Earl E., and Sunderland, Oceania, and native North, Central,
Ronald H. AIDS and the Church: and South America are included.
The Second Decade. Revised and Texas Medical Center, Institute of
enlarged edition. Louisville, KY: Religion, and Baylor College of
Westminster/John Knox Press, Medicine. Genetics, Religion and
1992. 238 p. Ethics Project. Summary Reflection
Citing Jesus's compassion for the Statement. Human Gene Therapy 3

(5): 525-27, October 1992. Wildes, Kevin Wm. The View from
Conference attendees representing Somewhere Else: Particularism in
Christian, Jewish, Hindu, and Islamic Bioethics. Journal of Medicine and
traditions address six specific issues Philosophy 18 (6): 505-99, Decem-
related to medical genetics: human ber 1993.
diversity, genetic engineering, counsel- Wildes introduces an issue of the
ing and education, genetic screening, Journal that is devoted to bioethics
pregnancy termination, and public and religious traditions. The
policy and legislation. Protestant contributions of James
Verhey, Allen, and Lammers, Stephen Gustafson and Stanley Hauerwas are
E., eds. Theological Voices in discussed, as are Jewish, Eastern
Medical Ethics. Grand Rapids, MI: Orthodox, and Roman Catholic per-
William B. Eerdmans, 1993. 256 p. spectives on medical ethics issues.
A compilation of Second Opinion World Council of Churches. Subunit on
articles from the Park Ridge Center for Church and Society. Biotechnology:
the Study of Health, Faith, and Ethics, Its Challenge to the Churches and
this book highlights the contributions the World. Geneva, Switzerland: The
of prominent theologians to the field Council, 1989. 35 p.
of medical ethics: Paul Ramsey, James The Council provides a series of
Gustafson, Stanley Hauerwas, Rich- recommendations and policies on
ard McCormick, William F. May, genetic engineering, reproductive tech-
James Childress, Germain Grisez, nologies, patents, environmental
Immanuel Jakobovits, and Bernard effects of biotechnology, military
Hring. applications, and biotechnology's
Weiss, D. W.; Tsuji, K. T.; May, W. F.; impact on the third world. The
Council calls for churches to reaffirm
and Sachedina, A. A. Religious and
Cultural Issues. [Set of four papers the sacredness and essential goodness
of God's creation.
on religious views of organ trans-
plantation]. Transplantation Proceed- Wreen, Michael J. Autonomy, Re-
ings 20 (1, Suppl. 1): 1071-88, ligious Values, and Refusal of
February 1988. Lifesaving Medical Treatment.
Jewish, Buddhist, Christian, and Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (3):
Islamic attitudes toward organ trans- 124-30, September 1991.
plantation are surveyed. Using examples of a non-terminal
Wertz, Dorothy C, and Fletcher, John adult patient who refuses lifesaving
C, eds. Ethics and Human treatment and a Jehovah's Witness
Genetics. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, who refuses a blood transfusion,
1989. 536 p. Wreen asks why religious values are
Reporting on a nineteen-country special in the refusal of lifesaving med-
ical treatment? He concludes that reli-
survey of genetics counselors, Wertz
and Fletcher provide cultural and reli- gious freedom is a powerful force in
gious views on medical genetics from overcoming the medical establishmen-
many countries. Use the subject index t's desire to act in the patient's best
for each religion to identify relevant


Adelowo, E. Dada. Yoruba Tradi- study in which a clinical trial is con-

tional Religion, Magic and ducted to determine the prevalence of
Medicine: Divination and Sacrifice tapeworm in public clinics in North
in Relation to the Health of the Africa. Due to local beliefs that tape-
Society. Asia Journal of Theology 4 worm is a disease caused by malevo-
(2): 456-71, October 1990. lent spirits or persons, the researchers
Adelowo defends Yoruba religious wonder whether they can disclose the
healing against the Christian, Muslim, true nature of their research and still
and Western doctors who criticize its obtain informed consent. Two com-
effectiveness and downplay its signifi- mentaries accompany the case study.
cance. Foretelling future events, invok- Kealotswe, O. N. O. Spiritual Healing
ing spirits of the deceased, and other and Traditional Medicine in Bots-
forms of divination play important wana. In Afro-Christian Religion at
roles in maintaining health. The rituals the Grassroots in Southern Africa,
that help release an individual from ed. G. C. Oosthuizen and Irving
spiritual, mythical, or virulent ail- Hexham, pp. 184-90. Lewiston,
ments may involve sacrifice. Adelowo NY: E.G. Mellen, 1991.
argues that the westernization of Kealotswe examines the role played
Africa denies its rich natural, cultural, by traditional medicine in spiritual
and religious resources. healing in Botswana, where two-thirds
Dillon-Malone, Clive. The Mutumwa of the registered religious organiza-
Churches of Zambia: An Indi- tions consider themselves to be healing
genous African Religious Healing churches. Medicines, prophets, and
Movement. Journal of Religion in prophetic healing are briefly covered.
Africa 14 (3): 204-22, 1983. Kilner, John. Who Shall Be Saved? An
Dillon-Malone provides a survey of African Answer. Hastings Center
the spiritual healing found in a grow- Report 14 (3): 18-21, June 1984.
ing number of Mutumwa Churches in Kilner recounts a trip to Kenya and
Zambia. Mutumwa Churches consid-
relates his impression of Kenyan atti-
er themselves to be the new African tudes toward resource allocation in
apostles, sent to carry out the healing health care. Issues of equality, useful-
mission of Christ and to perform func- ness, need, and the number of lives
tions relating to religious worship, saved are expressed as points to con-
psychiatric therapy, medical treat- sider when allocating scarce medical
ment, and counselling. Details are pro- resources.
vided about prayer services and heal-
ing practices as well as the significance Lewis, I. M.; Al-Safi, Ahmed; and
of witchcraft in Zambia. Hurreiz, Sayyid. Women's Medi-
cine: The Zar-Bori Cult in Africa
Ekunwe, Ebun O., and Kessel, Ross. and Beyond. Edinburgh: Edinburgh
Informed Consent in the Develop- University Press, 1991. 299 p.
ing World. Hastings Center Report The Zar-Bori Cult is the most
14 (3): 22-24, June 1984. extensive transnational, traditional
Ekunwe and Kessel present a case healing cult in Africa and the Middle
[ 164]

East. Focusing on women's health 203-54.

issues, the authors explore the cult's Two chapters in this book discuss
psychodramatic therapeutic tech- African religious healing. Chapter 9
niques and its relations with Islam and covers the Akan people of Ghana, for
Christianity. whom religion and healing are directly
Onunwa, Udobata R. Religion and related. Kofi Appiah-Kubi describes
Psychiatry: A Theological Evalua- the Akan search for harmony between
tion of Ethno-Psychiatry in Igbo individuals, communities, the environ-
Society. Africa Theological Journal ment, and, above all, between individ-
1990; 19 (2): 124-38. uals and their God. The kinship link
The concept of health, especially between humans and nature helps
individuals to maintain or restore their
mental health, among the agrarian and
rural Igbo, one of the three largest eth- health, with the assistance of the
nic groups in Nigeria, is discussed. priest-healer and holistic healing. In
Mental illness is believed to result Chapter 10, John M. Jansen surveys
from enemies, cosmic forces, or prob- religious healing in Sub-Saharan
lems in social relationships. Emphasis Africa. For the Bantu subjects of this
on community in healing is strong. work, concepts of health and well-
The author also analyzes traditional being are integrated with religious and
healing practices and beliefs in light of cultural realities. Jansen provides a
Christian New Testament teaching. brief synopsis of the African "world
view," the diagnosis of misfortune,
Spring, Anita. Epidemiology of Spirit and the roles of divination and tradi-
Possession Among the Luvale of tional healers.
Zambia. In Women in Ritual and
Symbolic Rites, ed. Judith Hoch- Swantz, Marja-Liisa, and Swantz,
Smith and Anita Spring, pp. 165- Lloyd. Wholeness and Healing in
90. New York: Plenum Press, 1978. African Traditional Religion.
Spring describes a variety of situa- Lutheran World 22 (4): 308-14,
tions in which women are thought to
be possessed by spirits and in need of The rural Zaramo equate health
with wholeness and understand illness
spiritual healing. She discusses rituals
for childbearing, infertility, childrear- as indicative of fragmentation or dis-
turbance in the social whole that is
ing, and curing sick children, as well as
for mothers whose children have woven from relationships with those
become sick. The spiritual health of dead and alive. This conception of
one's matrilinear ancestors may deter- health differs markedly from Western,
mine an individual's fate, and religious individualistic concepts of well-being.
The second section addresses the role
rituals to illuminate spiritual posses-
sions can restore an individual to of the medicine man in an increasingly
health. urban society.
Sullivan, Lawrence E., ed. Healing and Taylor, Christopher C. Milk, Honey,
Restoring: Health and Medicine in and Money. Washington, DC:
the World's Religious Traditions. Smithsonian Institution Press,
New York: Macmillan, 1989, pp. 1992. 257 p.
Taylor discusses Rwandan popular

medicine and symbolism in health and dominant. The notion that illness is
healing, addressing both pre- and persecution by external causesspirits
post-colonial periods and the intro- or personsis predominant while
duction of Christianity and Islam. A spiritual possession is also cited.
fluid model of health and pathology is Regional differences are addressed.


Green, Jennifer. Death With Dignity: Zohoori, Elias, comp. The Throne of
Bah'- Faith. Nursing Times 85 the Inner Temple. Kingston, Jamai-
(10): 50-51, 8 March 1989. ca: University of the West Indies,
Green briefly describes the Bah'- 1985. 97 p.
Faith, the youngest of the world's This volume of selected readings
independent religions. The fundamen- from the Bah'- writings on topics
tal purpose of this religion is to pro- relating to health care and the human
mote concord and harmony. There are body includes guidance on surgery,
no major concerns for health care vaccination, organ transplantation,
providers in treating Bah'-s as there circumcision, sterilization, contracep-
are no religious rituals to observe. tion, abortion, euthanasia, surrogate
Bah'-s are never cremated, and the motherhood, sperm donation, suicide,
place of internment should be less than and death. Other sections cover the
one hour's journey from the place of Bah'- attitudes toward science, physi-
death. cians, illness, and healing, as well as
the texts of some Bah'- prayers for


Bhikkhu, Mettanando. Buddhist brain-stem function is lost indicating

Ethics in the Practice of Medicine. the complete departure of conscious-
In Buddhist Ethics and Modern ness. As long as brain-stem functions
Society: An International Sym- remain, the patient must receive care
posium, ed. Charles Wei-hsun Fu to allow the interiorly present con-
and Sandra A. Wawrytko, pp. 195- sciousness to complete its preparation
213. [Contributions to the Study of for death. Buddhism does not support
Religion, Number 31] New York: suicide in any form.
Greenwood Press, 1991. Green, Jennifer. Death with Dignity:
Bhikkhu highlights the similarities Buddhism. Nursing Times 85 (9):
and differences between Buddhist and
40-41, 1 March 1989.
Americo-European, neo-Christian med- A brief overview for health care
ical ethics and the implications of professionals of Buddhist beliefs ex-
Buddhist doctrine for medical practice. plains that Buddhists believe in rein-
Buddhist doctors bear responsibility carnation, and therefore, a peaceful
for teaching patients the best way to state of mind at the time of death is of
face death. Death occurs only when all
[ 166]

utmost importance. Buddhism does transplant, including the concern that

not object to blood transfusion, organ the donor was not really dead, led to
transplantation, or autopsy. deep public distrust of the medical
Helwig, David. Canadian Doctors and profession. Shinto and Buddhist views
Japanese Tot Help Change Japa- of the individual as an integrated
nese Attitudes on Transplants. mind-body unit in harmony with all
Canadian Medical Association living things reinforce the desire that
Journal 139 (11): 1088-9,1 Decem- the natural rhythm of death not be
ber 1999. hastened. Confucian emphasis on filial
The Japanese reluctance to accept piety and prohibitions against harm-
organ transplantation is partially due ing one's body, which is a gift from
to the Buddhist belief in reincarnation one's parents, make donor organs
and a corresponding fear that an intact
body is necessary to survive in the Lecso, Phillip A. A Buddhist View of
afterlife. These concerns and the rocky Abortion. Journal of Religion and
history of organ transplantation in Health 26 (3): 214-18, Fall 1987.
Japan are discussed along with the Buddhist ethical writings do not
case of one young liver transplant comment specifically on abortion, but
recipient. Leseo cites Tibetan texts to assert that
Buddhism teaches that human life
Kimura, Rihito. Caring for Newborns:
In Japan, Parents Participate but starts at conception when an already
Doctors Decide. Hastings Center existing consciousness enters the
Report 16 (4): 22-23, August 1986. embryo. While noting that Buddhists
Kimura notes that Buddhist and disagree, Leseo discusses abortion in
Confucian values that suppress auton- cases of rape, mental stress, and genet-
omy and independence lead to a ic disease or malformation. He empha-
notion of "shared responsibility" sizes the great value placed on human
rebirth and concludes that abortion is
among physicians, nurses, and parents
for decision making regarding the care clearly permitted only when a moth-
of impaired newborns. Generally, er's life is in danger.
however, Japanese physicians are Lecso, Phillip A. Euthanasia: A
paternalistic, choosing what informa- Buddhist Perspective. Journal of
tion to disclose to parents and retain- Religion and Health 25 (1): 51-57,
ing final decision-making authority. Spring 1986.
Kimura, Rihito. Japan's Dilemma with In Buddhism, the cosmological con-
the Definition of Death. Kennedy cepts of rebirth and karmapositive
Institute of Ethics Journal 1 (2): or negative imprints on an individual's
mind due to actionsunderlie the tra-
123-31, June 1991.
Japan's reluctance to use brain cri- dition's view of illness and its position
teria to determine death and retrieve on euthanasia. Illness always repre-
organs for transplant is unusual sents the repayment of karmic debt,
among industrialized countries. whose potency lasts through a million
lifetimes and cannot be avoided.
Kimura provides some insight into the
underlying concerns. Unfortunate cir- Euthanasia, especially using narcotics,
cumstances surrounding the first heart is unacceptable because it interferes
[i 67]

with the individual's movement Lindbeck, Violette. Thailand: Bud-

toward enlightenment and the ability dhism Meets the Western Model.
to consciously prepare for subsequent Hastings Center Report 14 (6): 24-
existences. The act of dying and the 26, December 1984.
dying process have great importance The author comments on the ten-
for one's karma in the next life. sion between traditional Buddhist

Lecso, Phillip A. To Do No Harm: A ethics and Western, technology-orient-

Buddhist View on Animal Use in ed medicine. Buddhism requires physi-
Research. Journal of Religion and cians to focus solely on patient benefit
Health 27 (4): 307-12, Winter and to provide compassionate and
1988. impartial care for the bodies and
Buddhists believe that all beings minds of all patients. Western medi-
share the same basic consciousness cine tends to dehumanize patient care
(Buddha-nature), which transmigrates by placing emphasis on research and
overmedicalization. Buddhism also
or is reincarnated in either animal or
human form based on karma. has grave concerns about research on
Mahayana Buddhism, common in
Tibet, China, Korea, and Japan, Mullin, Glenn H. Death and Dying:
strives for a radical altruism toward all The Tibetan Tradition. London and
beings, but the author believes the use New York: Arkana, 1986. 251 p.
of some animal research and animal Tibetan ideas about death and
products to directly relieve the suffer- dying are essentially Buddhist. In his
ing of human beings, who are capable introduction, Mullin emphasizes the
of higher consciousness, is permissible. tradition's belief that rebirth occurs in
Lecso, Phillip A. The Bodhisattva Ideal each moment and each day of life, that
and Organ Transplantation. Jour- bodily death is cyclical and the on-
nal of Religion and Health. 30 (1): going consciousness inhabits bar-do (a
35-41, Spring 1991. state between death and rebirth)
Lecso explains the way in which the between physical incarnations, and
Mahayana Buddhist ideal of bod- that a peaceful mindset at death is very
hisattva, or enlightenment being, important. The text contains selections
affects decisions to donate organs. In from seven types of Tibetan texts that
order to attain bodhisattva, the directly focus on the preparation,
Buddhist practices perfections, one of practice, and tradition for dying and
which supports the free giving of one's
possessions and one's body. This Nakasone, Ronald Y. Suffering and
belief, in combination with the view Healing: An Interpretation of the
that the body is important only Buddhist Doctrine of the Four
because it houses the consciousness, Noble Truths. Journal of Medical
supports organ donation. However, a Humanities 14 (2): 81-87, Summer
recipient must have proper motiva- 1993.
tion, and the donor's consciousness Nakasone comments on Buddha's
must have completed its use of the truths regarding sufferingsuffering is
body. acknowledged as real, originating in
our attachment to life and our delu-

[ 168 ]

sion that reality is permanent. values affect the Western practice of

Overcoming suffering depends on medicine. The discussion touches
accepting the inevitability of death and upon allocation of health care
living in the right way. resources, brain death, organ trans-
Qiu, Ren-Zong. Chinese Medical plants, and euthanasia.
Ethics and Euthanasia. Cambridge Ratanakul, Pinit. Bioethics in Thai-
Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2 land: The Struggle for Buddhist
(1): 69-76, Winter 1993. Solutions. Journal of Medicine and
Historically Chinese medical ethics Philosophy 13 (3): 301-12, August
consisted solely of Confucian direc- 1988.
tives governing virtuous behavior by Thai interest in medical ethics was
physicians, but recently an ongoing generated by the tension between
public and philosophical debate has Western medical models and tradi-
focused on euthanasia. Qiu concludes tional Thai models based on
by noting the influence that Theravada Buddhism, the religious
Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist tradition of over 90 percent of the
beliefs have had on the Chinese under- population. Buddhist teachings in-
standing of life, death, and suffering. clude an emphasis on truth-telling,
Qiu, Ren-Zong. MedicineThe Art of respect for all life independent of its
Humaneness: On Ethics of Tradi- quality, an understanding of disease as
tional Chinese Medicine. Journal of a consequence of kamma (one's past
Medicine and Philosophy 13 (3): deeds), a strong notion of justice or
277-300, August 1988. impartiality, and an ideal of compas-
Qiu explains that Confucian ethics, sion extending to self-denial. Buddhist
which are dominant in Chinese society principles prohibit mercy-killing or
and politics, became the basis for early euthanasia, because they interfere with
medical ethics in China because it bet- the working of kamma, and require a
ter accorded with the aim of medicine fair distribution of medical resources.
than did Buddhist or Taoist ethics. Shirai, Yasuko. Attitudes of Buddhist
Qiu notes Confucianism's focus on Priests Toward Prenatal Diagnosis.
virtuous character and right action In Human Dignity and Medicine:
and the importance of ren (humane- Proceedings of the Fukui Bioethics
ness), an extension of filial piety and Seminar held in Fukui, Japan, 10-12
affection for parents, in a physician's April 1987, ed. Jean Bernard,
work and an individual's responsibili- Kinichiro Kajikawa, and Norio
ty for the health of the body. Fujiki, pp. 171-175. New York:
Traditional maxims for physicians and Excerpta Medica, 1988.
patients are provided. Shirai reports results of a survey of
Ratanakul, Pinit. Thailand: Refining Japanese Buddhist monks about their
Cultural Values. Hastings Center attitudes and reasoning regarding pre-
Report 20 (2): 25-27, March/April natal diagnosis and the right to life of
a defective fetus.
Ratanakul highlights the way in Unschuld, Paul U. Medical Ethics in
which Buddhist-inspired Thai cultural Imperial China: A Study in


Historical Anthropology. Berkeley: Chinese codes of ethics from 500 B.C.

University of California Press, through the nineteenth century, eluci-
1979. 141 p. date the self-imposed responsibilities
No direct comment is made on cur- and obligations of Confucian physi-
rent issues of interest in bioethics; cians in Imperial China.
however, Unschuld's translations of


Breck, John. Biomedical Technology: nature of suffering. He concludes with

Of the Kingdom or of the Cosmos? suggestions for the Church regarding
St. Vladimir's Theological Quarte- care of the terminally ill: establish a
rly 32 (1): 5-26, 1988. support network for such patients;
Breck discusses the position of the support hospice programs; promote
Eastern Orthodox Church on abor- living wills, natural death legislation,
tion, assisted human procreation, and and universal health care; and finally,
genetic engineering. As beings created encourage priests to remind followers
by God, we must reject demonic and of Orthodoxy that God is Lord of life
egocentric attempts by humans to and death and that the way to pain-
recreate themselves in their own less, blameless, and peaceful death is
image. Human life begins at concep- to accept this truth.
tion, and Orthodoxy therefore oppos- Gass, Carlton S. Orthodox Christian
es induced abortion except when the Values Related to Psychotherapy
mother's life is in danger. Donor and Mental Health. Journal of
insemination and surrogate wombs Psychology and Theology 12 (3):
are rejected, although artificial insemi- 230-37, 1984.
nation using the husband's sperm and Gass reports on a study of the
IVF may be appropriate. Therapeutic, client-therapist relationship regarding
pre- and post-natal genetic interven- the attitudes of Greek Orthodox
tions are approved, but forms of patients toward psychiatric counsel-
experimentation that violate the digni- ing. Orthodox subjects were found to
ty of any person are not acceptable. have a distinct set of values related to
Patenting new animal life-forms is methods for coping with emotional
rejected. stress and to the goals and procedures
Breck, John. Selective Nontreatment of therapy. Orthodox followers placed
of the Terminally 111: An Orthodox a therapeutic importance on religious
Moral Perspective. St. Vladimir's faith, prayer and meditation, biblical
Theological Quarterly 33 (3): 261- teaching, and counseling within a
72, 1989. Christian framework.
In a speech given to the Orthodox Greek Orthodox Church and Russian
Christian Association of Medicine, Orthodox Church. In Euthanasia
Psychology and Religion, Breck pro- and Religion: A Survey of Attitudes
vides an overview of Orthodox atti-
of World Religions to the Right-To-
tudes on death and the redemptive
[ 170 ]

Die, ed. Gerald A. Larue, pp. 45- In a bibliographic essay, Harakas sur-
57. Los Angeles: Hemlock Society; veys the Greek Orthodox literature
1985. that relates to bioethics in general and
The Orthodox Churches character- outlines the Church's stance on repro-
ize active euthanasia as suicide; it is ductive technologies, abortion, active
strictly forbidden. The Churches are euthanasia, and organ donation and
dedicated to the sanctity of life, but do transplantation. An extensive bibliog-
not require the use of extraordinary raphy is provided, mostly in English.
life prolonging treatments. Harakas, Stanley Samuel. Health and
Guroian, Vigen. Death and Dying Medicine in the Eastern Orthodox
Well in the Orthodox Liturgical Tradition: Faith, Liturgy, and
Tradition. Second Opinion 19 (1): Wholeness. New York: Crossroad,
41-59,JuIy 1993. 1990. 190 p.
Using the case of Baby Rena as In an attempt to help health care
reported in the Washington Post, professionals understand and better
Guroian describes his Orthodox serve their Orthodox patients,
Christian views on withholding treat- Harakas describes the healing of the
ment from critically ill newborns. He saints, concern for the sick, the sacra-
explains the Byzantine rite of holy ment of healing, holy unction, and the
unction and the rites of burial, as well connection between spiritual, psycho-
as Orthodox attitudes toward sin and logical, and physical well-being.
penance and healing and hope. Harakas, Stanley Samuel. The Stand
Harakas, Stanley Samuel. Contem- of the Orthodox Church on
porary Moral Issues Facing the Controversial Issues. In A
Orthodox Christian. Minneapolis: Companion to the Greek Orthodox
Light & Life Publishing Co., 1982. Church, ed. Fotios K. Litsas. pp.
187 p. 217-37. New York: Greek Ortho-
Harakas provides a practical guide dox Archdiocese of North and
for Orthodox Christians seeking to South America, 1984.
respond to contemporary dilemmas in Fornication, adultery, abortion,
medical ethics. He covers the concerns and homosexuality are generally con-
of Orthodoxy relating to venereal dis- sidered immoral by the Orthodox
ease, contraception, abortion, in vitro Church. Abortion is only permitted to
fertilization, death and dying, save the life of the mother. The pro-life
euthanasia, and organ donation. stance of the Church is also demon-
Harakas, Stanley Samuel. Eastern strated in its rejection of euthanasia
Orthodox Ethics. In Bioethics and assisted suicide. An overarching
Yearbook, Volume 1: Theological respect for life as a gift of God is the
common thread in the Church's con-
Developments in Bioethics, 1988-
servative attitude on artificial insemi-
1990, ed. B. Andrew Lustig, Baruch
A. Brody, H. Tristram Engelhardt, nation, in vitro fertilization, steriliza-
and Laurence B. McCullough, pp. tion, genetic counselling, and genetic
85-101. Boston: Kluwer Academic, screening. Scarce medical resources
1991. should be allocated based on justice
and need. Organ transplantation is

acceptable to Orthodoxy, although The Churches Speak On: Abortion,

there are concerns about the impact of ed. J. Gordon Melton, p. 88.
transplantation on both donors and Detroit: Gale Research, 1989.
recipients. The Orthodox Church voted in

Kowalczyk, John. An Orthodox View 1978 to condemn abortion as murder,

of Abortion. Minneapolis: Twin to encourage adoption, and to support
Cities Eastern Orthodox Clergy the passage of legislation that would
Association, 1977. 48 p. protect the rights of the unborn.
Kowalczyk explains the Orthodox Views of the Major Faith Traditions
view that abortion is murder and that Eastern Orthodox. In Active
childbearing is a method of co-creating Euthanasia, Religion, and the
with God. In terminating life, we Public Debate, ed. Ron Hamel, pp.
ignore the fact that humans are not 71-74. Chicago: Park Ridge Center,
masters, but rather ministers, of life. 1991.
He exhorts members of the Church to Greek and Russian Orthodox views
take action against the legalization of on active euthanasia are described.
abortion and to support Pro-Life While ineffective, life-prolonging med-
groups. ical treatment may be stopped, active
Orthodox Church in America. euthanasia is forbidden.
Resolution on Abortion (1986). In


Coward, Harold G.; Lipner, Julius J.; Desai, Prakash N. Health and
and Young, Katherine K. Albany: Medicine in the Hindu Tradition:
State University of New York Press, Continuity and Cohesion. New
1989. 139 p. York: Crossroad, 1989. 153 p.
The relationship of the Hindu Desai provides a thorough histori-
virtue oisuddha (purity) to health care cal and cultural overview of ethical
is examined. The contemporary prob- issues in health care as it relates to
lems of abortion, the moral status of Hinduism. Concepts of the body and
the unborn, and euthanasia are stud- the self, disease, health, sexuality, and
ied. All three chapters include good human relationships are analyzed. The
bibliographies. principal Hindu medical tradition of
Desai, J. G. The Hindu View. In Ayurveda is explained.
Genetics and Society, ed. G. C. Desai, Prakash N. Medical Ethics in
Oosthuizen, H. A. Shapiro, and S. India. Journal of Medicine and
A. Strauss, pp. 163-68. New York: Philosophy 13 (3): 231-55, August
Oxford University Press, 1980. 1988.
Desai touches upon the issues of the Approximately 85 percent of the
gene pool and eugenics, genetic coun- India's population is Hindu, although
selling, in vitro fertilization, artificial Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, and
insemination, chimeras, and cloning. Sikhism are also represented. Many of

[ 172. ]

the articles on bioethics in India dis- A British nurse provides informa-

cuss the Hindu influence. Desai pro- tion about Hindu attitudes and rituals
vides the Hindu perspective on med- surrounding death and dying. She also
ical ethics, particularly as it relates to focuses on Hindu concerns for the liv-
the beginning and end of life. ing, diet, care of the dying patient,
Prolonging one's blood-line is an autopsies, and practices at death and
important ethical aim of life; thus, for the burial.
many of the reproductive technologies Henley, Alix, and Clayton, Jim. Illness
are acceptable. Abortion is a more and the Life Cycle. Health and
complex issue ethically. Death is Social Service Journal 92 (4809):
viewed in the context of passage to 972-74, 12 August 1982.
another life. It represents a relief from A broad view of Hinduism and its
suffering and movement toward an attitudes toward life, death, and spiri-
eternal atman or rebirth.
tuality are depicted. Hindu views on
Francis, C. M. Ancient and Modern contraception, childbearing, marriage,
Medical Ethics in India. In Trans- and death rituals are briefly outlined.
cultural Dimensions in Medical
Kjellstrand, Carl M., and Dossetor,
Ethics, ed. Edmund D. Pellegrino, John B., eds. Ethical Problems in
Patricia Mazzarella, and Pietro Dialysis and Transplantation.
Corsi, pp. 175-96. Frederick, MD: Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1992,
University Publishing Group, 1992. pp. 61-71, 155-51.
Changes in socioeconomics and the Two chapters on organ transplan-
Western influence on ancient concepts tation in India provide insight into
are changing medical ethics in India. how Hindus view transplantation,
Particularly affected are informed con- particularly its commercial aspects.
sent, paternalism, patient's rights,
access to high-tech health care, human LaI, Basant K. Hindu Perspectives on
the Use of Animals in Science. In
experimentation, in vitro fertilization, Animal Sacrifices: Religious Per-
prolongation of life, and the right to
die. spectives on the Ose of Animals in
Science, ed. Tom Regan, pp. 199-
Francis, Margaret Rose. Concerns of 212. Philadelphia: Temple Univer-
Terminally 111 Adult Hindu Cancer sity Press, 1986.
Patients. Cancer Nursing 9 (4): The way a Hindu treats animals
164-71, 1986. will be considered as he or she travels
A series of interviews in a New the life-long path to salvation. The
Delhi cancer ward provide the back- religious goal of purification will not
ground for this article. Patients be reached if animals are not treated in
expressed five major types of concerns: accord with Hindu customs. LaI dis-
physiological or physical, illness-relat- cusses animal sacrifices, duties to ani-
ed, social, personal, and spiritual. mals, and the use of animals in
Green, Jennifer. Death with Dignity:
Hinduism. Nursing Times 85 (6): Naidoo, Thillayvel. Health and Health
50-51, 8 February 1989. Care: A Hindu Perspective. Medi-
cine and Law 7 (6): 643-47, 1989.

[ 173 ]

Attainment of good health and spir- Lustig, Baruch A. Brody, H.

itual well-being are religious duties for Tristram Engelhardt, and Laurence
Hindus. Thus, hatha yoga, Ayurveda B. McCullough, pp. 309-41.
(science of longevity), the use of herbs Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1992.
and charms, and proper diet all con- Verma details a number of bioethi-
tribute to a Hindu's physical, mental, cal issues in India, including prenatal
and spiritual well-being. Naidoo sug- diagnosis, female feticide, definition of
gests that in a world of limited health death, commercial issues in organ
care resources, patients who cause transplantation, fetal tissue transplan-
harm to themselves (smokers, over- tation, equity in health care distribu-
eaters) deserve limited access to health tion, the caste system, the status of
care. women and the disabled, and suicide
and euthanasia.
The Oaths of the Hindu Physician. In
The Physician's Creed: An Verma, Ishwar C, and Singh, Balbir.
Anthology of Medical Prayers, Ethics and Medical Genetics in
Oaths and Codes of Ethics Written India. In Ethics and Human
and Recited by Medical Practi- Genetics: A Cross-Cultural Per-
tioners Through the Ages, ed. M.B. spective, ed. Dorothy C. Wertz and
Etziony, pp. 15-18. Springfield, IL: John C. Fletcher, pp. 250-70. New
Thomas, 1973. York: Springer-Verlag, 1989.
Two oaths are provided, one from A large-scale, international survey
the Charaka Samhita and a more of medical geneticists was undertaken
recent oath from the Susruta. They vary in the mid-1980s. This chapter gives
in their requirements for physicians the results from the survey in India and
treating patients who are at the point highlights the ethical problems found
of death. in genetic counseling, prenatal diagno-
Verma, Ishwar C. Bioethical Develop- sis, and genetic screening. It also
ments in India: 1989-1991. In briefly mentions the cultural context of
Bioethics Yearbook, Volume 2: medical genetics in India, the Medical
Council of India's Code of Medical
Regional Developments in Bio-
ethics, 1989-1991, ed. B. Andrew Ethics, and abortion law in India.


Al Aseer, M. Adil. An Islamic Al Aseer describes the Muslim view

Perspective on Terminating Life- of life and death. When life ceases, an
Sustaining Measures. In To Die or individual faces Judgment Day and
Not to Die? Cross-Disciplinary, eternal life. Those who have lived
Cultural, and Legal Perspectives on according to God's command need not
the Right to Choose Death, ed. fear death. Islamic scriptures forbid
Arthur S. Berger and Joyce Berger, suicide, and thus, Muslims have nei-
pp. 59-65. New York: Praeger, ther a right to choose death (suicide)
1990. nor a right to control when they die.

[ 174]

Al-Mutawa, Marwan. Health Care Hathout presents a brief history of

Ethics in Kuwait. Hastings Center Islam, pointing out its similarities to
Report 19 (4): S11-S12, July/ and differences with Judaism and
August 1989. Christianity. He introduces the
Al-Mutawa concentrates on the Shari'a, the system of Islamic laws that
conflict between the Western moral regulate and organize human activi-
framework for health care and the reli- ties, and comments on the application
gious and social traditions of this of the Shari'a to science, medicine, and
Islamic country. Difficulties arise in bioethical problems, such as abortion,
reproductive medicine, truthtelling reproductive technologies, and "neo-
and informed consent, and terminal genetics."
care. The care of the mentally ill is also Nanji, Azim A. Medical Ethics and the
discussed, particularly the issues of Islamic Tradition. Journal of
involuntary commitment, methods of Medicine and Philosophy 13 (3):
treatment, informed consent, and the
allocation of resources.
257-75, August 1988.
After tracing the foundational ethi-
Green, Jennifer. Death with Dignity: cal perspectives of Islam and their inte-
Islam. Nursing Times 85 (5): 56-57, gration into medical care, the paper
1989. focuses on the development of the
Green briefly outlines the attitudes moral concept of adab (right and
of Muslims toward cleanliness, the appropriate human behavior). Nanji
body, diet, care of the dying patient, ends by noting that the European colo-
organ transplantation, autopsies, and nial and cultural encounter with the
procedures for preparing the body for Islamic world resulted in a dualism in
the funeral. medical practice, education, and insti-
Haleem, M. A. S. Abdel. Medical tutions that hampered ongoing and
Ethics in Islam. In Choices and meaningful exchange between modern
health care and the ethical values of
Decisions in Health Care, ed.
Andrew Grubb, pp. 1-20. New
York: Wiley, 1993. Omran, Abdel Rahim. Family
Haleem surveys Islamic perspec- Planning and the Legacy of Islam.
tives on infertility, sterilization, con- London: Routledge, 1992. 284 p.
traception, reproductive technologies, An in depth analysis of Islamic per-
health, organ or blood donation, abor- ceptions of family planning is provid-
tion, euthanasia, and the prolongation ed. Two fatwas (religious edicts) on
of life. the legality of contraception are
Hathout, Hassan. Islamic Basis for included. Contraception is acceptable,
Biomedical Ethics. In Transcultural provided that the ability to procreate is
Dimensions in Medical Ethics, ed. not destroyed. Sterilization is accept-
Edmund D. Pellegrino, Patricia able only to prevent pain or the pass-
Mazzarella, and Pietro Corsi, pp. ing of a hereditary disease to offspring.
57-72. Frederick, MD: University Attitudes toward abortion vary among
Publishing Group, 1992. different schools of Islam.


Rahman, Fazlur. Health and Medicine acceptable to some Muslims, there are
in the Islamic Tradition: Change certain reservations regarding the
and Identity. New York: Cross- postponement of burials, transferring
road, 1987. 149 p. the body from place to place before
Rahman presents Islam as an inte- burial, possible violations of the sanc-
grated system that has a significant tity of the human body, and permit-
impact upon the spiritual, mental, and ting autopsies for scientific or criminal
physical life of its adherents. Chapters justice purposes.
cover the history of Islam, medical Rispler-Chaim, Vardit. Islamic
care in the Islamic world, medical Medical Ethics in the Twentieth
ethics, sexual ethics, and attitudes Century. New York: E. J. Brill,
toward death and dying. 1993. 147 p.
Rahman, Fazlur. Islam and Medicine: Basing her discussion on the fatwa
A General Overview. Perspectives literature, a branch of Islamic law,
in Biology and Medicine 27 (4): Rispler-Chaim, covers the topics of
585-97, Summer 1984. abortion, artificial insemination,
Rahman provides an historical organ transplantation, cosmetic and
background of the relationship sex change surgeries, medical aspects
between medicine and Islamic of Islamic worship, doctor-patient
thought. Muslim attitudes toward relations, postmortem examinations,
organ donation, childbearing and fam- circumcision, euthanasia, AIDS, milk
ily planning, disease and pestilence, and sperm banks, and general issues in
and the integration of medicine in health and lifestyle choices. She points
Islam are outlined. out that in Islamic medical ethics the
Rasheed, H. Z. A. Organ Donation rights of the individual are often iden-
and Transplantation: A Muslim tified with the rights of society as a
whole and that Muslim medical ethics
Viewpoint. Transplantation Pro-
ceedings 24 (5): 2116-17, October can only be understood in light of the
1992. Islamic religious and legal system.
Rasheed describes the changing Sachedina, Zulie. Islam, Procreation
attitudes of Muslims in Asia toward and the Law. International Family
organ transplantation. While many Planning Perspectives 16 (3): 107-
still have mixed reactions, kidney 11, September 1990.
transplants have been allowed by the The Shari'ah, the Islamic guide to
Islamic authorities both to save lives successful life in the world and com-
and in emergencies. munion with God, is explained.
Sachedina describes how Islamic law
Rispler-Chaim, Vardit. The Ethics of
Postmortem Examinations in views sexuality, contraception, abor-
Contemporary Islam. Journal of tion, and the issue of religion and the
Medical Ethics 19 (3): 164-68,
September 1993. Serour, Gamal I. Bioethics in Artificial
Rispler-Chaim provides details of Reproduction in the Muslim
Islamic law that relate to postmortem World. Bioethics 7 (2/3): 207-17,
examinations. While autopsies are April 1993.


In Islam, childbirth and rearing are Serour, Gamal I., and Omran, A. R.
regarded as family commitments and Ethical Guidelines for Human
not just biological and social func- Reproduction Research in the
tions. Treatment of infertility and Muslim World. Journal Internation-
methods of assisting conception are al de Biothique/lnternational Jour-
allowed and encouraged; however, the nal of Bioethics 4(1): 22-23, March
use of sperm, ova, embryos, or the 1993.
uterus of third parties is forbidden. Reporting on the first international
The freezing of embryos and multifetal conference on Bioethics in Human
pregnancy reduction are permitted in Reproduction Research in the Muslim
certain circumstances. Guidelines on World (Cairo, 1991), the authors pre-
embryo research are outlined. sent recommended guidelines for re-
search in the reproductive technologies.


Bilimoria, Purushottama. The Jaina voluntary death/euthanasia are moral-

Ethic of Voluntary Death. Bioethics ly acceptable.
6 (4): 331-55, October 1992. Miles, John A. Jain and Judaeo-
After a short synopsis of the history Christian Respect for Life. Journal
and main tenets of Jainism, Bilimoria of the American Academy of
analyzes the Jaina attitude toward Religion 44 (3): 453-57, 1976.
death, which is somewhat different Miles describes Jainism as aesthetic
from the general philosophy of rever- materialism, or more theologically, a
ence for all life. Jaina individuals are systematic reverence for life. Jainism
allowed to actively welcome death in a recognizes no power on earth or in
nonviolent manner. This voluntary heaven capable of issuing a command
death usually involves an extended to kill; such a command would never
fast. Three cases of samadhi-marana
be justifiable. Miles contrasts this atti-
(dignified yogic death) are related, as tude with those of Judaism and
are the circumstances, such as terminal Christianity.
illness or extraneous adversitiese.g.,
fire, flood, or famineunder which


Abraham, Abraham S. Comprehensive including euthanasia, artificial insemi-

Guide to Medical Halachah. nation, in vitro fertilization, sex prese-
Updated and expanded edition. lection, organ transplantation, genetic
Jerusalem, New York: Feldheim engineering, sale of organs, and AIDS.
Publisher, 1990. 248 p. American Jewish Congress. Bio-Ethics
Abraham offers a systematic guide Task Force. Decisions to Forgo
to questions or problems that a Jewish Life-Sustaining Treatment. New
person may encounter in health care,
[ 177 ]

York: The Congress, 11 May 1989. which the full range of prenatal
13 p. (Available from: 15 E. 84th screening is permitted in Jewish law.
Street, New York, NY 10028). Carmell, Aryeh, and Domb, Cyril, eds.
The Congress concludes that Challenge: Torah Views on Science
patients have a general right to deter- and Its Problems. Second, revised
mine whether to forgo life-sustaining edition. New York: Association of
treatment, to write an advance direc- Orthodox Jewish Scientists;
tive, and to appoint a health care Feldheim, 1988. 539 p.
proxy to make decisions for them, if The editors adopt the attitude that
Orthodox Judaism can exist in harmo-
Bleich, J. David. Fetal Tissue Research: ny with modern science. After analyz-
Jewish Tradition and Public Policy. ing the intersection of the Torah and
Tradition: A Journal of Orthodox science, Carmel and Domb include
Jewish Thought 24 (4): 69-90, articles about bioethical topics.
Summer 1989. Immanuel Jakobovits writes on med-
In a bibliographic essay, Bleich sur- ical experimentation on humans;
veys Jewish perspectives on fetal tissue Moses Tendier on population control,
transplantation. He summarizes his medical ethics, and Torah mentality;
dissenting opinion in the NIH Human and Nachum Rabinovitch on the
Fetal Tissue Transplantation Research halachah for organ transplantation.
Panel Report. Cole, Bruce K., and Muffs, Judith
Bleich, J. David. Judaism and Healing: Herschlag. Anti-Defamation League
Halakhic Perspectives. Hoboken, of B'nai B'rith. Intergroup
NJ: Ktav Publishing House, 1981. Relations Division. Points to
199 p. Consider: Judaism on Abortion.
Bleich presents concise halakhic New York: Anti-Defamation League,
perspectives on the major issues in bio- November 1989. 15 p.
medical ethics. He surveys the physi- Although there is a wide range of
cian-patient relationship, reproductive opinion among Jewish traditions,
issues, genetics, human and animal none forbid abortion completely.
experimentation, transplantation, and Jewish law makes two basic state-
death issues. ments about abortion: (1) the fetus is
Brown, Jeremy. Prenatal Screening in not considered a human being, but
Jewish Law. Journal of Medical rather a potential person; and (2) the
Ethics 16 (2): 75-80, June 1990. mother's life takes precedence over
that of the fetus. This booklet collects
The Jewish position on the permis-
sibility of several prenatal tests, includ- the policy statements of various Jewish
ing those for Down's syndrome and religious bodies on abortion and high-
Tay-Sachs disease is examined. The lights the differences between them.
tests' status depends on whether the Dorff, Elliot N., and Hauptman,
termination of affected pregnancies is Judith. Rabbinical Assembly.
allowed, which is a disputed question Committee on Jewish Law and
among rabbinical authorities. Brown Standards. Abortion: Where We
concludes that there are grounds on StandA Statement on the

[ 178 ]

Permissibility of Abortion. United It is permissible under Jewish law to

Synagogue Review 42 (2): 16-18, employ genetic screening and sex
Spring 1990. selection in cases where a woman
The Committee concludes that would suffer severe psychological
abortion is justifiable if the pregnancy trauma. However, the ultimate deci-
might cause the mother severe physio- sion should be made by rabbinic
logical or psychological harm, or if the authorities and not the couple.
fetus is severely defective. Two conser- Grazi, Richard V., and Wolowelsky,
vative Jewish scholars add their per- Joel B. Donor Gametes for Assisted
spectives on abortion. Reproduction in Contemporary
Dorff, Elliot N. United Synagogue. Jewish Law and Ethics. Assisted
Committee on Jewish Law and Reproduction Reviews 2 (3): 154-
Standards. "A Time to Be Born and 60, August 1992.
a Time to Die": A Jewish Medical There is no consensus within the
Directive for Health Care. United Jewish community regarding artificial
Synagogue Review 45 (1): 20-22, insemination. Some argue that in cases
Fall 1992. where a distraught woman or couple
Dorff presents a living will that may cannot reconcile themselves to either a
be used by Jewish individuals. The liv- childless marriage or adoption, it is
ing will includes a segment on the possible that Jewish law could allow
patient's philosophy of life and atti- artificial insemination, while others
tude toward dying, provides a list of believe it is never permissible.
specific procedures and situations that Grazi, Richard V., and Wolowelsky,
a patient may face, and allows a Joel B. Multifetal Pregnancy
patient to indicate his or her prefer- Reduction and Disposal of
ences for medical treatment.
Untransplanted Embryos in
Feldman, David. Health and Medicine Contemporary Jewish Law and
in the Jewish Tradition. New York: Ethics. American Journal of
Crossroad Publishing, 1986.114 p. Obstetrics and Gynecology 165 (5):
Feldman presents a thematic 1268-71, November 1991.
overview of Jewish perspectives on The selective abortion of multiple
bioethical issues. He includes the fetuses and the destruction of spare
Jewish mandate to heal, attitudes embryos created as a by-product of in
toward life and health, mental health, vitro fertilization are allowable under
sexuality and reproduction, the right Jewish law.
to life, aging and death, transplanta- Halperin, Mordechai. Organ
tion, and autopsies. Transplants from Living Donors.
Grazi, Richard V., and Wolowelsky, Assia: Jewish Medical Ethics 2 (1):
Joel B. Preimplantation Sex 29-37, January 1991.
Selection and Genetic Screening in Four fundamental ethical problems
Contemporary Jewish Law and with organ transplantation are out-
Ethics. Journal of Assisted lined: danger to the donor, donation
Reproduction and Genetics 9 (4): under coercion, sale of organs and tis-
318-22, August 1992. sues, and legally incompetent donors.

[ 179 ]

Ifrah, A. Jeff. The Living Will. Journal Patients with a Terminal Diagnosis.
of Halacha and Contemporary Journal of Halacha and Contem-
Society 24: 121-52, Fall 1992. porary Society 15: 94-124, Spring
Ifrah provides a contemporary 1988.
Jewish perspective on living wills and Truth-telling is generally required
advance directives. by Jewish law, and withholding infor-
Jakobovits, Immanuel. Jewish Medical mation from a patient should not be
Ethics: A Comparative and part of regular medical practice.
Historical Study of the Jewish However, there are times when con-
Religious Attitude to Medicine and cealing information from a patient is
Its Practice. New York: Bloch in the patient's best interest and, in this
Publishing, 1975. 439 p. case, is acceptable.
Jakobovits updates his 1959 trea- Lichtenstein, Aharon. Abortion: A
tise on Jewish views of medical ethics Halakhic Perspective. Tradition: A
problems. He treats, among others, Journal of Orthodox Jewish
the subjects of abortion, artificial Thought 25 (4): 3-12, Summer
insemination, contraception, euthana- 1991.
sia, autopsies, eugenics, sterilization, An overview of the Hebrew litera-
faith healing, and irrational medical ture relating to abortion is provided.
beliefs. Lichtenstein comments that Hebrew
Jakobovits, Yoel. Neonatal Euthan- scholars do not agree completely
asia: Jewish Views of a Contem- about abortion, and he indicates the
porary Dilemma. Tradition: A areas where they agree and disagree.
Journal of Orthodox Jewish Mackler, Aaron L. Judaism, Justice,
Thought 22 (3): 13-30, Fall 1986. and Access to Health Care.
The Baby Doe case is analyzed from Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
the Jewish perspective. Jakobovits pro- 1 (2): 143-61, June 1991.
vides a list of principles that pertain to Mackler considers the sources of
the management of defective new- Jewish law concerning justice and sup-
borns and an extensive list of refer- port for the needy, and he concludes
ences. that society is responsible for securing
Kupietzky, Ari. Down's Syndrome: access to all health care needed by any-
Informing the ParentsGuidelines individual. Implications for U.S. public
with a Jewish Perspective. Assia: policy are examined.
Jewish Medical Ethics 2 (1): 11-16, Meier, Levi, ed. Jewish Values in
January 1991. Bioethics. New York: Human
Kupietzky offers guidelines for Sciences Press, 1986. 195 p.
managing the birth of children with This collection of essays on Jewish
Down's Syndrome. He discusses when perspectives on medical ethics includes
to tell the parents, who should inform contributions by Fred Rosner, J. David
them, and how they should be told. He Bleich, Immanuel Jakobovits, EHe
also provides a model for informing Wiesel, Victor E. Frankl, Irving
parents of their child's disability. Greenberg, Emanuel Rackman, and
Lavit, Gary Joseph. Truth Telling to David Feldman. Issues surrounding

[ 180]

death and euthanasia, pain, suffering, euthanasia, the definition of death,

and reproductive technologies are cov- suicide, transplantation, human exper-
ered. imentation, and genetic engineering.
Neuberger, Julia. The History and The book includes chapters by David
Management of AIDS: A Biblical S. Shapiro, Moses D. Tendier,
and Jewish View. International Immanuel Jakobovits, Norman
Journal of STD and AIDS 2 (Suppl. Lamm, Moshe HaLevi Spero,
1): 34-37, 1991. Menachem M. Brayer, Aaron
Neuberger analyzes biblical pas- Soloveichik, Nachum L. Rabinovitch,
sages that could explain the perception Azriel Rosenfeld, and the editors.
of some individuals that sufferers of Rosner, Fred, ed. Medicine and Jewish
AIDS are impure. After describing the Law. Northvale, NJ: J. Aronson,
history of leprosy and other conta- 1990. 202 p.
gious ailments that have brought Rosner compiles a set of essays on:
ostracism (or at least the view that the Jewish medical ethics and legislation,
sufferers are morally at fault and medical ethics (secular and Jewish per-
deserving of the disease), the author spectives), truth disclosure, physicians'
concludes that there is no strong reli- obligations to treat communicable dis-
gious basis for rejecting AIDS suffer- eases, resource allocation in medicine,
ers. Judaism is so life-affirming that a contraception and abortion, euthana-
Jewish physician is more likely to keep sia, the definition of death, and mod-
fighting for a patient, even when the ern perspective on halachah and med-
patient has given up hope and wishes icine.
to die.
Rosner, Fred. Modern Medicine and
Reisner, Avram Israel. A Halakhic Jewish Ethics. Second Edition.
Ethic of Care for the Terminally 111. Hoboken, NJ: Ktav; New York:
Conservative Judaism 43 (3): 52- Yeshiva University Press, 1991.
89, Spring 1991. 460 p.
Reisner provides an in-depth look Rosner presents a Jewish ethical
at the Jewish tradition of care for the and religious analysis of thirty topics
terminally ill. He discusses the Jewish in biomedical ethics, including the
reverence for life and life-sustaining physician-patient relationship, AIDS,
medical treatment, but acknowledges reproductive technologies, genetics,
the limits of medical treatment and euthanasia and prolongation of life,
concedes that the final medical judg- suicide, transplantation, animal exper-
ment is made by God. iments, and unconventional therapies.
Rosner, Fred, and Bleich, J. David, Schostak, Zev. Ethical Guidelines for
eds. Jewish Bioethics. New York: Treatment of the Dying Elderly.
Sanhdrin Press, 1979. 420 p. Journal of Halacha and Contem-
Rosner and Bleich provide a survey porary Society 22: 62-86, Fall
of Jewish views on the obligation to 1991.
heal, the physician-patient relation- The prolongation of life for termi-
ship, sexuality and procreation, abor- nally ill aged patients is discussed.
tion, genetic screening, mental health, Jewish law on this subject is presented,


with attention to the difference Jewish ethical principles and rules per-
between withholding and withdraw- taining to human experimentation,
ing treatment. Schostak advises indi- placing particular emphasis on ran-
viduals to discuss their medical prefer- domized clinical trials.
ences with family members and to Ungar-Sargon, Julian. Is Hospice Care
obtain a health care proxy prior to in Conflict with Jewish Values?
becoming unable to make their own American Journal of Hospice Care
4 (3): 43-45, May/June 1987.
Steinberg, Abraham. Ethical While halachic opinions differ over
Considerations in Modern Human pain relief and the shortening of life,
Experimentation. Cancer Investi- hospice care is generally consistent
gation 9 (1): 99-105, 1991. with Jewish values in terminal care.
Steinberg outlines secular and


The SCOPE NOTE Series is intended As noted in the list below, some of the
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obtained through its document
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right law). Updates of topics cov- presently available:
ered in the SCOPE NOTE Series
No. 1. Dangerousness: Prediction and
may be obtained by searching the Legal Status. September 1982. 5 p.
BIOETHICSLINE database (acces-
sed through the National Library of No. 2. Living Wills and Durable
Medicine's MEDLARS system), or Powers of Attorney: Advance
BIOETHICSLINE PLUS, Silver Directive Legislation and Issues.
Platter's CD-ROM version of the Revised April 1992. 19 p.
database; or by calling the National No. 3. Ethics Committees in
Reference Center for Bioethics Hospitals. (KIEJ 2 (3): 285-306,

[ 182]

September 1992.) Revised Care Setting: Survey of the

September 1992. 17 p. Literature and Sample Syllabus.
No. 4. Diagnosis Related Groups Part I, KIEJ 1 (2): 171-85, June
(DRGs) and the Prospective 1991; Part II, KIEJ 1 (3): 263-73,
Payment System: Forecasting Social September 1991. Reprinted
Implications. June 1984. 11 p. September 1991. 19 p.
No. 5. Baby Fae: Ethical Issues No. 17. The Human Genome Project.
Surrounding Cross-Species Organ KIEJ 1 (4): 347-62, December
Transplantation. January 1985. 1991. Reprinted December 1991.
19 p. lip.
No. 18. Active Euthanasia and
No. 6. Surrogate Motherhood: Ethical
and Legal Issues. Revised January Assisted Suicide. KIEJ 2 (1): 79-
1988. 11 p. 100, March 1992. Reprinted
March 1992. 17 p.
No. 7. Withholding or Withdrawing
Nutrition or Hydration. Revised No. 19. Nursing Ethics, A Selected
March 1992. 17 p. Bibliography, 1987 to Present.
KIEJ 2 (2): 177-98, June 1992.
No. 8. ADDS: Law, Ethics, and Public Reprinted June 1992. 18 p.
Policy. April 1988. 12 p.
No. 9. Bioethics Audiovisuals: 1982 to
No. 20. A Right to Health Care. KIEJ
2 (4): 389-405, December 1992.
Present. September 1988. 12 p. Reprinted January 1993. 13 p.
No. 10. Ethical Issues In Vitro
No. 21. Fetal Tissue Research. KIEJ 3
Fertilization. December 1988. 12 p. (1): 81-101, March 1993.
No. 11. Neonatal Intensive Care. May Reprinted March 1993. 15 p.
1989. 10 p. No. 22. Genetic Testing and Genetic
No. 12. Anencephalic Infants as Screening. KIEJ 3 (3): 333-54,
Potential Organ Sources: Ethical September 1993. Reprinted
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No. 13. The Aged and Allocation of No. 23. Bioethics Consultation. KIEJ
Health Care Resources. March 3 (4): 433-50, December 1993.
1990. 12 p. Reprinted January 1994. 15p.
No. 14. Maternal-Fetal Conflict: Legal No. 24. Human Gene Therapy. KIEJ
and Ethical Issues. August 1990. 4 (1): 63-83, March 1994.
14 p. Reprinted March 1994. 15p.
No. 15. Basic Resources in Bioethics. No. 25. Religious Perspectives on
KIEJ 1 (1): 75-90, March 1991. Bioethics, Part 1. KIEJ 4 (2): 157-
Reprinted September 1991. 14 p. 85, June 1994. Reprinted June
No. 16. Teaching Ethics in the Health