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Assembly Manual

Table of Contents
1. 1.Introduction
2. Objective
2.1 Core assembly details
2.2 Coil assembly
2.3 Core and Coil assembly
2.4 Making connection
2.5 Top covering .
2.6 Tanking

A transformer is basically electromagnetic static equipment based on
the principle of Faradays law of electromagnetic induction. A transformer
essentially consists of a magnetic core, build up of insulated silicon steel
laminations, upon which are wound sets of coils suitably located with respect
to each other and termed as primary and secondary winding.
The working principle
If an alternating voltage is applied to the terminals of the primary winding of a transformer,
with the secondary winding open-circuited, a very small current will flow in the primary circuit
only, which serves to magnetize the core and to supply the iron loss of the transformer. Thus, an
alternating magnetic flux is established in the core which induces an emf in both primary and
secondary winding.The formula connecting induced voltage, flux and number of turns is:
V/N=volts per turn, which is the same for both windings
Bm =maximum flux density in the core in tesla.
An=net cross-sectional area of core in sq. cm.
F=supply frequency in Hz.

The productivity of the transformers produced based on the rated power measured in KVA
mainly depends up on proper design of processes. Among the activities deployed during
designing, assembly process takes vital role to get good transformer product achieving the
demand of the country. So this manual is intended for proper assembly of each and every parts of
the transformer and to take precaution during complete as well as semi assemblies.

The target of the factory is producing as well as maintaining the transformers by
following clear cut procedures of assembly. So this manual is intended for all individuals
participated in assembly process to increase the productivity and providing good services
for the customers.
To mention some of those benefits:-
Using all the accessories needed for the product
To use appropriate tools
Durability of the product
Time management
To mitigate unnecessary check up after test
Providing knowledge and skills for works

2.1 Core Assembly Details
Selection of core diameter

Based on the requirement of no-load loss and no-load curent , a suitable working flux density
is chosen. In some cases, the buyer also specifies the requirment of maximum flux density.
Once the number of turns and flux density are known, the gross core area may be calculated by
using the formula
Et=Phase voltage/Turns=4.44*f*Bm*Ag*0.97*10-4
Where, f is the rated frequency which is 50 Hz
Bm is the maximum flux density in tesla
Ag is the gross core area in sq. cm (to be calculated)
0.97 is the staking factor (assumed)
Once the gross area Ag is known, the approximate core diameter can be calculated by using the
following formula
Where k1 is a factor to be selected on the basis of the number of core steps and d is the required
core diameter we are looking for.
The approximate vulue of k1 may be assumed as follows:
For 6 steps,the approximate value of k1=0.92
For 7 steps,the approximate value of k1=0.925
For 8 steps,the approximate value of k1=0.93
For 9 steps,the approximate value of k1=0.935
For 10 steps,the approximate value of k1=0.94
For 11 steps and above ,the approximate value of k1=0.945

Various type of core stacking for three-phase transformers has commonly been adapted during
manufacture. In designing core lamination the designer should look in to the applicability of the
scheme before going in to the final design.
The iron lamination that serves as the magnetic circuit can be constructed in different ways with
respect to the winding. The core-type, in which the iron forms a low reluctance path for the
magnetic flux set up by the voltage impressed on the primary. The core of the shell type consists
of two or more paths through which the flux divides.
The magnetic core is built up of laminations of high grade silicon sheet steel, which are
insulated from each other by special coating of varnish. The usual thickness of laminations is
0.18mm, 0.23mm, 0.27mm, 0.30mm, and 0.35mm.

Fig. 2 Core assembly detail Fig.1 core part structure

Core limb center = C/L
Core window height = W/H

Core sheets are assembled step by step according to their size.

Keep the core center and limb center to build the core sheet

Pulling the upper yoke to assemble the


Fig.3 3D view of core assembly, bundles of core in


Tie the bottom yoke by either metal or
wood frame

Fig.4 Tie the bottom yoke by either metal or

wood frame

Fig. 5 Describes tightened bottom yoke Assembly

2.2 Coil assembly

Winding (Coil)
Winding wires and strips are selected on the bases of the requirement of the current for
which they have been designed. While selecting the size of a conductor, a designer must keep in
mind the winding material as well as the current density. The current density may be based on
the following values:
For aluminum winding: 1.5 A/mm (max),
For copper winding: 3.0 A/mm (max)
The rated current may be calculated on the bases of its KVA, number of phase and the rated
KVA = 3 x V x I (for three phase transformer), or I = 3 x V
current per p h ase
Conductor area = which is A= r 2 for round copper , and A = w x d
current density

for rectangular strip.

Selection of number of turns

The number of turns of a transformer is directly related to its KVA rating and ia approximately
calculated by the formula:
Et = K Q
Where, Et is the voltage per turn
Q is the rated KVA
K is the factor to be decided.
For instance, K for aluminium- wound transformers may be taken in the range of 0.32 to 0.35,
whereas, it is between 0.37 and 0.45 for copper wound transformers.
For our calculation, let us assume, K = 0.4, Q = 100 KVA and copper wire
Therefore, Et = 0.4 100 = 4V
secondary phase voltage 400/ 3
No. of secondary turns = Et = 4 = 57.75 turns let round it

off to 58 turns
Primary phase voltage
No. of primary turns at normal = secondary phase voltage x sec. turns

= 400/ 3 x 58 = 64.935 x 58

= 3766 T
Additional turns toward 5% tapping voltage = (3766 x 5)/100 = 188
Total primary turns = 3766 + 188 = 3954

Example , Specifications of a 100 KVA transformer

Rating 100
No load voltage ratio 15000/400
No. of phase / frequency 3ph / 50 Hz
Connection Delta / Star Dyn 5
Winding material Copper
Maximum flux density 1.8 Tesla
Maximum Current density 2.5 A/sq m

I. Primary Coil (Connected in Delta)

Voltage per phase : Vp = 15000 V
Current per phase : Ip = 3 x 15 = 2.22 A

Current density : = 2.5 A/sq mm

Conductor area : A= 2.5 = 0.889 sq mm

Equivalent conductor diameter from ( A=

4 )d= 4A
4 x 0.889
( 3.1415 )=

1.13067 = 1.07 mm next round figure: d = 1.1mm

d 3.1415 x 1.1 x 1.1
Area of the proposed conductor A= = = 0.95 sq mm therefore,
4 4

2.2 A
the working current density is 0.95 sq mm = 2.315 A /sq mm

a. Winding Height (axial Length)

Description Length Radial
Bar conductor 1.1 mm 1.1 mm
Covering thickness toward (+) 0.2 (+) 0.2
Covered conductor 1.3 mm 1.3 mm
Gap b/n two consecutive (+) 0.05 0.05
Insulated size of conductor 1.35 mm 1.35 mm
(+) 0.1 (4mil inter layer insulator)
3954 X 248 1.45mm
Turns per layer 16 +1= (x)16

Axial length of HV coil 334.8 mm 24.2 mm
round of 335 mm 25 mm

As of now we have concluded that there is one coil per phase, having 3954 turns, the winding
length is 335 mm, the radial built of coil being 25 mm, and inter layer insulation 4 mil Kraft

Estimating the Core window height

Total axial length of the coil : 1 x 335 mm = 335 mm
Gap between yoke top and bottom coil : 2 x25 mm = 50 mm
Therefore, core window height = 385 mm

II. Secondary Coil (connected in Star)

Voltage per phase Vs = 3 = 231 v

Current per phase Is = 3 x 0.4 = 144.3 A

Current density Cd = 2.5 A / sq mm (max)

Conductor area = = 57.72 A=w x d in the case of

low voltage conductor, since the current is generally high, a rectangular conductor is commonly
used. Multiple strips in parallel are also selected for a higher rating transformer. The section of
the size of strips plays a very vital role on the performance of the transformer. In general, the
depth of a strip not be more than half of the strip width, and not less than 1:6. But for all practical
purpose we narrow down to 1: 4.
Therefore we may write, maximum ratio 2 and minimum ratio

In case a coil has been designed with more than one strip and if the strips are placed one above
the other, then the transposition is must. The purpose of transposing the strips is to make the
length of the strips almost similar, thereby making the resistances of both the strips equal.

1 1 1 2
2 2 2
(a) (b)
Schematic diagram of transposition
An Example: A coil is designed with two strips in parallel to share a total of 150 A. Each strip
should carry half of the total, i.e. 75A. In non transposed coil, because of unequal length and
unequal resistance, the strip placed below will draw more current (say 80A) because of its low
resistance, whereas the upper strip will draw less current (say 70 A) because of its high

2.3 Core and Coil Assembly

After Wind the Primry and the secondary windings correctly they are ready for core
coil assembly.

Plugging the top yoke

Insert the windings

Fig.6 core with inserting coils Fig. 7 Describes active part Assembled or core and coil

Clamping the top yoke by either metal or wood frame

It gives strength and it can easy to handle.

Fig.8 describes active Assembled both

the top and bottom yoke

2. 4 Making connection
Fig.9 Delta connection of winding

For Dyn5 type connect tap5 with the

start of the next phase.

Tap connection
3.1.5 Tapings are provided on the high voltage
winding for adjusting the winding turns in
accordance with the available incoming voltage.


3.1.7 3.1.8 3.1.10

3.1.9 C
3.1.11 3.1.12 1 3.1.13

3.1.14 3.1.15 2 3.1.16

3.1.17 3.1.18 3 3.1.19

3.1.20 3.1.21 4 3.1.22

3.1.23 3.1.24 5 3.1.25

3.1.26 3.1.27 3.1.28

3.1.29 E= indicates END

3.1.30 S= indicates start of the wire


Adjustment of tapping turns will offer a fairly constant secondery voltage at load.
There are five tapping positions for distribution transformer expressed as percentage of
high voltage which are:- +5% , +2.5% , N , -2.5%, -5% tap changer


3.1.58 Fig.10 showing the tap changer
connection of a transformer
3.1.65 2.5 Top Covering
3.1.71 Fig.11 Describes
All parts with top
cover tank.
3.1.74 2.6 Tanking
3.1.98 Fig. 17 Describes final Assembled tank

3.1.101 Transformer Oil Treatment Manual

3.1.102 Insulating oil is the mineral oil, which acts as a di-electric and coolant media in
transformers, should meet the long time uninterrupted service, which are the prime
requirements of the day.
3.1.103 Transformer oil is manufactured by refining of petroleum feed stocks which
obtained as first distillate under vacuum distillation of crude oil after taking out
lighter cuts like gasoline, keo sene diesel atmospheric pressure. Is characteristic
proper lies are much dependent or hydro carbon composition. These petroleum
products are compounded in to aromatic, naph the nie and paraffinic containing small
amount of polar compounds to carry out the function of di-electric and coolant media
in transformer oil must have certain specific properties, which can be classified,
physical, chemical and electrical categories.

3.1.104 Out of many characteristics which specified to evaluate the quality of transformer
oil, electrical properties and stability characteristics are important.

3.1.105 Electrical properties

A) Electrical strength:- is the minimum electrical stress in KV that case a break down in the
insulating ability of the medium. It is very sensitive external impurities, particularly P(56,
3.1.106 Presence of moisture, metallic particle, fiber and are found to affect the electrical
strength drastically
B) Specific resistance:- it is the ratio of D.C potential radiant in volts per centimeter
paralleling the current flow with in the specimen in the current density in ampere per
square centimeter at a given instant of time under prescribed conditions and affected by
moisture and water.
C) Di-electric dissipation factory is the tangent of the angle (delta) by which the phase
difference b/n applied voltage and resulting current deviates from /2 radian when the
dielectric of the capacitor consists exclusively of the insulating oil.

3.1.107 Stability characteristics

3.1.108 In view of the longer time required to assess the behavior of insulating fluids in
the actual system, various types of accelerated tests have been developed.
a) Accelerating ageing test:- a known amount of oil (300ml) is taken in a beaker with
copper catalyst in the ratio of 0.0575 sq cm/g and aged at 115 oC for 96 hours. After
the stipulated period the samples are tested for electrical properties such as resistivity,
dissipation factor, acidity and the quantity of sludge.
b) Oxidation stability test. The hydro carbon easily under goes oxidation a part from
the external imparities, the oxidation products are the main cause of deter ration in the
quality of oil. In severe cases, the oil insoluble sludge is formed due to oxidation and
deposits on the core and windings and impairs the heat transfer characteristics.
3.1.113 Flash point
3.1.114 The temperature at which the oil gives off so much vapor that this vapor,
when mixed with oil, forms an ignitable mixture and gives a momentary flash on the
application of a small pilot flame under the prescribed condition of test.
3.1.116 Pour point
3.1.117 The lowest temperature expressed as a multiple of 3 oC at which the oil is
observed to flow when cooled and examined under prescribed condition.
3.1.119 Storage and handling
3.1.120 The right kind of storage, handling and transportation also increase the
reliability of the transformer oil.
3.1.122 Compatibility and contaminants
3.1.124 Transformer oil is compatible with insulating material used in a
transformer and care should be taken a bout compatibility with materials used in the
tanks. Line material l.e rubber gaskets etc. as the solubility of these products will
greatly affect the properties of the transformer oil when used for topping up.
3.1.125 Transformer oil properties may be deteriorate due to contamination
occurring during handling. Transportation, storage and during transformer operation.
Major contaminants could be water particles, chemical base oils or solvents possibly
corrective action to be taken to remove these contaminates.
3.1.127 A) Water
3.1.128 Water is the most contaminant in transformer oil during storage, handling
transport and operation, especially in humid climate.
3.1.129 B) particles
3.1.130 Suspended particles, together with water lower the breakdown voltage.
3.1.132 Oil Treating Method
3.1.133 Transformer oil properties may be deteriorate due to contamination due to
water and suspended particlesand chmical Inmurities . They must be avoided through
oil treatment.Free water can be drained off from the bottom of the tank or container.
Dissolved water can be removed by bubbling dry air or nitrogen at slightly elevated
temperature. The most suitable and recommended method is degassing by vacuum
filtration. Here the oil heated up to 65 to70 oC, vacuum treated and filtered through
particle filter. The particles can be simuntineusty removed by degrading through fine-
micron filter. By using Oil Treatment Machine we filtrate use and new transformer
Oil. After Treatment.
I. Electrical breakdown vlotage for new Untreated : 30KV, rms(min)
II. Electrical Breakdown voltage after flitation : 60KV, rms (min)
3.1.136 .


All transformers, whether power or distribution, are subjected to the following routine tests
after completing the manufacturing activities and prior to dispatch from the factory.
The tests are generally conducted as per IEC 60076.
For explaining the test circuits the transformer is taken as Dyn5 connected.

3.1.147 3.1.149 T 3.1.150 Test procedure 3.1.152 Equipments used /

Sr. No. est 3.1.151 test circuit
3.1.148 3.1.153
3.1.1543.1.159 M The insulation resistance is measured in
1 easu the following configurations and the 3.1.163 Digital insulation
3.1.155 reme measurement is usually done at 2500 tester
3.1.156 nt of Volts. 3.1.164 Make MEGGER
3.1.157 insul1. HV-LV and Earth (AVO International, UK).
3.1.158 ation2. LV-HV and Earth
resis3. HV-LV
The value in Mega Ohms at the end of
e 60 sec. Of the voltage application is
3.1.160 recorded.
3.1.161 Result:
3.1.1653.1.167 M The ratio between the HV and LV 3.1.169 Transformer Ratio
2 easu windings is measured directly by a ratio Meter
3.1.166 reme comparator. The measurement is done 3.1.170 Make
nt of on various taps of the windings are on M/s.H.Tinsley & Co.
volta all the phases. England
ge Result: Ratio = 0.5 of rated value
3.1.1713.1.173 C The line terminals A and a 3.1.179
3 heck respectively of the HV and LV 3.1.180
3.1.172 for windings are shorted externally. 3.1.181 Voltmeters
phas Three phases voltage 3.1.182 Variable voltage
e 3.1.175 ( say 200Volts) is applied on source
displ the HV winding and the voltages
ace across different terminals are
ment measured
p 3.1.183
chec 3.1.176 The 3.1.184
k) necessary condition to be 3.1.185
3.1.174 satisfied for the vector to be Dyn 3.1.186
5 are the voltages Bb=Bc 3.1.187
3.1.177 Cb<Cc 3.1.188
3.1.178 BA+AN=BN
3.1.1893.1.190 S The test is done by applying single
4 epar phase voltage at 50 Hz on one of the
ate windings with all its terminals of
sour other windings and tank are
ce connected to earth. The test voltage
pow is applied for duration of 60 sec.
er The test is repeated for other
freq windings.
uenc 3.1.195
y 3.1.196 Result: The transformer CASE A LV
volta under test must with stand for WINDING
ge 1minute
d 3.1.198
3.1.194 3.1.199 CASE B- HV
3.1.2003.1.201 I 3.1.202 3.1.205
5 nduc Three phase voltage is applied on
ed the LV windings with the HV side
over open circuit.
volta Magnitude of the applied voltage is
ge increased to avoid saturation of core.
with The test voltage is maintained for
stan duration of 60 seconds.
d 3.1.203
test 3.1.204 Result: The transformer
under test must with stand for
3.1.2063.1.207 M The no- load loss and no- load 3.1.209
6 easu current are measured on one of the 3.1.210 AC power analyzer
reme windings (normally LV) after 3.1.211Make Norma. Austria
nt of applying the rated voltage. 3.1.212 Digital power meter
No- All other windings are kept open 3.1.213 Make Yokogawa,
Load circuited. Japan
loss The applied voltage, the no-load 3.1.214
and current are
No- Measured by digital power meter/
Load power analyzer.
curre 3.1.208 Result: The measured value
nt must not greater than 1.5% of the rated

3.1.2153.1.216 3.1.218 3.1.220

7 3.1.217 M The resistance of HV and LV 3.1.221 Digital micro ohm
easu windings and of all the three phases meter
reme shall be measured. 3.1.222 Make- M/s.
nt of The measurements shall be done H.Tinsley & Co.
wind with the leads connected across the England.
ing line terminals.
resis 3.1.219
3.1.2233.1.224 3.1.226 3.1.227
8 3.1.225 M Three phase voltage at power 3.1.228 AC power analyzer
easu frequency shall be applied on the 3.1.229 Make- Norma,
reme HV winding with the LV winding Austria/
nt of short circuited. 3.1.230 Digital power meter
short The magnitude of the voltage shall 3.1.231 Make- Yokogawa,
circu be such that a current not less than Japan
it 50% of the current passes through 3.1.232
impe the windings.
danc The value of the currents, voltages
e and losses are measured using power
and analyzer / Digital power meter. The
load measured kW is the load loss and
losse the voltage corresponding to the
s applied current.

3.1.2333.1.234 3.1.235 3.1.236


3.1.240 11. Testing parameter of transformer
3.1.241 11.1 Voltage ratio for 15 / 0.4 KV

3.1.242 3.1.243 3.1.244 Vol 3.1.245

Tap tage ratio For 15/0.4 + 5 % tolerance
3.1.246 3.1.247 3.1.248 157 3.1.249
Tap 1 10 50/231= 68.1818 67.84 to 68.52
3.1.250 3.1.251 3.1.252 153 3.1.253
Tap 2 10 75/231 = 66.5584 66.23 to 66.89

3.1.254 3.1.255 3.1.256 150 3.1.257

Tap 3 10 00/231 = 64.9351 64.61 to 65.26

3.1.258 3.1.259 3.1.260 146 3.1.261

Tap 4 97 25/231 = 63.3117 62.99 to 63.63

3.1.262 3.1.263 3.1.264 142 3.1.265

Tap 5 95 50/231 = 61.6883 61.38 to 61.99
3.1.267 11.2 Voltage ratio for 33 / 0.4 KV
3.1.268 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 Voltage ratio For 33/0.4 3.1.6 + 5 %
Tap % KV tolerance

3.1.7 3.1.8 3.1.9 34650 / 231= 150 3.1.10 149.25 to

Tap 1 10 150.75

3.1.11 3.1.12 3.1.13 33825 / 231 = 146.42 3.1.14 145.69 to

Tap 2 10 147.15

3.1.15 3.1.16 3.1.17 33000 / 231 = 142.86 3.1.18 142.14 to

Tap 3 10 143.57

3.1.19 3.1.20 3.1.21 32175 / 231 = 139.28 3.1.22 138.58 to

Tap 4 97. 139.98

3.1.23 3.1.24 3.1.25 31350 / 231 = 135.71 3.1.26 135.03 to

Tap 5 95 136.39
3.1.269 11.3 Summary of test parameters

3.1.2703.1.271 Types of test 3.1.272 par

N ameters

3.1.2733.1.274 Ohm (Coils 3.1.275 bala

1 resistance measurement) nce

3.1.2763.1.277 Ratio test 3.1.278 +

2 0.5 of the rated value

3.1.2793.1.280 Measurement of 3.1.281 Z<

3 impedance & load 5.6 % as per KVA
3.1.2823.1.283 Measurement of no 3.1.284
4 load current 1.5% of the rated

3.1.2853.1.286 HV test (for 15 KV) 3.1.287 38

5 KV for 1 minute

3.1.2883.1.289 HV test (for 33 KV) 3.1.290 70

6 KV for 1 minute

3.1.2913.1.292 DVDF test 3.1.293 800

7 V for 1 minute