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The privilege of HCNA/HCNP/HCIE:

With any Huawei Career Certification, you have the privilege on http://learning.huawei.com/en to enjoy:
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1e-Learning Courses Logon http://learning.huawei.com/en and enter Huawei Training/e-Learning
/e

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If you have the HCNA/HCNP certificateYou can access Huawei Career Certification and Basic Technology e-Learning
courses.
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If you have the HCIE certificate: You can access all the e-Learning courses which marked for HCIE Certification Users.

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Methods to get the HCIE e-Learning privilege : Please associate HCIE certificate information with your Huawei account, and

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email the account to Learning@huawei.com to apply for HCIE e-Learning privilege.


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2 Training Material Download
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Content: Huawei product training material and Huawei career certification training material.

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MethodLogon http://learning.huawei.com/en and enter Huawei Training/Classroom Training ,then you can download
training material in the specific training introduction page.
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3 Priority to participate in Huawei Online Open Class (LVC)
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The Huawei career certification training and product training covering all ICT technical domains like R&S, UC&C, Security,

4Learning Tools: rc e
Storage and so on, which are conducted by Huawei professional instructors.

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eNSP Simulate single Router&Switch device and large network.

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WLAN Planner Network planning tools for WLAN AP products.

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In addition, Huawei has built up Huawei Technical Forum which allows candidates to discuss technical issues with Huawei experts ,

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share exam experiences with others or be acquainted with Huawei Products.

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Statement:
L e
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This material is for personal use only, and can not be used by any individual or organization for any commercial purposes.
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HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential 1
HCNA-Storage

Huawei Certified

HCNA-Storage BSSN
Building the Structure of Storage Network
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Huawei Technologies Co.,Ltd

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES
HCNA-Storage

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2015. All rights reserved.

No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means
without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Permissions

and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All other

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trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective
/
holders.
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Notice

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The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has
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been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all

.h
statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute the

g
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warranty of any kind, express or implied.
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Huawei Certified

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HCNA-BSSN Building the Structure of Storage Network Training Courseware

s :
r ce Version 3.0.1

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HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES
HCNA-Storage

Huawei Certification System

Relaying on its strong technical and professional training system, according to different
customers at different levels of ICT technology, Huawei certification is committed to provide
customs with authentic, professional certification. Based on characteristics of ICT

e n
technologies and customers needs at different levels, Huawei certification provides customers
/
with certification system of four levels.
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HCNA-Storage BSSN (Huawei Certified Network Associate Storage Building the Structure of
e i.c
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Storage Network) training aims to provide guidance to participants in learning contents related
a
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to the HCNA-Storage exam.The training covers the knowledge, technologies and application

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of SAN,NAS, and structure ,network, connection, deploying ,troubleshooting in Huawei SAN
Storage system.
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HCNP-Storage certification is positioned in ability construction for IT information storage

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:
professional engineer or storage scheme expert. The curriculum includes, but is not limited to

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the following: SAN, NAS, Backup and DS technology, Unified storage system principle and
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application, Huawei storage solution planning, deployment, troubleshooting and maintenance.
:
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HCIE-Storage (Huawei Certified Internetwork Expert-Storage) is designed to endue engineers
r
ou
with a variety of Storage network and system technology and proficiency in maintenance,

s
diagnostics and troubleshooting of Huawei solution, which equips the engineers with
e
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competence in planning, design and optimization of large-scale ICT Solution.

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HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES
HCNA-Storage

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HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES
HCNA-Storage

Foreword

Outline
HCNA-Storage covers the storage technologies (RAID, SCSI, iSCSI, FC) and its application,
focusing on the IP-SAN, FC-SAN architecture, networking, connectivity, deployment and
maintenance.

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Content
/
The course contains a total of 11 chpaters
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Chapter1 Describes what is information, the life cycle of data , concept of business Continuity,
and an introduction of components in an ICT infrastructure.
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Chapter2 Describes what is DAS, SCSI technology, Hard Disk Technology, Solid State
Technology.

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Chapter3 Describes What is NAS, Ethernet Basics, Ethernet Hardware Components.

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Chapter4 Describes the ideal ICT infrastructure, Storage protocols Fibre Channel, IP SAN
Storage protocols iSCSI.
: //
Chapter5 Describes traditional RAID Technology.
t t p
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s
Chapter6 Describes basic concepts of Big Data, Object-based storage technologies, and

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OceanStor 9000 key technologies of Big Data

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Chapter7 Describes backup concepts and topologies, backup technologies, disaster Recovery
introduction.
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Chapter8 Describes concepts and background of Cloud Computing, Modules of Cloud

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Computing, and Huawei FusionCloud Products..
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Chapter9 Describes Huawei Storage Products, Huawei RAID 2.0+,Huawei platform

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improvements, Huawei NAS products, Huawei Backup products, and Huawei Licensing policy.

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Chapter10 Describes how to initialize a Huawei OceanStor system, how to configure a Huawei
OceanStor system, File systems and Storage, and maintenance jobs.

M Chapter 11 Describes Data Cofferr, Pre-emptive replacements, Firmware and updates, principle
of HyperSnap, SmartThin, HyperClone, SmartTier, and HyperReplication.

In conclusion, you should be able to plan and deploy SAN networks and storage systems, to
install, deploy, and maintain Huawei SAN storage products, and to become a qualified SAN
storage engineer or system administrator

Readers Knowledge Background

Know server fundamental and application.


HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES
HCNA-Storage

Know SAN, NAS, DR concepts and technology.

Understand mainstream OS and DB operation and management .

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HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES
HCNA-Storage

Icons Used in This Book

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FC Switch GE Switch Storage Array Host

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HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES
HCNA-Storage

Account for Experiment environment

Experiment network introduce

The experiment environment aims to provide guidance to participants in learning contents


related to the HCNA-Storage exam( H13-612-ENG).

Experiment contents include storage array hardware installation, network deploying of FC SAN
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and IP SAN, storage management, configuration RAID/LUN/ mapping ,connection between /
storage and hosts,storage maintenance etc.
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One suit of experiment equipment includes : 1 PCS GE switch,1 PCS FC switch,1 PCS Windows

w
hostwith OS and NIC or FC HBA card ,1PCS Linux hostwith OS and NIC or FC HBA
a
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card,12 PCS S5300 V3 or S5500 V3 storage array, several network cables ,24 PCS PC
for students.
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One suit of experiment equipment fits 2-4 students operating at the same time.

Equipment introduce
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/ l e version
:/ S5300 V300R002
Device type Device name Software

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Storage array S5300 V3 or S5500 V3

h t S5300 V300R002
Switch SNS2124 OR S3900
s : General version
Server
SuSE 11 SP2
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Windows 2008 SP2 Be compatible with storage

cable
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Network cable 8PCS
s
Null

Console PC PC e
FC 6 PCS
R Win7

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HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES
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HCNA e i .c
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Introduction to storage
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Table of Contents

Module 1: Data Management


Data Management 11
Information Life Cycle Management 17
The Value of Data 24
Components of an ICT Infrastructure 27

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Questions 30
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Exam Preparation
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31
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Module 2: What is DAS?
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Building an ICT infrastructure
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Direct Attached Storage 38
SCSI Protocol and Storage System
ATA and SATA
i n g 40
57

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Disk Technology 63

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SSD Introduction 80
Questions
p : 84
Exam Preparation
t t 85

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Module 3: What is NAS?
Network Attached Storage
r c e 93
NAS Network Topology
s ou 95
What is CIFS?
What is NFS? Re 99
100

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Ethernet Standard g 104

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Questions
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Exam Preparation 116

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or Module 4: What is SAN?

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The Ideal ICT Infrastructure 123
Storage Area Networks 125
Differences between DAS and SAN 128
Network Topology: Fibre Channel 137
IP SAN 157
iSCSI connection modes 160
Convergence of Fibre Channel and TCP/IP 166
Questions 168
Exam Preparation 169

HCNA V3 | Table of Contents Page | 3


Module 5: RAID Technology and Application
Traditional RAID 177
Basic concepts and implementation modes of RAID 177
Data Organization modes of RAID 178
RAID technology and application 181
Working principle of RAID 0 182
Working principle of RAID 1 186
Working principle of RAID 4 190
Working principle of RAID 5 194
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Overview of RAID 6 198
Working principle of RAID 6 P+Q

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199
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Working principle of RAID 6 DP
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Hybrid RAID - RAID 10

aw 202

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Hybrid RAID - RAID 50 203
Comparison of common RAID levels

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Application scenarios of RAID 205

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RAID Data Protection 206

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Questions 211

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Exam Preparation 212

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Module 6: Big Data

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What is Big Data? 219

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Advantaged of Object Based Storage 227
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Hadoop: Internet Big Data solution 230
Huawei OceanStor 9000

es 232
Erasure Code
R 234

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OceanStor 9000 hardware structure 235

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Recommend networking: Front and Back End 10Gb 238

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Questions 239

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Exam Preparation 240

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Module 7: Back up and Recovery

MWhat is a backup?
LAN-free backup topology
247
250
Components of a backup system 251
Deduplication 257
Contents of a backup strategy 261
Huawei Backup Products: VTL6900 family 268
Introduction to HDP3500E 271
Backup Software Architecture 273

Page | 4 HCNA V3 | Table of Contents


Introduction to Disaster Recovery 274
Questions 280
Exam Preparation 281

Module 8: Cloud Computing


Concept of Cloud Computing 289
Cloud computing models 297
Categories of cloud computing 299
Value of cloud computing 306
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Huawei FusionCloud solutions 307
Questions

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312
Exam preparation
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Module 9: Huawei Product Information and Licensing
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RAID 2.0+ Evolution

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RAID 2.0+ Logical objects

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Huawei Storage Products 329
OceanStor 5300 V3
le a 334

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OceanStor 5500 V3 Specifications 338

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OceanStor 5600 V3 339

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OceanStor 5800 V3 Specifications 341

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OceanStor 6800 V3 342
OceanStor 18000
r c 346

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OceanStor 18500 Specifications 347

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OceanStor 18800 Specifications 348

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OceanStor 18800F Specifications 349

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I/O Modules for the OceanStor V3 series 350

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OceanStor Dorado 2100 G2 353

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OceanStor Dorado 5100 355

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OceanStor VIS6600T 356

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OceanStor 9000 Big Data Storage System 358

o Cabling Diagrams 360

M Huawei Licensed Software Features


Questions
365
368
Exam Preparation 369

HCNA V3 | Table of Contents Page | 5


Module 10: Huawei Storage: Initial Setup and Configuration
Initial Setup 377
Launching the DeviceManager User Interface 381
Create Storage Pool 387
Create LUN 391
Create LUN Group 397
Create Host 400
Create Host Group 405
Create Port Group 408
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Create Mapping View 410
OS Specific Steps

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413
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Disk Management
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Questions

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Exam Preparation 424

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Module 11: Huawei Storage: Firmware and Features

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HyperSnap 431

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Create Snapshot 433

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SmartThin 448

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SmartTier 450

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HyperClone 463

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HyperReplication: Synchronous mode 468

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HyperReplication: Asynchronous mode 469
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Firmware Updates 471
Questions

es 481
Exam Preparation
R 482

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Page | 6 HCNA V3 | Table of Contents


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OHC1109101
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Data Management Introduction aw
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www.huawei.com

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Introduction

In this, the first module of the course, the focus will be on data management. The scope of the
entire course is about the technology that Huawei provides to build an ICT infrastructure, but in
this module we will look at the reason why a company needs an ICT infrastructure. A companys
primary goal is to provide a service to its customers and for almost every company an ICT
infrastructure is required to be able to do that. The module will discuss the data that is generated
in the company to do its business and about the way this data is kept.

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Objectives
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After completing this module, you will be able to:
Describe the importance of data for an organization.

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Understand the difference between structured and unstructured data.

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Explain what Information Lifecycle Management is.

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List a number of file formats to store digital data in.
Understand the reasons for data retention.
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Describe how data can be protected.

t t p
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Module Contents
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1. Data Management.

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2. What is information?

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3. What is Information Lifecycle Management?
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4. File formats.
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5. Retention policies.
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6. Protecting the data.

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HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction Page | 9


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Page | 10 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction


Data Management

Data Management

SNIA definition: Data is the digital representation of anything in


any form.

A company needs/creates a large amount of data to run its


business.
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Each employee needs the data to be present in a specific form or
shape.

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Data should be available as long as the business needs it.
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When data is no longer needed it must/can be destroyed.

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Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 6

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Today a company uses a wide range of resources to run its business well. Examples of resources

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are:
t t
-
s :h
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telecommunication equipment: i.e. smart phones, faxes.
- computer hardware:
r c i.e. PCs, laptops, network switches, storage devices.

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- computer software: i.e. email programs, databases, graphical design software,

es web design, software.


- facilities:
R i.e. production plant, warehouse, showroom, offices,

i n g production tools.
-
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personnel: i.e. production staff, logistics staff, accounting / finance,

e a marketing, management, IT staff.

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or Each of these resources has to be bought and implemented. These processes have to be defined
to make sure every person in the business process has all the information he or she needs to do
M their work well. In a later module the physical solutions, that can be used to achieve the goals of a
business, will be explained in more detail. In this module the actual data has the focus. So the
question to be answered first is: What is data?

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction Page | 11


What is data?

A definition by the SNIA (Storage Networking Industrial Association) defines data as: The
digital representation of anything in any form.

Although this definition seems very vague it is true because if you look at an average company it
generates an enormous amount of data every day. All this data is there to keep the business
running and keep it making a profit.

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Imagine a company that does not use any electronic messaging system like emails, that has no
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website to promote their products or no web shop where customers can order the products the
company offers. Also imagine a company where everybody still creates handwritten documents
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when ordering parts and raw materials; where all employees use traditional A0 size drawings for
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production purposes.

The reasons that we do not use the traditional skills and tools anymore are because of the
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obvious advantages of having the information in a digital format.

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Digital information is easier to keep, modify and/or duplicate. Also: it is relatively easy to have
multiple persons work with/on the same information.
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What is Information?
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Data equals Information?
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Information will be extracted from the data that was gathered.

arn Information can :

L e provide a company with marketing information and customer behavior.

r e help to run the business more effectively.

o help to determine risk factors.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 7

Page | 12 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction


The biggest challenges companies face today is how to interpret the tremendous amount of data
that was collected on a daily or yearly base. This is so important because it is not data that will
benefit the company I work for. Important is the information extracted from all data. If we would
just look at the numbers (=collected data) it does not show if a company is making a profit or not.
Only when we compare numbers (this weeks and last weeks sales) we can understand that the
sales have gone up or down. The information extracted from two weeks of sales data could then
be: we had a good week!

Depending on the information it can extract from collected data, a company can gain insight about
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the way the organization works and the way it collects data. So looking at the data might lead to
the conclusion that more data is required!

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Information about the sales that are going down can lead to a lot of changes for a company in the

a
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way it works, what the products should be like, what the target customers are and how expensive
the products are compared to other manufacturers.

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So in most situations more data means a better chance to find useful information from it. And

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there the problem occurs: we now generate so much data that we almost cannot handle it
anymore.
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t t p
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Problems:

-
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First the problem is with the capacity available to store the data on a digital medium.
-
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Second problem is to filter out the relevant data that provides the correct information.

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- Third problem is how to make sure that the relevant data is available to all the employees that

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might need the data for their job.
-
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Fourth problem: how do I make sure we do not lose that vital data? Most data loss, around

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80%, occurs because of human errors. So how do I prevent a single person deleting

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information that is vital for a company?
-
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Fifth problem is to determine how long the data must be kept.

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or Some of the problems we face will be discussed in this module. In other modules of this course

M
we will look at solutions for the other problems. In module 9 and 10 we will discuss Huawei
storage arrays. In module 5 and 9 we will explain RAID which is a way of protecting data against
losing it. Module 6 discusses Big Data.

In the rest of this module we will focus on the data itself, the format in which we want to keep it
and the length of time we want to keep it.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction Page | 13


Where is the data?

Where is the data?

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Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 8

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Most companies are situated in multiple sites, sometimes in multiple cities and even in multiple

p
t
countries. But even for a smaller company the data is generated by all employees working from
t
:h
various offices. Each one of these employees uses tools to generate the data. Some of these

s
tools are very common tools like e-mail programs and word processor software. Others will use
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highly specialized software designed for the company itself.

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For companies that produce goods we find that they have some sort of Graphical Design

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Software (Computer Aided Design). They often use logistics software to keep track of ordered

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goods (parts, materials, tools) and delivered products. Customer information must be kept as well
i
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as financial information. All this data must be stored and kept safe.

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A less ideal situation would be when that data was stored on laptops and PCs of individual

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employees in their respective offices. There would be no easy way of protecting the data against
human errors and/or against hardware failures.
M
That is why in most organizations data is stored centrally in Main Equipment Rooms (MERs).
Another term that is often used next to MER is data center. A MER should always have enough
cooling capacity to keep the systems running at the optimal temperatures and enough power
ratings to support the power consumption of all equipment. In a well-equipped data center there
are also facilities like fire-extinguishing installations and for instance a diesel generator that can
power the entire data center when the external power to the data center fails.

Page | 14 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction


However well-equipped the data center may be, there is always a need to protect the data itself.
Hardware will fail and sometimes disasters occur that ruin entire buildings. Examples of disasters
are earthquakes, floods and fires. If something dramatic as that happens it is nice to know that the
data is still intact and available.

So of the most business critical data we want to have a copy stored outside of the original MER in
another MER or stored in a (fireproof and waterproof) safe.

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Who creates or uses the data?

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Who creates or uses the data?
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Logistics Human Resources

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Marketing

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& Sales

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Finance

r c e Customers i.e.

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- e-mail
- purchase orders

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Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 9

arn
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Structured data refers to any data that resides in a fixed field within a record or file. Examples of

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structured data are databases and spreadsheets.

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It is the unstructured data that is confusion for many organizations as it is not directly clear what
the data represents and what the contribution of the data to the information is. Text documents,
images and web pages are examples of unstructured data. Although the contents of a document
can be relevant to an organization it is not visible at first glance. Someone should read the text
and from that decide if the contents is useable for the organization.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction Page | 15


Statistics have proven that the data generated and stored within an average company mainly
consists of static data. With that we mean that data is generated and stored, but the data is hardly
ever read again. About 70% of the stored data is static data which might lead to the question:
Why do we store data and not look at it again on a later stage?

The answer to this is not very scientific. Most organization cannot determine the value of data
quickly and then take the decision to keep the data. They think that maybe later the data may
prove to be useful.

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The 30% of the data that is used or re-read must definitely be accessible for all employees. This
is called file sharing or data sharing. It is an important task for a company to arrange this well.

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Information and data
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Information and data
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a. Every company needs information to be able to do business.

t
:h
b. Information is extracted from both structured as well as unstructured data.

s
c. Almost all data is now generated in a digital form.

c e
d. Data should be accessible for multiple employees.

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Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 10

o
MEach employee should have to get to the right data quickly to fulfill the tasks for the company.
With data in a digital form we can use networking and file-sharing technologies to make that work.
The process of determining who needs what information is a science itself. It is called Information
Analysis. It is not a topic for this course but it is a vital step in the process of a business to
understand how data should flow within the organization.

If the analysis is incorrect employees might be missing information for their part of the business
process. That might lead to other people also missing information and so on.

Page | 16 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction


Information Life Cycle Management

Information Life Cycle Management

a. What data is needed for every person in the organization ?


b. What is the format in which data should be presented / kept ?
c. How long should the data be kept ?
d. If the data is no longer required what needs to be done with the data?
e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 11

// lea
:
What data each employee needs to do its job is of course depending on the job. There are

p
t
hundreds of categories of information: marketing data, sales information, production costs, cost of
t
:h
staff (wages), logistic costs, Research and Development.

e s
r c
In any way a company must make sure that everybody has the right information at the right time.

ou
Almost just as important as having the information /data is the format in which you give that

es
information. If someone sends an email to a colleague with vital information that other person

R
should have a computer, an email program and an account to be able to receive and read it.

i n g
r n
If someone receives a document, in a file format his application cannot import and read, then this

e a
information is inaccessible to him.

e L
or Next important question to ask is how long the information is needed. Again this varies from one
business to the next but mostly regulations of the government has companies store and keep
M information for years. Sometimes information is needed for decades for instance if you are a
bridge building company you would have to keep diagrams; structural design information for as
long as the bridge exists!

Assuming we know what the data is that each employee needs, the next step would be to look at
the format in which the data should be accessible.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction Page | 17


1.1 Physical Parameters

Information Life Cycle Management

What is the format in which data should be available for the


organization?

1. For physical parameters.


Online information or paper based.

e n
Read only / Eyes only / not reproduceable.
/
Version control.
o m
Environmental requirements when keeping hard copies.

e i .c
aw
u
g .h
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

ni n
Slide 12

r
// lea
The format in which data is stored needs to be thought of in the broadest sense of the word.

p :
t
Although much of the information nowadays is kept as digital information, there is still a lot of

t
:h
analog information. Examples of this analog information are pictures, paper documents that have

s
a legal basis, faxes or entire archives that were never digitized.

e
r c
ou
1.2 Digital Information Parameters

es
R
Information Life Cycle Management

i n g
r n
What is the format in which data should be available for the

e a organization?

eL
2. For digital information parameters

or
Which application is required to read/modify the data.

M

Which file format for text (PDF; ODF; DOC).
Which file format for images (JPG; TIFF; DWG; PNG......).
Use lossless or lossfree formats.
Are there standards to be met (ODF; CALS; BASEL) for physical
parameters.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 13

Page | 18 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction


Digital documents also have their restrictions. We need the correct applications to open, read
and/or modify the files. It is therefore important to choose a format for the file that allows all of the
appropriate users to access the information in the files.

We typically identify three types of files:

1. Text documents.
These documents contain mainly characters (letters and/or numbers) and sometimes small

e n
/
images. Examples are word processor documents, spreadsheet and databases.

o m
.c
2. Bitmap image documents.

e i
In a bitmap all relevant picture elements (or pixels) of the image are individually stored.

w
Photos and scanned images are examples of bitmap files. As for each image thousands of

a
u
individual pixels (dots in many colors that make up the images) have to be kept it means that
bitmap images take up a lot of storage capacity.

g .h
ni n
r
3. Vector Based image documents

lea
The image is described as mathematical objects and the formulas are stored. Most Computer
Aided Design software (i.e. AutoCAD; SolidWorks)
: //
t t p
:h
When selecting a method consider using a file format that is not vendor specific and therefore is

s
readable with any program. Several of these file formats exist and they typically are supported

e
c
over many years. Examples: TIFF format for bitmap images, IGES for vector based images and
r
ou
SGML for text files. For text documents there is also the ODF (Open Document Format) that is
becoming more popular.
es
R
Important when storing bitmap information, is the effect of compression. Although compression

i n g
is mostly used to minimize the space required to store the information digitally, one must realize

n
that many compression methods imply loss of information! Sometimes storing information in so-

ar
called lossless formats prevents this loss of information. TIFF and PNG are examples of file

L e
types that are stored in a lossless way. The popular JPG format uses a method to reduce the file

r esize that deletes image information and is therefore not lossless.

o
M Note:
CALS and BASEL are other examples of standards that are very specific for a branch in the
industry.

CALS (short for Computer Aided Logistics Support) is used by the United States army to make
sure that every part of the army can get to all relevant information. The impact of CALS is huge
for every company that wants to do business with any part of the army. Even a bakery store that
wants to deliver bread to the army cantina needs to comply with the CALS standard.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction Page | 19


That means his purchase order; price list etc. must be created in a format dictated by the armys
CALS standard. This would also apply to a manufacturer of rotors for an army helicopter. All
drawings, test reports etc. have to be CALS approved.

BASEL is a standard for organizations in the financial sector. BASEL has strict rules for reports,
accounting information and all other financial matters.

1.3 Hardware

e n
/
Information Life Cycle Management
o m
e i .c
w
What is the format in which data should be available for the

a
organization?

u
.h
3. Hardware
Is access to the information granted/allowed?

i n g
Should the data be kept intact and therefore unable to be changed?

r n
lea
Multiple employees can access the same data simultaneous.

: //
t t p
s :h
r c e
ou
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 14

es
R
All documentation has its relevancy and with it comes the need to keep it for a certain period.

i n g
Some documents have sensitive information and should be stored safely. Some information is

n
eyes-only and for example should not be duplicated. In those situations special paper can be

ar
used that prevents the paper being copied as it makes the text on the copy unreadable. With

L e
paper there is also the problem of version control. In other words version control means that you

r e
want to keep different versions of a document when changes have been made to the original.

o
MFor paper the concept of version control means that multiple versions of the document are stored
in the archives. Paper nowadays is pretty reliable but older types of paper have the tendency to
become brittle. Also the ink used can fade away or damage the paper it is on. It is a tremendous
expensive job to restore and preserve old documents. Nowadays we digitize many of those
documents and store the originals in conditioned rooms. We now can inspect the scanned
documents and have the added options of zooming in on details, modifying the image file and
share them with other users by simply copying the document files.

Page | 20 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction


If access to information should be controlled methods can be implemented where documents are
stored in vaults. Archives must then be in enclosed spaces (is mostly the case if conditioned
rooms are required) and guarded.
For digital information we can use physical blockades and software blockades. By creating
multiple separate physical networks we can regulate access to data. Only devices inside of the
physical network are able to interconnect.

The same kind of separation can also be done via software. Then we would use technical
possibilities of the ICT infrastructure to block access to specific sections of the network. This can
e n
/
m
be done with techniques like firewalls, security gateways, access control lists and in switches we
can create so-called VLANs (virtual LAN).

.c o
e i
w
In some situations there is the requirement for data to be integer. This implies that information will

a
u
be stored as it is now and there is no way to change the information later. In legal documents and

.h
medical reports this is sometimes required to prevent illegal changes being made. For paper

g
i n
documents this is done by storing the document in a container that is tamper proof. Digital

n
r
information can be stored on so-called WORM media where WORM is short for (Write Once Read

lea
Many). This technology allows data to be written once and not changed afterwards. Reading the
data can be done as often as needed.
: //
t t p
:h
To have access to information by multiple persons we can create multiple copies. Having multiple

s
persons modifying the same paper documents requires them to sequentially access and modify

e
the document.
r c
s ou
Digitally allowing multiple applications to open and modify the same document files requires

Re
technologies such as cluster technologies. In cluster technologies multiple hosts and their

i n g
applications access a single file simultaneous. Each of the users is now allowed to change the file

n
contents and store all changes correctly in the document file afterwards.

ar
L e
r e
o
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction Page | 21


1.4 The retention periods

Information Life Cycle Management

What are the retention periods?


Based on the business requirements of the organization itself.
Based on the general rules for your type of business.
Based on the rules that governments in specific countries dictate.

e n
How to arrange for digital information to be stored for many years.
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

ni n
Slide 15

r
// lea
It is not only important that you need to have the information but in most cases you must keep it

p :
t
for a certain period. All businesses keep orders, invoices, pay check information, bills etc. for

t
:h
many years in case they need to reproduce the information for their own business process.

s
Warranty information or service agreements for production tools are kept as long as the tool will
be used.
r c e
s ou
Sometimes the type of business you are in also has external rules. So is stated in many Western

Re
European countries that medical information on patients has to be stored for more than fifteen

i n g
years. This allows doctors in hospitals to look back at a patients history and can help him plan a

n
better treatment for that patient. If your company is providing any medical services than this is a

ar
requirement for your organization. On top of that government rules might force you to keep the

L e
information for even longer than needed for your organization. Business information like invoices,

r e
employee contracts etc. should typically be kept for seven or more year.

o
Fact is that much information is stored digitally and the question is now: How long will the digitally

Mstored data survive?.

If we store data on magnetic media (we may remember the video recorders and cassette players)
the tape gets demagnetized after a few years. Even data stored on CD or DVD is not stored
indefinitely. We have heard of situations where CDs became unreadable after some time. We
have to find a way to store the data more reliable or we have to make sure we update the medium
on which the data is stored regularly (make a copy of a tape every two years).

Page | 22 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction


1.5 How to remove obsolete information?

Information Life Cycle Management

How to remove obsolete information?

Who is responsible for data ?


SOX ; JSOX ; EuroSOX.

e n
/
Physically destroying information.
Shredding.
Burning.
o m
Digitally destroying information.
e i .c
Whipe the disk in Operating System.
Secure whipe.
aw
u
.h
Disk shredding.

i n g
n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 16

r
// lea
After the retention period information is sometimes no longer useful and sometimes an

p :
t
organization is not supposed to keep the information within the organization. The question is how

t
:h
to get rid of information we dont need anymore.

e s
c
First of all there are rules about keeping data safe against disabuse. The SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley
r
ou
Act) regulations state that a company is responsible for storing and removing information it

s
generates or uses. This also includes the responsibility for an organization to make sure that
e
R
nobody can make copies of important documents (or files) and take them outside of the
organization.

i n g
r n
a
If the information is stored as paper archives shredding might be a definitive solution and also

e
e L
burning the information might be applicable.

or Digital information is not so easily discarded. Traditional methods like formatting a disk is not

M secure enough as it might leave traces of data recoverable. For those situations there is
specialized software that erases data from a medium and afterwards writes random data over the
old information (and multiple times if needed).

For many government based organizations wiping data from a disk requires them to physically
shred the disks so nobody can reuse the media ever again.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction Page | 23


The Value of Data

Business Continuity

Definition according to the SNIA organization:


Processes and / or procedures for ensuring continued business
operations.

Applies to physical and operational procedures.

e n
/
m
Physical: Buildings: Machinery, tools, products.

o
Personell: Production staff.

.c
Management staff.
Financial staff, etc.
e i
Operational procedures: Workflows.
aw
Planning and delivery of production.
u
Human Resource Management, etc.

g .h
ni n
r
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 17

// lea
:
The term Business Continuity is almost ten years old now. It was around that time that companies

p
t t
starting thinking about situations that could impact the business processes. Like so many times

:h
before it took some serious accidents and disasters for companies to be aware of the risks the
companies have.
e s
r c
ou
Recent examples of the impact of a disaster are:

es
1. The tsunami that hit Thailand. Apart from the human lives that were lost and the houses that
R
g
were destroyed there were other consequences. One of the buildings that was hit was a

i n
manufacturing plant for specific parts for hard disks. In that plant millions of these parts were

n
r
made per year. Now all of a sudden this plant produced no more parts. So the companies that
a
e
assemble the hard disk could not produce any hard disks anymore. And for the manufacturers
L
e
of computer, laptops and storage devices it meant they could not get the hard disks anymore.

or Hard disks became scarce and the production slowed down at the plants of the

M computer/laptop manufacturers.

2. In 2011 a volcano on Iceland erupted. Unfortunately the wind was blowing towards the
European continent at that time. The dust particles that were pushed in the air were a
problem for airplanes. If the dust would come into the jet engines they might be damaged or
even be destroyed. So thousands of planes had to be kept on the ground. This situation kept
going on for days and in that time almost all air traffic in Northern Europa was cancelled. For
companies who depend on airplanes for travelling or transport this was a very bad situation.

Page | 24 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction


3. In 2007 an Apache helicopter of the Dutch army crashed into a high voltage power grid
system in the Netherlands. The cables that are used to transport 150.000V signals were
disrupted leaving 50.000 households without electrical power for three days. But also
businesses were impacted. Supermarkets had to close because the lights would not work nor
the refrigerators or the cash registers. All security alarms were not working as well.

These are just a few examples of a problem that leads to other companies having problems with
their business. So business continuity has companies think about these types of problems. But
the question is: Can you prevent these accidents happening and what could you do if it actually
e n
/
m
happens?

.c o
e i
The Value of Data
aw
u
The general manager decides what the data is worth.
g .h
ni n
r
Recovery Point Objective (RPO):

lea
amount of data that may be lost without consequences for the
organization.

: //
p
Restore Time Objective (RTO):

t t
Time allowed to restore the data to the last saved situation.

Cost Of Downtime (COD):


s :h
e
Total costs involved for every hour the data is not available.

r c
s ou
Re
g
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 18

n i n
ar
Of course it is impossible to prevent disasters like earthquakes or volcanic eruptions happening,

L e
but smaller scale problems like the power outage can be addressed.

r e
o The question then is how much does the solution cost. For instance is it cost effective for

M everyone to have their own diesel generator so they still can watch TV if the main power grid fails?
The answer is probably no, but for a supermarket or a small company that might be a solution.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction Page | 25


To determine if the solution can be implemented cost effective we have to ask ourselves the
following questions:

1. What is the value of your data?


Not all data is equally important. Assign a quality grade to all data and try to protect the most
relevant or costly data. For many companies e-mails are costly data as their business is
driven by e-mails. Purchase Orders, online transaction, websites are all vital information that
should be available 100% of the time. So we must find a way to keep that data safe.

e n
/
m
2. How old can the data be?

.c o
In case of a problem we have safe copies of the vital data. But this data is not the latest data.
It is the data at the time the safety copy was made. It is in fact old data.
e i
aw
u
For that we have to explain the concept of RPO or Recovery Point Objective. It means how old

.h
the recovered data can be before it becomes useless. In a huge online web shop like ALIBABA

g
ni n
hundreds of thousands of products are sold every day. That translates into a couple of hundred

r
items per minute. If the ICT administrator would make safe copies every four hours that would

lea
mean his RPO is four hours. In case of a problem with the current data the only thing he has is
the saved data from up to four hours ago.
: //
t t p
:h
If losing four hours of incoming purchase orders represent $100.000 it means that each problem

s
will at least cost $100.000 for the owner of ALIBABA. It is the owner that decides if that $100.000

e
c
is a big problem (maybe bankruptcy) or that it is a minor setback in the turnover of the company.
r
ou
So the RPO basically means: how much data can my company lose and still not go bankrupt.

es
R
A second thing when making safe copies is the time needed before we can use the saved data

i n g
again. If an ICT administrator makes safe copies every four hours his general manager might be

n
happy. However: if a problem occurs and it takes the ICT administrator twelve hours to restore the

ar
four hour old data that might still lead to a big problem.

L e
r e
The RTO or Restore Time Objective is also a very important factor in the business continuity

o
plan. However: setting up a plan with excellent RPO and RTO will only succeed if the cost of that

Mplan outweighs the costs of not having the data!

That is why the last and maybe most important business continuity factor is COD or Cost Of
Downtime. How much money per hour is lost if I cannot have access to my business critical data?

Page | 26 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction


It is typically the general manager of an organization that can determine that. He knows the
turnover per day. He knows the cost of all employees. He can calculate, using last weeks
information, how much money could have been made in the time the ICT administrator is
restoring old data!

With the Cost of Downtime as a calculated factor a company may decide to spend money to
prevent downtime happening or in other words have the business continuity guaranteed
sufficiently.

e n
/
m
In the remaining modules of this course we will look at the various technical solutions (software
and hardware) that can be used to build an ICT infrastructure that is providing business continuity.
.c o
e i
The next images are an introduction of some general components one might see in the technical

aw
solution for the various ICT infrastructures.
u
g .h
ni n
r
Components of an ICT Infrastructure
// lea
:
t tp
Components of an ICT Infrastructure

: h
e s
r c
Used terminology in ICT infrastructures

o u
Host: Any computer system to which disks, disk subsystems, or

es file servers are attached for data storage and data access.

R
Switch: A network infrastructure component to which multiple

i n g ports attach.

rn
Storage Array: A collection of disks or tapes from one or more commonly

a
accessible storage subsystems, combined with a body of

e
control software.

eL
Network: An interconnection system that enables communication among

or
a collection of attached nodes.

M Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 19

The term Host (or server) is used to indicate a higher specification computer that runs software
programs that are vital to the company. A computer (desktop or laptop) is a simpler version of the
host. Hosts are built to run twenty-four hours a day and for many years.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction Page | 27


A switch is an electronic component that is used to interconnect devices. Switches have many
ports where cables can be plugged into to connect multiple devices to the same switch.

Storage array is a term generally used for a device that provides capacity to store digital data.
Storage arrays can be the size of a server or much bigger as some storage arrays can hold
thousands of hard disks.

The cables and switches are used to interconnect hosts and storage arrays together form the

e n
/
network.

o m
Components Front View
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
n
Host Host

ni
r
lea
Switch

//
Switch

Switch

p : Network

t t
:h
Storage Array Storage Array

e s
r c
s ou
Re
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 20

i n g
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e a
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or
M

Page | 28 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction


Components Rear View

Host Host

n
Switch Switch

Switch Network
/ e
o m
i .c
Storage Array Storage Array

we
u a
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

g
Slide 21 .h
ni n
r
// lea
p :
t t
s :h
r c e
s ou
Re
i n g
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or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction Page | 29


Questions

Questions

1. Name four important steps in Information Lifecycle Management.

2. What is the main reason for data loss in most companies?

3. What methods can be used to protect data?

e n
4. What is the difference between structured and unstructured data?
/
5. Name three file formats in which we can store images.
o m
.c
Describe the difference between them.

e i
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 22

// lea
Answers

p :
t t
:h
1. Determine what data is needed. Decide who can access the data. Determine how long to

e s
keep the data. Determine what must be done with the data that is not needed anymore.
2. Human errors (80%).
r c
ou
3. Make copies of the data; restrict access to the data to qualified employees; for very delicate

es
information use a storage medium with WORM specifications.

R
4. Unstructured data has no known structure to it. Structured data has a well-defined database
structure
i n g
r n
5. TIFF (bitmap image, lossless, been used for years); JPG (bitmap image; popular because of

e a
compression option, not lossless); DWG (vector based; Autocad format; lossless)

e L
or
M

Page | 30 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction


Exam Preparation

Exam Preparation

1. E-mails are examples of unstructured data.


This statement is: True or False.

2. Statement 1: Files should be stored in formats that are


supported by many independent software builders.
e n
Statement 2: The retention period for data is determined by
/
government based rules.

o m
a.
b.
Statement 1 is true ; Statement 2 is true.
Statement 1 is true ; Statement 2 is false.
e i .c
w
c. Statement 1 is false ; Statement 2 is true.
d. Statement 1 is false ; Statement 2 is false.

u a
g .h
ni n
r
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 23

// lea
Answers:

p :
t t
:h
1. True. E-mails are unstructured data.

s
2. B. (Statement 2 is false). The combination of government rules and requirements for your
e
r c
own organization determines how long data should be kept.

s ou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction Page | 31


Thank you e n
/
www.huawei.com
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 24

: //
t t p
s :h
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s ou
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Page | 32 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109101 Data Management Introduction


e n
/
o m
OHC1109102
e i .c
DAS Technology aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
lea
://
www.huawei.com

t tp
s:h
r c e
sou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M
e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
ni n
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// lea
p :
t t
s:h
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sou
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i n g
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or
M
Introduction
In the first module you have learned that a great amount of digitally generated data is used to keep
the average company running its business. All equipment (hardware and software) that is needed to
have people do their job well is referred to as the ICT infrastructure. In this module you will learn
about the first of three possible technical solutions a company can use to build its ICT infrastructure.
In a Direct Attached Storage (or DAS) solution we see a compact solution with server technology; the
interconnect devices and the storage device all connected together where the distance between the
components is short, typically less than 25 meters.
e n
/
As DAS was the way used to build ICT infrastructures some 15 to 20 years ago. This module is also a

o m
.c
perfect place to explain the SCSI technology that was used then (and often still today) to transport

e i
user data from the host (and the application it runs) to the actual disk systems that store the
information.
aw
u
g .h
Objectives
ni n
r
lea
After this module you will be able to:

: //
Describe the characteristics of a DAS solution and mention the advantages of DAS.

t t
Explain what the major disadvantages are of DAS.p
:h
Describe the SCSI technology and identify the characteristics of a bus structure; explain the

e s
way electrical signals are transported over a SCSI bus.

r c
Describe the difference between parallel and serial SCSI technology.

ou
Explain how traditional hard disk technology works.

s

e
Understand the workings of Solid State Disks.

R
i n g
Module Contents
r n

e a
L
Building an ICT Infrastructure using DAS.

r e DAS characteristics.

o SCSI technology.

M o
o
Parallel SCSI.
Serial SCSI.
Hard disk technology.
o Mechanics.
o Disk drive characteristics.
o Disk drive performance.
Solid State Technology.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 35


e n
/
o m
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aw
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// lea
p :
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M

Page | 36 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Building an ICT infrastructure

Building an ICT infrastructure

An ICT infrastructure is the physical solution that allows users to


access the digital information they need.

n
Components of an ICT infrastructure include:

Personal computers; laptops.


/ e


Smartphones / VOIP telephones.

o m
.c
Software like Operating Systems and business applications.

i
Devices to make secure backups of data that has to be kept.

e
Network devices to interconnect various components with each other.

w
Storage devices that actually store the information and also allow a

a
user to quickly access the data when necessary.

u
.h
Three designs are mostly used : DAS NAS SAN.

i n g
r n
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 3

: //
t t p
:h
In this module we will look at the possible solutions a company can use to build its ICT infrastructure.

s
With an ICT infrastructure we mean all equipment (hardware, networks and software) that can be

c e
used to create, store and distribute all relevant information for a company.

r
s ou
In the last decades the role of digital information has grown and nowadays a company cannot do

Re
business without emails, websites and other applications. This results in the need for a company to

i n g
generate the digital information; store it safely and have the information available for every employee

n
that needs the information to do its work well.

ar
L e
Examples of components of an ICT infrastructure include personal computers, laptops, mobile phones

r ebut also network switches, backup devices, digital scanners and of course the storage systems on

o which the digital information is stored.

M Three methods are mostly used to physically build the storage network part of the ICT infrastructure.
In this module we will have a closer look at the first (and oldest method): Direct Attached Storage. We
will look at the way data moves between the host and the storage device.

In the next modules the two alternative methods will be discussed: Network Attached Storage (NAS)
and Storage Area Network (SAN).

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 37


Direct Attached Storage

Direct Attached Storage

An ICT infrastructure is the physical solution that allows users to


access the required information they need.

The first ICT infrastructures were based on a very simple concept we

n
now refer to as : Direct Attached Storage.

DAS definition : One or more dedicated storage devices connected


/ e
to one or more servers.
o m
Disk technologies used:
SCSI / SATA / SAS.
e i .c
aw
u
HOST

g .h
DISK STORAGE

ni n
r
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 4

// lea
p :
t
In a DAS environment, every host is responsible for the data it generates. So the information

t
:h
generated by the user with his application is stored locally on the same host. For that purpose the

s
host needs physical storage capacity in the server to store the data, but also storage capacity is

c e
needed to store the operating system and application software. The actual storage devices used in

r
ou
each server can be internal and\or external. Internal storage mostly means that the server has built in

s
hard disks that hold both the operating software as well as the user data. External storage means that

e
R
in most cases the capacity of the internal disk was not enough. When more capacity is needed an

i n g
extra chassis holding hard disks can be connected to the server via a SCSI cable.
Because all data is stored locally it meant that the host administrator was also responsible for keeping

r n
a
the data secure.

L e
In case of a technical problem or when a user deletes data the host administrator should be able to

r e
recover the lost data. So in practice every host was fitted with a local backup device and on the host a

o
backup software program was installed.

M
Because of the fact that no centralization was possible we also describe DAS infrastructures as
Islands of Storage. Sharing information between DAS infrastructures was/is virtually impossible.
The method used to connect a host with its physical disk (both internal disks in the host itself as well
as a connection to an external disk storage unit) in the first generation of DAS was based on the SCSI
technology.
In SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface) there are strict regulations on the cables, connectors
and electronic signals used to transmit the user data between host and physical disk.

Page | 38 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Direct Attached Storage

Direct Attached Storage

Initially based on parallel SCSI technology.


Small Computer System Interface is an intelligent system for
exchanging data between SCSI devices.

Limited in :
e n
- Number of devices (max=16).
/
m
- Cable length (up to 25 meter).
- Performance (320 MB/s).

.c o
SCSI Bus architecture congestion problems.
e i
A SCSI block represents 512 Bytes of data.
aw
u
g .h
ni n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.
r
lea
Slide 5

: //
t t p
The technology used to connect the host to the storage device (could be a hard disk or a CD-ROM

:h
player or a backup unit) was parallel SCSI. The technology was developed in the 1970s and has

e s
been in use until the beginning of this millennium.

r c
ou
In SCSI we use the term block to indicate the smallest amount of data that can be transported. The

es
block size for SCSI is 512 bytes. If a file of 2 MB is stored on a SCSI based device it means that many

R
individual blocks are used to represent the file.

i n g
r n
Let us look to the traditional parallel SCSI technology first.

e a
e L
Based on a so-called bus system we can connect up to 16 devices to a SCSI bus and have them

or communicate amongst themselves. As the technology was improved over the years from the original

M
SCSI standard into Ultra 320 SCSI the throughput was increased from 5 MB/s to 320 MB/s. But at the
same time the maximum cable length allowed has decreased because of technical limitations. At best
the cable length in Ultra 320 SCSI is 25 meters, but in practice a cable is hardly ever over 12 meters.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 39


SCSI Protocol and Storage System

SCSI protocol and storage system

Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) is an interface technology


specifically developed for midrange computers and used for connecting
hosts and peripheral devices.
The SCSI protocol is the basic protocol for communication between hosts
and storage arrays.
DAS uses the SCSI protocol to interconnect hosts and storage arrays.

e n
SCSI bus
/
HBA Data/Address bus

o m
SCSI ID 7

e i .c
w
Control signal
SCSI array SCSI array

a
ID 0 ID 5

u
.h
LUN 0 LUN 1 LUN 0

g
LUN 2 LUN 1

ni n
r
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 6

// lea
The controller sends a signal requesting to use the bus to the bus processor. After this request is

:
accepted, the source device sends data. In this way, the bus is occupied by the source device and the
p
t t
other devices connected to this bus cannot use the bus. SCSI is an interface used to connect

:h
between hosts and peripheral devices including disk drives, tape drives, CD-ROM drives, and

e s
scanners. Communication is handled according a protocol and consists of user data, commands and

r c
status information. Communication is started by the initiator and is directed to go to the target.

s ou
SCSI protocol
Re
i n g
Host-to-Disk communication is from the Initiator to a Target.

r n
e a Host/ I/O request Disk/

L
Initiator Target

r e C/S

o
SCSI Application Layer SCSI Application Layer

M SCSI Transport
Command/Data
SCSI Transport
Protocol Layer Protocol Layer

Bus connection

SCSI Interconnect Layer SCSI Interconnect Layer

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 7

Page | 40 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Parallel SCSI Technology

Parallel SCSI Technology

ANSI standard (describes electrical bus interface and command set).

Bus for computer devices attachment.


termination

e n
/
host
adapter
multidrop bus
SCSI

o m
Device A Device B Device C Device D

e i .c
w
devices

u a
g .h
ni n
r
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 8

// lea
p :
t t
In the SCSI bus architecture any of the connected devices can communicate with any other device.

:h
To achieve that a signal will be transmitted from the device and it will eventually end up at the

e s
multidrop bus. From there it should be forwarded to the required second device. There are a few

r c
physical and logistical problems in this way of communicating.

s ou
Two of these problems are:
Re
g
- How to make sure that multiple simultaneous users of the bus do not interfere with one another?

i n
- How to arrange things so that data actually arrives at the right device on the bus?

n
ar
e
These problems of course have been solved and the solutions will be explained in the upcoming
L
e
sections.

or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 41


SCSI Principles

SCSI principles

SCSI is an intelligent protocol that allows devices to communicate


without the help of the CPU or SCSI adapter card.

Transfer protocols: - asynchronous.

n
- synchronous.

Multiplexed bus for transfer of commands, data and status / e


information.
o m
SCSI
e i .c
w
DATA commands DATA Status info DATA
Sync Async Sync Async Sync

u a
time

g .h
ni n
r
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 9

// lea
:
A great advantage of SCSI is the intelligence of the system. If multiple devices are connected to the

p
t
same bus (parallel communication path) they can communicate with each other independently. That
t
:h
means that two devices that want to communicate do not need the approval of for instance a CPU in
the host or a special card.
e s
r c
ou
The communication itself is in two different types: synchronous and asynchronous.

es
R
In asynchronous transmission there is no predefined timeframe between two sent transmission

n g
signals. The protocol uses extra information, that will be send before the official data, so the receiving
i
r n
side becomes aware of the fact that packets that will be arriving soon. Examples of information that is

e a
sent asynchronous: status information (i.e. bus free checks) or commands that initiate a new

L
connection. Commands and status information will not be generated in a fixed pattern so the time

e
r
between the transmissions is variable. This is very specific for asynchronous communication.

o
M
Synchronous communication requires a clock circuit to transmit the data packets with specific
intervals. In practice two devices will communicate asynchronously first to find out if the other device
is ready to receive new information. After this initial connection is set up the actual data is sent using
the fastest method possible and that is synchronous communication. In synchronous mode data is
sent quickly after another with a fixed time between two data packets. The receiving devices know
this fixed time interval and can accept and process the packets quickly.

Page | 42 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Multiplexing is the term used to describe a system where a physical cable is shared by sequentially
allocating the use of the cable to different devices. In this case the data send across the cable on a
certain moment is a user data packet and a moment later it can be an address or status information. It
means that inside of a SCSI cable there are no separate wires used for addressing the devices and
separate wires for sending user data across. At one point in time the signal must be interpreted as an
address where the next moment the signal represents user data.

e n
Parallel SCSI Technology
/
o m
Parallel SCSI Technology
e i .c
aw
host
u
.h
bus
adapter

g
SCSI

ni n
r
lea

: //
Device A

t t p
Device B Device C Device D

:h
(1) Device B transmits a signal headed for device D.

e s
r c
s ou
e
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 10

R
i n g
r n
Electrical signals move across a copper wire in all directions and at each intersection the signal splits

a
up and continues (as a bit weaker signal) across all wires.
e
e L
or So: as the signal arrives at the intersection of the cable from device B and the bus; the signal will be
split up into two identical signals and move on in two different directions. The signal will split at the
M intersection to device A as well as at the intersection to device C. But also will it continue towards the
intersection with device D.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 43


Parallel SCSI Technology

host

adapter
SCSI

e n
/
Device A Device B Device C Device D

o m
(1) Device B transmits a signal headed for device D.
e i .c
w
(2) The signal will be split up at the intersection and moves in two directions !

u a
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 11

g .h
ni n
r
// lea
The signal travels onwards towards the intersection of the bus and the cable from Device D. There
again it will split up into two identical copies.
p :
t t
s :h
Parallel SCSI Technology
r c e
s ou
e
host

R
adapter
SCSI

i n g
r n
e a
e L Device A Device B Device C Device D

o r
M (1) Device B transmits a signal headed for device D.
(2) The signal will be split up at the intersection and moves in two directions !
(3) The signal will split again : a signal goes towards Device D but another signal will go on !

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 12

One copy moves towards device D just as we wanted. The second copy continues until it reaches the
physical end of the cable.

Page | 44 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Device D (just as devices A and C) receives the signal. Inside of the message the devices receive
there is information that makes it clear that a packet is meant for one specific device only. So devices
A and C will see that the packet is not for them and ignore the information. Of course device D
recognizes that the information is for him and accepts the new packet.

Parallel SCSI Technology

e n
host

/
m
adapter

o
SCSI

e i .c
aw
u
Device A Device B Device C

g .h
Device D

ni n
(1) Device B transmits a signal headed for device D.
r
lea
(2) The signal will be split up at the intersection and moves in two directions !

//
(3) The signal will split again : a signal goes towards Device D but another signal will go on !

:
(4) The terminator at the cable end will absorb the signal so it cannot be reflected and cause problems.

t t p
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 13

s :h
c e
So device D gets the information it needs, but we still have a signal that continues to travel across the
r
ou
bus towards the end of the physical cable. At the end of the cable there are a few possibilities : the

s
signal could be reflected, absorbed or distorted. In any case we dont want any signals to be reflected

e
R
as the signal will interfere with other signals sent that move over the bus.

i n g
n
To avoid the signal being reflected back onto the bus in the opposite direction a so-called terminator

ar
is used to absorb the signal. A terminator looks like a very simple plug that is connected to the end of

L e
the cable but it is a very important part of the success of any SCSI bus communication. A SCSI bus

r ewithout terminator will not be able to transmit any packets of information successfully.

o
M Note:
On the first slide of the SCSI bus we saw that a signal also travels towards Device A (and will have a
copy continue to the SCSI adapter). That signal that travels to the SCSI adapter will have to be
terminated too in order to prevent reflections there.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 45


Parallel SCSI Specifications

Parallel SCSI specifications

Maximum of 16 devices on the SCSI bus.

Bandwidth limitation of 320 MB/s.

Cable length limitation of 25 m in HVD and 12 m in LVD.

e n
/
Terminators are used at end of bus.

o m
e i .c
aw
u
Single Ended LVD LVD/SE
g
HVD
.h
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

ni n
r
Slide 14

// lea
p :
The number of devices connected to the SCSI bus (including the adapter) was 8 in the very first SCSI

t t
:h
standards. Later the number was increased to be 16.

e s
c
Physical problems (skewing and interference) have made it almost impossible to keep on improving

r
ou
the bandwidth of SCSI beyond 320 MB/s. Different technologies like Single Ended, Low Voltage

s
Differential and High Voltage Differential have been used but the cable length could not be more than

e
R
25 meters at best.

i n g
n
As the technologies are different it is important not to mix them : Single Ended devices cannot be

ar
connected to a SCSI bus that is also connected to High Voltage Differential devices !

L e
r e
Each technology is indicated with an icon. There is one combination allowed : Single Ended and Low

o
Voltage Differential can work together because they use the same voltage level of the signal so the

M
components will not be damaged. However the Single Ended technology has much lesser
specifications and whenever two devices SE and LVD are mixed the lowest specifications will be used.
This of course means that the LVD device will work less optimal.

Page | 46 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Electrical Specifications

Electrical specifications

Single Ended.
Uses a reference (ground) to determine whether or not a signal
that is received is a logical 1 or a 0.
Operates at a level of 3.3 Volt.

e n
Low Voltage Differential and High Voltage Differential.
/
Uses a clever trick to eliminate the effect from external distortions.
Operates at 3.3 Volts (LVD) or 5 Volts (HVD).
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

ni n
r
Slide 15

// lea
p :
Inside of the definition of the SCSI standard there are rules and regulations about how the SCSI

t t
:h
protocol works with the sending of data and the way to make sure the right device receives the data it

s
needs. But there are more things defined in the SCSI standard and one of the things is all electrical

c e
properties of the devices. Because all devices are connected to the bus the requirements are such

r
ou
that signals should not influence other signals or other devices. First thing was to agree on a specific

s
voltage level for a signal. In SCSI the data is transmitted as digital information. In digital information

e
R
the only information is 0 or 1.

n g
The way to make clear that a logical 1 was sent is by defining a voltage level to represent it. The
i
n
sending device now creates a pulse with a given voltage level. The receiving device can detect the
r
a
signal as the electronics detect a signal with a certain voltage level. When the voltage level is equal to
e
e L
what was defined as a logical 1 the message will be interpreted as a valid signal 1. Anything less than

or that voltage level is not accepted as a valid signal.

M
In the electronics in the 1970s and 1980s commonly used the 5 Volt voltage level. Later the levels
have been lower to 3.3 Volts and nowadays it is 1.5 Volts. Although the difference between 5 V and
3.3 V seems very small for the production of the electronic components it is a big advantage when the
voltage level is lower.

There are two ways to transmit signals over a copper wire : asymmetrical (or Single Ended) and
Symmetrical (Differential Signaling). In the next section the difference will be explained.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 47


Single Ended SCSI

Single Ended SCSI

Cable lengths are from 6 m (Fast SCSI) down to 1.5 m for the last
standard that supported SE (Wide Ultra SCSI).

e n
original signal external signal
/
3.3 Volt

o m
.c
0 Volt
1 0 1 0 1 0
0 Volt
1 0 1 1 1 0
e i
Ground/ reference signal Ground/ reference signal

aw
u
g .h
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

ni n
r
Slide 16

// lea
p :
With Single Ended, the signal is transported to the other device using a single cable and for reference

t t
:h
purposes a ground signal (equals 0 Volts) is used. At the receiving end the signal is measured again

s
with reference to the ground signal. If somewhere in the cable an external signal is picked up (cross

c e
talk signals, external noises) the receiving end might interpret this distortion as a legitimate signal and

r
ou
read a logical 1 where the original signal sent a logical 0 signal.

es
R
As the performances got higher and higher it became more difficult to distinguish between real data

defined.
i n g
and distortions. Single Ended technology was basically used until the Wide Ultra SCSI standard was

r n
e a
L
At the end Single Ended cables could not be longer than 1.5 meters. The reasons is that physics

r e
creates problems for Single Ended systems with high speed communication.

o
The biggest problem is that with higher speeds the signals that need to be transported cannot easily

M
be distinguished from externally created distorting signals.
The next problem was that it became more and more difficult to protect the physical cable against the
influence of external signals. It is obvious that when the cable is very long the chance that a cable
picks up distortion signals is higher than with short cables. That is basically the reason that Single
Ended cables had to be so short that the distance was less than a couple of meters. And that of
course is not useful when building an ICT infrastructure.

Page | 48 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Differential Signaling

Differential signaling

Two signals are transmitted: 3.3 Volt

a) the original signal. 0 Volt

b) the inverted original signal. 0 Volt


-3.3 Volt
e n
/
At the receiving end the inverted signal is subtracted from the
o m
.c
original signal.

e i
w
6.6 Volt

a
a

u
a-b
0 Volt

.h
b

i n g
n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r
Slide 17

// lea
:
With the differential signaling the effect of external distortion can be eliminated because the original

p
t
signal will be detected in an amplified state (3.3 V - -3.3 V equals a 6.6 V output signal). However the
t
:h
distortion, here the red pulse in the cable that transports the original signal, will not be amplified and

s
so it is possible to state that all signals less than 5 Volts are logical 0-s or distortions which we now
e
can ignore.
r c
s ou
e
With differential signalling it becomes easier to determine whether a received signal is a valid 1 or a

R
distortion. That is why with differential signalling the cable lengths were 25 meters.

i n g
r n
However: there are two versions of differential signalling called HVD and LVD.

e a
In HVD or High Voltage Differential the voltage levels used are the traditional 5 Volts. With LVD or

e L
Low Voltage Differential the voltage level is 3.3 Volts. Just as with other electronic components the

or cost for producing 5 Volts components is higher than with 3.3 Volts components. So over the years
the HVD devices became less popular and LVD devices became more or less the standard.
M
It is obvious that on a bus only signals of the same voltage levels can be transmitted. It is therefore
impossible to connect HVD devices on a bus that is also connected to LVD (or Single Ended) devices.
The difference in voltage levels will probably damage the electronics in the LVD and SE devices !

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 49


SCSI Bus Communication

SCSI bus communication

While one device uses the bus other devices may be active
performing internal activities.

Devices only connects to the bus for Data transfer or status reports.

Devices may disconnect from the bus and reconnect if needed.


e n
Connections takes place between Initiator and Target. /
m

.c o
i
4

e
7
target
initiator
device

aw
u
5 9 3 13

g .h
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

ni n
r
Slide 18

// lea
p :
One of the problems with bus communication is to make sure that multiple devices should not send

t t
:h
data at the same time. When multiple devices send out signals at the same time congestion will occur.

s
Congestion means that the signals will clash together and the result is that the transmission is

c e
unsuccessful. To test if the bus is available for a connection, we use the bus free phase. A device will

r
ou
test if the BSY and the SEL signal wire are false for a specific time (bus settle delay). If the bus is free

s
the protocol moves into the next phase: arbitration. Arbitration arranges two things: first it allows a

e
R
device to claim the bus for its upcoming transmission. Secondly there is a system that decides who

i n g
will get the bus if multiple devices try to claim the bus at the same time.

r n
a
The SCSI ID is the ID used in the addressing phase to indicate who the specific receiver\addressee of

L e
the message is. So using the SCSI ID it can be determined who will receive a packet but also how

e
high the priority is of that receiver. Typically the fastest devices (i.e. hard disk) on the bus get higher
r
o
priorities than slower devices (tape backup units).

Page | 50 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


SCSI Phases

SCSI Phases
SCSI-communication is divided into phases :

Bus Free: before starting a communication the bus must be idle. A


test signal will detect if this is the case.
Arbitration: making sure only one communication runs at any

e n
/
given time
Addressing: here, using the sender address and the receiver
address, will be decided who are about to communicate.
o m
Negotiation: both sides decide on which data path width and
speed to use in the transmission afterwards.
e i .c
Connection: the actual data transmission part.
aw
u
.h
Disconnect: transmission successfully completed => bus released.

i n g
r n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 19

// lea
p :
Every time a connection is established (or in other words a connection between two SCSI devices is

t t
:h
created) all steps of the communication have to be made. Once the device notices that the bus is free

s
the device has now exclusive rights to transmit data over the bus.

r c e
ou
First thing to do next is to tell with which device he wants to communicate. This is called the

s
addressing phase and SCSI uses the SCSI IDs to indicate the target device.

e
R
i n g
Because of the fact that various SCSI versions exist (in speed and number of devices used) both

n
devices have to negotiate on which settings to use:

ar
L -
eWhat will be the transmission rate.

r e - How many addresses are available (8 or 16).

o
M This negotiation phase takes a relative long time to complete. Only then the actual user data will be
transmitted between the devices.

As for every data transmission the steps have to be completed it means that sending data across
SCSI busses can take a long time. Techniques are used to make this time shorter. One important
technique is disconnect-reconnect. Here a device makes the initial connection following all the steps.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 51


Only when the device wants to transmit data to the same device again they can now skip the
negotiation phase as they already know who the receiving device is and what its specifications are.

Another time-saving feature is Tagged Command Queuing or Native Command Queuing.


It is used in most modern hard disks and it uses the concept of sending multiple data packets in one
batch. The device (here the hard disk) will then internally handle the multiple packets and write the
individual SCSI blocks to the physical disk.

e n
/
While the device internally stores the SCSI block the bus will be released so other devices can use

m
the bus in the meantime. This requires the connection to be created less often and the usage of the
bus gets improved.
.c o
e i
aw
u
SCSI Development
g .h
ni n
r
lea
SCSI development

: //
Datapath : 8 BITS

t t p Datapath : 16 BITS

:h
1 MB/s 5 MB/s
SCSI Async Sync

freq x 2

e s
c
FAST SCSI 10 MB/s FAST WIDE 20 MB/s

r
ou
freq x 2
ULTRA 20 MB/s ULTRA WIDE 40 MB/s

es freq x 2

R
ULTRA2 40 MB/s WIDE ULTRA2 80 MB/s

ing
DTC
ULTRA3 160 MB/s

rn
freq x 2 DTC
ULTRA320 320 MB/s

e a
e L
r
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 20

o
M
It was decided in the first SCSI standard to transmit all status information and all SCSI commands (i.e.
addresses) in asynchronous mode at 1.5 MB/s. Once the selection phase was completed the actual
user data was sent in the synchronous mode which leads to higher transmission speeds.

To stay backward compatible in Fast SCSI the asynchronous status/command transmission was kept
constant at 1.5 MB/s whereas the data speed was doubled to 10 MB/s. This is still the situation at this
moment !

Page | 52 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Mostly the performance gain was achieved because of increasing the clock frequency so signals
could be transmitted faster. As from Ultra3 they used a second technology to improve the
transmission rate: Double Transition Clocking.

In SCSI a clock is used to determine when a sample has to be taken of the incoming signal and at
that point they will measure the signal. The clock signal is a block shaped signal and it varies between
0 Volts and 3.3 Volts. The stage in which the signal changes from 0 Volts to 3.3 Volts is called the
raising flank of the clock signal.
When the signal has a value of more than 3.3 Volts it is considered to be a logical 1 signal. Anything
e n
/
m
less than 3.3 Volts is considered a logical 0.

.c o
e i
Single / Double Clocking
aw
u
Single/Double Transition Clocking
g .h
ni n
r
lea
1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0

single
: //
t t p
s :h
r c e1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0

ou
1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0

es
R
double

i n g
r n
e a Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 21

e L
or In the above diagram with single transition clocking the rising flank of the clock signal is used. In
M the example the data received will be interpreted to be 8 bits of data :
1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0

With double transition clocking the falling flank of the clock signal (indicated in red) is also used as
sampling moments. Now not 8 data bits but 16 bits can be represented and that means the number of
transmitted information is doubled without actually changing the clock frequency !
1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 53


SCSI Definitions

SCSI definitions

Max. Bus Length, Meters


Bus Speed Bus Bus Max.
Mbytes/sec. Speed, Width, Single
n
SCSI-Protocol Devices
Max MHz Bits -
Ended
LVD HVD
Support
/ e
SCSI-1 5 5 8 6 25 8
o m
Fast SCSI 10 10 8 3 25

e i .c
8

w
Wild Fast SCSI 20 10 16 3 25 16
Ultra SCSI 20 20 8 1.5
u a
25 8
Wide Ultra SCSI 40 20 16 1.5

g .h 25 16

n
Ultra 2 SCSI 40 40 8 12 25 8

ni
r
Wide Ultra 2 SCSI 80 40 16 12 25 16

lea
Ultra 3 SCSI 160 40 16 12 25 16

://
Ultra 320 SCSI 320 80 16 12 25 16

t tp
:h
es
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 22

r c
s ou
The table clearly shows that the maximum cable lengths have decreased over the years. For Single

Re
Ended devices the cable could not be more than 1,5 meters at the time of Wide Ultra SCSI.

i n g
Also visible is the fact that there is no Wide Ultra 3 SCSI defined. At that time it was decided that the 8

r n
bit wide addressing was no longer required and therefore only the 16 bit version was standardized.

e a
L
Although both HVD and LVD are still supported as a SCSI standard in practical life the LVD standard

e
is mostly used. Reason is mainly because of the cost difference between the hardware components
r
o
for LVD and HVD. It was already stated before that HVD devices cannot be mixed with LVD devices

M
on the same SCSI bus. To prevent this happening it is important to check that before powering on the
devices. At that point it is useful to look at the specifications of all connected devices and the icons
used for SE, LVD and HVD.

Page | 54 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


SCSI Protocol Addressing

SCSI protocol addressing

Bus
Differentiates SCSI buses.
number

e n
Device Differentiates devices
/
ID connected to SCSI buses.
o m
e i .c
LUN
Differentiates sub-
aw
u
devices in SCSI devices.

g .h
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

ni n
r
Slide 23

// lea
p :
The SCSI protocol introduces SCSI device IDs and logical unit numbers (LUNs) to address devices

t t
:h
connected to the SCSI bus. Each device connected to the SCSI bus has a unique ID. The host bus

s
adapters (HBAs) on servers also have device IDs. Each bus has 8 or 16 device IDs. It is the Device

c e
ID that can be used for prioritization. SCSI IDs were set inside of the devices and with that the priority

r
ou
of a device could be determined. It was then important not to give the same SCSI ID to two different

s
devices as that would interfere with the addressing and priorities !

e
R
i n g
Storage devices may have a number of sub-devices, such as virtual disks, tape drives, and medium
changers. LUNs are used to address those sub-devices.

r n
e a
L
A traditional SCSI adapter is connected to a single bus and therefore has only one bus number. One

r eserver may be configured with multiple SCSI controllers. Accordingly, the server has multiple SCSI

o buses. In a storage network, each Fibre Channel HBA or iSCSI network adapter is connected to a bus.

M Therefore, each bus must have a unique bus number. We can identify a SCSI target with three
variables: bus number, device ID, and LUN.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 55


Method for querying the SCSI device ID in Windows

Method for querying the SCSI device ID in Windows

e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

ni n
r
Slide 24

// lea
p
Right-click on My computer and choose Manage from the short-cut menu. In the Computer :
t t
:h
Management window, click Disk Management in the navigation tree. Right-click the mapped disk and

s
choose Properties from the shortcut menu. On the General tab page, you can view the SCSI device
ID information in Location.

r c e
s ou
The picture shows the identifier as Bus Number, Target ID and LUN ID. (or B-T-L). The target ID is

Re
now the actual SCSI ID. The term target is generally used for the location where data is physically

i n g
stored. That could be a physical hard disk but also a more complex storage system.

r n
e a
e L
o r
M

Page | 56 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


ATA and SATA

ATA and SATA

Advanced Technology Attachment was the standard in desktops in


the 1990s.

Use the Programmed IO method and are therefore not very fast or
intelligent.

e n
Serial ATA is the improved version. It has first replaced ATA in
/
m
desktops but...

Because they were relatively cheap and had big capacities they are
.c o
also used in enterprise servers and storage devices.
e i
NL-SAS offers the advantage of big capacity with SAS intelligence.
aw
u
g .h
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

ni n
r
Slide 25

// lea
:
Parallel SCSI has reached its limits of use. It is too difficult to improve the performance as physical

p
t
problems at that point become hard to solve. Serial communication is indifferent to many of the
t
:h
physical problems that parallel communication has. It is therefore the way technology evolves in.

s
SATA is the improved serial version of the ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment) technology that
e
r c
was used in laptops and desktops. With ATA (or better Parallel ATA or PATA) there is a bus

ou
architecture just like with parallel SCSI. However : the PATA interface works different from SCSI.

es
Unlike with SCSI, where the devices can independently decide to communicate with other devices, a

R
PATA interface uses a so-called PIO mode concept.

n g
In PIO mode, or Programmed Input Output, communication is always controlled by the Central
i
n
Processing Unit (CPU) in the host. In the CPU a special software program is used to transfer the data
r
a
that needs to be stored from the RAM memory towards a special register in the CPU. The design of
e
e L
the CPU and software now enables the data to be moved from within the CPU chip via a copper

or based bus system to the interface of the hard disk.


PATA interface were not used in high end solutions because the speed was not optimal. That was

M partly because of the PIO mode but also because with parallel communication in general the
performance is limited.
When SATA was introduced they initially replaced the PATA interfaces that were used in desktops
and laptops. Later they also got used more and more in high end systems. That was primarily
because the capacity of SATA drives was larger than of SCSI drives and at the same time the price
was relatively low. Many vendors used SATA drives in their storage solutions because of the price
and capacities of the disks for some 5 years.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 57


SATA itself is not completely outdated but most vendors have switched over to the superior SAS
technology. With SAS the benefits of SCSI are kept and the limitations it had have been removed.
Capacities of SAS disks are however smaller than the capacities of SATA disks. So a number of
vendors offer storage solutions that use so-called NL-SAS disks or Near Line SAS. The NL SAS disk
is basically a SATA disk drive that is fitted with a SAS type interface and that therefore can be
connected with a SAS device.

So let us have a look at Serial Attached SCSI.

e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
Serial Attached SCSI
g .h
ni n
r
Serial Attached SCSI (1)
// lea
In storage SAS has taken over from parallel attached SCSI and
p :
from SATA.
t t
:h
SAS uses a point-to-point architecture : performance 300 MB/s.
s
r c e
s ou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
o r Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 26

M
A point-to-point connection is designed to be a dedicated link for communication whereas a multidrop
bus has to share the bus. Accessing a point-to-point link is much quicker because no negotiations
have to be held to find out who is allowed to use the link.

Page | 58 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Serial Attached SCSI (2)

e n
/
o m
e i .c
w
SAS SATA compatibility

a
u
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

g
Slide 27
.h
ni n
r
lea
In the design of the SAS interfaces, they have decided to use the same form factor as with SATA for

//
all connectors. This even allows some mixes of device types within a group of disks.

p :
t t
:h
Serial Attached SCSI (3)

e s
c
Architecture allows multiple datapaths with each link running at full

r
speed. Supports bundling of channels for wide-links.

s ou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M
SAS is using full duplex communication.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 28

The most important improvements that SAS offer compared to parallel SCSI are :

Much more throughput because of the serial communication and the promise for the future
that even more performance will be possible. Four channels can be bundled: Wide Link.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 59


A greater number of devices can be connected together. Where SCSI per domain had a
maximum of 16 the maximum for SAS per domain is now 16,384.

Full duplex or bidirectional communication with SAS instead of half duplex (unidirectional).
With traditional parallel SCSI only one connection could be used in one direction. When a
device received a packet in parallel SCSI the response to the packet would be arranged as a
new SCSI communication (with all the necessary steps) after the first connection was
released. Now in SAS two-way communication is possible.

e n
/
o m
Serial Attached SCSI (4)
e i .c
Up to 16,384 SAS devices can be joined together in a SAS domain.
aw
u
.h
1
Expander

Expander
i n g
r n
lea
Expander

//
SAS

:
RAID Expander
Controller

p
1

t t
:h
Expander

e s Expander

c
128

r
128

s ou
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 29

Re
i n g
Per expander a maximum of 128 devices (expanders and/or drives) can be connected. The total

n
maximum of drives attached is 128x128 equals 16,384 drives.

ar
e
A SAS domain therefore exists of expanders and SAS drives. Two types of expanders were defined:

e L 1. Edge expander with only disks attached.

o r 2. Fan-out expander that hold up to 128 expanders.

M
Fan-out expanders are originally equipped with an address routing table that keep track where all
SAS drives are located (each SAS drive gets an unique home address within the domain).
Nowadays also edge expanders are equipped with the routing functionality so the need for separate
fan-out expanders is no longer there.

Note : In practical life the amount of connectors on expander cards (like shown in the picture above) is
less than 128.

Page | 60 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Principles of SAS cabling

Principles of SAS cabling

SAS cable has four channels typically. Each channel is now 12 Gb/s.

SAS devices are linked together in a loop (also called chain).

Bandwidth of 4 x 12 Gb/s limits the number of disks in the loop.

e n
Currently the maximum number is 168 as best practise.
/
With 24 disk drive enclosures this makes 7 enclosures.

o m
However: with the faster SSD drives the maximum number is 96 disks or 4
disk enclosures.
e i .c
SAS connectors are:
aw
u
Mini SAS

g .h
n
Mini SAS High Density

ni
r
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 30

: //
t t p
Most vendors of storage devices now offer SAS as the technology to connect disk enclosures to the

:h
controller(s). SAS cables usually contain 4 separate channels that can be bundled to provide more

e s
bandwidth. At this point a channel can perform at a speed of 12 Gb/s and as a wide link the four

r c
channels can provide 48 Gb/s of bandwidth. To make sure that the bandwidth is not exceeded best

ou
practices are defined that limit the number of disks that are connected in one single loop.

es
R
For Huawei this maximum at this moment is 168 disks. There can be 24 disks in an enclosure which

i n g
means that a maximum of 7 enclosures are supported per loop. However, this is assuming that the

r n
disks are traditional SAS disks. Now that the SSD is getting more popular we must realize that they

e a
can deliver more output than a SAS disk. This has resulted in a best practice maximum for SSD in a

e L
loop to be set to 96 (or 4 enclosures).

or
M
The physical connector has changed when the 6 Gb/s standard was improved. The 6 Gb/s connector
is referred to as mini SAS and the newer 12 Gb/s standard uses the mini SAS HD (High Density)
connector.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 61


SAS and bandwidth limitations

In principle a loop or chain can contain an unlimited number of devices. It is however very important to
realize that practical problems can occur when the number is too big. In the picture below we will
explain these problems.

SAS and bandwidth limitations


e n
/
m
SAS Interface

5 blocks on the loop


.c o
e i

w
Target

u a
.h
Disk Enclosure #1
3 blocks on the loop

g
Target

ni n
r
lea
Disk Enclosure #2
2 blocks on the loop

//
Target

p :
t
Disk Enclosure #3

t
s :h
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 31

r c e
ou
In the above image a typical situation is given where three disk enclosures are connected to a

es
controller. It is a simplified drawing as in real life all cabling is a bit more complex. This will be

R
explained in the chapter about SAN and there are a few real cabling schemes in chapter 9 too.

i n g
r n
The three enclosures are daisy-chained (or put in a one-after-one loop) and all data from an

e a
enclosure will pass through the enclosure in front of the enclosure. In other words the data sent from

L
a disk in enclosure three will pass through enclosure 2 and enclosure 1 on its way to the SAS
e
r
interface in the device. Similar will all data from enclosure 2 pass through enclosure 1.
o
M
The diagram now shows that adding enclosure after enclosure means that the last cable, from
enclosure 1 back to the SAS interface, transports all sent date from enclosure 1,2 and 3. If too many
disks are sending data at the same time the total sum of data in the last cable may be higher than
what the cable can handle. So in the example 2 or 3 blocks (from 3-2 and 2-1) is not a problem, but
the last cable has to handle 5 blocks (all of them). When 4 block is the maximum for the cable then
sending 5 blocks would be done slower than expected. That is why a maximum number is suggested.

Page | 62 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Disk Technology

Disk technology

e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

ni n
r
Slide 32

// lea
p :
Regardless of the technology of the disk (SCSI, SATA, SAS), the mechanics of disk drives have not

t t
:h
changed much over the years. Having said this we must already mention a new technology that is

s
making a big entry in the disk storage world. This new technology is called SSD or Solid State Disks.

r c e
ou
In a SSD hard disk there are no more mechanical moving parts and data is stored on a medium

s
which is best compared with a huge USB flash disk. Solid State Disks are therefore also referred to as

e
R
Flash Disks. At this moment SSD drives are relatively expensive and their capacity is smaller than

i n g
that of traditional mechanical spinning disks. Later in this module Solid State technology will be
explained in more detail.

r n
e a
L
So let us look at the interior of a disk now.

r e
o
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 63


HDD Components

HDD components

Platter

Spindle

e n
Actuator
Head
/
o m
Control Circuit

e i .c
aw
u
.h
Interface

i n g
n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 33

r
// lea
The following are mechanical and electrical components of an HDD:
p :
t t
Head: It reads and writes data.
s :h

c e
Actuator: It moves the head or head arm to a desired position.
r
ou
Platter: It holds the recorded data.

s
Spindle: It spins the flat circular disks, which is the platter.
e

R
Control circuit: Implements system control, speed and spinning adjustments.

i n g
n
All hard disks are based on the same principle:

ar
Magnetic materials are used to cover the platter and then magnetic particles are polarized to encode

L e
a binary information unit (or bit).

r e
o
Using the magnetic properties to store data is very old, relatively cheap and therefore very popular to

M
store large amounts of data. Other storage technologies that also use the magnetic properties
are/were floppy disks and tape.

Page | 64 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Recording Methods

Recording methods

Longitudinal recording (used in the past).

e n
/
Perpendicular recording. Now used and offers disk capacities of
o m
.c
many terrabytes.

e i
aw
u
g .h
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

ni n
r
Slide 34

// lea
p :
Although hard disks have now gotten smaller (the format was 3.5 inch initially but now the format is

t t
:h
2.5 inch), the capacity of disk drives has increased over the years.

e s
c
An important reason is the quality of the magnetic materials, the actuator motors and the construction

r
ou
of the read/write head. But even more important was the introduction of perpendicular recording.

s
Now the magnetic field of the read/write head can change the magnetic particles in a vertical plane

e
R
where in the past it changed the particles in a horizontal plane.

i n g
n
With perpendicular recording a higher density can be achieved and therefore a higher capacity. In the

ar
nearby future capacities of more than 8 TB per disk will be available.

L e
r e
o
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 65


Hard Disk Properties

Hard disk properties

Sector Track
Read / Write head

e n
/
o m
Cylinder
Actuator

e i .c
Platters
aw
Motor
u
Motor
g .h
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

ni n
r
Slide 35

// lea
p :
Data on a hard drive is stored in tracks and sectors. This is because the platter on which the magnetic

t t
:h
material is fixed rotates and a magnetic read/write moves to a specific location over the disk platter.
The pattern the read/write head sees, is a circular pattern called a track. A cylinder is made up of all

e s
c
similar sectors on a track on all of the platters. So in the picture above sectors A, B, C and D form one

r
ou
cylinder

s
The amount of tracks a hard disk uses is dependent on the size of every individual step the actuator,

e
R
on which the read/write head is mounted, makes. In modern hard disks the number of steps the

i n g
actuator arm can make could be in the hundreds which create hundreds of tracks on the platter. Each
of these tracks is divided into sectors. In a sector a fixed amount of binary information can be stored:

r n
a
For most drives this is 512 bytes (or 512 x 8 bits) although a new sector size of 4k (4096 bytes) is now

L e
also available.

r e
o
The motor spinning the platters/disks are high speed motors that have rpms (rotations per minute)

M
ranging from 7200 rpm up to 15.000 rpm for modern disk drives.

The motor moving the actuator is a so-called stepper-motor which can make specific steps from 1 or 2
degrees if necessary with a great accuracy. This of course is also required for the read/write head to
be positioned in the correct way for each movement it makes.

A small difference in the movement will lead to the head not being positioned over the correct track!

Page | 66 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Hard Disk Performance

Hard disk performance (1)

Track Sector 250 sectors per track

Data: 512 bytes per sector (0.5kB)

Per track: 512


250

e n
/
x
125 kB

o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

ni n
r
Slide 36

// lea
p :
In this and following slides a few simplifications have been made. Most important one is the

t t
:h
assumption that every track contains 250 sectors. That was the case with early magnetic storage

s
devices but nowadays drives are more intelligent and one can definitely state that the outer tracks

c e
have more sectors in them than the inner tracks. However the average of 250 still is valid in most

r
ou
cases.

es
R
The number of 512 physical bytes of data per sector is also valid but it is depending on the operating

i n g
system accessing the drive how much actual data can be stored on a disk. Within operating systems
like MS Windows the term cluster size is used. This is the smallest amount of hard disk space a file

r n
a
can occupy. Floppies have a cluster size of 512 bytes and hard disks can have a cluster size ranging

L e
from 1 kilobyte to 16 kilobytes (sometimes even more).

r e
o
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 67


Hard disk performance (2)

10k RPM One revolution takes

60
= = 6 ms
10.000

One revolution equals 125 kB of data

e n
/
o m
Transfer =
125 kB
6 ms
= 20.83 MB/s

e i .c
aw
u
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 37

g .h
ni n
r
lea
The rotational speed of a disk drive is the number of rotations the platter makes every minute. In
storage devices nowadays three rotational speeds (or RPMs) are used:
: //
t t p
:h
- 7.200 Rotations Per Minute.

- 10.000 Rotations Per Minute.


e s
r c
ou
- 15.000 Rotations Per Minute.

es
R
It takes the platter 6 ms to make one full turn. If the read/write head reads all the data in that track it

i n g
has read 125 kB of data. Transfer speeds or throughput are measured in MB/s so in this case: 125 kB

n
in 6 ms makes a throughput of 20.83 MB/s for a 10.000 RPM disk drive.

ar
Note :
L e
r e
This is the ideal situation. As normally the read/write head is not over the right track and has to be

o
moved there. Also: once the read/write head is over the track it does not mean that the right sector is

M
beneath the read/write head. Statistically you will have to wait half a turn to get to the correct sector to
begin the read. This half turn is called the rotational latency. Sometimes the sector is directly under
the read head and sometimes it has just moved past the read/write head and you will have to wait a
full turn. The average wait is therefore a half turn.

Page | 68 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Hard disk performance (3)

15k RPM One revolution takes

60
= = 4 ms
15.000

One revolution equals 125 kB of data

e n
/
o m
Transfer =
125 kB

e i
= 31.25 MB/s .c
w
4 ms

u a
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

g Slide 38
.h
ni n
r
// lea
With a disk with a higher number of RPMs, the full turn is shorter in time. Now it would take just 4 ms
to read the same 125 kB and the throughput would then be 31.25 MB/s.
p :
t t
As mentioned before this is the ideal situation. The next picture shows the effect of rotational latency

:h
and the effect of having to move the read /write head to the proper track on the throughput.

e s
r c
o u
Hard disk performance (4a)

e s
R 10k drive:

i n g Seek Time 6 ms

r n
a
Rotational latency = track = 3 ms

e
eL
Read time track = 6 ms

or
+
Total time needed = 15 ms

M
Full
access 125 kB
transfer = = 8.33 MB/s
15 ms

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 39

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 69


Hard disk performance (4b)

15k drive:

Seek Time 6 ms

Rotational latency = track = 2 ms

Read time track = 4 ms

n
+

e
Total time needed = 12 ms

/
o m
Full
access 125 kB
e i .c
w
transfer = = 10.4 MB/s

a
12 ms

u
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 40

g .h
ni n
r
lea
Modern day hard disks take approximately 6 ms to move the read/write head actuator from one track

//
to another track. This is referred to as the seek time. So it takes 6 ms to get to the right track; another
:
t p
half a turn to find the right starting point on the track and then another full turn to read all data in the

t
:h
track. The above picture shows that this has a big impact on the throughput of a disk. Things get even

s
worse when we do not want to read the entire track but we are now interested in a single sector!

r c e
ou
The term sequential read is used when data is read from a disk drive from many consecutive sectors

s
on the same track. Sequential reads (or writes) are relatively quick as the read\write head does not

e
R
have to move between tracks to get to many sectors of data.

i n g
In real life the data is stored randomly across the magnetic surface of the platters. It is partly because

n
of the working of the operating system but also because of the technology inside of storage device.

ar
L e
For random reads the data needs to be picked up as individual sectors that are located on different

r e
tracks. The next picture shows what that means for the performance of the disk drive.

o
M

Page | 70 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Hard disk performance (5a)

10k drive:

Seek Time 6 ms

Rotational latency = track = 3 ms

Read time one sector = 0.02 ms

n
+
Total time needed = 9.02 ms

/ e
o m
Single
sector 512 bytes
e i .c
transfer =
9.02 ms
aw
= 55.4 kB/s

u
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

g Slide 41
.h
ni n
r
// lea
:
Hard disk performance (5b)
t tp
: h
e s 15k drive:

r c Seek Time 6 ms

o u
s
Rotational latency = track = 2 ms

R e Read time one sector = 0.016 ms

g
+

n
Total time needed = 8.016 ms

n i
ar
e
eL
Single
sector 512 bytes

or
transfer = = 63.9 kB/s
8.016 ms

M Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 42

Per disk the throughput is not very high if only individual sectors are picked up off of a disk platter.
Fortunately in a hard disk multiple platters are used and multiple read/write heads that can pick up
more data for us. Add to that the fact that many disk drives can be used simultaneously which then
implies that the amount of data that can be read per second is enormous.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 71


Apart from the amount of data a disk drive can read from the magnetic platters there is also a
parameter to be mentioned: IOPS.

IOPS is short for Input and Outputs Per Second. This IOPS value states how many times per
second a disk drive can push out data blocks (different sizes are possible when you do test) out of
the interface of the disk drive onto the network/path to the host.

For performance information the number of IOPS a disk drive can deliver is very important. If an

e n
/
application wants data to be moved from the disk to the host quickly it needs many IOPS. The number

m
of IOPS per disk is mechanically fixed. The following (average) values for IOPS can be used:

.c o
Drives based on SATA technology : 80 100 IOPS.
e i
Drives based on SAS technology : 150 200 IOPS.
aw
u
g .h
By having multiple hard disks send data simultaneously the total amount of IOPS can be calculated
by simply adding the IOPS values of all individual hard disks used.
ni n
r
// lea
p :
t t
s :h
r c e
s ou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
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M

Page | 72 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Average Access Time

Average access time

Average access time contains two parts:

1. Average seek time.

2. Average latency time.

Platter Latency

e n
/
Data block

o m
Seek

e i .c
Tracks

aw
u
.h
Seek time Latency time

i n g
n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 43

r
// lea
:
Average Seek Time

t t p
The average seek time of an HDD is the time it takes for the head to move from its initial position to

:h
the specified position. It is an important parameter that affects internal data transfer rate. The lower

e s
the average seek time, the better. The average seek time of IDE HDDs ranges from 8 ms to 11 ms.

r c
Average Latency Time
s ou
Re
The latency time, also known as hibernation time, refers to the time it takes for the desired data to be

n g
beneath the read head, assuming the head is over the desired tracks. Statistically it is half of the time
i
r n
it takes for a complete turn of the platter. Therefore, the faster an HDD rotates the lower the average

a
latency time. The average latency time is usually less than four milliseconds.
e
e L
or Average Access Time

M The average access time is the sum of the average seek and latency time.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 73


Transfer Rates

Transfer rates

Data transfer rate.

Internal transfer rate.

External transfer rate.

Platter

e n
/
HDD

o m
Seek

e i .c
Tracks

aw
u
.h
External Internal

i n g
n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r
Slide 44

// lea
Data Transfer Rate

p :
t t
Data transfer rate refers to the speed at which an HDD writes or reads data and is expressed in MB/s.

:h
Data transfer rate is divided into internal transfer rate and external transfer rate.

e s
r c
ou
Internal Transfer Rate

es
Internal transfer rate, also called sustained transfer rate, refers to the speed at which data are

R
transferred from an HDD to its high-speed cache. It reflects the performance when the disk cache is

n g
not in use. It is a bottleneck for the overall HDD speed. Internal transfer rate mainly depends on the
i
r n
HDD rotational speed and is expressed in Mbit/s rather than MB/s.

e a
e L
External transfer rate

o r
External transfer rate, also known as burst data transfer rate or interface transfer rate, refers to the

M
speed at which data are transferred from the system bus to the disk cache. It is affected by the HDD
interface type and the size of HDD cache.

Page | 74 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


IOPS and Throughput

IOPS and throughput

IOPS

Input/Output Operations Per Second (IOPS) is a common disk


performance indicator that refers to the number of reads and writes
per second in an HDD.

e n
Throughput
/
Throughput indicates the amount of data that can be successfully
o m
i .c
transferred within a given time. For applications involving large-

e
quantity sequential reads and writes such as video editing and video
on demand (VoD), throughput is more important than IOPS.

aw
u
g .h
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

ni n
Slide 45

r
// lea
:
I/O calculation algorithm

t t p
The time it takes for a disk to complete an I/O request consists of the seek time, latency time, and

:h
data transfer time.

e s
r c
The seek time (Tseek) refers to the time taken by the head to move to a specified position. A shorter

ou
seek time indicates faster I/O operations.
s
e
Mainstream disk seek time ranges from 3 ms to 15 ms.
R
i n g
The rotation latency (Trotation) refers to the time it takes for the desired data to be beneath the

r n
read head. The rotation latency depends on the rotational speed and is usually half of the time it takes

e a
for a complete turn of the platter.

e L
For example: The average latency of a 7200 rpm disk is: 60 x 1000/7200/2 = 4.17 ms, and that of a

or 15,000 rpm disk is 2 ms.

M The data transfer time is the time that an HDD takes to transfer the requested data. It depends on
the data transfer rate. It is equal to the data size divided by the data transfer rate. Mainstream IDE
and ATA disks can reach an interface data transfer rate of 133 MB/s, and SATA II disks can reach up
to 300 MB/s.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 75


Given such a high transfer rate, the data transfer time is usually much shorter than the seek and
latency time. Therefore, the maximum IOPS in theory is 1000 ms/ (Tseek + Trotation), neglecting data
transfer time.

Suppose that the average seek time is 3 ms and rotational speeds are 7200, 10,000, and 15,000 rpm,
then the maximum IOPS values in theory are:

IOPS = 1000 / (3 + 60,000/7200/2) = 140.

IOPS = 1000 / (3 + 60000/10,000/2) = 167.

e n
IOPS = 1000 / (3 + 60000/15,000/2) = 200.
/
o m
e i
Earlier it was mentioned that SATA based disk drives on average could deliver 80-100 IOPS and SAS .c
w
based disk drives could deliver 150-200 IOPS. That number of IOPS varies a little with different
a
rotational speeds but the maximum numbers are still valid.
u
g .h
Depending on the size of each block that is pushed out we can calculate theoretical throughputs for

i n
the hard disks. The table below shows the values for the three most used types : SATA; SAS; SSD
n
r
// lea
Device Type Realized Transfer speed
p : Number of devices/bus

t t
:h
SATA 200-300 MB/s 2

e s
c
SAS 300-500 MB/s 16,384
r
SSD
s ou
500-1800 MB/s 16,384

Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
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M

Page | 76 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Solid State Disk

Solid State Disk

A Solid State Disk (or SSD) is becoming more popular because of


the price that is dropping and the capacity that is getting bigger and
bigger.

Three basic types of SSD exist:

Single Level Cell or SLC.

e n
/
Multi Level Cell or MLC.

m
Triple Level Cell or TLC.

SSDs:
.c o
use flash technology to store digital information.
e i
w
have no mechanical moving parts internally and therefore use less
power; generate less heat and noise.

u a
.h
However: SSDs have a life span based on the usage of the SSD.

i n g
n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 46

r
// lea
:
Although the traditional mechanical hard disk will not disappear very soon the successor is already

t p
widely available and becoming more popular every day. Solid State Disks or SSDs do not store the
t
:h
information using magnetic properties but store the information within so-called cells. This technology

s
is referred to as flash and it makes it possible to store digital information very quickly and very
e
c
compact. Another big advantage of SSDs is that they do not generate noise and also do not generate
r
ou
a lot of heat compared to traditional hard disks.

es
R
SSDs have no moving parts internally but that does not mean they will last forever. Because of the

n g
internal technology used in flash drives there is what they call a wear process. Every cell has a limited
i
n
number of times the content of the cell can be changed. Once this number has been reached the disk
r
a
cannot guarantee to be used (reads or writes) without errors in the data. This drive wear is however
e
e L
easy to monitor and predict so a replacement disk can be ordered in time. Traditional hard disks often

or fail without any warning which means that replacement disks have to be available at that moment.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 77


SLC MLC - TLC

Every cell in a SSD can store digital information using NAND.

In a SLC.
every cell in a SSD can represent one single bit of information: 0 or 1.

e n
/
In a MLC.
o m
.c
a cell represents two bits of information: 00, 01, 10 or 11.

In a TLC.
e i
a cell represents three bits of information: 000, 001, 010, 011, 100,
aw
u
101, 110 and 111.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 47

g .h
ni n
r
lea
A cell consists of a small transistor-like component called a NAND circuit. Each NAND circuit

//
traditionally could store a single bit of information so a 1 or a 0. The newer generation of SSD
:
drives uses a special technique to store more information in a cell.

t t p
s :h
A MLC or multi-level cell can store 2 bits in a cell and the TLC or triple level cell can store 3 bits per

c e
cell. Two bits of information means that 4 different data patterns can be stored: 00 , 01 , 10 and 11.
r
ou
With three bits the number of data patterns is 8 so more information can be stored in a TLC as the

s
physical size of a cell in a SLC is the same as for a MLC or TLC.

e
R
i n g
That is the reason that the capacity of SSDs has gone up a lot the last couple of generations. The
first SSDs had capacities starting from 64 GB. Now the biggest models TLC can store up to 2.4 TB of

r n
data.

e a
e L
r
However : The different types of SSD drives have different wear patterns. This means that it is

o
important to understand the wear characteristics when a SSD is selected.

Page | 78 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Solid State Disk wear

The most important limitation is the number of changes a cell can


have.

Enterprise versions of SLC , MLC and TLC have different values:

Type Capacity Number of P/Es * Price per unit

n
SLC Small About 100,000 High

eMLC Moderate About 30,000 Medium


/ e
cMLC Moderate 5,000 to10,000 Low
o m
TLC Large 500 to 1,000 Very Low

e i .c
* P/Es are the number of changes of the cell.

aw
u
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

g
Slide 48
.h
ni n
r
lea
The table shows that number of P/Es vary between the SLC, MLC and TLC types. That means that a

//
basic understanding of the application that writes (or reads) data from the SSD is required so the

p :
impact on the wear of the SSD can be determined. So for an application that primarily writes new data

t t
:h
it is best to select a SLC type SSD. Those are much more expensive but the wear of the SLC is much

s
better as it allows 100.000 P/Es compared to the 1000 a TLC allows.

c e
TLS on the other had are very good choices when a SSD should store a lot of data that gets read

r
ou
often for example video files, audio files or even website information. This data does not get changed

s
a lot and will then not wear out the SSD so quickly.

e
R
i n g
Note: eMLC and cMLC are terms to describe different versions of quality of Solid State Disks. The

n
letter e stands for Enterprise (high quality, expensive) where the letter c stands for Consumer (lower

ar
quality, less expensive).

L e
r e
o
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 79


SSD Introduction

SSD introduction

SSD Hardware Components

SSD Structure Backup power supply

Multi-channel 6 Gbit/s

n
SSD controller SAS interface
Flash concurrency

/ e
m
DDR memory

.c o
Elimination of high-speed rotational component, high
performance, and lower energy consumption.
e i
Multi-channel concurrency.

aw
u
TCQ/NCQ, simultaneous response to multiple I/O

.h
requests.
Average response time less than 0.1 ms.

i n g
n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r
Slide 49

// lea
Native Command Queuing (NCQ) and Tagged Command Queuing (TCQ) technologies again sort

p :
t
the commands sent from a computer to disks, improving disk performance. NCQ technology was
t
:h
introduced in 300 MB/s SATA II disks, tailored for mainstream disks. TCQ technology was introduced

s
in SCSI2 (also in ATA-4) by Compaq, tailored for servers and enterprise-class disks.
e
r c
The same technology was later adapted by most hard disk manufacturers but the name was changed

ou
to be NCQ.

es
R
For a system to support NCQ and TCQ, its disk interfaces as well as disks of the chip group must

n g
support these two technologies. If a motherboard supports NCQ while a disk doesn't, then the
i
r n
technologies are unavailable.

e a
e L
o r
M

Page | 80 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Advantages of SSD Performance

Advantages of SSD performance

Short response time. SSD technology advantages

HDDs waste plenty of time in data


seeking and latency, greatly
affecting data transfer efficiency.
I/O

n
I/O

High read/write efficiency. Seek time


IP/FC SAN

/ e
When data is randomly read and
Latency time

o m
i .c
written on an HDD, its head has to

e
keep rotating, leading to inefficient
reading and writing. An SSD uses
its internal controller to locate and
aw
u
directly read data, improving vs

.h
reading and writing efficiency.
Traditional HDD SSD storage

g
storage system system

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

ni n
r
Slide 50

// lea
Short response time

p :
t t
HDDs waste plenty of time in data seeking and latency, greatly affecting data transfer efficiency.

:h
SSDs eliminate the seek time and latency time as they have no mechanical motion components,
responding fast to read and write requests.
e s
r c
High read/write efficiency
s ou
Re
When data is randomly read and written on an HDD, its head has to keep rotating, leading to

i n g
inefficient reading and writing.

r n
a
An SSD uses its internal controller to locate and directly read data, improving reading and writing

e
e L
efficiency. In a 4k random read/write scenario, a Fibre Channel disk delivers 400/400 IOPS, while a

r
SSD delivers 26,000/5600 IOPS.

o
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 81


SSD Energy Efficiency and SDD Environment Adaptability Advantage

SSD energy efficiency advantage

Heat distribution 100,000 read IOPS energy consumption

SSD HDD

e n
/
o m
.c
2 SSDs 250 HDDs

Energy consumption (W)

e i
4000

aw
u
Nearly 400x

.h
2000

SSD

i n g FC HDD

r n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 51

//
SSD's energy efficiency advantage over HDD cannot be seen when only a few disks are used.
lea
p :
However, if a large number of disks are used, SSDs consume far less energy than HDDs. This is also

t
a key factor for enterprises to consider when selecting storage solutions.t
s :h
r c e
SDD environment adaptability advantage

ou
SSDs have no rotational component and can

es
withstand severe environment conditions.
For example, HUAWEI SSDs can:
R

i n g
withstand a vibration acceleration of 16.4 G
while HDDs can withstand only 0.5 G

n
acceleration.

ar
e
withstand 1500 G impact while HDDs usually

L
withstand only 70 G.

r e HSSDs have gone through the following

o tests using professional testing equipment:

M Static pressure test, drop test, random


vibration test, impact test and collision test.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 53

SSDs are resistant to harsh environments such as high temperature or humidity and strong vibration.
Some industry-class applications require that SSDs should withstand a temperature ranging from
20C to +70C or 40C to +85C.

Page | 82 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


SSD Application in Storage

SSD application in storage

Level-A application: features highly concurrent random reads and


writes, such as database applications.

Level-B application: sequential reading and writing of large-size


files, pictures, and stream media.

Level-C application: features backup data or rarely used data.


e n
/
m
Access frequency

SSD media

o
A

.c
Fibre Channel or

i
SAS disk

e
SATA or tape

w
B

u a
C

g .h Data
distribution

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

ni n
r
Slide 53

// lea
80/20 Principle:

p :
t
Data that is frequently read, written, and changed by users usually accounts for 20% of the total data
t
:h
amount. This type of data is called hot data and corresponds to level-A applications.

e s
Tiered storage:
r c
ou
Hot data is stored on SSDs. Data of level-B and level-C applications is usually stored on high-speed

es
HDDs or general HDDs to improve performance and reduce costs.

R
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 83


Questions

Questions

1. Name three characteristics of a DAS ICT infrastructure.

2. What is the difference between parallel and serial


communication?

e n
/
3. How many devices can be connected together in a SAS domain?

4. Name the three types of Solid State Disks.

o m
5. Describe what is meant with the term : SSD wear.

e i .c
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 55

// lea
p :
Answers
t t
s :h
r c e
1. Block based (SCSI); Islands of Storage ; short distances between components.
2. With parallel communication multiple paths are used simultaneous to transmit data. With

s ou
parallel communication come physical and electrical problems.

e
Serial communication uses a single path to transmit the data sequentially.
R
g
3. Maximum is 16,384 devices in a single SAS domain.
4. SLC; MLC; TLC.

n i n
r
5. The maximum amount of physical changes to the SSD medium before the SSD reports that it
a
e
has to be replaced. It is therefore not really a mechanical wear indicated in days, years or
L
e
months but a number.

o r
M

Page | 84 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


Exam Preparation

Exam preparation (1)

1. Statements

n
Statement 1: A DAS solution is also referred to as an Island of Storage.

Statement 2: SLC type SSDs are ideal when large amounts of data
/ e
m
need to be stored and read many times.

a. Statement 1 is true ; Statement 2 is true.


.c o
b. Statement 1 is true ; Statement 2 is false.
e i
c. Statement 1 is false ; Statement 2 is true.
aw
u
.h
d. Statement 1 is false ; Statement 2 is false.

i n g
r n
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 56

: //
t t p
Exam preparationh(2)
s :
r c e
u
2. Which of the following disk drive technologies are used in high

o
s
end storage solutions? Select all that apply

a.
ReParallel SCSI.

ing
b. ATA.

rn
c. SAS.

e a d. SSD.

eL
e. PIO.

or
M
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 57

Answers

1. The correct answer is: B.

2. The corrects answers are : A, C, D.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 85


Summary

Summary

Direct Attached Storage is not used anymore as the idea of


having islands of storage is no longer popular.

SCSI technology is still used to connect hosts with their physical


disks.

e n
Serial Attached SCSI has replaced the old parallel SCSI /
technology almost completely.
o m
SAS is highly scalable; has a high performance and is relatively
cheap to implement.
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 58

// lea
p :
t
In the previous chapter we have seen the development of disk technology (parallel SCSI, SATA, SAS)

t
:h
as the interface between hosts, and their applications, with the physical hard disks that hold the user

s
data.

r c e
ou
DAS systems have a limitation in the fact that all data is private to the host. Sharing was/is not easy

s
between islands of storage. So the evolution of ICT infrastructures led to the next step: Network

e
Attached Storage.
R
i n g
n
Goals for Network Attached Storage solutions are:
-
ar
to eliminate the islands of storage.
-
L e
to allow people to share disk space.
-
r eto allow people to share data with other hosts and their applications.

o
M

Page | 86 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


e n
Thank you /
o m
www.huawei.com
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
// lea
p :
t t
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 58

s :h
r c e
s ou
Re
i n g
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or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology Page | 87


e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
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// lea
p :
t t
s:h
r c e
sou
Re
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Page | 88 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109102 DAS Technology


e n
/
OHC1109103 o m
NAS Technology e i .c
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
lea
www.huawei.com

: //
t t p
s:h
r c e
sou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M
e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
// lea
p :
t t
s:h
r c e
sou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M
Introduction
In this module we will look at the second of the possible ICT infrastructures: NAS or in full Network
Attached Storage.

Objectives
After completing this module you will be able to:
e n
/
m
Know the NAS structure and implementation.

Master NAS file sharing protocols, NFS and CIFS.


.c o
e i
w
Understand the I/Os and performance of a NAS system.

Understand the differences and relationship between SAN and NAS.


u a
Understand Huawei NAS products.
g .h
ni n
r
Module Contents
// lea
p :
1. Characteristics of a NAS ICT infrastructure.
t t
:h
2. NAS network topology.
3. Network protocols CIFS and NFS.
e s
r c
ou
4. Ethernet Standard.

s
5. Ethernet Cables.
10-BASE5.
Re


10-BASE2.
10-BASE-T.
i n g

r n
a
Crossover and straight cables.

L e
6. Ethernet Frame.

r e
o
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology Page | 91


e n
/
o m
e i .c
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g .h
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p :
t t
s:h
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Page | 92 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology


Network Attached Storage

Network Attached Storage

OS=Windows OS=Linux OS=MAC OS

1. Network is based on Ethernet.


2. With Gigabit Ethernet and CAT 6 cables: max = 100 m.

e n
/
3. Shared folders are created on the NAS server for
individual users.
4. Files are moved across the network.

o m
.c
5. Hosts can run different operating systems.

i
6. Different protocols are used such as CIFS and NFS.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 4

we
u a
With Direct Attached Storage (or DAS) there are a few problems and limitations.
g .h
ni n
r
The lack of scalability and the fact that you cannot share data between the DAS islands of storage are

lea
the biggest problems. With the introduction of Network Attached Storage these problems have been

//
solved. Now it is possible to build an infrastructure that uses Ethernet networking technology to

p :
connect multiple workstations (that is where the applications run that need or create the data) to the

t t
:h
actual place where the data is now centrally stored.

e s
Important difference with DAS technology is the shape in which data is moved between the application

r c
running on a workstation and the physical disk.

s ou
e
With DAS the data was transmitted as SCSI blocks with a size of 512 bytes. For the transmission all

R
actions in the SCSI protocol, discussed in the previous module, were required.

i n g
n
Network Attached Storage (or NAS) solutions work differently. If you would be able to look inside of

ar
the network cables you would see entire files being moved across the network. In the beginning when

L e
the speed of the Ethernet technology was rather limited it took a lot of time to move for instance a file

r e
of two GB across the network. NAS solutions were not very popular then, but now the speed of the

o
Ethernet network is 1 or even 10 Gb/s and NAS infrastructures have been proven to be very fast as

Mwell.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology Page | 93


What still remains is the scalability of NAS infrastructures. As the medium across which we
transport the files is mostly a copper-based Ethernet cable (we use an indication like CAT 5E or CAT6
to indicate the quality of an Ethernet cable) there are limits to the length of an individual Ethernet cable.
That in itself does not mean that NAS infrastructures are bound to the length of a single cable. There
is of course the option to connect multiple cables using switches/repeaters to span greater distances.
However, it takes time for switches/repeaters to receive the signal and retransmit it again. So the more
switches/repeaters are used (in other words, the longer the distance between the various components
of a NAS infrastructure) the longer it will take for the signal to be physically transmitted. That can then
be translated in a rather slow connection/transmission.
e n
/
o
Ethernet itself is a standard which is officially called IEEE 802.3 and it describes hardware as well as
m
software specifications.

e i .c
Note:
aw
u
.h
Throughout this course the speeds of a transmission will be indicated in Gb/s or Gbit/s. In both cases it

g
ni n
refers to a transmission speed of 1 gigabit per second or 1,000,000,000 bits per second.

r
lea
In upcoming slides a few of the most important specifications of Ethernet will be discussed.

: //
t t p
:h
Note:

e s
IEEE is the name of the committee that has set up the specifications for many technologies among

r c
ou
which the Ethernet standard. The full title of the committee is the Institute of Electrical and

s
Electronics Engineers.

Re
i n g
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NAS Network Topology

NAS network topology


Windows clients Unix/Linux clients

CIFS NFS

e n
/
m
Windows
share

o
Unix/Linux
Windows server share Unix/Linux Server

.c
NAS server

e i
w
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 5

u a
The picture shows a modern NAS solution where the device identified with NAS is the most important
g .h
component. The NAS device is connected via a network switch with multiple servers and/or client

ni n
systems (sometimes also referred to as workstations).
r
// lea
:
The workstations and servers can run different operating systems and they all run their specific

p
t t
applications. The data that these applications generate is stored on the hard disk(s) that are inside of

:h
the NAS device.

e s
c
In the past the network technology to connect the workstations with the NAS device could be
r
ou
something like Token Ring, FDDI or ArcNet. As Ethernet has become the most popular network

s
connection mode, we will only discuss the NAS environments that are based on Ethernet.

e
R
g
As discussed before the NAS device transports entire files across the network to and from the

i n
workstations/servers. As workstations optional run different operating systems there is a need for the

n
r
NAS device to understand how each operating systems handles the transport of a file. Reason of
a
e
course is that a Windows based host uses a different method to find and access a file that is stored
L
e
externally than a Linux\Unix based host. The way an operating system accesses a file that is stored on

or
a network connected device is called a protocol.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology Page | 95


Protocols are used within operating systems to access a file which is not physically located inside a
host but are only accessible via the network interfaces over an Ethernet based network.

Operating system Protocol.

Windows SMB (Server Message Block), CIFS (Common Internet File System).

n
Linux/Unix NFS (Network File System).

/ e
o m
.c
Apple AppleTalk (older Apple MAC OS-es), NFS.

e i
Novell NCP (Novell Control Protocol).
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
lea
The goal in Network Attached Storage solutions is to allow file sharing. With File sharing computer

//
data (or space) is shared (public or private) in a network with various levels of access privileges. Of

:
course there are other ways to share a file with someone (for example, simply by handing someone
p
t t
your file on a usb stick or mailing the file), the term file sharing almost always means sharing files in a

:h
networking environment, even in a small local area network. File sharing allows a number of people to

e s
use the same file (or multiple files in a folder) by some combination of being able to read or view it,

r c
write to or modify it, copy it or print it.

s ou
e
There are two possible implementations of NAS: Integrated NAS and NAS gateway.

R
i n g
The next slides will discuss the differences between them.

r n
e a
e L
o r
M

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NAS implementation: Integrated NAS

NAS implementation: Integrated NAS

IP

e n
/
Example: Huawei OceanStor V3.

o m
.c
NetApp FAS series.

e i
aw
u
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 6

The Integrated NAS is the last stage of the evolution of NAS. In the older version called NAS
g .h
gateway an extra device is used for NAS functionalities.
ni n
r
In the integrated NAS everything needed is collected in one single device. It has the options to store

// lea
:
data on hard disk and handle the request of all the clients computers that want to write (or read) the

p
files on the NAS.
t t
s :h
Some examples of solutions of Integrated NAS are Huaweis OceanStor V3 series storage and
NetApps FAS series.
r c e
s ou
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HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology Page | 97


NAS implementation: NAS gateway

NAS implementation: NAS gateway

NAS gateway

IP FC

e n
/
Storage Array

o m
.c
Example: Huawei N8500.
NetApp FAS 8000.

e i
aw
u
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 7

The picture clearly shows that a NAS gateway is a device that links the client computers (left) with the
g .h
actual storage array where the data is stored. The storage arrays are then block based and the NAS
ni n
r
lea
gateway converts the data from bits and bytes into files (and vice versa). The NAS gateway is a

//
dedicated solution that has connections with both the IP network as well as the FC network.

p :
t t
:h
NAS Architecture

e s NETWORK FILE SYSTEM

c
NFS and CIFS

r
s ou FILE SYSTEM

Re
ing
OPERATING SYSTEM

arn
e
NAS HARDWARE

e L
r
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 8

o
MThis image show the NAS architecture or in other words: the software structure for a NAS device.

Page | 98 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology


What is CIFS?

What is CIFS?
Common Internet File System (CIFS).
A protocol that enables application programs to access files and
services on a remote Internet computer.

Transmission protocol used is TCP/IP.

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol).


Part of the TCP/IP protocol that takes care that packets are send

n
in the right order. It is also responsible for the error-checking part.

IP (Internet Protocol).
/ e
Responsible for the actual delivering of the packets to the
receiving system. To find that receiving system it uses the IP
o m
.c
address of the receiver.

e i
w
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 9

u a
The name CIFS itself is not really accurate. The real name is SMB v2 (and later v3). SMB or Server
g .h
Message Blocks was used for a couple of reasons and one was to access files which were on another

ni n
Windows based host connected to the same network.
r
// lea
CIFS uses the client/server model and is dedicated to file sharing in the Windows environment. A

p :
t t
client sends a request to a remote server, asking for services and the server responds to the request.

:h
A NAS system uses the CIFS file system to share storage resources with Windows servers. In a NAS

s
system it is very important that we not only store our data centrally but also there should be the
e
r c
possibility to have more hosts access the same data simultaneously. In the common language the

ou
name File Server is also used to describe the functions of NAS devices. In many organizations the

es
concepts of sharing data is then described as: our data is stored on a public folder on the fileserver.

R
i n g
Public folders, or better shared folders, are then used to store data that has to be accessible for

n
several users. In practice a company creates multiple shared folders and it uses methods within the

ar
operating system to allow only certain users to access certain folders.

L e
e
It is even possible to organize things in such a way that some users can only see the files and use

or
them (Read-Only permission) where others have the possibility to change the contents of a file (Read-

MWrite permission). These options to set permission levels (Read-Only \ Read-Write) can be set on
individual files or on folders or subdirectories that hold many, many files.

Also: both Linux as well as Windows have the options to assign these permissions to individual users
(or even groups of users).

What is NFS?

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology Page | 99


What is NFS?

Network File System (NFS).


A technology for sharing files among UNIX systems. It allows data to
be stored on central servers and easily accessed from clients over a
network.

Originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984.

Based on the Open Network Computing Remote Procedure Call


system. This is an open standard allowing anyone to implement it.

e n
/
o m
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 10

e i .c
aw
u
Although most of the servers in professional data centers run the Microsoft operating system there are
also quite a few companies that use the open source Linux operating systems. Nobody can really

g .h
state to be the actual owner of the Linux operating system because the open source concepts means

ni n
r
that everybody can get the software for free and use (or adapt) it freely. That has led to a number of

lea
different versions of the Linux operating system.

Examples of Linux versions or Linux distributions are Red Hat, SuSe, Ubuntu and CentOS. A good
: //
t t p
thing with all these Linux versions, and also with similar operating systems like Unix and Mac OS X, is

:h
that they all use the same foundation. In that foundation, also referred to as the kernel, the protocol to

e s
access remote files is present: NFS. With NFS or Network File System a Linux\Unix based host can
access a remote file via the network.
r c
s ou
The NFS protocol was originally developed by SUN Microsystems in 1984, allowing directories and

Re
files to be shared among systems, even if they are running different distributions. Through the NFS,

i n g
users and programs can access files on a remote system just like they would when accessing local

n
files. The NFS enables each computer to utilize network resources as conveniently as local resources,

ar
that is to say, NFS allows file access and sharing among heterogeneous computers, operating

L e
systems, network architectures, and transmission protocols.

r e
o
M

Page | 100 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology


NFS also uses the client/server model and involves a client program and a server program. The server
program allows other computers to access the shared file system, and the result of the process is
called "output". The client program accesses the shared file system, and result of the process is called
"input". Files are transmitted in blocks (a block = 8 KB). Operations may be divided into fragments of
a smaller size. The NFS enables file access and sharing among servers and clients, and allows clients
to access data saved on remote storage devices.

In the past it was very common to have only Windows based hosts interconnected on a network or

e n
Linux\Unix based hosts. A combination of the two was virtually impossible as the protocols CIFS and
/
NFS are not compatible as they run on different operating systems.
o m
e i
Long before the first real NAS solutions were made there was a project called SAMBA that was .c
w
intended to allow a Windows based host to transport files to and from a Unix\Linux based host.
a
u
SAMBA is basically a project where tools were developed for a Windows host (NFS client software) to

.h
transfer files to a Unix\Linux host. Of course the reverse option was/is also available: tools exist for
g
i n
Unix\Linux hosts (Samba is one of them) to perform CIFS actions. Today a NAS device has both

n
r
protocols on board. The SAMBA project itself still exists. For more information on SAMBA please

lea
visit http://www.samba.org.

: //
t t p
s :h
r c e
s ou
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HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology Page | 101


Comparison between CIFS and NFS

Comparison between CIFS and NFS


If a file system is already set to:

a CIFS share, the file system can only be set to a read-only NFS share
additionally.

an NFS share, the file system can only be set to a read-only CIFS share
additionally.

Supported

n
Transmission
Protocol Client Fault Impact Efficiency Operating
Protocol
Systems

CIFS TCP/IP
Integrated operating
system without the need Large High Windows

/ e
m
for additional software.

o
Small: The interaction
Requires additional

.c
NFS TCP or UDP process can be auto- Low Unix
software.
matically resumed.

e i
w
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 11

u a
CIFS is a network-based sharing protocol. It has high demands on network transmission reliability,
g .h
so it usually uses TCP/IP. NFS is used for independent transmission, so it uses TCP or UDP.

ni n
r
lea
One disadvantage of NFS is that clients must be equipped with dedicated software. CIFS is
integrated into the operating system and requires no extra software.
: //

t t p
NFS is a stateless protocol while CIFS is a stateful protocol. NFS can be automatically recovered

:h
from a fault while CIFS cannot. CIFS transmits only a little redundant information, so it has a
s
higher transmission efficiency than NFS.

r c e
ou
Both protocols require file format conversion.

es
R
i n g
From the picture above it becomes clear that a folder or volume can be accessed by users from

r n
a
different systems as there can be a CIFS and a NFS share created to access the files.

L e
However: looking at the restrictions that can be applied there is a limitation. Once a CIFS folder is

r e
o
assigned a read-write permission; the NFS permissions can only be read-only!

MSimilarly: when an NFS read-write permission is assigned the additional CIFS permission will be read-
only.

Page | 102 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology


Accessing files on a NAS
We already discussed the fact that the files on a NAS device can be written to, or read from, client
computers that run different operating systems. In the next image we show an image of how a
Windows based client can create a so-called network mapping in Windows 2008/7/8/2012. Once this
mapping is created the user in Windows can see all the files on the share that is created on the NAS
device.

Accessing files on a NAS

Steps to host a file system:

e n
Create a LUN.
/
Map LUN to

o m
.c
the NAS device.

Create a file system


on the LUN.
e i
Mount the file system.

aw
Access the file system.
u
Use NFS in UNIX environment.
Execute mount/nfsmount command.

g .h
Use CIFS in windows environment.
Map the network drive as: \\ACCOUNT1\ACT_REP.

ni n
r
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 12

: //
Also in the image is the reference to the procedure for Linux-based clients that use NFS. There the
procedure consists of a few actions.

t t p
:h
The most important one is shown: the MOUNT/NFSMOUNT command

e s
r c
s ou
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HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology Page | 103


Ethernet Standard

Ethernet Standard
The IEEE 802.3 standard from the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics. Engineers describes concepts and hardware (cabling,
connectors) of Ethernet.

Ethernet was defined in 1983 and over the years it has replaced
alternatives like Token Ring ; FDDI and ArcNet.

Ethernet (and all its variations) have been standardized in many


IEEE802.3 sub-definitions.

e n
Examples: 802.3a (100 Mb/s).
/
m
802.3ab (Gigabit Ethernet).

o
802.3at Power-over-Ethernet.

Concept of Ethernet is a technology called CSMA/CD or Carrier


Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection.

e i .c
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 13

aw
u
The IEEE 802.3 standard is a working group standard which means that there will be changes,
g .h
updates and improvements constantly. IEEE 802.3 is therefore never finished. It was primarily created
ni n
r
lea
to document and standardize methods that can be used in local area networks. Because of all the

//
improvements and additions over the last 30 years we now have a large number (more than 30) of
IEEE 802.3 standards.
p :
t t
s :h
Here are a just few of them:
r c e
IEEE number Year
s ou
Description

802.3 1983
Re 10BASE-5 with thick coax.

802.3i
i n g
1990 10BASE-T with twisted pair.

r n
a
802.3u 1995 100BASE-T also known as Fast Ethernet.

e
eL
802.3ab 1999 1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet with twisted pair.

or
802.3bq ~2016 40GBASE-T Planned 40 Gigabit Ethernet with twisted pair.

MOn top of all these versions of the 802.3 standards different physical versions of each standard can
exist. Again as an example some versions of the 802.3ab standard are shown in the next table.

Page | 104 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology


Name Medium Specified distance

1000BASE-CX Shielded balances copper cable. 25 meters.

1000BASE-KX Copper backplane. 1 meter.

1000BASE-LX Multi-mode fiber. 550 meters.

1000BASE-EX Single-mode fiber at 1,310 nm wavelength. ~ 40 km.

1000BASE-TX Twisted-pair cabling (Cat-6, Cat-7). 100 meters.

e n
/
m
All Ethernet based networks have a bus structure where multiple devices (hosts; switches; storage

.c o
arrays) can access the bus to transport information. Just like with the SCSI protocol something has to

e i
be arranged to prevent a device interfering with other devices on the network. The solution for
Ethernet is CSMA/CD.

aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
// lea
p :
t t
s :h
r c e
s ou
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HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology Page | 105


CSMA / CD

CSMA / CD

START

Channel
Free?
No
Yes

Transmit Data WAIT

e n
/
Collission
detected?

m
Yes
No

Transmission

.c o
i
complete

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 14

we
u a
The above picture shows that a wait period is started as soon as a collision is detected. This waiting
g .h
period is generated random so with CSMA\CD a device does not know the waiting period he will get

ni n
when a collision happens. No priority system therefore can be used to make one device wait longer (or
r
lea
shorter). It is just a matter of waiting and trying again before a device can communicate in a very busy

: //
Ethernet network. Especially in situations where the Ethernet speed was still low (10 or 100 MB/s) it

t p
might take a few minutes before lets says 30 booting devices managed to connect to the network
t
:h
successfully.

e s
r c
ou
The actual CSMA/CD process is a two steps approach:
s
1. Main procedure
Re
-
n g
Is my frame ready for transmission? If yes, it goes on to the next point?
i
-
r n
Is medium idle? If not, wait until it becomes ready.
-
e a
Start transmitting.

eL
- Did a collision occur? If so, go to collision detected procedure.

or
- Reset retransmission counters and end frame transmission.

M2. Collision detected procedure


- Continue transmission (with a jam signal instead of frame header/data/CRC) until minimum
packet time is reached to ensure that all receivers detect the collision.
- Increment retransmission counter.

Page | 106 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology


- Was the maximum number of transmission attempts reached? If so:
Abort transmission.
Calculate and wait random back off period based on number of collisions.
Re-enter main procedure at stage 1.

What this means is that there will be collisions when two devices send packets at the same time. In
this respect it looks like the problems the SCSI protocol had when multiple devices started transmitting
over the SCSI bus. With SCSI we used the SCSI ID for priority. Here with CSMA/CD each device,
when it detects a collision, uses a random calculated number to indicate the waiting period (or back off
e n
/
m
time) before trying again. So eventually an Ethernet based systems will allow, with optionally a few
collisions included, more than one device to send/receive Ethernet packets over a shared medium.

.c o
e i
aw
u
g .h
CSMA / CD: Principle
ni n
r
lea
CSMA/CD : Principle

: //
D
t t p
:h
E

e s
r c
s ou A

e
Sending

R
B device

g
C

n i n Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 15

ar
L e
When a device sends a packet it will be dropped onto the network. On every intersection the signal will

r e
propagate in all possible directions. So a packet send from device A will be delivered in the network
o
interface of all other devices. Inside of the packet is the information of who did send the packet and to
Mwhich device the packet should go. This addressing information is present in each packet and is part
of the overhead needed to transmit packets.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology Page | 107


At the start of a transmission two situations can exist:

1. The network is already moving packets from another device. A that point the device that wants
to send must wait. It uses a system called CARRIER SENSE to find out that the network is
already busy.

2. The network is free. Now the first packets can be sent.

However : it is impossible to have two devices sending packets at the same time as the signals would
collide on the network which would mean that the signal will be distorted. So if two devices have
e n
/
m
checked the status of the network and both found that nobody is using the network they both think
they can go on to the transmission stage.

.c o
Therefore we must investigate how to detect these collisions first. Then the next question would be e i
how to allow multiple devices to communicate across the network.
aw
u
g .h
CSMA/CD: Collision Detection
ni n
r
CSMA/CD : Collision Detection
// lea
p :
t t
s :h
r c e
s ou
Re
i n g
r n
a
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 16

L e
r e
As soon as a device notices a collision it stops transmitting any further. A collision is detected because

o
the original signal that was sent is damaged because of the collision. This can be detected by each

Mdevice. Each device involved in the collision will then use a random number generator to calculate a
waiting period. Typically each device will have a different waiting time now. After that waiting period a
device will start sending packets again to find out if the network is free. So the one with the lowest
number of seconds to wait will win the access to the network!

Page | 108 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology


Ethernet Cable 10-BASE5

Ethernet Cable 10-BASE5

Original Ethernet was called 10-BASE5.


Cable length was a type of COAX cable with a length of up to 500m.

e n
/
m
A transceiver module was clamped onto the cable to be able to

o
connect a host to the transceiver module.

10-Base5 was also known as Thick Ethernet.

e i .c
w
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 17

u a
The first implementation of Ethernet was called 10-Base5 which was also known as thick Ethernet.
g .h
The cable was of the type COAX which means there is a central copper wire within a plastic core.

ni n
r
lea
Around that a meshed shield is placed which should protect the inner copper wire from being

//
influenced by external distorting signals. Next another plastic cover was placed over the mesh. A coax

p
cable is built to be a Faradays cage. The 10-Base5 cable was around 1 cm thick and a 500 meter:
t t
:h
long cable is therefore very heavy. This created the nickname thick Ethernet.

e s
To connect a device to the thick Ethernet cable a transceiver module was clamped onto the cable.

r c
Inside the module a screw was screwed right through the outer mantle; the mesh; the plastic core so it
would touch the core wire.
s ou
Re
Thick Ethernet was rather bulky and the cables were difficult to maneuver.

i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology Page | 109


Ethernet Cable 10-BASE2

Ethernet Cable 10-BASE2

10-BASE2 is the successor of 10-BASE5.


Cable length was up to 100m and the cable itself was much thinner!

e n
T-shaped BNC connectors were used to make connections to hosts.
/
The number in front of BASE indicates the transmission speeds in

o m
.c
Mb/s.

e i
w
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 18

u a
With the design of 10-Base2 the cables became much thinner and easier to handle. The cable length
g .h
was decreased to 100 meters as the changed physical dimensions meant that shielding was less

ni n
optimal.
r
The system of clamping connection modules to the cable was also abandoned as it was a precise task
// lea
p
to do that with 10-Base5. Every device now was connected to the cable using t-shaped joins so the:
t t
:h
cable end itself was also fitted with a connector. The connectors used were BNC connectors or

s
Bayonet Neil-Concelman.

r c e
Same as with SCSI busses a Ethernet network has to be terminated. For that purpose a plug with

ou
BNC connection with a build in resistor was connected at the cables end.
s
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Ethernet Cables UTP & STP

Ethernet Cables UTP & STP

Nowadays the cables used to connect Ethernet based devices are


based on 10-Based T. The T means Twisted Pair.

Two versions exist: Unshielded and Shielded.

e n
/
o m
.c
Unshielded Twisted Pair Shielded Twisted Pair

Twisted Pair cables are intertwined and that results in


e i
the fact that distortions are compensated

aw
10-Based T cables use a 8P8C connector but we
u
.h
usually call them a RJ-45 connector.

i n g
n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 19

r
// lea
:
A big improvement was the invention of 10-BaseT internet cables. This is the type we still use today. It

t p
is no longer like a coax cable but they use another technology to eliminate the effect of external
t
:h
signals. The method used is called Twisted Pair cabling and the T in 10-BaseT is what indicates the
twisted pair technology.
e s
r c
ou
Because of the twisting of the two wires that carry the signal the effect of external signals is

s
compensated to a high degree. There is an even better version of this Twisted Pair cable : In a

e
R
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cable there is a very thin metal foil around every pair of twisted cables.

i n g
So the original twisted pair cables that do not have this extra shielding are now referred to as
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP).

r n
e a
The connectors used are the familiar cables we see in switches, servers and laptops and we use the

L
name RJ-45 for them. However the name RJ-45 (Registered Jack) is not the official name. That is
e
or
8P8C which is short for : 8 Position 8 Contact.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology Page | 111


Ethernet Cable Wiring

Ethernet Cable Wiring

Ethernet cables are available in straigth cables and crossover cables.

straight

e n
crossover
/
o m
e i .c
w
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 20

u a
To properly work, Ethernet networks need four separate wires to send data across. For a twisted pair
g .h
cable that would mean eight copper wires per cable. Each of the four wires has a color to identify them.

ni n
Green, Orange, Blue, Brown.
r
// lea
The second wire that they are twisted with, also have specific colors: green-white, orange-white, blue-
white, brown-white.
p :
t t
:h
Depending on the usage of the cable we can identify a straight or a crossover cable. The above

s
r c e
diagram shows the pin number within a RJ-45 connector of each color wire.

ou
A crossover cable is typically used when two PCs or servers are directly interconnected with a direct

es
cable plugged into the RJ45 network ports.

R
i n g
Straight cables are used to connect hosts or servers to switches. Today using the wrong cable is not

n
really providing problems as most switch ports are designed in such a way that both straight as well as

ar
crossover cables can be used. The switch port will auto-detect the cable type and adjust internally to

L e
make the correct connection.

r e
o
M

Page | 112 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology


Ethernet Basics Frame size

Ethernet Basics Frame size

Ethernet sends socalled frames over the network.


Preamble

Ethertype
DMA

SMA
SFD

FCS
PAYLOAD

e n
7 bytes 1 bytes 6 bytes 6 bytes 2 bytes 46 - 1500 bytes 4 bytes
/
o m
.c
SFD = Start of Frame Delimiter.

i
DMA = Destination MAC Address.

e
SMA = Source MAC Address.

w
FCS = Frame Check Sequence.

Ethernet packets vary in size from 1500 bytes up to 9000 bytes


u a
.h
(Jumbo frames).

i n g
n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 21

r
// lea
:
Ethernet was developed in the 1970s at Xerox in the United States and made into the IEEE 802.3

t p
standard in 1983. Ethernet became popular and was commercially used in the 1980s. With Ethernet
t
:h
networks the actual information sent is a predefined set of bits and bytes. This is officially referred to

s
as a datagram but when we talk about Ethernet we often use the term PACKET or FRAME to identify
e
r c
the individual packets of information that get sent across the network.

s ou
Ethernet frames were designed to be around 1500 bytes in size. Inside of a frame we have a portion

Re
of user defined data (the data the user wants to send to another device) also called the payload.

i n g
However we need more information to be able to bring the frame to the correct destination. This extra
information is the overhead involved with Ethernet (and any other networking protocol). Information

r n
a
needed is: who is sending the frame, where is it going to, error correcting information, etc. This

L e
overhead is also called heading and trailing information as, seen in the above image, some of the

e
extra information is send before the payload data (heading information) and some is send after the
r
o
payload is sent (trailing information).

MTo be more efficient (ration between payload and overhead) a new frame size was developed. In a so-
called JUMBO frame they have increased the frame size to be around 9000 bytes. The overhead is
still the same but now the payload is roughly 6 times bigger!

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology Page | 113


Ethernet Networking Components

Ethernet Networking Components


Ethernet cards in hosts.

Switches to interconnect hosts

n
with the NAS device using certified

e
cables.

/
o m
.c
NAS server.

e i
w
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 22

u a
To make a NAS based ICT infrastructure we need three main components:
g .h
ni n
r
1. Hosts\servers\workstations with network interfaces.

lea
2. Ethernet switches.
3. NAS capable devices or NAS servers.
: //
t t p
Important in the setup of a NAS solution is the physical distance between the various components and
the cable types used to connect them.

s :h
r c e
The cables can be both copper-based as well as fiber optic-based although in practice the copper-

ou
based version is used predominantly. Then the quality aspect of the cable is the next thing to watch.

es
Copper-based cables used for Ethernet networks are classified with the letters CAT followed by a

R
number. Generally a cable with CAT 5 is meant to be used with 100 Mb/s transmissions only. The

n g
improved CAT5e is also supported for 1000 Mb/s (also referred to as Gigabit) transmissions. However
i
r n
it would be better in the last situation to use CAT 6 qualified cables as they were specifically designed

e a
for 1000 Mb/s transmissions.

e L
or
M

Page | 114 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology


Questions

Questions

1. What is NAS?

2. What is a share?

3. What is a collision?

4. What are scenarios where NFS and CIFS can be applied?

5. What does STP mean?

e n
/
o m
e i .c
w
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 23

u a
Answers
g .h
1. Network Attached Storage where all devices (servers; storage devices; backup devices) are
ni n
interconnected with Ethernet based switches and cables.
r
lea
2. A share is a storage capacity allocated on a NAS server. Shares are accessible for one or

//
more hosts via the network.

p :
3. A collision occurs when multiple servers try to access the network. At that point the signals

t t
broadcast by the servers will collide and the signals will be distorted leading to failed

:h
communication.

s
4. NFS shares are set up in such a way that Linux based servers can use shares on the NAS

servers.
r c e
server. CIFS is the method used with Windows based servers to access shares on NAS

ou
5. STP is short for Shielded Twisted Pair. This is the most common cable type used in Ethernet

s
networks. It provides good specifications and can be used in high speed configurations.

e
R
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology Page | 115


Exam Preparation

Exam Preparation (1)

1. Which of the following are NAS components? ( Select all that apply)
a. Storage.
b. Network.
c. Engine.
d. Server.

2. What best describes the characteristics of a NAS solution?

e n
a. Centralized storage; Operating System dependent; Campus.
/
b. Share folders; Multiple operating systems; Campus.
c. Centralized storage; Multiple protocols; Global.
o m
.c
d. Share folders ; Single protocol ; Global.

e i
w
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 24

u a
g .h
Exam Preparation (2)

ni n
r
lea
3. Statement 1 : IEEE802.3 is a collection of standards that describe

//
many generations of Ethernet versions.

Statement 2 : CSMA/CD gives the IEEE standard no options to

p
give a higher priority to a specific device on the
:
network.

t t
:h
a. Statement 1 is true ; Statement 2 is true.

e s b. Statement 1 is true ; Statement 2 is false.

c
c. Statement 1 is false ; Statement 2 is true.

r
ou
d. Statement 1 is false ; Statement 2 is false.

es
R
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 25

Answers:
i n g
r n
a
1. A, B and D.
2. B.
L
3. A. e
r e
o
M

Page | 116 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology


Summary

Summary

NAS structure and implementation.

NAS file sharing protocols, NFS and CIFS.

Cabling and connectors.

NAS limitations.

Ethernet standards.

e n
/
o m
e i .c
w
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 26

u a
g .h
ni n
r
Network Attached Storage infrastructures are very useful where the distance is not too big between

lea
workstations; switches and NAS servers.

: //
p
When the distance is increased to many kilometers the limited length of each individual cable

t t
becomes a performance bottleneck. The signal has to be retransmitted and that takes time! Although it

:h
is possible to use optical cable links between two components in a NAS infrastructure we see that

s
r c e
copper is mostly used. That is why the scale of a NAS solution is often limited to campus style
environments where the distances are a couple of hundred meters.

s ou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology Page | 117


Thank you
www.huawei.com

e n
/
o m
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 27

e i .c
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
// lea
p :
t t
s :h
r c e
s ou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

Page | 118 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109103 NAS Technology


e n
/
OHC1109104 o m
e i .c
SAN Technology
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
lea
www.huawei.com

: //
t t p
s:h
r c e
sou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M
e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
// lea
p :
t t
s:h
r c e
sou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M
e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
// lea
p :
t t
s:h
r c e
sou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M
Introduction

This is the chapter that will discuss the third of the ICT infrastructure types that can be used. It is
this Storage Area Network solution, or short SAN, that today is used in almost all companies. It
has many advantaged over the previous two DAS and NAS. We will also use this chapter to
introduce the Fibre Channel protocol as well as the fiber optic technology that is used in SAN
solutions a lot.

e n
/
Objectives
o m
e i .c
w
After this module you will be able to:
Identify the main components of a SAN.
u a
Describe the concepts of a SAN.
g .h
Explain how a SAN is designed.

ni n
Explain what the multipathing problem is.
r
lea
Describe how a Fibre Channel frame looks like.
Understand how optical fibers work.
: //
t p
Describe the role of zones in a Fibre Channel network.
t
:h
Identify the topologies used in a Fibre Channel network.

e s
Describe the differences between FC and IP SAN.

r c
Identify the networking components in a host.

s ou
Re
i
Module Contents n g
r n
e a
L
1. The ideal ICT infrastructure.

r e 2. Concepts of SAN design.

o 3. The multipathing problem.

M 4. The Fibre Channel protocol and FC frames.


5. Components of a SAN.
Server.
Switch.
Storage device.
Host Bus Adapter.
Transceiver.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 121


6. Principles of fiber optics.
7. FC switches.
Concept of World Wide Name.
FC port types.
Zoning concepts.
Configuration.
8. Concepts of FC fabrics.
9. Concepts of IP SANs.
10. Network interfaces in hosts in IP SANs.
e n
/
m
Network Interface Connector.
TOE card.

.c o
iSCSI HBA.
e i
11. Converging networks.

aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
// lea
p :
t t
s :h
r c e
s ou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

Page | 122 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


The Ideal ICT Infrastructure

The ideal ICT infrastructure

Is scalable in capacity.

Can be stretched across the entire world.

e n
/
m
Is very reliable.

.c o
e i
Offers the highest possible transmission speeds.

aw
Is easy to manage and flexible.
u
Is heterogeneous.
g .h
ni n
r
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 5

: //
t t p
In organizations like Huawei, with more than 100,000 employees worldwide, the design of the ICT

:h
infrastructure becomes very complex. People working from The Netherlands Office of Huawei

e s
should be able to access relevant data that is stored on a storage device in Huaweis head office
in Shenzhen.
r c
s ou
Re
For this infrastructure to work well a design has to be made that will last for many years to come.
When a huge design is needed there is also a list of requirements for the design.

i n g
r n
1. The design must be in such a way that it can be expanded indefinitely. There must

e aalways be the possibility to grow the number of devices.

e L
or 2. The design must allow the distance between the individual components to be unlimited.

M
In practice that means 20,000 kilometers which allows a device to be on the other side of
the globe.

3. The design must be reliable and resilient. This means that the design architect must
realize that sometimes hardware fails or people make mistakes. Still when that happens it
should not lead to serious problems for the organization.

4. The components connected to each other must be able to communicate at the highest
possible speeds available.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 123


5. Even when the design becomes very complex it should be able to do maintenance and
monitoring with a limited amount of ICT staff. You can imagine that an ICT department
should not need fifty people to manage fifty or even a hundred devices. Cost
effectiveness for management is also a big design requirement.

6. The design should be flexible. That means that it must be possible to change; replace;
add components to the infrastructure without any limits. That means that if technology
improves over years the new technology can be integrated in the current infrastructure.

e n
/
m
7. By design an ICT infrastructure should be heterogeneous. Heterogeneous means that
devices from different vendors should be working together just as well as devices that all

.c o
e i
come from one vendor. This is at this point not often the case but that has a reason that is

w
mostly non-technical. Huawei devices like servers, switches and storage devices will work

a
u
well with most other vendors equipment. However most customers of Huawei will buy

.h
only Huaweis products. The reason is often that customers want to have a service

g
n
contract with one supplier of the hardware. That prevents them to contact multiple support

ni
r
teams of multiple vendors in case of a technical problem. Practice has shown that

lea
sometimes vendors will blame the other vendor when a problem occurs.

: //
t t p
A Storage Area Networks or SAN can deliver on all the points from the wish list we saw earlier.

s :h
e
In a SAN up to 16.77 million devices can be connected to each other. The distance between

r c
components can indeed be 20,000 kilometers. The speed at which data can be transported has

ou
improved a lot from the first SAN infrastructures. Speeds of 16 Gb/s or even 40 Gb/s are now

es
possible. With all these functionalities and the great number of components it is still relatively

R
easy to manage a SAN because of the many tools available for monitoring, managing and
reporting.
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

Page | 124 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


Storage Area Networks

Storage Area Networks Concepts

e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
n
SAN Components : Hosts ; Storage Devices; Switches.

ni
r
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 6

: //
t p
Components like storage arrays, backup units etc are referred to as storage devices.

t
s :h
Currently there are no SANs used by companies that reach the physical limits of 16.77 million

c e
components. However we do see that SANs now span the entire globe as a companys business
r
ou
sometimes extends from China to America and from Europe to Africa. Then a vast number of

s
people depend on the possibility to access data within a company wherever the employee might

e
R
be. Picking up a file from an office in Shenzhen that is stored on a server in Brazil should then be
possible.

i n g
r n
Perhaps the most important factor in a SAN infrastructure is the reliability. A well designed

e a
infrastructure can prevent an infrastructure to collapse when a single component fails. A good

e L
design is described as a design without a Single Point Of Failure (SPOF). That just means that

or any component can fail but all the functionalities of the IT infrastructure are still there.

M The first step in creating a SAN design is the choice for the components themselves. The second
step is to make the design be reliable. When building a SAN for a big company (also referred to
as an Enterprise infrastructure) the quality of the individual components is very important. The
quality of equipment is often defined as:

1. For personal use at home.


2. For use in SOHO environments (Small Office Home Office).
3. Enterprise class equipment.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 125


It is obvious that in an enterprise SAN the components should be enterprise class components.
An enterprise component is defined as a device with 5x9 reliability or 99.999% uptime
classification. This level of availability is sometimes also referred to as 24/7.

Enterprise components have been tested for usage over many years in a 24 hours a day
production environment. Compare that with laptops; printers we use at home that are only
designed to be used a couple of hours a day.

e n
/
A rating of 99.999% means that statistically a component should be up 365 days, 23 hours and 45

m
minutes per year. But of course most components will run for years without problems!

.c o
e i
Storage Area Networks Cabling
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
// lea
p :
t t
s :h
r c e
s ou
Cables can be copper or optic, protocols can be FC, iSCSI or FCoE.

Re
g
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 7

n i n
ar
So all the components used are of the best possible quality. Huawei offers enterprise class

L e
equipment for all components in a SAN infrastructure. The cables, that are used to connect the

r e
many components with each other, in a SAN solution can be both copper-based as well as fiber

o
optic-based.

Page | 126 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


Storage Area Networks Components

Huaweis products offer everything to build this ideal infrastructure.


Components we find in a SAN are :

Servers/Host where applications (Database; Email; Graphical Design) run


hosted by operating systems (Windows; Linux; Solaris; AIX).

Interconnect devices:
switches; routers.

e n
/
m
Storage devices:

o
Disk arrays; backup devices

.c
(tape or disk based).

e i
w
Of course we need cables to connect them all together.

u a
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

g
Slide 8 .h
ni n
r
lea
However in the design we must include the scenario where a component will fail mechanically

//
after all. Also the design should include methods to make sure that human errors do not lead to
:
problems.

t t p
s :h
r c e
ou
In a later section of this module the design of a SAN will be explained. Now it is important to look

s
at the details of how a SAN works.
e
R
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 127


Differences between DAS and SAN

Differences between DAS and SAN

Item DAS SAN

Multiple protocols: FC, iSCSI,


Protocol. SCSI protocol.

n
FCoE.

Small and medium-sized LANs that


Mid-range and high-end storage
environments such as key
/ e
m
Application
have only a few number of servers and databases, centralized storage,

o
scenarios.
general storage capacity requirements. mass storage, backup, and disaster

.c
recovery.

e
High availability, high performance,
high scalability, powerful i
w
Advantages. Easy deployment, small investment.
compatibility, centralized
management.

u a
.h
Poor scalability, waste of resources,
Disadvantages. management difficulties, performance Comparatively large investment.
bottlenecks.

i n g
r n
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 9

: //
t p
A SAN works much like a DAS when we look at the form in which the data is transported from one

t
:h
component to the other. With both DAS as well as SAN the data is sent as SCSI blocks. Of

s
course there is a difference because the cable limitations of DAS were in the range of 12 25

c e
meters whereas a SAN can stretch over distances of hundreds or thousands of kilometers.

r
s ou
The solution used in SAN infrastructures is not to send the individual SCSI blocks over the

Re
network but to put the SCSI blocks (referred to as the user data or payload data) inside a packet

i n g
or frame. It is the network that now is optimized to transport the packets across great distances.

r n
a
Packets can be compared with envelopes that we use to send letters to someone. A letter (a

e
L
sheet of A4 paper) is the user data and the envelope is the packet. It will be virtually impossible to

e
r
send a letter to someone by simply throwing the sheet of paper out on the street hoping that the

o
wind will bring it to the addressee.

MA better way is to put the letter inside of an envelope and put on a postage stamp. Of course you
will have to write the correct address information and drop the letter in a postbox. Once that is
done the national postal service will take care that the letter is picked up from the postbox and
delivered at the address of the recipient.

Of course there are other ways to bring the letter to the home of the addressee. One of the
alternatives would be a specialized delivery service like UPS or FedEx. They have their own

Page | 128 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


system where you would put the letter inside of a special envelope again. It is now the transport
system of the delivery service that brings the envelope to the recipient.

To send SCSI blocks across a long SAN connection multiple methods can be used. These
methods are referred to as protocols. Each protocol has a distinct way of describing the way the
SCSI blocks are handled for transport.

Three protocols are used with SAN infrastructures:

e n
/
1. FC protocol (Fibre Channel).

o m
.c
2. iSCSI protocol (Internet SCSI).
3. FCoE protocol (Fibre Channel over Ethernet).
e i
aw
The first two of these protocols are mostly used in modern SANs (FC and iSCSI) where FCoE is
u
an upcoming technology. New alternative methods include Infiniband (IB) and SAS.
g .h
ni n
r
// lea
SAN Storage Applications
p :
t t
: h
s
SAN Storage Applications
e
r c
o u
Centralized deployment of Storage resources are

es
storage devices enables divided into blocks that are

R
application servers to access mapped to application

g
and share data in a cost- servers to achieve storage

n
effective manner. resource sharing.

n i
ar Application

e
eL
Data backup uses a SAN SANs employ multiple

or
independent from the service mechanisms for automatic
network, making backup data backup, allowing data
possible for data across to be immediately

M heterogeneous servers and


of diversified forms.
recovered after occurrence
of a disaster.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 10

Before we look at the various protocols used with SANs we will look at application scenarios for
SANs. As the total cost of a SAN solution is rather high (for the hardware as well as for the staff

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 129


that needs to be experienced in SAN technology) we see SANs in companies with 100+
employees. In this kind of company the data is typically:

Generated by mission-critical database applications that have demanding requirements for


response time, availability, and scalability.

Backed up centralized and with high performance, data integrity, and data reliability.

e n
/
Massive in number. Examples of organizations that create and store huge amounts of data
are libraries, banks, social media sites like YouTube, Facebook.

o m
A very special example:
e i .c
aw
The CERN Research Institute in Geneva Switzerland uses a 7 x 9 (99.99999%) classified Huawei
storage system to store all relevant data CERN collects from its experiments.
u
g .h
i n
The design of the storage system had a number of demands that should be met:

n
r
lea
1. It should be able to store the data very reliable as the data cannot be generated a second
time.
: //
t t p
2. The capacity that at the beginning could be stored had to be at least 50+ PB (=

:h
50,000,000 GB).

s
3. The system should be extendable with at least 20 PB per year.
e
r c
ou
For environments such as at CERN the best possible hardware is required. Still we have to

es
consider the risk of a hardware failure. Nothing will work forever so how do we eliminate the

R
problem of a piece of hardware failing.

i n g
r n
The answer is to create a clever design. The most important concept there is redundancy.

e a
L
Redundancy is defined as:

e
r
The inclusion of extra components of a given type in a system (beyond those required by the
o
M
system to carry out its function) for the purpose of enabling continued operation in the event of a
component failure.

In easier terms: Add extra hardware that can be used in case of a hardware failure. What that
means to a SAN design is shown in the next section.

Page | 130 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


Redundancy in hardware

Redundancy in hardware

Host Most simple design with a lot


of SPOFs !!!

Network Interface Card


1. Network Interface Card.

e n
/
m
2. Cable hostSwitch.

3. Switch.

.c o
i
Switch

4. Cable SwitchStorage.

we
5. Controller module
Storage.
u a
.h
Controller + Interface Storage Device

g
disk disk disk disk

n
disk disk disk disk

i
disk disk disk disk

r n
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 11

: //
t t p
In the above example the goal is to connect a host via a switch to a storage device. In the

:h
simplest solution we need two cables and one switch to make it work. The host itself is an

e s
enterprise class device and it has dual power supplies build into the chassis. If one of them fails

r c
the other surviving power supply will keep the host powered on.

s ou
Re
Although this will work the design does not include enough reliability as a single cable breaking
would disrupt the data traffic between host and storage device.

i n g
r n
Any component that fails, however small or cheap it is, and that disrupts the working of the total

e a
system is called a Single Point Of failure or SPOF.

e L
or A good design has no single points of failure. So a much improved design would be the next one.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 131


Redundancy in hardware

Host
NIC

SPOF ? Yes / No

NICs No

Switch Cable Switch


Cables between

n
No
HostSwitch

Switches No
/ e
m
Cable Cable

Cables between
No

.c o
i
Controller Controller SwitchStorage
Disk
Disk
Disk
Disk
Disk
Disk
Disk
Disk
Disk
Disk
Disk
Disk
Controllers No

we
u a
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 12

g .h
ni n
r
lea
In this design there is almost complete redundancy in hardware because almost all hardware can

//
fail (single component at a time however!) and still there would be an alternative route from host
:
to the storage device.

t t p
There are two more SPOFs left that we must identify:
s :h
r c e
ou
1. What if the Operating System or the Application running on the host crashes ?

s
2. If we store all our vital information on a physical hard disk and that hard disks fails ?
e
R
i n g
For both problems there, of course, are solutions available.

r n

a
There are a few methods to be able to survive a crash of a complete host or an Operating
e
eL
System failure. We often refer to an operating system crash as a Blue Screen Of Death.

or
This is because some operating systems in those situations show a screen with a blue
background that sometimes gives troubleshooting information about the system crash.

M The most well-known solution is a so-called cluster. With intelligent cluster software we
can arrange for an application to be shared between multiple systems or nodes. Nodes
communicate with each other and check their neighbors health continuously. As soon as
a host goes down the other nodes notice this and automatically take over the role of the
crashed system.

Page | 132 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


The simplest solution to prevent this is not to store the data on a single disk but spread
the data across multiple disks. Then they have designed methods to protect the data.
Using a clever method they make it possible for the remaining disks to recalculate all data
from a failed disk. Optionally systems will automatically recalculate the data and store it
on a spare disk which is already inserted in the system.
The technology where we intelligently distribute the data across multiple disk drives and
have the opportunity to recalculate failed disks is called RAID which is short for
Redundant Array of Independent Disks.

e n
/
o m
RAID will be explained in more detail in later modules.
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
Multipathing problem
ni n
r
// lea
Multipathing problem
p :
t t
s
Host
:h From the host perspective

e
NIC there are multiple paths that

r c lead from the host to the

ou
storage device where the 100
GB volume lives.
Switch
1

es 2
Cable
3 4
Switch

R
i n g Cable Cable
The redundant paths provide

r n reliability but for the host

e a Controller Controller operating system it leads to

L
Disk Disk Disk Disk confusion called the
Disk Disk Disk
100 GB Disk multipathing problem.

e
Disk Disk Disk Disk

or
M Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 13

Now we know what has to be done to allow the host to use the volume when we encounter a
problem. The host discovers multiple routes through the network towards the storage device that
holds the volume. Of course the redundant cables are there by design but it is confusing for many
operating systems because each of these paths (indicated by the numbers 1-2-3-4) appears to
the operating system as independent routes to a total of up to four volumes!

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 133


This confusing situation has been given a name: the multipathing problem.

Multipathing problem

Operating systems that have/had multipath problems: Windows, AIX,


Solaris, HP-UX, Unix, Linux.

Operating systems that handle multipathing well: Tru64, OpenVMS,


VMware vSphere.

e n
/
m
Vendors sometimes build their own specific software module to handle

o
multipathing :

Huawei UltraPath.
Dell EqualLogic DSM.
e i .c
EMC PowerPath.

aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 14

: //
t p
In a host running the latest versions of Windows (2008 and 2012) multipathing intelligence is

t
:h
integrated so we do not see these problems as much as before. Older versions, like Windows

s
2000 and 2003, would show the newly discovered disks multiple times. The next image shows

e
c
four 100 GB volumes on a Windows 2003 server, where in fact there was just one volume created
r
ou
on the storage device.

es
Multipathing problem
R
i n g
r n
Example of a Windows host without multipathing software.

e a
e L
or
M

Each of the paths is represented with a separate volume.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 15

Page | 134 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


Without the intelligence of the multipathing software every volume created within the storage
device will be represented as multiple independent volumes for the operating system. Out of the
detected volumes (in this case 4) the operating system will not detect which one of them is
actively moving data. If the path (or better: the cable) is broken the operating system cannot use
any of the alternative paths to continue accessing the volume. So although there is redundant
hardware it is not understood and used by the operating system.

It needed extra software installed on the host to make clear to the operating system that it was a
single volume but with multiple physical paths to it.
e n
/
o m
.c
With the correct multipathing software installed a single volume will be displayed in disk
management.
e i
aw
u
Multipathing problem
g .h
ni n
r
// lea
p :
t t
s :h
r c e
s ou
Re
i n g
r n Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 16

e a
e L
r
The picture above now shows the same 100 GB volume but now only once. At the same time the

o multipathing software is now intelligent enough to redirect the data over another cable in case the

M current active path fails. The multipathing software is so fast in this redirection that the operating
system is not even aware that the data was redirected. The operating system had a continuous
access to the data on the volume.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 135


New volumes in disk management

e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 17

g .h
ni n
r
lea
For any operating system the newly discovered storage capacity is what is called raw capacity.

//
The host will have to initialize the volume and then format it creating a file system partition. Once
:
this is done files can be stored on the volume.

t t p
s :h
This finishes the design of the SAN. We can now afford to lose a hardware component and still be

c e
able to access our data. In the next section we will look at the protocols used to transport the data.
r
ou
First we will discuss the protocol that is already used for a long time: the Fibre Channel protocol

es
R
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

Page | 136 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


Network Topology: Fibre Channel

In this section we will look at the Fibre Channel protocol which is one of the possible protocols
that can be used with SAN infrastructures.

Network topology: Fibre Channel

e n
Point-to-point Arbitrated loop Fibre Channel switched fabric
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
i n
Most widely used topology

n
r
lea
Two devices only Up to 127 devices Up to 16 million devices
(Direct connection). (Fibre Channel hub). (Fibre Channel switches).

: //
t t p
:h
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 18

e s
r c
It was already mentioned that the Fibre Channel protocol is used for a long time (starting in the

ou
1990s). In these days the SAN infrastructures were much smaller and there were a couple of

s
e
ways to physically connect the components to form the SAN.

R
i n g
1. Point-to-point

r n
Two devices are directly connected to each other. This is the simplest topology, with

e alimited connectivity.

e L
or 2. Arbitrated loop

M
All devices are connected in a loop or a ring. Adding or removing a device to or from the
loop interrupts all activities on the loop. The failure of a device on the loop causes the
loop to break. By adding a device called a hub it was possible to connect multiple devices
to a logical loop and bypass faulty nodes so that the communication on the loop is not
interrupted.

Arbitrated loops were used in the first small scale SANs but nowadays it is no longer
used. Reason is the fact that an Arbitrated Loop can only hold a maximum of 127 devices.
Today SANs should be able to include many more devices than 127.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 137


3. Switched network

This is the modern way how FC SANs are built. It uses switches to connect hosts to
storage devices. Maybe it is better to state that modern SANs use at least two switches
for redundancy reasons!

A switch in itself is an intelligent device that is not only used to interconnect a device with
another but it can do much more. Switches, especially if there are many of them, can be

e n
/
configured in such a way that data going from one device can find the optimal path

m
through the big network of interconnected switches.

.c o
e i
aw
Fibre Channel Protocol
u
g .h
ni n
r
lea
Fibre Channel protocol

: //
High-level protocols

t t p
:h
SCSI-3 IP ATM

e s
FC-4

r c IPI-3
Command set
SCSI-3 FC-LE FC-ATM

ou
Command set Link
mapping mapping encapsulation

FC-3

es General equipment

FC-2
R
Structure agreements.

g
FC-PH FC-AL FC-AL2

n
FC-PH2

i
FC-1 Coding and decoding.
FC-PH3

r nFC-0 Physical transformation. 8/10 bit/s copper and optical fiber.

e a
e L
r
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 19

o
MFibre Channel was developed in 1988. At that time, Fibre channel was primarily concerned with
simplifying the connections and increasing distances, as opposed to increasing speeds. Later, it
was used to increase the transfer bandwidth of the disk data transfer protocol to provide fast,
efficient, and reliable data transfer. By the end of 1990s, Fibre Channel SAN had been used
extensively. The most important layer of the Fibre Channel protocol is FC-2. FC-0 to FC-2 are
referred to as FC-PH, or the physical layer. Fibre Channel mainly uses FC-2 for data transfer. As
a result, Fibre Channel is also known as "Layer 2 Protocol" or "Ethernet-like Protocol".

Page | 138 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


A frame is the data unit of Fibre Channel. Though Fibre Channel has several other layers, it uses
FC-2 in most cases. A Fibre Channel frame contains a maximum of 2148 bytes. The header of a
Fibre Channel frame is different from that of an Ethernet packet. Fibre Channel uses only one
frame format to accomplish various tasks on multiple layers. The functions of a frame determine
its format.

A Fibre Channel frame starts from the Start Of Frame (SOF) delimiter, which is followed by the
frame header. We will talk about the frame header later. Then comes data, or Fibre Channel
content. Finally, it is the End Of Frame (EOF) delimiter.
e n
/
o m
.c
Relationship between Fibre Channel and SCSI:

e i
Fibre Channel is not a substitute of SCSI. Fibre Channel can transfer the instructions, data, status

aw
messages of SCSI by using frames. SCSI is an upper-layer protocol of FC-4 and is a subset of
u
Fibre Channel.
g .h
i n
To transmit large amounts of data we still need a lot of frames to be sent. When a group of frames

n
r
are sent as a batch is we call this an exchange.

// lea
p :
t
Fibre Channel Frames
t
s :h
e
Frame Frame Frame Frame Frame Frame

c
1 2 3 4 5

r
0

ou
SEQUENCE X SEQUENCE y

es
R EXCHANGE X

i n g
r n F0 = Start of exchance, start of sequence.

e a F1 F3 = Middle of exchange, middle of sequence.

eL
F4 = Middle of exchange, end of sequence and added to that is a Transfer
Sequence Initiative.

or
F5 = Middle of exchange, start of new sequence.

M Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 20

Inside an exchange there are sequences of frames that are sent. In each frame there should be
information about the exchange and sequence the frame belongs to. Also the number of the
frame itself and its source and destination is listed. This is what an FC frame looks like.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 139


Fibre Channel Frames

A Fibre Channel frame consists of multiples of Transmission Words


of 4 bytes each. The maximum number of TWs is 537 which makes
the maximum frame size 2148 bytes.

Header
SOF xx

EOF xx
n
Idles

CRC

Idles
Optional headers + PAYLOAD

/ e
6 TW 1 TW 6 TW 0 - 528 TW or 0 -2112 bytes 1 TW 1 TW 6 TW

o m
.c
537 TW or 2148 bytes

e i
w
A full payload of data is 2048 bytes with 64 bytes reserved for optional
headers.

u a
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 21

g .h
ni n
r
lea
The next picture shows the layout of the header in a Fibre Channel frame.

: //
t t p
:h
Fibre Channel Frames

e s
r c
The frame header is used by both the fabric (for routing) and the

ou
receiving port (for re-assembling the messages).

Bit 32

es 24 16 8 0

R
Byte 0 Byte 1 Byte 2 Byte 3

ing
Word 0 R_CTL DESTINATION_ID

rn
1 RSVD SOURCE_ID

a 2 TYPE F_CTL

L e 3 SEQ_ID DF_CTL SEQ_CNT

r e 4 OX_ID RX_ID

o 5 PARAMETER

M
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 22

Note: this information is very detailed and is here for reference only.

Page | 140 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


Storage device with FC interface

Storage device with FC interface

The Fibre Channel interface modules on a storage device provide


service interfaces for connecting to application servers and receiving
data exchange requests from the application servers.

e n
/
Module Power
Indicator

o m
.c
Module

i
handle

e
Fibre Channel
host ports 8 Gbit/s Fibre
Channel port

aw
u
Link/Speed indicator

.h
of an 8 Gbit/s Fibre
Channel port

i n g
r n
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 23

: //
t t p
In many cases the Fibre Channel frames are transported via fiber optic cables. That means that a

:h
light pulse is used to indicate a logical one signal. By switching the light on and off we can

e s
indicate one and zero signals. All devices involved therefore must have the appropriate

r c
equipment to send the optical signals and receive them.

s ou
Re
The Huawei storage devices for that reason have interface module or I/O cards. Hosts will
typically have a dedicated card installed that allows fiber optic connections. Of course the

i n g
switches in the middle must be equipped with optic modules too.

r n
e a
The special cards inserted in hosts are so-called Host Bus Adapters (HBAs). Essentially a Fibre

e L
Channel HBA converts the electrical signals into light pulses that will be emitted by a laser source

or in the HBA. The light pulses that are received by the host will then be detected by photoelectric

M
sensors and converted into electrical signals that the computer can use again internally.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 141


HBA

HBA: Various HBAs

HBA is short for host bus adapter, which is


the I/O adapter that connects the host I/O
bus to the computer memory system.

Categories:
Fibre Channel HBA, SCSI HBA, SAS HBA,

e n
/
iSCSI HBA, and so on.

Function:
o m
.c
Enables bidirectional or serial data
communication between servers and
storage devices through hubs, switches, or
e i
point-to-point connections.

aw
u
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 24

g .h
ni n
r
lea
The actual component with the light source and the photoelectric sensor is a module referred to

//
as a transceiver. A transceiver is a module in itself that will be inserted in a slot called an SFP port.
:
This is a so-called Small Form factor Pluggable or SFP for short.

t t p
s :h
Transceiver
r c e
s ou
Transmitter + Receiver = Transceiver.

Re
Contains a laser or a LED to create the light pulses.

i n g
Contains an optical sensor that can detect light.

r n
Transceivers are present in storage devices; switches

e a and server HBAs.

eL
Can individually be removed/replaced.

or
M
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 25

Page | 142 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


Transceivers are available for different transmission speeds, for different distances the signal has
to travel and there are different versions of physical interfaces. The most common interface type
for HBAs now is the PCI-E slot which is present in almost all enterprise class servers.

Connecting a host to a FC switch

Host Bus Adapter is put in a PCI slot.

e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
//
A fibre channel transceiver is put in a SFP slot in the switch.
lea
p :
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 26

t t
s :h
There are different vendors for HBAs like Emulex, Brocade and Qlogic. They have HBA models

c e
with different numbers of ports. In the above image a 2-port FC HBA is used as an example.
r
s ou
With the correct HBA installed and the appropriate cable type used a signal can be transported

Re
via an optical cable over a distance of 50 km.

i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 143


Common optical connection medium

Media Type Transmitter Rate Distance

1 Gbit/s 2 m to 50 km
1550 nm long-wave laser.
2 Gbit/s 2 m to 50 km
9 m single-mode
1 Gbit/s 2 m to 10 km
optical fiber.
1300 nm long-wave laser.
2 Gbit/s 2 m to 2 km

n
4 Gbit/s 2 m to 2 km

50 m multi-mode
1 Gbit/s 0.5 m to 500 m

/ e
m
2 Gbit/s 0.5 m to 300 m
optical fiber.

o
4 Gbit/s 0.5 m to 170 m

.c
850 nm short-wave laser.

i
1 Gbit/s 0.5 m to 300 m

e
62.5 m multi-mode
2 Gbit/s 0.5 m to 150 m
optical fiber.

w
4 Gbit/s 0.5 m to 70 m

u a
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 27

g .h
ni n
r
lea
With single mode cables it is much more difficult to get the light inside of the cable because the

//
diameter of the cable. That is why the light source should be very bundled. This means that the
:
best light source for these situations is a laser source.

t t p
s :h
Multimode cables are 5 - 7 times the diameter and the demands for the light source are less strict.

c e
That is why in some lower cost solutions the light source is a LED (Light Emitting Diode). Those
r
ou
are much cheaper to produce but generate light in multiple colors (or better a range of colors) and

s
LED light is not bundled the way laser light is.
e
R
i n g
Note: multi-mode cables are used mostly in datacenters as the distances there are limited to a

n
maximum of a couple of hundred meters. The multi-mode cables used are the ones with a core

ar
diameter of 62.5 m. In comparison: a human hair typically has a diameter of 75 m.

L e
r e
o
M

Page | 144 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


Fiber optics

Fiber optics

n1 coating
Snells law: =n

foam
2
n2 cladding


n1
core

e n
=
nair
n1
/

n2
o m
light bundle

e i .c
n = refractive index of the optical medium.
aw
Note: n for vacuum is set to 1; n for air 1.
u
g .h
i n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 28

r n
lea
There is a lot of physics needed to explain how it is that a light signal can be transported over

//
:
these distances. The most important physical law with fiber optics is Snells law. That law states

p
t t
that light moving from one matter to another will be refracted. In the above picture we see a light

:h
bundle come in at an angle and then hit the optical material of the cable. At the surface of the

e s
cable there is refraction and that results in the fact that the signal continues with an angle .

r c
Snells law now teaches us what determines the change in the angle. He found out that it is

s ou
depending on a property of a material called the refractive index.

Re
g
Fiber optics

i n
arn
L e 1
n2

r e
o n1

M 1
n2
light bundle

If the light hits the surface at a angle <= 1 then the light beam will
bounce off at the same angle.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 29

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 145


When the angle is incorrect (here shown with 1) the signal will not be refracted and enter the
cable but it will reflect or bounce back from the surface. The angle of reflection is than again 1
which makes the effect look like the light bundle hits a mirror and reflects from it with the same
angle.

The pictures shown before show the physical construction of the fiber optic cable. The core of the
cable is made of a plastic like (so not glass) material that carries light very well. The better a
material carries light the lower its refractive index is. The refractive index for vacuum is set to be

e n
/
one. Air has a refractive index of almost one. Optical cables use materials with refractive indexes
in the range of 2.2 to 3.0.

o m
Directly outside the core there is another layer of optical material with a slightly different refractive
e i .c
index: the cladding. Then a layer of foam is used to protect the fragile optical parts. The actual
aw
outer layer is a plastic sheath that is often orange or yellow.
u
g .h
ni n
FC optical cables
r
// lea
Macro bends
p :
t t
:h
cladding

e s
r c
s ou
Re
i n g
r n minimum radius 0.05 m ( 5 cm)

e a
eL
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 31

or
MAs it is important to keep the light inside of the core and have it bounce back against the surface
where the core and the cladding meet. Light that leaves the cladding (indicated with the red arrow)
has hit the surface in an unfavorable angle. That part of the signal will then be lost. That would
mean that the signal is less bright which at the end may result in a weak signal that cannot be
detected by the photoelectric sensors. All the theory above is used to make clear that handling
the cable is very important. An engineer should not bend the cable too much and also should he
keep the ends of the cable and the transceivers dust free.

Page | 146 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


FC optical cables

Possible problems resulting in power loss (attenuation):

Macro bends: minimal radius 1 inch. Even though bends are


according to specs light paths differ leading to a
distorted signal.

Micro bends: pinching of cables leads to loss of signal.

e n
Scattering : impurities have a different refractive index.
/
m
Light is scattered when it passes impurities.

Absorption : light hits the cladding in an unfavorable angle and is


.c o
absorbed in the cladding.

e i
aw
u
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

g
Slide 30 .h
ni n
r
lea
It is important to handle the cables in such a way that the optimal amount of light stays in the

//
cable making the success rate of detecting the light pulses as high as possible. Fiber optic cables
:
t p
should be laid out without sharp bends. Also any dirt that is collected on the optic material of the

t
:h
cable or inside the transceivers impact the amount of light transported.

e s
FC multimode rc
o u
es
R
Multimode fiber exists in:

i n g
rn
Step-Index multi-mode.

e a supports thousands of nodes.

eL
high dispersion.

or
lowest bandwidth.

M Graded-Index multi-mode.
reduced dispersion.
increases bandwidth.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 32

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 147


The more light is trapped inside the cable the higher the intensity of the light pulse will be at the
end of the cable. To improve the quality of the optical cable they changed the way the core itself
is built. Using multiple layers with slightly different refractive indexes they have arranged that the
light pulses will be pushed in to the center of the cable. This type of cable is called a step-index
cable.

Nowadays almost all cables used are graded index cables. In such cables the density of the
optical material is changed in such a way that the refractive index changes continuously from the
inside of the core towards the cladding. This is the optimal construction to keep the light directed
e n
/
m
towards the inside of the core.

.c o
e i
aw
Fibre Channel switch
u
g .h
ni n
r
lea
Fibre Channel switch

: //
p
Directly connected to a Fibre Channel network.


t t
:h
Directly connected to an initiator and a target.

s
Exclusive use of all optical bandwidths.

Zoning.

r c e
s ou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
r
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 33

o
MFibre Channel (FC) switches are considered to be the core of a SAN. FC switches connect hosts
to storage devices.

In order to eliminate unwanted traffic between certain fabric nodes in an FC SAN we define zones
in the Fibre Channel switches. A zone is similar to a VLAN with Ethernet switches. Devices in
different zones cannot communicate with each other.

Page | 148 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


Fibre Channel switch ports

Fibre Channel switch ports

Fibre Channel switch 1

Node N_Port F_Port F_Port N_Port Node

e n
/
E_Port

o m
E_Port
FL_Port
e
NL_Port Node i .c
G_Port FL_Port FL_Port
aw
u
.h
FL_Port NL_Port Node

Fibre Channel switch 2

i n g
n
Fibre Channel hub

r
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 34

: //
t t p
Fibre Channel switches house various ports. The ports provide different functions depending on

:h
the types of devices connected to them.

e s
r c
The following types of ports are defined by Fibre Channel:

s ou
F_Ports (also known as Fibre Channel network ports) are ports on the switch that connect to

Re
a node point-to-point (for example, connects to an N_Port). In the case of the arbitrated loop

i n g
topology, the node is regarded as an NL_Port. Fibre Channel switches identify these nodes
by the names of N_Ports or NL_Ports.

r n
e a
E_Ports (also called expansion ports) are connection between two Fibre Channel switches.

e L
or FL_Port is a port on the switch that connects to an FC-AL loop (for example, to NL_ports). A

M
switch port on a Fibre Channel switch can be part of a loop and data can be transferred from
the switch to the loop. The switch port working correctly in a loop is referred to as an FL_Port.

G_Ports are generic ports, which can operate as F_Ports or E_Ports depending on the
implementation mode. Thanks to its adaptability, G_Ports can deliver flexibility to Fibre
Channel switches and cut down the administrative costs of each port on a multi-switch Fibre
Channel SAN.

Currently, Fibre Channel switches can support a port rate of 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 Gbit/s.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 149


World Wide Name

WWNs of Fibre Channel HBAs

WWNN = World Wide Node Name.

WWPN = World Wide Port Name.

e n
/
o m
.c
P2P

i
Input Fibre Channel FC-AL

e
WWPN network FC-SW
output
WWNN Link
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 35

: //
t t p
Because a SAN can have thousands of components there must be a way to identify each one of

:h
them with a unique code. Compare this with a home address that should be unique so only one

e s
person will receive a letter with that address written on it.

r c
ou
For the Fibre Channel protocol they use an identifier called the World Wide Name or WWN. All

es
Fibre Channel compatible equipment has a unique WWN up to the single interfaces of the I/O

R
modules in storage devices. For that reason different WWNs are defined:

i n g
1.
r n
World Wide Node Name (WWNN)

e a
The globally unique node name. Each upper-layer node is assigned a unique 64-bit identifier.

e L
All ports on an HBA share the same WWNN. A WWNN is allocated to a node (or terminal, for

or example, a device) on a Fibre Channel network. The WWNN can be used by one or multiple

M
ports that have different WWPNs and belong to the same node.

2. World Wide Port Name (WWPN)


The globally unique port name. Each Fibre Channel port is assigned a unique 64-bit identifier
and has an exclusive WWPN. The application of WWPNs in a SAN is similar to that of an
Ethernet MAC address.

An example of a World Wide Name could be: 2000-C29C-34FA-BC0D


In the WWN each character is a so-called hexadecimal number that represent 4 bits.

Page | 150 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


Fibre Channel zoning

Fibre Channel Zoning

BLUE ZONE

RED ZONE

e n
/
BACKUP1
HOST 2

o m
.c
HOST1

e i
STOR1
STOR2

aw
STOR3
u
HOST 3

g .h
i n
GREEN ZONE

n
r
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 36

: //
t t p
Zones are mostly created because of security reasons where the manager of the SAN wants

:h
to restrict access to specific devices. In a zone of a switch the equipment can only

e s
communicate with the other equipment in the same zone. In the above example the green

r c
zone contains two storage devices (STOR1 and STOR2) and a host (HOST3). That means

ou
that HOST3 can detect the devices STOR1 and STOR2 and can communicate with them.

es
Although the other devices are connected to the same switch HOST3 will not be able to

R
communicate with the other hosts or the backup device (BACKUP1). STOR3 is not in any

i n g
zone and therefore cannot be detected by any other device.

r n
e a
It is possible to add a device to multiple zones. In the picture STOR1 is in two zones (RED

eL
and BLUE). Also in two zones is STOR2. It is in the BLUE and the GREEN zone.

or
M
The picture above is a symbolic representation of the zones. In practice the devices are all
connected to a Fibre Channel switch. The zones can then be represented like shown in the
next image.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 151


Fibre Channel Zoning

RED ZONE STOR1


BLUE ZONE
HOST2
HOST1

e n
/
o m
STOR3
BACKUP1

e i .c
HOST3 STOR2

aw
u
GREEN ZONE

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 37

g .h
ni n
r
lea
Zones are defined within the switch using a graphical interface or in a command line mode. With

//
the command line mode (also called CLI) special commands have to be typed to make all the
:
t p
settings for the zones. Multiple zones can exist inside of a switch. Zones can be active or inactive.

t
:h
Which zones are active is defined in so-called configurations. Multiple configurations can exist in

s
a switch, but only one configuration can be active!

r c e
ou
Two major methods can be used to define the zones in a switch:

es
1.
R
Port zoning. For each of the zones the number of the ports, the devices are connected to,

i n g
are listed. This requires the switch administrator to know exactly for each cable, connected to

n
the switch, what device is connected. The term used to indicate a device being connected to

ar
a switch is: patch. For port zoning to work the patching of all devices must be documented.

L e
r
2.
e Soft zoning. This is also called World Wide Name zoning. In the switch the zones are

o defined by listing all WWNs of the devices that should be in the same zone. As WWNs are

M identifiers that are not easy to memorize; usually aliases are defined for each WWN.

The following pictures show sections of the graphical user interface Huawei uses inside its Fibre
Channel switch model SNS2124

Page | 152 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


Zone Basic configuration

1. Configure.
2. Zone Admin.
3. enter Zone Administration.

e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
NoteScreenshots are for the FC switch model SNS2124

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

g
Slide 38 .h
ni n
r
lea
The Configure menu has an item that will open the special Zone Administration window. There

//
the user can create aliases for the WWNs in the various devices connected to the switch. Note
:
that this is typically done when soft zoning is used.

t t p
s :h
New Alias
r c e
s ou
Re Step 3

i n g Step 1

r n
e a
e L
or
M Step 2

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 39

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 153


New Zone

Step 3

Step 1

e n
/
o m
Step 2
e i .c
aw
u
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

g
Slide 40 .h
ni n
r
lea
Once the aliases are defined the next step is to create the individual zones. Step 1 is to give the
zone a symbolic name and then add aliases (or port numbers) to them.
: //
t t p
:h
After the creation of all required zones the configuration(s) must be defined. Again this starts with

s
a symbolic name for the configuration. Then the zones that should be active, when the

e
c
configuration is enabled, are added to the configuration.
r
s ou
Re
Creating and enable Zone Config

i n g
r n
a
Step 4 Step 3

e
eL
Step 1

or
M
Step 2

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 41

Page | 154 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


Inside of a switch there can be a number of zones and a number of configurations. Only one
configuration can be active at any time. This is the running configuration. Every time a change is
made to the zones or the configurations the new changes will be applied in the running
configuration.

However: it is important to save the configuration! When a switch reboots or gets powered off and
powered on it will not use the running configuration. A switch always starts with the startup
configuration and that is the last saved version of the active configuration.

e n
/
m
A Fibre Channel SAN typically has at least two Fibre Channel switches. The reason is not only
redundancy but also because the design of Fibre Channel SANs demands it. An FC SAN must
.c o
consist of two separate networks called fabrics.
e i
aw
u
g .h
Fibre Channel fabrics
ni n
r
// lea
Fibre Channel fabrics
p :
t t
:h
Fabric:


e
Separate network within a
s
FC SAN.
r c
ou
FC FC

s
Can consist of multiple

e
switches.
R
Fabric A Fabric B

g
FC FC

n i n
ar
L e
r e
o
M Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 42

Depending on the size of the required SAN infrastructure the choice for FC switch models ranges
between entry level FC switches and high end switches called core switches.

The difference between them is mostly based on the number of physical ports that are present in
the switch. For an entry level switch this could be 24 ports where core switches can have
hundreds of ports.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 155


When a switch has not enough ports the option could be to replace it with a bigger one. But there
is an alternative. Two switches that are connected together using a Fibre channel link between
them will from that moment function as one switch! So one could keep the old switch and buy a
second switch. In both switches one port is used to put the interconnecting cable in. With this
method two 24 port switches combined with the interconnect cable act like a 46 port switch. (2 x
24 2).

The next picture shows a few possibilities for connecting switches together.

e n
/
o m
.c
Fibre Channel fabrics

e i
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
// lea
p : Core Edge Design

t
Ring network Meshed network

t
s :h
r c e
s ou
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 43

Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

Page | 156 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


IP SAN

What is an IP SAN?

An IP SAN is an approach to using the Internet Protocol in a


storage area network usually over Gigabit Ethernet.

n
The typical protocol that implements an IP SAN is Internet SCSI
(iSCSI), which defines the encapsulation mode of SCSI instruction
sets in IP transmission.
/ e
o m
.c
User A User B User C

Server
e
LAN
i
w
Server
HBA

a
HBA

u
.h
TCP/IP network

Storage device Ethernet switch

i n g Storage device

r n
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 45

: //
t t p
The title of this section is IP SAN and that may be confusing as the next topic will be the iSCSI

:h
protocol. However this is correct because the iSCSI protocol is one of the options we have to

e s
move the SCSI blocks across an IP based (maybe we should say Ethernet based) network. The

r c
other options are FCIP and iFCP but they are not used nearly as much as iSCSI. So iSCSI will be

ou
the protocol we focus on next.

es
R
An iSCSI SAN puts the SCSI blocks in Ethernet packets and sends them over the network.

i n g
r n
The iSCSI was initiated by Cisco and IBM and then advocated by Adaptec, Cisco, HP, IBM,

e a
Quantum, and other companies. iSCSI offers a method of transferring data through TCP and

e L
saving them on SCSI devices. The iSCSI standard was drafted in 2001 and submitted to IETF in

or 2002 after numerous discussions and modifications. In Feb. 2003, the iSCSI standard was

M
officially released. The iSCSI technology is developed based on traditional technologies and
inherits their advantages. On one hand, we have SCSI technology which is a storage standard
widely applied by storage devices including disks and tapes. It has been developing at a rapid
pace since 1986. On the other hand, we have TCP/IP which is the most universal network
protocol with an advanced IP network infrastructure. These two provide a solid foundation for
iSCSI development.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 157


Advantages of IP SANs

Advantages of IP SANs

IP SANs do not need dedicated HBAs or FC switches but


Standard access common NICs and switches for connecting storage devices

n
to servers can be used.

Long transmission
IP SANs are available wherever IP networks exist. In fact,
/ e
m
distance IP networks are now the most widely used networks in the

o
world.

Enhanced
maintainability
Networking experience is generally already present in
many ICT departments. FC switch knowledge is not.
e i .c
aw
With the development of the 40 Gbit/s Ethernet, IP SANs
u
.h
Scalable bandwidth will soon be faster than the 16 Gb/s of Fibre Channel.

i n g
r n
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 46

: //
1.
t t p
The minimal hardware configuration needed is widely available which makes IP SANs

:h
cheaper to implement than FC SANs. Most hosts already have suitable network interfaces

e s
and switches are often also suitable (but not ideal) for iSCSI traffic. High performance IP

r c
SANs however are usually equipped with special iSCSI HBAs and high end switches.

s ou
2.
e
Setting up an IP SAN is easy because the IP infrastructure is already spanning the entire

R
globe. The Ethernet cables that are used to run the internet are considered to form the

i n g
biggest network in the world.

r n
3.
e a
To manage an IP SAN the knowledge required is not much more than what most IT

e L
employees already have. Basic Ethernet networking skills are required plus some iSCSI

or specific knowledge.

M
Fibre Channel technology is new to most organizations and that requires a lot of training to
bring every SAN administrator at the right knowledge level.

4. The development of Ethernet is a continuous process and at this point 10 Gbit/s is widely
available. Also the development of 40 Gbit/s and even 1 Tbit/s are well on the way. Fibre
Channel has been upgrade from 8 to 16 Gbit/s just a few years ago.

Page | 158 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


Fibre Channel SAN vs. IP SAN

Indicator Fibre Channel SAN IP SAN


Transmission speed. 4 Gbit/s, 8 Gbit/s, 16 Gbit/s. 1 Gbit/s, 10 Gbit/s, 40 Gbit/s.

Network architecture. Dedicated Fibre Channel networks and HBAs. Existing IP networks.

Transmission Limited by the maximum transmission distance Unlimited theoretically.


distance. of optical fibers.
Management and Complicated technologies and management. As simple as operating IP devices.
maintenance.
Compatibility. Poor. Compatible with all IP network

e n
/
devices.
Performance. Very high transmission and read/write 1 Gbit/s (mainstream) and 10 Gbit/s.

m
performance.

o
Cost. High purchase cost (of Fibre Channel switches, Lower purchase and maintenance

.c
HBAs, Fibre Channel disk arrays, and so on) costs and higher return on

i
and maintenance cost (of staff training, system investment (ROI) than Fibre Channel

e
configuration and supervision, and so on). SANs.

Disaster recovery. High hardware and software costs for disaster Local and remote DR available on

w
recovery (DR). existing networks at a low cost.

Security. High. Medium/Low.

u a
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

g
Slide 48 .h
ni n
r
// lea
p :
Networking in IP SANs
t t
s :h
Networking in IP SANs
r c e
s ou
Re Single switch Dual switch

ing
Application Application
server server

arn
e
eL
Ethernet

or
switch Stack/ISL/Trunk

M
Storage device Storage device

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 49

The network of IP SANs usually exists out of multiple switches. That is because of the
redundancy in hardware or because of the number of switch ports required. But even with two or

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 159


more switches used there will be just one fabric. For IP SANs there is no official need for two
separate fabrics like with FC.

The picture above shows the single switch next to the dual switch solution. Both solutions
however consist of one fabric:

The dual switch networking mode features high scalability and allows multiple hosts to share
the storage resources offered by the same storage device. And even, when a switch fails, the

n
storage resources are still available.

/ e
m
The way the individual switches are connected together to form that one fabric varies. Three
options are available in modern switches.
.c o
e i
w
1. Use a cable to connect two ports on different switches together.
2. Many switches have dedicated ports called uplink ports just for connecting them to other
u a
.h
switches.
3. With midrange and high end switches there is the option to install a so-called stacking

i n g
n
module. Together with a special stacking cable two switches can be stacked together using

r
lea
the stacking modules in them. Stacking allows for high performance interconnection of two or

//
more switches.

p :
t t
s :h
iSCSI connection modes
r c e
s ou
Re
iSCSI connection modes

i n g
r n
Three adapter types can be used with iSCSI communication.

e a
e L
or
M NIC + initiator TOE NIC + initiator iSCSI HBA
software software

SCSI USER DATA - 1 iSCSI INFO - 2 TCP INFO - 3 IP INFO - 4

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 50

Page | 160 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


iSCSI devices use IP ports as their host ports, through which iSCSI devices are connected to
Ethernet switches to form a TCP/IP-based SAN. Depending on the connection mode adopted by
hosts, there are three iSCSI connection modes:

NIC + initiator software: The host uses standard NICs to connect to the network. The
functions of the iSCSI and TCP/IP protocols are processed by the host CPU. This mode
requires the lowest cost because it uses the universally integrated NICs on hosts, but it
requires CPU resources for iSCSI and TCP/IP processing. Note: NIC = Network Interface

e n
/
Connector.

o m
.c
TOE + initiator software: The host incorporates a TOE NIC. The functions of the iSCSI
protocol are processed by the host CPU, but those of the TCP protocol are processed by the
e i
TOE NIC, reducing the workload of the host CPU. Note: TOE = TCP/IP Offload Engine.
aw
u
iSCSI HBA: The functions of the iSCSI and TCP/IP protocols are processed by the iSCSI
g .h
HBA installed on the host. The host CPU has the least overhead.

ni n
r
// lea
NIC + initiator software
p :
t t
s :h The initiator software converts

e
iSCSI packets into TCP/IP

c
packets, which consumes host

r resources.

s ou
e
NIC

R
i n g
TCP/IP-based Ethernet
IP SAN

n
connection.

ar
e
Internal bus

eL
Ethernet

or
Storage device

M
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 51

Host devices such as servers and workstations use standard NICs to connect to Ethernet
switches. iSCSI storage devices also connect to the Ethernet switches or to the NICs of the hosts.
The initiator software installed on hosts virtualizes NICs into iSCSI cards. The iSCSI cards are
used to receive and transmit iSCSI data packets, implementing iSCSI and TCP/IP transmission
between the hosts and iSCSI devices. This mode uses standard NICs and switches, eliminating
the need for adding other adapters. Therefore, this mode is the most economical. However, this

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 161


mode consumes host resources during iSCSI to TCP/IP packet conversion, increasing operating
overhead and decreasing system performance. The NIC + initiator software mode is applicable to
the scenarios that require moderate I/O and bandwidth performance for data access.

TOE NIC + initiator software

The initiator software


implements the functions of the

n
iSCSI layer, which consumes

e
host resources.

/
m
The TOE NIC implements

o
TCP/IP encapsulation, which

.c
TOE NIC does not consume host

i
resources.

we
a
TCP/IP-based Ethernet
IP SAN
connection.

u
g .h
Internal bus

n
Ethernet

Storage device

ni
r
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 52

: //
t t p
TOE NICs process the functions of TCP/IP protocol while hosts process the functions of the iSCSI

:h
protocol. As a result, the data transfer rate is remarkably improved. Compared with the software

e s
mode, this mode greatly reduces host operating overhead and requires only a little additional

r c
network construction cost. This is a trade-off solution.

s ou
iSCSI HBA Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or The iSCSI HBA converts iSCSI
packets into TCP/IP packets,

M
iSCSI HBA which does not consume host
resources.

TCP/IP-based Ethernet
connection.
IP SAN

Internal bus

Ethernet

Storage device

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 53

Page | 162 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


An iSCSI HBA is installed in the host to implement efficient data exchange between the host and
switch or between the host and storage device. The iSCSI and TCP/IP protocol functions are
handled by the host HBA, consuming the least CPU resources. This mode delivers the best data
transfer performance but requires the highest cost.

The iSCSI communication system inherits part of SCSI's features. The iSCSI communication
involves an initiator that sends I/O requests and a target that responds to the I/O requests and
executes I/O operations. Acting as the primary device, the target controls the entire process after
a connection is set up between an initiator and a target. Targets include iSCSI disk arrays and
e n
/
m
iSCSI tape libraries.

.c o
The iSCSI protocol defines a set of naming and addressing methods for the iSCSI initiator and
e i
target. All iSCSI nodes are identified by their iSCSI names. The naming method distinguishes

aw
iSCSI names from host names.
u
g .h
ni n
iSCSI uses iSCSI qualified names (IQNs) to identify initiators and targets. Addresses change with

r
the relocation of initiator or target devices, but their names remain unchanged. An initiator delivers

lea
a request. After the target receives the request, it checks whether the iSCSI name contained in

: //
the request is consistent with that bound with the target. If the iSCSI names are consistent, the

t p
connection is set up. Each iSCSI node has a unique IQN name. One IQN name is used while

t
:h
connecting one initiator to multiple targets. Multiple IQN names are used while connecting one
target to multiple initiators.

e s
r c
o u
s
iSCSI encapsulation model
Re
i n gAll SCSI commands are encapsulated into iSCSI PDUs. iSCSI uses

rn
the TCP protocol at the transport layer of the TCP/IP protocol stack
to provide reliable transmission mechanisms for connections.

e a
eL
Ethernet header IP header TCP header Data (iSCSI) FCS

or Source port Destination port Basic header segment (BHS)

M Serial number
Acknowledgment number
Additional header segment (AHS)
Header checksum
Reserved Flags
HELN
(4 bits) (8 bits) Windows size Data segmentation
Checksum Urgent pointer Data checksum
Options and padding

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 54

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 163


All SCSI instructions are encapsulated into iSCSI Protocol Data Units or PDUs. A PDU is the
basic information unit that is sent. The iSCSI protocol uses the TCP protocol at the transport layer,
providing a reliable transmission mechanism for connections. After TCP segment headers and IP
packet headers are encapsulated, the encapsulated SCSI instructions and data are transparent to
network devices. As a result, network devices send them as common IP packets.

One of the things that gave a lot of SAN administrators an excuse not to use iSCSI is the fact that
Ethernet is not a lossless system (and Fibre Channel is lossless). With a lossless system we
mean that each packet that is transmitted will be guaranteed to arrive at the destination or target.
e n
/
m
For Ethernet that was not the case and as iSCSI relies on Ethernet technology it meant that data
sent from an iSCSI initiator not always reached the destination.

.c o
e i
Why is that ?

aw
u
In the concept of Ethernet there are no limitations on the amount of packets that may be

.h
transmitted. Also there is no way of regulating the number of packets transmitted. When the

g
i n
number is so high that it reaches the maximum throughput of the physical network components

n
r
problems will occur.

// lea
:
An unsuccessful transmission may lead to a new attempt to send the same packets again (and

t p
again). If the capacity of the network remains a bottleneck than the delivery of packets cannot be

t
:h
guaranteed.

e s
c
The last couple of years improvement on the 10 Gbit/s Ethernet standard have lead to the fact
r
ou
that Ethernet now can be a lossless protocol. The improvements all are described in a number of

s
IEEE802.3 additions but the general name of the group of additions that make Ethernet lossless
e
R
is the term Data Center Bridging (DCB). DCB is only available from 10 Gbit/s speeds (and

i n g
higher) so many traditional 1 Gbit/s iSCSI solutions are still not lossless.

r n
a
The hardware for 10 Gb/s has become cheaper over the last year so iSCSI is now a true

e
L
competitor for the traditional Fibre Channel protocol.

e
or
M

Page | 164 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


Huawei IP SAN storage applications

Module Power Module Handle Module Power Module

n
indicator Indicator Handle
Speed indicator of a

e
10 Gb/s

/
1 Gb/s 1 Gb/s iSCSI port
iSCSI TOE port

m
port

o
Link/Active indicator Link/Speed

.c
of a 1 Gb/s iSCSI indicator of a 10

i
port Gb/s TOE port

we
1 Gb ETH

u a
10 Gb ETH

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

g
Slide 55 .h
ni n
r
lea
To demonstrate that Huawei fully supports iSCSI in most of their storage devices the above
picture shows an OceanStor S5500 storage array with iSCSI modules.
: //
t t p
:h
A 1 Gb/s iSCSI interface module provides service ports to the storage system for receiving data

s
read/write requests from application servers. Each 1 Gb/s iSCSI interface module houses four 1

e
c
Gb/s iSCSI ports to receive data exchange commands sent by application servers.
r
s ou
A 10 Gb/s TOE interface module provides service ports to the storage system for receiving data

Re
read/write requests from application servers. Each 10 Gb/s TOE interface module houses four 10

i n g
Gb/s TOE ports to receive data exchange commands sent by application servers.

r n
a
In the above picture we see a Huawei storage array with two controllers where each controller

e
e L
has two 10 Gb/s Ethernet I/O modules. Optionally the configuration can be changed in such a

r
way that the same S5500 storage array has both FC and 10 Gb/s IO modules. This offers the

o possibility to mix the technologies.

M Two examples:

1. An infrastructure where the local data center needs to have high performance specifications
but there should also be a copy of all data in a data center on a second site 10 kilometers
away.
For the optimal performance the local data center might be equipped with FC components.
The data could then be copied to a remote site using cost effective Ethernet based networks.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 165


2. The infrastructure demands that the data generated on one site (Main datacenter) gets copied
for security reasons to a second site thousands of kilometers away.
Locally the iSCSI solution might be applied and for the connection to the remote site a high
speed (but very expensive) Fibre Channel based link might be used.

Convergence of Fibre Channel and TCP/IP


e n
/
o m
Convergence of Fibre Channel and TCP/IP
e i .c
aw
u
.h
Fibre Channel and TCP/IP can be converged in two ways:

1. Fibre Channel channels carried over a TCP/IP network.


FCIP.
i n g
iFCP.
r n
lea
FCoE.

2. TCP/IP data carried over Fibre Channel channels.


: //
IPFC.

t t p
:h
Ethernet technologies and Fibre Channel technologies are both

e s
developing fast. IP SANs and Fibre Channel SANs currently coexist
and will continue to serve as complements to each other for the
foreseeable future.
r c
s ou
Re
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 56

i n g
n
The term convergence is here used to indicate a system that both uses the FC as well as the
r
a
iSCSI protocol. A couple of combinations are possible: put SCSI packets inside of a FC frame or
e
L
put FC packets inside an Ethernet frame.

e
or
Out of the four methods (FCIP, IFCP, FCoE and IPFC) the one that is used most is FCoE. This
Mstands for Fibre Channel over Ethernet. The FCoE standard is getting more popular as with FCoE,
Fibre Channel becomes another network protocol running on Ethernet, alongside traditional IP
traffic. The fact that now one switch (Ethernet) can be used to transport both FC as well as IP
information is a cost effective solution.

Page | 166 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


FCoE protocol

The FCoE protocol is used to transmit Fibre Channel signals over a


lossless enhanced Ethernet.

FCoE encapsulates Fibre Channel data frames into Ethernet packets


and allows service traffic on a LAN and a SAN to be concurrently
transmitted over the same physical interface.

e n
/
Ethernet data link layer frame

m
Service flow IP address

Block storage FCoE

.c o
Internet telephony VoIP

e i
Video stream VoIP

aw
u
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

g
Slide 57 .h
ni n
r
lea
Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) provides services specified by Fibre Channel standards,

//
including discovery, global naming, and zoning. These services run in the same way as the
:
t
original Fibre Channel services with low latency and high performance.

t p
s :h
Note:
r c e
ou
VoIP = Voice over IP. A method to transmit audio and or video for digital telephony over an
Ethernet network.
es
R
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 167


Questions

Questions

1. What five specifications identify a Storage Area Network?

2. What methods can be used to define zoning in a FC switch?

3. What is a transceiver?
e n
/
4. What are the differences between an IP SAN and a Fibre Channel SAN?

o m
.c
5. What are the main components of an IP SAN?

6. What are the functions of the iSCSI initiator and target?


e i
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 58

: //
t t p
1. Scalable in number of components; scalable geographical, reliable, flexible, heterogeneous,

:h
easy to manage

e s
2. Port zoning; World Wide Name zoning and Alias zoning

r c
3. A module in a switch; Host Bus Adapter or storage device that holds a light source and a

ou
photoelectric sensor. It is used to create an optical signal from an electrical signal and vice
versa.
es
R
4. IP SANs use a single fabric; are Ethernet based; requires little training to master ; speeds of

i n g
up to 40 Gbit/s; relatively cheap to implement. FC SANs use dual fabrics with dedicated

r n
networks; requires training to master; speeds up to 16 Gbit/s; FC components are more

e a
expensive

L
5. Host with Ethernet network interface; multiple Ethernet switches that are connected with each

e
or other; Ethernet type CAT cable; Storage devices with Ethernet interfaces.

M
a. Network Interface Connector. Already present in most hosts. Software, running on the
hosts CPU, is used to encapsulate the payload with iSCSI+TCP+IP information
b. TCP/IP Offload Engine. A dedicated I/O card that performs the encapsulation of TCP +
IP.The software in the host still is involved in iSCSI encapsulation
c. iSCSI Host Bus Adapter. A dedicated I/O card that performs all encapsulation tasks and
forwards the relevant SCSI data to the host CPU
6. The initiator is responsible for the selection of the destination device in a IP connection. The
target is the device that controls the connection after it has been established.

Page | 168 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


Exam Preparation

Exam Preparation

1. Statement 1: In IP SANs two switches are used for redundancy


and for creating two fabrics.

Statement 2: A host can be part of multiple zones in a FC switch.


e n
a. Statement 1 is true; Statement 2 is true. /
b. Statement 1 is true; Statement 2 is false.
o m
c. Statement 1 is false; Statement 2 is true.
d. Statement 1 is false; Statement 2 is false.
e i .c
2. Which of the following characteristics are applicable to FC SANs.
aw
Select all that apply.
u
.h
a. Lossless protocol. d. Up to 16.77 million devices.

g
b. Single fabric. e. Speeds up to 10 Gb/s.
c. IQN zoning.

ni n
f. Design should include SPOFs.

r
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 59

: //
t t p
Exam Preparation h
s :
r c e
u
3. iSCSI Host Bus Adapters are used because they offload the

o
CPU of the host of all the work needed to encapsulate iSCSI

s
packets in Ethernet frames. True or false?

Re
4. Statement 1 : E_Ports are FC ports in a host that connects to a

i n g switch.
Statement 2 : Every interface in a FC switch has a unique

r n World Wide Port Name assigned to it. The

e a switch chassis itself has a unique World Wide

L
Node Name.

r e a) Statement 1 is true; Statement 2 is true.

o b) Statement 1 is true; Statement 2 is false.

M c)
d)
Statement 1 is false; Statement 2 is true.
Statement 1 is false; Statement 2 is false.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 60

Answers:

1. C, 2. A + D, 3. True, 4. C.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 169


Summary

Summary

Essential parameters of a SAN.


scalable in size and distance, reliable, flexible.

Components and networking of a FC SAN.


e n
dual fabric, zoning, fiber optical cable, HBA/transceiver.
/
Fibre Channel protocol, FC Frame, Port types (F, N, L, FL, E, G).
o m
Components and networking of an IP SAN.
single fabric, NIC / TOE / iSCSI HBA.
e i .c
iSCSI frame.
aw
u
Convergence of Fibre Channel and TCP/IP.
FCoE.
g .h
ni n
r
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 61

: //
t t p
s :h
r c e
s ou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

Page | 170 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


Thank you
www.huawei.com
e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

g
Slide 62 .h
ni n
r
// lea
p :
t t
s :h
r c e
s ou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology Page | 171


e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
// lea
p :
t t
s:h
r c e
sou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

Page | 172 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109104 SAN Technology


e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
OHC1109105
g .h
RAID Technology
ni n
r
// lea
p :
t t
:h
es
www.huawei.com

r c
sou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M
e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
// lea
p :
t t
s:h
r c e
sou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M
Introduction

In this chapter the focus is on the data protection methods used in storage devices based on hard
disks. As the data generated in an organization is important data protection must be implemented in
case the physical disk, on which the data is stored, fails.

e n
Objectives
/
o m
.c
After this module you will be able to:
Explain the most common RAID types.
e i

aw
Understand what level of data protection is offered with the various RAID types.
u

.h
Understand the relation between the RAID levels and properties like performance, security

g
and cost.

ni n
r
// lea
Module Contents
p :
t t
:h
1. Traditional RAID.

e s
c
2. Basic concepts and implementation modes of RAID.

r
ou
3. RAID technology and application.

es
4. RAID data protection.

R
i n g
5. Relationship between RAID and LUNs.

r n
e a
e L
or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 175


e n
/
o m
e i .c
aw
u
g .h
ni n
r
// lea
p :
t t
s:h
r c e
sou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
o r
M

Page | 176 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


Traditional RAID

In this module we will look at the data protection system called Redundant Array of
Independent Disks (RAID). RAID has two different version or generations. This module
covers the traditional version of RAID. Here the RAID is based on protecting data that is disk
based. In other words: if a disk fails, how can I make sure that the data on that disk is
recovered.

The advanced RAID 2.0+ technology used in Huaweis enterprise class storage arrays is
e n
covered in module 9. /
o m
Basic concepts and implementation modes of RAID e i .c
aw
hu
.
Basic concepts and implementation modesgof RAID

nin
ar
/ l e
RAID: short for redundant array of independent disks

: /
also referred to as disk array.

t tp
: hRAID
e s
r c
o u
es
Implementation methods:
R Hardware RAID.

i n g Software RAID.

r n
e a Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 4

e L
or The first idea behind RAID was to combine multiple smaller disks together to get a bigger capacity.

M Today the term RAID is used more in relation to data protection, in other words RAID can be used to
prevent data loss in case a physical device fails.

Over the years there have been a number of RAID types, but just a small number is still in use. In this
module we will discuss the most commonly used RAID types. We will also look at other factors than
data protection because choosing a RAID type has consequences for the performance and/or for the
cost of the RAID solution.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 177


In practice RAID can be implemented in two modes: hardware RAID and software RAID.

Hardware RAID uses a dedicated RAID adapter, RAID controller or Storage Processor. The
RAID controller has its own processor, I/O processing chip, and memory, improving resource
utilization and data transfer speed. The RAID controller manages routes, the buffer, and data
flow between hosts and the disk array.

Software RAID does not have its own processor or I/O processing chip and is fully dependent
on the host CPU. Therefore, low-speed CPUs can hardly meet the requirements for RAID

e n
implementation. Software RAID is not used much in Enterprise solutions as the performance
/
of hardware RAID is typically better than the performance of software RAID.
o m
e i .c
Data Organization modes of RAID
aw
u
g .h
Data organization modes of RAID
ni n
r
lea
Stripe unit or Chunk size: smallest amount of data written on a disk before

//
selecting another disk.

p :
t
Strip: logical grouping of a number of stripe units or chunks.

t
:h
Stripe: strips with the same stripe numbers (i.e. D3, D4, D5) on multiple disks

s
in a disk array.

r c e
Stripe depth or Stripe width: the amount of disks that form the stripe or the

ou
total amount of space stored in a stripe. #disks x chunk size (kB).

es Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3


Strip
R D6 D7 D8 Chunk

ing
D3 D4 D5
Stripe

rn
D0 D1 D2

e a
eL
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 5

or
M
Stripe unit or chunksize: amount of data that will be written in one instance before the next
instance gets written to another disk.

Strip: a number of stripe units that are logically grouped together.

Stripe: all chunks in a RAID set that are on the same stripe i.e. that have the same stripe number.

Stripe width: Capacity of a stripe (#disks x chunk size) or the amount of disks that form the stripe.

Page | 178 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


Parity mode of RAID

Parity mode of RAID

XOR or eXclusive OR is a logical function used with digital electronics


and in computer science. The output is true if only one of the inputs is
true. If both inputs are the same (true or false) than the output is false.

XOR: true whenever the inputs differ and false whenever the inputs
e n
are the same. The symbol for the XOR operation is .
/
0 0 = 0, 0 1 = 1, 1 0 = 1, 1 1 = 0
o m
Disk 1 Disk 2 Parity disk
e i .c
1 1 0

aw
u
0 1 1

.h
0 0 0

XOR redundancy backup

i n g
r n
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 6

: //
t t p
There are two different ways RAID can be used to protect data. One way is to keep identical copies of

:h
the data on another disk. The second way is using a concept called Parity. The parity is extra

e s
information calculated using the actual user data. For the RAID types that use parity it means that

r c
extra disks are needed. Parity is calculated using the exclusive or (XOR the symbol is) function.

s ou
The output of an XOR system is shown in the following table.

Input A R
e AB
g
Input B

i n
arn 0 0 0

L e
r e 1 0 1
o
M 0 1 1

1 1 0

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 179


RAID status

RAID status

RAID
group Creation succeeded
created

e n
RAID
/
m
group

o
Reconstruction succeeded working

.c
correctly

i
RAID

e
group
failed

RAID group
A member disk is offline

aw
u
or has failed
degraded

# failed disks > # hot spare disks

g .h
ni n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r
Slide 7

// lea
p :
Providing there are multiple disks used together to form a RAID protected group (sometimes called a
RAID set) this group has a status.
t t
s :h
1. Everything is working as planned. The status is referred to as NORMAL.

r c e
2. A hardware failure has occurred, but the system is able to present all the data. No recovery

ou
procedures have started (yet). The status is called DEGRADED.

es
R
3. After a hardware failure the recovery process has started, but it has not finished yet. The status is

g
referred to as REBUILDING (or reconstructing).

n i n
4. After a hardware failure there are no recovery options available and the data cannot be presented

ar
in a correct way anymore. The status is called FAILED.

L e
Whether or not a degraded RAID group can be reconstructed depends on the RAID type used, the

r e
number of hardware failures and the availability of recovery hardware.
o
M

Page | 180 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


RAID technology and application

Common RAID levels and classification criteria

Common RAID levels and classification criteria


e n
/
o m
RAID technology combines multiple independent physical disks into
a logical disk in different modes. Corresponding to these modes,
e i .c
w
RAID levels are formed. This mechanism improves the read/write
performance of disks while increasing data security.

u a
RAID 0
RAID 6

g .h
ni n
r
Common RAID RAID 10

lea
levels
RAID 1

//
RAID 50
RAID 3

p :
t t RAID 5

:h
es
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 8

r c
s ou
Re
Advantages of RAID technology:


i n g
Combines multiple disks into a logical disk to provide storage capacity as one entity.

r n

e a
Divides data into data blocks and writes/reads data to/from multiple disks in parallel,

e L improving disk access speed.

or Provides fault tolerance by offering mirroring or parity check.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 181


Working principle of RAID 0

Working principle of RAID 0

D0

e n
D5 D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5
/
D4

o m
i .c
D3

e
Disk 1 Disk 2
D2 D6

w
D4 D5 Stripe 2
D1

a
D2 D3 Stripe 1

u
D0

.h
D0 D1 Stripe 0

Data blocks on disks

g
Data blocks on disks

i n
Logical disk Striped disk array without error control

r n
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 9

: //
t t p
RAID 0 (also referred to as striping) has the highest storage performance of all RAID levels. RAID 0

:h
uses striping technology to distribute data among all disks in the RAID group.

e s
A RAID 0 group contains at least two member disks. RAID 0 group divides data into data blocks of

r c
ou
sizes ranging from 512 bytes to megabytes (usually integral multiples of 512 bytes), and writes them

s
onto different disks in parallel. For example: The first data block is written onto disk 1, and the second

Re
onto disk 2 of Stripe 0. After the data block is written onto the last disk of Stripe 0, the next data block

g
is written onto the next stripe (Stripe 1) on disk 1. In this way, I/Os are load balanced to all disks in
the RAID group.

n i n
ar
The disk appears to offer a single big capacity and still has the benefits of being very fast. Before

L e
RAID 0 was used there was a technique which was similar to RAID 0 called JBOD. A JBOD (short for

r e
Just a Bunch Of Disks) is a group of disks concatenated to form a virtual bigger disk. The big

o
difference with RAID 0 is that with a JBOD the blocks are not written to disks at the same time. In a

M
JBOD the first disks will be used until it is full. Then the second disk will be used. So the total
available capacity is the sum of the capacity of the individual disks, but the performance is the
performance of a single disk! JBODs are not considered to be a RAID implementation.

Page | 182 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


Data write of RAID 0

Data write of RAID 0

Writing D2, D3,...

Writing D1

Writing D0

e n
/
m
D5 D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5
D4

.c o
D3
D2 Disk 1 Disk 2
e i
D1 D4 D5

aw
u
D0 D2 D3 Stripe 1

.h
D0 D1 Stripe 0

g
Logical disk

ni n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r Slide 10

// lea
p :
RAID 0 uses striping technology to write data onto all disks. It divides the data into data blocks and

t t
evenly distributes them among all disks in the RAID group. Data is written onto the next stripe only

:h
when the data is written onto all blocks in the previous stripe. In the figure, data blocks D0, D1, D2,
s
r c e
D3, D4, and D5 are waiting to be written onto disks in RAID 0. D0 will be written onto the block in the

ou
first stripe (Stripe 0) on disk 1 and D1 onto the block in the first stripe on disk 2. Then, data will be

s
written onto all blocks in the second stripe. D2 will be written onto the next stripe, that is, the block in

e
the second stripe (Stripe 1), on disk 1, D3 will be written onto a block in stripe1 on Disk 2. The same
R
g
method will be applied for D4 and D5 but now of course on stripe 2 across the two disks.

n i n
The write performance of a RAID 0 set is proportional to the number of disks.

ar
L e
r e
o
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 183


Data read of RAID 0

Data read of RAID 0

Reading D2, D3,...

Reading D1

Reading D0

e n
/
m
D5 D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5
D4

.c o
D3
D2 Disk 1 Disk 2
e i
D1 D4 D5

aw
u
D0 D2 D3

.h
D0 D1

g
Logical disk

ni n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r
Slide 11

// lea
p :
t t
:h
When a RAID 0 receives a data read request, it searches for the target data blocks on all disks and

s
reads data across stripes. In the figure, we can see the entire read process.

e
r c
A request of reading data blocks D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 is received. D0 is read from the disk 1, D1

ou
from the disk 2, and the other data blocks are also read. After all data blocks are read from the disk

es
array, they are integrated by using the RAID controller and then sent to the host.

R
i n g
n
The read performance of a RAID 0 set is proportional to the number of disks.

ar
L e
r e
o
M

Page | 184 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


Data loss of RAID 0

Data loss of RAID 0

Data on the disk array is lost if any of the disks in the disk array fails.

e n
/
o m
e i .c
Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3

aw
u
D6 D7 D8

.h
D3 D4 D5

D0 D1 D2

i n g
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r n
Slide 12

// lea
p :
t t
:h
RAID 0 only organizes data in a certain way but does not provide data protection. If any of the disks in

s
the RAID group becomes faulty, the entire RAID group fails. This is of course not a physical failure of

e
c
the RAID group but a logical. If files are stored on a RAID 0 based volume it means the data blocks
r
ou
that form that file are stored on all disks of the RAID 0 set. If a single disk fails the other disks still

s
have their data blocks. The file itself now is no longer complete because some of the blocks it uses
e
R
are no longer available. So maybe it is better to say that the data is incomplete. For most files and file

i n g
systems however we would not be able to access the files anymore. These files would be most likely

n
be reported as being corrupt files.

ar
L e
e
In enterprise solutions the use of RAID 0 is very limited. The data is often so important that a form of

or data protection is needed. Yes, of course there is always the necessity for physical backups but these

M take time to make and it takes time for the data to be restored.

A use for RAID 0 would be were file access performance should be very high and at the same time
the restore time, in case of a problem, is allowed to be long (Text documents, public images, audio
files that can easily be recreated or recovered).

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 185


Working principle of RAID 1

Working principle of RAID 1

e n
D0, D1, and D2 passing through a mirror
/
m
D2

.c o
i
D1
Disk 1 Disk 2

D0
D2 D2

we
a
D1 D1

u
.h
D0 D0

g
Logical disk Disk array with mirroring

ni n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r
Slide 13

// lea
p :
RAID 1 (also referred to as mirroring) aims to build a RAID level with super high security. RAID 1 uses

t t
two identical disk systems and builds a mirror setup. Data is written onto one disk and a copy of the

:h
data is stored on the mirror disk. When the source disk (physical) fails, the mirror disk takes over
s
r c e
services from the source disk, ensuring service continuity. The mirror disk acts as a backup and as a

ou
result, the highest data reliability is offered.

es
R
Another limitation is the fact that a RAID 1 set can only store data based on the capacity of the single

i n g
disk. The other disk simply holds the copy of the data. For every gigabyte stored there is 2 gigabyte of

r n
hard disk space used. This so-called overhead is 100%.

e a
The two disks in a RAID 1 set must be identical in size. If they are different in size the available

e L
capacity is the capacity of the smaller of the two disks.

o r
M

Page | 186 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


Data write of RAID 1

Data write of RAID 1

Writing D2
Writing D1
Writing D0

e n
/
m
D0, D1, D2

D2

.c o
D1
e i
w
Disk 1 Disk 2

a
D0 D2 D2

u
.h
D1 D1

g
Logical disk D0 D0

ni n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r Slide 14

// lea
p :
Unlike RAID 0, which uses striping technology to write data onto all disks, RAID 1 simultaneously

t t
writes the same data onto each disk so that data is identical on all member disks. In the figure, data

:h
blocks D0, D1, and D2 are waiting to be written onto the disks. D0 and D1 are both simultaneously
s
r c e
written onto the two disks (disks 1 and 2). Then, other data blocks are written onto the two disks in the

ou
same manner.

es
R
The write performance of a RAID 1 system is the performance of the single disk.

i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 187


Data read of RAID 1

Data read of RAID 1

Reading D2

Reading D1

n
Reading D0

/ e
m
D0, D1, D2

o
D2

D1
Disk 1 Disk 2
e i .c
D0 D2 D2

aw
D1
u
.h
D1

D0 D0

g
Logical disk

ni n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r
Slide 15

// lea
p :
t t
RAID 1 simultaneously reads data from the data and mirror disks, improving read performance. If one

:h
of the disks fails, data can be read from the other disk.

e s
r c
ou
The read performance of a RAID 1 system is equal to the performance of both disks combined. In

s
case the RAID set is degraded the performance is halved.
e
R
i n g
r n
e a
e L
o r
M

Page | 188 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


Data recovery of RAID 1

Data recovery of RAID 1

e n
/
m
D0, D1, D2

Replacing/Recovering
the disk
Reading/Writing
the backup disk

.c o
Disk 1 Disk 2
e i
D2 D2

aw
D1 D1
u
D0 D0

g .h
n
Disk damaged Backing up disk data

ni
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r Slide 16

// lea
p :
Member disks of RAID 1 are mirrored and have the same content. When one of the disks becomes

t t
faulty, data can be recovered using the mirror disk. In the figure, disk 1 fails and data on it is lost. We

:h
can replace disk 1 with a new one and replicate data from disk 2 to the new disk 1 to recover the lost
s
r c e
data. In most storage solutions this rebuild process after the faulty disk has been replaced is an

ou
automatic process.

s
An important consideration is that the RAID 1 set is in degraded state as long as the new disk has not

e
been rebuilt completely. Especially in these days where the capacity of individual disks is very high
R
g
this rebuild time can be long. The table below shows some examples of rebuild times.

n i n
r
DISK SIZE REBUILD TIME (HOURS)

e a
L
72 GB < 1 hr

r e 146 GB < 4 hrs


o
M 600 GB <8

1 TB < 20 hrs

4 TB < 48 hrs

Note: These rebuild times are depending on RAID controller type and workload on the system!

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 189


Working principle of RAID 3

Working principle of RAID 3

n
D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, D8

/ e
Parity codes generated

o m
.c
Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 Parity disk

D6 D7 D8 P3

e i
D3 D4 D5 P2

aw
u
D0 D1 D2 P1

Striped disk array with parity codes.

g .h
ni n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r
Slide 17

// lea
p :
t t
:h
RAID 3, which is loosely based on RAID 0, is referred to as striping with dedicated parity. Data is now

s
written to the data disks of the RAID 3 set (here disk 1-2-3). The blocks from disks 1, 2 and 3 are (at

e
c
byte-level) used to calculate a parity value. That value is stored on a dedicated parity disk. If any
r
ou
incorrect data is detected or a disk becomes faulty, we can recover the data on the faulty disk using

s
the parity check information. RAID 3 is applicable to data-intensive or single-user environments that
e
R
need to access long and continuous data blocks. RAID 3 distributes data write operations to multiple

i n g
disks. However, RAID 3 needs to recalculate and possibly rewrite the information on the parity disk no

n
matter onto which disk new data is written. As a result, for the applications that produce a large

ar
number of write operations, the parity disk will have heavy workloads. That may have a consequence

L e
for the performance when one has to wait for the parity disk. Also, because it has much higher

r e
workloads, it is often the disk that fails first in a RAID 3 set. That is why the parity disk in RAID 3 is

o
often called a hot spot.

Page | 190 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


Data write of RAID 3

Data write of RAID 3

Writing C
Logical disk
Writing B
Writing A

e n
/
C

m
A0, A1, A2, B0, B1, B2, C0, C1, C2

.c o
Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3
e i
Parity disk

w
A C0 C1 C2 P3

B0 B1 B2

u a
P2

.h
A0 A1 A2 P1

i n g
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r n Slide 18

// lea
p :
RAID 3 adopts single-disk fault tolerance and parallel data transfer. In other words, RAID 3 employs

t t
striping technology to divide data into blocks, implements the XOR algorithm for these blocks, and

:h
writes the parity data onto the last disk. One of the disks in the RAID group functions as the parity disk.
s
r c e
When a disk becomes faulty, data is written onto other disks that are not faulty and the parity check

ou
continues.

es
R
The performance of a RAID 3 set is not a fixed number. In principle RAID 3 is an N+1 data protection

i n g
method. That means that when there are N disks, with user data you want to protect, one extra disk is

r n
needed to store the parity information. In that situation new data blocks will be written to N disks

e a
simultaneous. After the parity information is calculated that will be written to the parity disk.

e L
However: there is a situation that happens quite often. This situation is when there is so little new data

or it can fit on one or two disks. Normally all N disks would cooperate in the striping process, now there

M is just a few disks involved. The problem now is that we still have to read all disks (or better the data
in the stripe of the disks) to be able to recalculate the new parity value. This of course makes that
writing small amounts of data does not benefit from having many disks in the RAID 3 set. This is
known as the write-penalty with RAID 3.

The write performance of a RAID 3 set is depending on the amount of changed data; the number of
disks minus the time needed to calculate and store the parity information.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 191


Data read of RAID 3

Data read of RAID 3

Logical disk

Reading data

e n
C
/
m
A0, A1, A2, B0, B1, B2, C0, C1, C2

.c o
Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 Parity disk
e i
w
A C0 C1 C2 P3

B0 B1 B2 P2

u a
.h
A0 A1 A2 P1

i n g
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r n
Slide 19

// lea
p :
t t
:h
In RAID 3, data is read in stripes across the disks. The disk motor of each disk in a RAID group is

s
controlled such that data blocks in the same stripe on all disks can be read at the same time. By doing

e
c
so, each disk is fully utilized and read performance is boosted. RAID 3 uses the parallel data read
r
ou
(and write) mode.

es
R
g
The read performance of a RAID 3 set is depending on the amount of data read and the number of
disks in the set.

n i n
ar
L e
r e
o
M

Page | 192 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


Data recovery in RAID 3

Data recovery of RAID 3

Logical disk

e n
/
C
A0, A1, A2, B0, B1, B2, C0, C1, C2

o m
.c
B

Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3


e i
Parity disk

w
A

a
C0 C1 C2 P3

u
B0 B1 B2 P2

.h
A0 A1 A2 P1

Disk failure

i g
Data recovery

n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r n Slide 20

// lea
p :
For data recovery, RAID 3 implements XOR operations for all the disks including the parity disk to
recover the lost data on the faulty disk.
t t
s :h
As shown in the figure, when disk 2 fails, data blocks A1, B1, and C1 on disk 2 are lost. To recover

c e
these data blocks, we should first recover A1, which can be obtained by applying XOR operations to
r
ou
A0, A2, and P1 on disk 1, disk 2 and the parity disk. B1 and C1 are also recovered using the same

s
method. In the end, all the lost data on disk 2 is recovered.
e
R
However, all parity check operations run on a single disk causing heavy write pressure onto the parity

i n g
disk during data recovery and decreasing RAID group performance.

r n
e a
RAID 3 is supported with Huawei but in practice it is not used a lot nowadays. Two disadvantages

e L
exist: data is written simultaneous to all disks, but also read simultaneous. This requires the disks to

or rotate at the same speed all the time. This requires spindle-synchronization and that has proven to be

M
a technical challenge for disk manufacturers. Second disadvantage is the byte-level approach. It is a
very small part of the disk capacity that today has become very high. That is why in fact RAID 4 has
replaced RAID 3 somewhat. RAID 4 does not require spindles to run synchronized and the parity is
now calculated using a bigger sized data block. Still RAID 4 has the bottleneck of the hot spot with
the dedicated parity disk! So an improved RAID type was introduced: RAID 5.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 193


Working principle of RAID 5

Working principle of RAID 5

e n
D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5
/
o m
Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3

e i .c
w
P2 D4 D5

D2 P1 D3

u a
.h
D0 D1 P0

Independent disk structure with distributed parity check codes.

i n g
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r n
Slide 21

// lea
p :
RAID 5 is the improved version of RAID 3 and RAID 4. It also uses striping and it also calculates

t t
parity information. In RAID 3/4 the parity had to be written to (or read from) a dedicated disk. That led

:h
to the hot spot situation we mentioned before and an impact on the performance. In RAID 5 they use
s
r c e
so-called distributed parity. It means that each disk will be used to store user data nd parity

ou
information. Then writing new data involves all disks for user data and also involves all disks for

s
storing parity information. So there are no bottlenecks or hotspots.

Re
In RAID 5 out of N disks in a RAID 5 group the capacity of N-1 disks is available. As with other RAID

i n g
systems the disks in a RAID 5 set should be identical.

r n
In both RAID 3/4 and RAID 5, if a disk fails, the RAID group transforms from its online state to the

e a
degraded state until the failed disk is rebuilt. However, if another disk in a degraded RAID group fails,

L
all data in the RAID group will be lost.

e
o r
M

Page | 194 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


Data write of RAID 5

Data write of RAID 5

n
Logical disk

D5
/ e
m
D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5

o
D4

.c
D3

D2
Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3
e i
w
D1

a
P2 D4 D5

u
D0
D2 P1 D3

D0 D1

g
P0

.h
ni n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r Slide 22

// lea
p :
t t
:h
In RAID 5, data is also written in stripes across the disks. Each disk in the RAID group stores both

s
data blocks and parity information. After data blocks are written onto a stripe, the parity information is

e
c
written onto the corresponding parity disk. For each consecutive write to other stripes the disk used to
r
ou
store the parity is a different one.

es
Just as with RAID 3/4 there is a write penalty with RAID 5 when a small amount of data is written.

R
i n g
n
The write performance of a RAID 5 set is depending on the amount of data written and the number of

ar
disks in the RAID 5 set.

L e
r e
o
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 195


Data read of RAID 5

Data read of RAID 5

n
Logical disk

D5 / e
m
D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5

o
D4
D3
D2
Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3
e i .c
D1
P2 D4 D5
aw
u
D0
D2 P1 D3
D0 D1 P0

g .h
ni n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r
Slide 23

// lea
p :
Data is stored as well as read in stripes across the disks. For each read N-1 disks can be used to
retrieve the data.
t t
s :h
r c e
The read performance of a RAID 5 set is depending on the amount of data written and the number of

ou
disks in the RAID 5 set.

es
R
i n g
r n
e a
e L
o r
M

Page | 196 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


Data recovery of RAID 5

Data recovery of RAID 5

Logical disk

e n
D5
/
m
D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5

o
D4

i .c
D3

D2

D1
Disk 1
P2
Disk 2 Disk 3

we
a
D4 D5

u
D0 D2 P1 D3

.h
D0 D1 P0

Disk failure
g
Data recovery

i n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r n Slide 24

// lea
p :
When a disk in RAID 5 fails, XOR operations are implemented for the other member disks to recover
data on the failed disk.
t t
s :h
r c e
However, with RAID 5 it is not so that all parity check operations run on a single disk like with RAID 4.

ou
So rebuilding a new disk to replace the faulty disk with RAID 5 does not cause the heavy write
pressure that RAID 3/4 has.
es
R
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 197


Overview of RAID 6

Overview of RAID 6

RAID 6:
Is an independent disk structure with two parity modes.

n
It requires at least N+2 (N > 2) disks to form an array.
Is applicable to scenarios that have high requirements for data reliability
/ e
m
and availability.

.c o
i
Frequently used RAID 6 technologies are:
RAID 6 P+Q.

we
RAID 6 DP.

u a
g .h
ni n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r
Slide 25

// lea
p :
The RAID types discussed until now provided data protection when a single disk is lost. That is of

t t
course with the exception of RAID 0. Over the years the capacities of disks have increased a lot and

:h
with that the rebuild times. If there are many big disks combined to form a RAID 5 set then the rebuild
s
r c e
of the failed disks may take days instead of hours. In this period the system is in a degraded state and

ou
any additional disk failure will result in a failed RAID set and loss of data.

s
That is why some organizations require a system that is dual redundant. In other words: two disks

e
should be allowed to fail and still all data should be accessible. There are a few implementations of
R
g
such dual redundant data protection types:

n i n
N-way mirroring is the method where each written block to the main disks leads to multiple copies of

ar
the blocks on multiple disks. This of course means a lot of overhead.

L e
r e
o
RAID 6 offers protection against two disks failing in a RAID 6 set. These disks can even fail exactly at

M
the same time.

The official name for RAID 6 is striping with distributed dual parity. In essence it is an improved
version of RAID 5 that also did striping and distributed parity. Now in RAID 6 there is dual parity. That
means two things:
1. In additional to writing the user data two parity calculations have to be made. RAID 6 is in that
respect the slowest of all RAID types.

2. This additional parity information costs space. That is why we refer to RAID 6 as an N+2 type.

Page | 198 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


Currently, RAID 6 does not have a uniform standard. Companies implement RAID 6 in different ways.
The following two are the major implementation modes:

RAID P+Q: Huawei, HDS.

RAID DP: NetApp.

These two modes differ in the methods of obtaining parity data. Nevertheless, they can both ensure
data integrity and support data access in case of double-disk failure in the RAID group.

e n
/
Working principle of RAID 6 P+Q
o m
e i .c
Working principle of RAID 6 P+Q
aw
u
g .h
For RAID 6 P+Q, two parity data, P and Q, are calculated. When two
data blocks are lost, they can be recovered by using the parity data.
ni n
r
lea
P and Q are calculated using the following formulas:
P = D0 D1 D2

//

Q = ( D0) ( D1) ( D2)

p :
t t
:h
Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 Disk 4 Disk 5

es
P1 Q1 D0 D1 D2 Stripe 0

c
D3 P2 Q2 D4 D5 Stripe 1

r
ou
D6 D7 P3 Q3 D8 Stripe 2

D9 D10 D11 P4 Q4 Stripe 3

e
Q5
s D12 D13 D14 P5 Stripe 4

R
ing
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 26

arn
L e
In RAID 6 P+Q, P and Q are two parity values independent from each other. They are obtained using
different algorithms to data in the same stripe on all the disks.

r e
o P is obtained from the simple XOR operation implemented for the user data blocks in a single stripe.

M Q is calculated using a process called GF conversion (GF = Galois Field). In the picture above the
Galois field values are represented with , and . The resulting value is a so-called Reed-Solomon
code. The algorithm converts all data in the same stripe on all data disks and implements XOR for
those converted data.

As shown in the figure, P1 is obtained from the XOR operation implemented for D0, D1, and D2 in
stripe 0, P2 from the XOR operation implemented for D3, D4, and D5 in stripe 1, and P3 from the
XOR operation implemented for D6, D7, and D8 in stripe 2.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 199


Q1 is obtained from the XOR operation implemented for GF-converted D0, D1, and D2 in stripe 0, Q2
from the XOR operation implemented for GF-converted D3, D4, and D5 in stripe 1, and Q3 from the
XOR operation implemented for GF-converted D6, D7, and D8 in stripe 2.

If a disk in a stripe fails, only the value P is required to recover data on the failed disk. XOR
operations are performed between P and data on the other disks. If two disks in a stripe fail, handling
methods will vary according to two scenarios. If Q is on either of the failed disks, data can be can
recovered on the data disk first and then the parity information on the parity disk. If Q is on neither of

n
the failed disks, the two formulas are used to recover data on both failed disks.

/ e
o m
Working principle of RAID 6 DP
e i .c
aw
u
.h
Working principle of RAID 6 DP

i n g
DP means double parity. RAID 6 DP adds a diagonal XOR parity disk based
r n
lea
on the row XOR parity disk used by RAID 4.

//
P0 to P3 on the row parity disk are the parity information of row data blocks
on all data disks. For example, P0 = D0 XOR D1 XOR D2 XOR D3.

p :
t t
DP0 to DP3 on the diagonal parity disk are the parity information of diagonal

:h
data on all data disks and the row parity disk. For example, DP0 = D0 XOR
D5 XOR D10 XOR D15.

e s
r c Row parity Diagonal

ou
Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 Disk 4 disk parity disk
D0 D1 D2 P0 DP0 Stripe 0

s
D3

e
D4 D5 D6 D7 P1 DP1 Stripe 1

D8
R D9 D10 D11 P2 DP2 Stripe 2

ing
D12 D13 D14 D15 P3 DP3 Stripe 3

rn
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 27

e a
e L
RAID 6 DP also has two types of independent parity data blocks. The first parity information is

o r
identical with RAID 6 P+Q. The second one is different from RAID 6 P+Q: the parity is calculated

M
diagonally. Both the row and diagonal parity data blocks are obtained using XOR operations. For row
parity, P0 is obtained from the XOR implemented for D0, D1, D2, and D3 in stripe 0, P1 from the XOR
implemented for D4, D5, D6, and D7 in stripe 1, and so on. That is, P0 = D0 D1 D2 D3, P1 =
D4 D5 D6 D7 etc.

Diagonal parity implements XOR operations to diagonal data blocks. The data block selection process
is complicated. DP0 is obtained from the XOR operation implemented for D0 on disk 1 in stripe 0, D5
on disk 2 in stripe 1, D10 on disk 3 in stripe 2, and D15 on disk 4 in stripe 3. DP1 is obtained from the
XOR operation implemented for D1 on the disk 2 in stripe 0, D6 on disk 3 in stripe 1, D11 on disk 4 in

Page | 200 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


stripe 2, and P3 on the parity disk in stripe 3. DP2 is obtained from the XOR operation implemented
for D2 on the disk 3 in stripe 0, D7 on the disk 4 in stripe 1, P2 on the parity disk in stripe 2, and D12
on the disk 1 in stripe 3, and so on. That is, DP0 = D0 D5 D10 D15, DP1 = D1 D6 D11
P3 etc.

RAID 6 DP is tolerant to double-disk failure in an array. For example, If disks 1 and 2 fail in the above
figure, D0, D1, D4, D5, D8, D9, D12, and D13 are lost.

Data and parity information on other disks are valid. Let's have a look at how data is recovered. First,
recover D12 by using DP2 and diagonal parity (D12 = D2 D7 P2 DP2).
e n
/
Then recover D13 by using P3 and row parity (D13 = D12 D14 D15 P3), D8 by using DP3

o m
.c
and diagonal parity (D8 = D3 P1 DP3 D13), D9 by using P2 and row parity (D9 = D8 D10

e i
D11 P2), D4 by using DP4 and diagonal parity, D5 by using P1 and row parity, and so on.
These operations are repeated until all data on disks 1 and 2 is recovered.
aw
u
g .h
n
The performance of a RAID 6 system is relative slow for all types DP or P+Q. It is therefore that RAID
6 is used in two situations:
ni
r
lea
1. The data is very valuable and needs to be online and available as long as possible.

: //
2. The disks used are very big (typically over 2 TB). At those capacities the rebuild times

t p
become so long that the chance of losing a second disk is a real threat. With RAID 6 there is
t
:h
the option to lose a second disk while a faulty disk is being reconstructed. Some vendors

s
force the users of their storage arrays to use a dual protection RAID type as soon as big disks

e
are discovered.
r c
s ou
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 201


Hybrid RAID - RAID 10

Hybrid RAID - RAID 10

RAID 10 combines mirroring and striping. RAID 1 is implemented


before RAID 0. RAID 10 is also a widely used RAID level.

n
User data D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5

/ e
m
Disk mirror Disk mirror

.c o
D4 D4 D5 D5

e i
w
D2 D2 D3 D3
D0 D0 D1 D1

u a
.h
Physical disk 1 Physical disk 2 Physical disk 3 Physical disk 4

g
RAID 1 RAID 1

n
RAID 0

ni
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r
Slide 28

// lea
p :
RAID 0 was not a real option for most enterprise customers and RAID 1 was limited to the capacity of

t t
the disk. The combination of RAID 1 and RAID 0 however offers the best of both worlds!

s :h
In a RAID 10 set there is always an even number of disks. Half of the disks have the user data written

c e
to it and the other half holds the mirror copy of the user data. Mirroring is performed before striping.
r
ou
In the figure, physical disks 1 and 2 form one RAID 1 group, and physical disks 3 and 4 form another

es
RAID 1 group. These two RAID 1 groups form RAID 0.

R
A write to a RAID 10 system will mean that the data i.e. D0 will be written to physical disk 1 and a

i n g
copy will be written to physical disk 2.

r n
When two disks in different RAID 1 groups fail (for example disks 2 and 4), data access of the RAID

e a
10 group is not affected. This is because the other two disks (1 and 3) will have a complete copy of

e L
data on disks 2 and 4 respectively. However, if two disks in the same RAID 1 group (for example,

o r
disks 1 and 2) fail at the same time, data access becomes unavailable.

M
Theoretically there is the chance that half the physical disks may fail and there still would be no data
loss. However, looking at it from a worst case scenario, the RAID 10 guarantee is against a single
drive failing.

Page | 202 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


Hybrid RAID - RAID 50

Hybrid RAID - RAID 50

RAID 50 is a combination of RAID 5 and RAID 0. RAID 5 is


implemented before RAID 0.

D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7

e n
D0, D1, D4, D5, D8, D9 D2, D3, D6, D7, D10, D11
/
o m
P4

D4
D8
P2
D9

D5
P5

D6
D10

P3
D11

D7
e i
Stripe 2
.c
w
Stripe 1

a
D0 D1 P0 D2 D3 P1 Stripe 0
Physical Physical Physical Physical Physical
u
Physical

.h
disk 1 disk 2 disk 3 disk 4 disk 5 disk 6
RAID 5 RAID 5
RAID 0

i n g
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r n Slide 29

// lea
p :
RAID 50 is a combination of RAID 5 and RAID 0. RAID 5 is implemented across two RAID 5 arrays

t t
which are configured with RAID 0. The two RAID 5 sets are totally independent from each other.

:h
RAID 50 requires at least six disks as the minimum for a RAID 5 is three disks.
s
c e
Physical disks 1, 2, and 3 form one RAID 5 group, and physical disks 4, 5, and 6 form another RAID 5
r
ou
group. The two RAID 5 groups form RAID 0.

es
RAID 50 can sustain simultaneous failure of multiple disks in different RAID 5 groups. However, once

R
two disks in the same RAID 5 group fail at the same time, data in the RAID 50 group will be lost.

i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 203


Comparison of common RAID levels

Comparison of common RAID levels

RAID Level RAID 0 RAID 1 RAID 5 RAID6 RAID 10 RAID 50

Fault tolerance No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Parity Parity
Redundancy type No Replication Replication Parity check

n
check check

/ e
Hot spare disk No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

m
Read performance High Low High High Medium High

o
Random write

.c
High Low Low Low Medium Low
performance

Sequential write
performance
High Low Low Low Medium Low

e i
Min. number of disks 2 2 3 4 4 6

aw
u
Available capacity

.h
(Capacity of a single Nx 1/N x (N - 1) x (N - 2) x N/2 x (N - 2) x

g
disk)

ni n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r
Slide 30

// lea
p :
Conclusion: the ideal RAID type does not exist. Users must select the RAID depending on the
demands they have for speed, security or cost.
t t
s :h
r c e
RAID sets should not contain too many physical disks as statistically the number of failures will

ou
increase as the group gets bigger. Recommended RAID 5 maximum is typically 12 disks.

s
Recommendation for RAID 6 is mostly a maximum of 42 disks.

Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
o r
M

Page | 204 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


Application scenarios of RAID

Typical application scenarios of RAID

RAID level Application scenario


RAID 0 A scenario requiring fast reads and writes but not high security,
such as graphic workstations.

n
RAID 1 A scenario featuring random writes and requiring high security,

e
such as servers and databases.
RAID 5 A scenario featuring random transfer and requiring medium
/
security, such as video editing and large databases.

o m
.c
RAID 6 A scenario featuring random transfer and requiring high security,

RAID 10
Such as mail servers, file servers.
A scenario involving large amounts of data and requiring high
e i
security, such as banking or finance field.
aw
RAID 50 Random data transmission, security requirements, concurrency
u
.h
requirements, such as mail servers, web servers.

i n g
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r n
Slide 31

// lea
p :
With most vendors the storage administrator has the option to create multiple LUNs (or sometimes

t t
also referred to as volumes) with each a different protection system. Still the selection of the RAID

:h
type is important as the previous slides prove that there are differences in properties with each
s
selected RAID type.

r c e
ou
Fortunately with most vendors it is even possible to change the RAID type assigned to a LUN. That

s
can then be done on the fly which means that the LUN stays accessible for the users of the LUN while
the conversion takes place.
Re
i n g
r n
e a
e L
or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 205


RAID Data Protection

Hot spare disk

Hot spare = When one of the disks in a RAID group fails and an idle or
standby disk immediately replaces the failed disk, this disk is known as the

n
hot spare.

Hot spare disks are classified as global hot spare disks or as dedicated hot
/ e
spare disks.

o m
e i .c
w
RAID 1 / RAID 5 / RAID 6 /

u a
.h
Disk 1 Disk n Hot spare disk

i n g
r n
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 32

: //
t t p
In most storage solutions there are many disks present and often they are different types of disks.

:h
Each of the disk types has its specific qualities (capacity, rotational speed, access speed, reliability).

e s
By creating multiple RAID groups we can assign RAID levels to each of these groups and create

r c
storage capacity with the exact right specifications. Imagine 4 RAID groups are used. The question is

ou
now how to address the problem of hot spare disks. How many do you need? The answer is not 100%

es
fixed. Normally each RAID group would have its own hot spare disk. So in case of a failure there

R
would be a spare disk available. On the other hand: how often will it happen that in four different RAID

i n g
groups a drive fails. One spare for all four groups would then be enough.

r n
This one spare should then be configured as a global hot spare disk. It will replace any failed disk in

e a
any RAID group. Of course there is a requirement: the hot spare disk used should be the same size,

e L
or bigger, than the failed disk!

o r
In the situation that hot spares are really meant to be used by one RAID group the hot spare disk

M
should be a dedicated hot spare. Now, if in other RAID groups a disk fails the hot spare disk will not
be used.

Page | 206 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


Pre-copy

Pre-copy

Pre-copy: When the system detects that a member disk in a RAID


group is about to fail, data on that disk is copied onto a hot spare
disk, reducing risks of data loss.

e n
/
RAID 1 / RAID 5 / RAID 6 /

o m
Disk 1 Disk 2 Hot spare disk

e i .c
aw
u
g .h
ni n
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r Slide 33

// lea
p :
The pre-copy option is a real nice addition that makes life much easier (or more relaxed) for storage

t t
administrators. Most enterprise class disks are fitted with a technology called SMART. This stands for

:h
Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Tool. It basically means that the disk itself monitors its health
s
r c e
situation. It does this as it checks the rotational speed of the disk and the quality of the magnetic

ou
surface of the disk platters.

es
R
Providing we use the correct tools we can receive the message from the SMART disk and act quickly.

g
So when a SMART disks reports it is not doing very well it means it is not dead yet, but we can

i n
assume it may die pretty soon.

n
ar
L e
As soon as the tool receives the SMART message it starts copying the data from the disk onto (one of)

r ethe hot spare disk(s). When the drive later actually fails the majority of data is already present on the

o hot spare disk and the rebuild will take much less time!

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 207


Reconstruction

Reconstruction

Reconstruction: It is a process of recovering user data and parity


data on a failed disk in a RAID group onto a hot spare disk of the
RAID group.

e n
/
o m
.c
D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5

e i
Disk 1 Disk 2 Parity disk Hot spare disk

aw
u
D4 D5 P3 D4

.h
D2 D3 P2 D2
D0 D1 P1 D0

i n g
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved.

r n
Slide 34

// lea
p :
RAID of course is a great concept that helps protect the data. Hot spare disks can add to that

t t
protection level by automatically rebuilding or reconstructing a failed disk. Reconstruction of course

:h
must not impact the behavior of the RAID group. So for optimal reconstruction to work:
s
The hot spare disk should be ready.
r c e
ou
All disks should be configured in RAID 1, 3, 5, 6, 10 or 50.

es
Reconstruction must not interrupt system services.

R
i n g
r n
e a
e L
o r
M

Page | 208 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


Relationship between RAID and LUNs

Relationship between RAID and LUNs


RAID is like a large physical volume composed of multiple disks.
We can create one or multiple logical units of a specified capacity on the physical
volume. Those logical units are referred to as LUNs. They are the basic block devices
that can be mapped to hosts.

e n
/
Logical volume Logical volumes LUN 3
o m
.c
LUN 1 LUN 2

Physical volume Physical volume


e i
aw
u
g .h
i n
One logical volume created on a physical Multiple logical volumes created on a
volume. physical volume.

r n
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 35

: //
t t p
Data is stored as files on a volume that are visible from within an operating system. For the Windows

:h
operating system these volumes are represented with drive letters (C:\ , F:\ etc.). In Unix\Linux based

e s
operating systems there would be mount points. The relation between a drive letter (or a mount point)
and the physical disks is like this:
r c
s ou
1. Physical disks combined form a RAID group.

Re
2. A RAID group has a specific RAID type associated to it.

i n g
3. A LUN is made up of (a section of) the storage capacity a RAID group presents.

r n
e a
e L
or
M

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 209


Creating RAID groups and logical volumes

LUN 1 LUN 2 LUN 3


Logical
volumes

RAID Segmentation

e n
/
o m
Physical
disks
e i .c
aw
u
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 36

g .h
ni n
r
lea
An example:

//
There are 4 physical disks each of which is 300 GB in size. When we put them together in a RAID
:
t p
group this group represents 4 x 300 GB = 1.2 TB of raw disk capacity. Assuming we want to use

t
:h
RAID 5 for data protection the actual available space would be 3 x 300 GB = 900 GB. We loose the

s
capacity of 1 disk because of the parity information that has to be stored across the 4 disks.

r c e
From the perspective of the storage administrator there now can be 1 big LUN occupying the 900 GB

ou
of space or multiple smaller LUNs that partly use the 900 GB capacity.

es
For each of the LUNs the data protection system would be RAID 5.

R
i n g
r n
e a
e L
o r
M

Page | 210 HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology


Questions

Questions

1. Explain the difference between stripe unit and stripe width.

2. Describe the various states a RAID group can be in.

3. Explain the basic principles of RAID 5.


e n
/
m
4. Explain the differences between the application scenarios of RAID
5 and those of RAID 1.

.c o
5. If a customer is concerned with reliability and performance, what
e i
RAID schemes will you recommend?
aw
u
.h
6. What is the relationship between RAID and LUNs?

i n g
r n
lea
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies., Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide 37

: //
Answers:
t t p
s :h
e
1. Stripe unit (or chunk) is the smallest amount written to a physical disk. The stripe width is the total

r c
number of disks in a RAID group or the total capacity in a stripe.

ou
2. Good: everything is operational and hot spares are available; reconstructing: there is a disk failure

es
and at this point the hot spare disk is being reconstructed; degraded: there is a disk failure but no

R
hot spare disks are available; failed: too many disk failures have occurred and the data cannot be

i n g
represented anymore=> data loss is inevitable.

r n
3. RAID 5 uses striping with distributed parity. Data is split up in chunks (selectable in size); then a

e a
parity block is calculated. Data blocks and parity blocks and in parallel written to all the disks of

eL
the RAID group.

or
4. RAID 1 is used when the capacity does not exceed the size of one single disk and when the data

M
is very important. RAID 5 has a single disk protection level and has less performance than RAID1.
5. RAID 10.
6. LUNs are logical space allocations taken from the total disk capacity available in a RAID group. A
RAID group is a number of disk working together to provide storage capacity.
The free space available in a RAID group is calculated by the formula:
(number of disks x disk capacity) overhead for the RAID type.

HCNA-storage V3 | OHC1109105 RAID Technology Page | 211


Exam Preparation

Exam Preparation

1. Which of the following RAID levels provide redundancy?


a. RAID 0. ( check all that apply)
b. RAID 1.
c. RAID 5.
e n
d. RAID 10.
/
2. Statement 1: Failure of any two disks in a RAID 10 group does not affect
o m
data access.
Statement 2 : Rebuilding a global hot spare disk is faster than rebuilding
e i .c
dedicated hot spare disk.
aw
a. Statement 1 is true; Statement 2 is true.
u
b. Statement 1 is true; Statement 2 is false.

g .h
n
c. Statement 1 is false; Statement 2 is true.
d. Statement 1 is false; Statement 2 is false.
ni