Anda di halaman 1dari 6

CE 162 FIRST LONG EXAM INFRASTRUCTURE AND HEAVY

CONSTRUCTION
CONSTRUCTION is the largest industry in the - Highways, stp, irrigation, drainage
world - In-house designers, specialty
contractors
PHASES OF THE PROJECT - Large scale, high degree of
PROJECT INITIATION PHASE mechanization, long construction
Feasibility studies, design periods
development, conceptual planning, PARTICIPANTS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
appointing project team OWNER/CLIENT
PROJECT PLANNING PHASE - Finances the project, selects contr.,
Blueprints, resource plans, financial des.
plans, contract documents and bids DESIGN PROFESSIONALS
Can overlap with initiation phase - Interpret or assist owner in
PROJECT EXECUTION PHASE developing project scope, budget,
Building deliverables, controlling and schedule
project delivery, scope, cost, time - Architects, engrs, design consultants
Bulk of funds will be used here CONSTRUCTION PROFESSIONALS
Outcome of previous stages - Can be independently hired
PROJECT CLOSE OUT PHASE - Responsible for constructing projects
PROJECCT MANAGER
Transition from construction to actual
- In charge with over all coordination of
use
the entire construction program
of the project
- Design coordination
Documentation, as-built drawings, - Bidding and awarding contracts
operation manuals - Problem solving, scheduling
MAJOR TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS - Materials, methods
RESIDENTIAL HOUSING CONSTRUCTION PROFESSIONAL SERVICES
- Houses, townhouses, high-rise OWNER/CLIENT
apartments, subdivisions - Financial planning consultants
- Arch,Engrs,formal informal DESIGN PROFESSIONALS
contractors - Architectural and engineering firm
- Highly COMPETITIVE, HIGH RISK AND (A/E)
REWAR (Acts as owners representative)
INSTITUTIONAL AND COMMERCIAL CONSTRUCTION PROFESSIONALS
BUILDING - Construction firm (Contractor)
CONSTRUCTION (Acts as prime contractor or
- Schools, hospitals, gov buildings, general con
sports faci, malls, skyscrapers, - Specialty ccontractor
offices, hotels (electrical, plumbing,
- SPECIALTY architects and engineers, excavation)
contractors subcontractors - Sub-contractor
- Greater cost and sophistication, (ex. Labor providers, under
limited to few contractors gencon)
SPECIALIZED INDUSTRIAL - Materials and equipment supplier
CONSTRUCTION DESIGN-BUILD
- Oil refineries, steel mills, chemical - Minimizes coordination problem
processing plants, power plants - PHASED CONSTRUCTION
- DESIGN-BUILD companies Design, construct design
- Large scale with high degree of Process divided into several
technological complexity, capital phases
intensive and long construction - TURNKEY OPERATION
periods
Owner delegates all safety and health in the
responsibility to design-build firm construction
PROJECT MANAGER industry
- Professional construction managers Aims to protect the welfare of both
Manage the entire process of the
project worker and general public
ZONING REGULATION
- Controls land use, limits size, type,
and density of structures that may be
erected at a particular location
- Residential, commercial, industrial,
recre, agri
ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION
INFRASTRUCTURE FINANCING - Protects the public and the
BUILD AND TRANSFER environment by controlling water
- Mostly applicable only to government usage, vehicular traffic, waste
projects disposal, beach/wetland preservation
- Paid by owner - Required preparation and approval of
- For small to medium projects EIA (Environmental impact
BUILD-OPERATE-TRANSFER assessment)
- Builder can charge facility users to CONTRACTOR LICENSING LAWS
recover investment - Contractors must be accredited with
- After fixed term of operation, PCAB (Philippine contractors
transfers to owner accreditation board)
- Fixed term cannot exceed 50 years NEW TECHNOLOGIES
- Roads, mass transportation, power - Mechanization, new materials,
plants internet, design softwares, CAD, GPS
BUILD-LEASE-TRANSFER PUBLIC SCRUTINY
- Common in government facilities with - Public annoyance over constructions
free services near or along busy highways
- Parks, schools, government hospitals ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY
- Builder cannot charge facility users, - Impacts of construction activities on
so leases facility to government the environment are now closely
- After leasing, it is transferred to examined
government agency - Increased concern on energy
- Fixed term cannot exceed 50 years conservation affects choice of
LEGAL AND REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS materials
BUILDING CODES OFF-SHORING
- Provides minimum design and - Foreign-based companies put up
construction standards for offices in countries where labor is
architectural, structural, and MEPF cheaper
works - Saves cost for the company and
- NSCP, NBCP, Fire Code providing jobs for locals
- DAO 13 ECONOMIC STIMULUS
PPE (Personal protective - Construction is often part of economic
equipment) plan to bolster the economy
Safety-trained personnel - It is used to create jobs and diminish
Emergency occupational health unemployment rate
and - Creating sustainable jobs
personnel and facilities
Construction signage CHAPTER 2: FUNDAMENTALS OF PROJECT
Provides guidelines governing MANAGEMENT
occupational CATERGORIES OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT
PROJECT MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK SEPARATION OF ORGANIZATION
- Provides a basic structure for 1. TRADITIONAL DESIGN-CONSTRUCTION
understanding project management SEQUENCE
PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONTEXT - selection of gencon is through
- Describes the environment in which bidding or
projects operate Negotiation
PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES - detailed plans must be completed
- Describes a generalized view of how first
various project management - automatic for public projects
processes commonly interact - unattractive for time is of the
PROJECT MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE essence
AREAS 2. PROFESSIONAL CONSTRUCTION
- Describe project management MANAGEMENT
knowledge and practice in terms of - project manager works with owner
their component process and a/e
LEARNED KNOWLEDGE - used in very large and complex
HONED KNOWLEDGE projects
- clients who have regular projects
CHARACTERISTICS THAT DEFINE A PROJECT - ex. SM, ayala malls, condominiums
a defined goal or objective, specific tasks INTEGRATION OF ORGANIZATION
defined beginning and end, resources 1. OWNER-BUILDER OPERATION
being consumed - owner maintains an in-house team
PROJECT temporary and unique compared of
to an operation which is ongoing and personnel that undertakes all
repetitive, project has a defined beginning tasks
and end, a response to works that cannot e - owner has maximum control in des
addressed within the organizations & cons
operational limits - only for owner with steady flow of
on-going
PROJECT MANAGEMENT application of Projects
knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to - small commercial like mall tenants
project activities to meet the requirements of
the project. Accomplished through the use of
processes such as initiating, planning, 2. TURNKEY OPERATION
executing, controlling and closing - owners delegates all responsibilities
to
PROGRAM group of projects managed in a outside contractor
coordinated way to obtain benefits not - for foreign investors
available from managing them individually
KEY PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS
SUBPROJECT projects are frequently divided 1. LEADING
into more manageable components or - Establishing direction, aligning people,
subprojects. Often contracted to an external motivating and inspiring
enterprise or another functional unit in an - Vs MANAGING: consistently producing
organization key results expected by stakeholders
2. COMMUNICATING
BASIC APPROACHES IN ORGANIZING - Involves the exchange of
VARIOUS PARTICIPANTS IN A PROJECT communication
(PROJECT ORGANIZATION) - Sender-receiver model, choice of
SEPARATION OF ORGANIZATION media, writing style, presentation
techniques, meeting management
INTEGRATION OF ORGANIZATION
principles
3. NEGOTIATING
- Conferring with others to come to an c) Scope definition subdividing the
agreement major project deliverables into
4. PROBLEM SOLVING smaller, more manageable
- Involves combination of problem components
definition and decision-making d) Scope verification formalizing
- PROBLEM DEFINITION: distinguishing acceptance of the project scope by the
between cause and symptom stakeholders
- DECISION MAKING: analysing the e) Scope change control controlling
problem to identify solutions, making a changes to project scope
choice 3) PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT
5. INFLUENCING THE ORGANIATION - includes the processes required to
- Ability to get things done, ensure timely completion of the project
understanding of mechanics of power a) Activity definition identifying the
and politics specific activities that must be
performed to produce the various
PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS GROUPS project deliverables
1. INITIATING b) Activity sequencing identifying and
- Authorizing the project of phase documenting interactivity
2. PLANNING dependencies
- Defining and refining objectives and c) Activity duration estimating
selecting the best alternative courses estimating the number of work periods
of action to attain obectives that will be needed to complete
3. EXECUTING individual activities
- Coordinating people and other d) Schedule development analysing
resources to carry out the plan activity sequences, activity durations,
4. CONTROLLING and resource requirements to create
- Ensuring the project objectives are met
the project schedule
by monitoring and measuring progress e) Schedule control controlling changes
regularly to project schedule
5. CLOSING 4) PROJECT COST MANAGEMENT
- Formalizing acceptance of the project
- includes the processes required to
or phase and bringing it to an orderly
ensure that the project is completed
end
within the approved budget. It is
concerned with the cost of resources
needed to complete project activities
a) Resource planning determining what
resources and what quantities of each
PROJECT MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE AREAS
should be used to perform project
1) PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT
activities
a) Project plan development
b) Cost estimating developing an
b) Project plan execution carrying out
approximation of the cost of resources
the plan
needed to complete project activities
c) Integrated change control
c) Cost budgeting allocating the overall
coordinating changes across entire
cost estimate to individual work
project
activities
2) PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT
d) Cost control controlling changes to
- includes the processes required to
project budget
ensure that the project includes all the
5) PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT
work required to complete
- includes the processes required to
a) Initiation authorizing project or
ensure that the project will satisfy the
phase
needs for which it was undertaken
b) Scope planning developing a written
a) Quality planning identifying which
scope statement as the basis for
quality standards are relevant to the
future project decisions
project and determining how to satisfy - systematic process of identifying,
them analysing and responding to project risk.
b) Quality assurance evaluating overall It includes maximizing the probability and
project performance on a regular basis consequences of positive events and
to provide confidence that the project minimizing the probability and
will satisfy the relevant quality consequences of adverse events to
standards project objectives
c) Quality control monitoring specific - Project risk: an uncertain event or
project results to determine if they condition that, if
comply with relevant quality standards It occurs, has a positive of negative effect
and identifying ways to eliminate on the
causes of unsatisfactory performance project objective
6) PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE a) Risk management planning deciding
MANAGEMENT how to approach and plan the risk
- includes the processes required to make management activities for a project
the most effective use of the people b) Risk identification determining which
involved with the project risks might affect the project and
a) Organizational planning identifying, documenting their characteristics
documenting and assigning project c) Qualitative risk analysis performing a
roles, responsibilities, and reporting qualitative analysis of risks and
relationships conditions to prioritize their effects for
b) Staff acquisition getting the human project objectives
resources needed assigned to and d) Quantitative risk analysis measuring
working on the project the probability and consequences of
c) Team development developing risks and estimating their implications
individual and group competencies to for project objectives
enhance project performance e) Risk response planning developing
7) PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT procedures and techniques to enhance
- includes the processes required to opportunities and reduce threats to
ensure timely and appropriate the projects objectives
generation, collection, dissemination, f) Risk monitoring and control
storage, and ultimate disposition of monitoring residual risks, identifying
project information new risks, executing risk reduction
a) Communications planning plans, and evaluating their
determining the information and effectiveness throughout the project
communications needs of the life cycle
stakeholders: who needs what 9) PROJECT PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT
information, when they will need it, - includes the processes required to
and how it will be given to them acquire goods and services, to attain
b) Information distribution making project scope, from outside the
needed information available to performing organization
project stakeholders in a timely a) Procurement planning determining
manner what to procure and when
c) Performance reporting collecting and b) Solicitation planning documenting
disseminating performance product requirements and identifying
information potential sources
d) Administrative closure = generating, c) Solicitation obtaining quotations,
gathering, and disseminating bids, or proposals
information to formalize a phase or d) Source selection choosing from
project completion among potential sellers
e) Contract administration managing
the relationship with the seller
8) PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT
f) Contract closeout completion and communication as needed as
settlement of the contract, including requirements change
resolution of any open items SCOPE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT SERVICES
PRE-CONSTRUCTION
- Consultants selection, inputs on
conceptual design and criteria,
10) PROJECT STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT Feasibility study assistance, Project
- includes the processes required to schedules, Project budgets,
acquire goods and services to attain Contractors selection, Value
project scope, from outside the engineering
performing organization
CONSTRUCTION
a) Stakeholder identification identifying
- Construction supervision, progress
everyone affected by the work or
monitoring and reporting, project
project outcomes
b) Stakeholder management planning coordination, quality control,
deciding how you will engage with the technical resolution, value
stakeholders identified engineering, safety implementation,
c) Managing stakeholder engagement materials and records management
communicating with stakeholders and
ensuring appropriate engagement POST-CONSTRUCTION
levels - Project completion activities, as-built
d) Stakeholder engagement control drawings and government clearance,
monitoring relationship with operation/start-up activities,
stakeholders and adjusting maintenance personnel orientation,
final project report, account cose-out