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Xyrex A.

Calang BS-ECE

ECE 104

Principles of Communications


Xyrex A. Calang BS-ECE

Submitted by: Xyrex A. Calang

Submitted to: Prof. Angeline L. Teatro


Radio has been standing as a very powerful weapon in the society which can
direct the time. In definition, Radio broadcasting is an audio (sound)
broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a
form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and thus to
a receiving device. Radio is the transmission of signals by modulation of
electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light.

As a brief history, it was called "wireless telegraphy", which was shortened to

"wireless" in Britain. The prefix radio- in the sense of wireless transmission,
was first recorded in the word radio conductor, a description provided by
the French physicist douard Branly in 1897.

A demonstration of wireless telegraphy took place in the lecture theater

of the Oxford University Museum of Natural History on August 14, 1894,
carried out by Professor Oliver Lodge and Alexander Moorhead. This was,
for all intents and purposes, the first transmission of what is now known as
amplitude modulation or AM radio. Charles Herrold started broadcasting in
California in 1909. The first radio news program was broadcast August 31,
1920 by station 8MK in Detroit, Michigan, which survives today as all-
news format station WWJ under ownership of the CBS network.


Radio broadcasting is the cheapest and quickest means of mass

communications in the Philippines. The probable FM station is a community

Xyrex A. Calang BS-ECE

radio which is probably going to be established in Tibanga, Iligan city. The

radio station will be located at the top of Elena tower right beside MSU IIT. The
transmitting power of the radio will be 500 Watts and can be broadcasted
within the radius of 20 km. The proposed station can be accessed through a
specific FM frequency. The height of the transmission tower can be 30 meters
and can be placed right above the building.

The feasibility study of establishing an FM station in tibanga is best idea as it

will help people to access education & information to all in the vicinity, which
can also be used by the schools nearby. Another important fact, in the present
context, is people suffering from long power cut (load shedding) are listening
radio as the best means of communication.

Recently, there are 2 AM radio stations and 12 FM radio stations which are
currently on air in Iligan city.

reveals and
Scope thatPurpose

The main focus of the proposed FM station can include:

-event announcements
-school programs
-health care
-local issues
Viable ondissemination
two improvement
mass level
wayforce. of Information
communicationthrough at the
among the root level.
listeners and the broadcasters.
It Attempt to provide
include news prompt
political, and accurate
economic and socialcoverage of all
highlights in national andand
a balanced
objective manner.

Radio will be the most suitable means of disseminating information and

providing entertainment to masses the proposed vicinity.

It will attempt to safeguard the basic principle of public interest and the
public's right to be informed as the public broadcaster of the community.

Xyrex A. Calang BS-ECE


The general objective of this study is to understand the patterns and
experience the real life situation. However the specific objectives of this
feasibility analysis include:

1. To produce a project report in partial fulfilment of requirement for the

course, ECE 104, Principles of Communications.

2. To conduct a feasibility study about a suitable FM station close to the

vicinity of MSU-IIT.

3. To gain practical knowledge about the subject matter and learn how
it is conducted for a real organization.

1.3 Methodology of the study

Technical Specifications

Xyrex A. Calang BS-ECE

FM station Studio

The studio inside the station may include the common equipment in a station
like microphones, different audio systems, computers, player and recorders,
telephone (open line for the audience to communicate), amplifiers and mixers.

The Supporting system of the studio inside the station may include a
designated Power Supply, a Three-phase wiring (which is better than a single-
phase connection because it allows you to divide electricity consumption into
three phases), Voltage regulators, An uninterrupted power supply (UPS), A
back-up power generator and can also include A solar power system with
batteries and an inverter (which can save your station a lot of money in the
long-term but they may cost a lot at first).

Xyrex A. Calang BS-ECE

FM Transmitter

For a clear signal propagation, the FM transmitter system should include audio
amplifiers, oscillator, buffer amplifier, frequency multiplier, filter and driver,
and some power amplifiers. The proposed transmitter have the following

Frequency Range: 87.0MHz~108.0MHz

Frequency Setting step: 10KHz

Carrier Frequency precision: 250Hz

Residual Wave Radiation: 65dBc

Audio Input Impedance: 600, Balance

Stereo Separation: 55dB

Audio Input Level: 10dBm, step 0.01dB

S/N: 75dB (10H~15kHz, 100%)

Xyrex A. Calang BS-ECE

Audio Harmonic Distortion: <0.1%

Audio response: 0.05dB (10Hz~15KHz)

Output Load Impedance: 50

Output Power: 0~500W

Pre-emphasis: 0S, 50S, 75S

Deviation: 75kHz

Pilot Frequency: 19kHz1Hz

Pilot Signal Modulation: 8%~10%

The specified transmitter includes an analog to digital converter, a digital

interface system, a microcontroller unit, with a typical digital signal processor,
a digital modulator system, a limiter and an amplifier system.

The transmitter produces radio frequency alternating current that carries an

audio signal that is fed to the antenna. The strength of this radio signal gets
weaker with distance. FM signals are line-of-sight, which means they travel
until they reach an obstruction like a mountain or a tall building.

The proposed FM transmitter may cost a little over 100,000 Php. But with the
specified allocation and target sponsors, the rate of return can be achieved in
no time.

With a 500-watt FM transmitter used in local radio stations; it can typically

transmit a radio signal a distance of 50 km in flat areas and shorter distances
in mountainous areas. Here, it is established within a city, which involves a lot
of other signals that can distort the proposed signal propagation, and the place
is not flat and full of other buildings. Now, usually this power will at least cover
about 20km, which is not bad assuming the target audience is in the area.

The transmitter is not to exceed the transmitter power restrictions (maximum

number of watts) listed on the stations license. A more powerful transmitter

Xyrex A. Calang BS-ECE

can send a signal further, but the increase is not very much and it may cost
more so the proposed transmitter may be enough.



Neupane; -500W FM Radio Transmitter Compact