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# International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology (IJEART)

## On Mathematical Operator Systems and applications

to information technology
N. B. Okelo
have and on all
Bs,i x x1 ... xi 1 Bs ,i xi xi 1 ... xn
Abstract The study of tensor products, operator systems
and spectral theory of operators form a very important focal the other elements of H H ... H the operator is
1 n Bs ,i
point in functional analysis. In this paper, we give results on
properties of tensor products in Hilbert spaces of operator defined on linearity and continuity.
systems and subsystems. Definition 3 ([5], [6]).
Let x x x ... x be an eigenvector of the
0,...,0 1 2 n
Index TermsResultant, Operator, Multiparameter System, system (1), corresponding to its eigenvalue ( , ,..., ) ;
Eigenvalue, Eigenvectors, Tensor products. 1 2 n

## then is m , m ,..., m - th associated vector (see[4]) to

xm1 ...., mn 1 2 n

## I. INTRODUCTION an eigenvector x of the system (1) if there is a set of

0,0,...,0
. The method of separation of variables in many cases turns
x H
vectors , satisfying to conditions
out to be the only acceptable, since it reduces finding a i1 ,i2 ,...,iin 1 H n
solution to a complex equation with many variables to find a
solution to a system of ordinary differential equations, which B0, i ( ) xis , s2 ,,,, sn B1,i xs1 1, s2 ,..., sn ... Bn,i xs1 ,..., sn1 , sn 1 0 .
are much easier to study. In this work we consider operator
systems and their applications to ICT xis1 , s2 ,..., sn 0 , when si 0 (2)

II. PRELIMINARIES
0 sr mr , r 1, 2,..., n, i 1,..., n
We give some definitions and concepts from the theory of
multiparameter operator systems necessary for understanding For the indices in
of the further considerations.
s1 , s2 ,..., sn
element there are various
Let the linear multiparameter system be in the form: ( xi1 ,i2 ,...,in ) H1 H n ,
n
Bk ( ) xk ( B0, k i Bi , k ) xk 0,
arrangements from set of integers on n with
i 1 (1) 0 sr mr , r 1, 2,..., n, .
k 1, 2,..., n Definition 4. In [1,3,11] for the system (1) is an analogue of
the Cramers determinants, when the number of equations is
where operators B act in the Hilbert space H
k ,i i equal to the number of variables, and is defined as follows: On
Definition 1. [1,2,11] ( , ,..., ) C n is an eigenvalue decomposable tensor x x ... x operators are
1 2 n 1 n i

of the system (1) if there are non-zero defined with help the matrices
elements x H , i 1, 2,..., n such that (1) is satisfied, and
i i 0 1 2 .... n
decomposable tensor x x x ... x is called the
1 2 n B0,1 x1 B1,1 x1 B2,1 x1 ... Bn,1 x1
eigenvector corresponding to n B0,2 x2 B1,2 x2 B2,2 x2 ... Bn,2 x2
eigenvalue ( , ,..., ) C n . i i x (3)
1 2 n i 0 B0,3 x3 B1,3 x3 B2,3 x3 ... Bn,3 x3
Definition 2. The operator is induced by an ... ... ... ... ...
Bs,i
B x B1, n xn B2, n ... Bn, n
operator B , acting in the space H , into the tensor 0, n n
s ,i i

space H H ... H , if on each decomposable where , ,..., are arbitrary complex numbers, under the
1 n 0 1 n

tensor x x ... x of tensor product expansion of the determinant means its formal expansion,
1 n
when the element x x x ... x is the tensor products
1 2 n

## of elements x , x ,..., x If 1, 0, i k , ,then right

1 2 n k i
space H H1 ... H n we
side of (10) equal to x , where x x x ... x On all
k 1 2 n

## the other elements of the space H operators are defined by

i
N. B. Okelo, School of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Jaramogi
Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, P. O. Box linearity and continuity. E (s 1, 2,..., n) is the identity
s
210-40601, Bondo-Kenya

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On Mathematical Operator Systems and applications to information technology

## operator of the space H .Suppose that for all x 0 ,

i B ( ) B
i 0,i B1,i ... ki Bki ,i , i 1, 2,..., n
(0 x, x) ( x, x), 0 , and all B are selfadjoint
i,k
Bi ( ) - operator bundles acting in a finite dimensional
operators in the space H . Inner product [.,.] is defined as
i Hilbert space Hi correspondingly. Suppose
follows; if x x x ... x and y y y ... y are
1 2 n 1 2 n that k k ... k . In the space H k1 k2 (the direct sum of
1 2 n
decomposable tensors, then [ x, y] ( x, y) where ( x , y ) is
0 i i
k1 k2 tensor product H H1 ... H n of
the inner product in the space. H .On all the other elements
i spaces H1 , H 2 ,..., H n ) are introduced the
of the space H the inner product is defined on linearity and
continuity. In space H with such a metric all operators operators R (i 1,..., n 1) with the help of operational
i

i 0 i
matrices (3.12) Let B ( ) be the operational bundles acting in
i

## Definition5.( [7],[8]) a finite dimensional Hilbert space H , correspondingly.

i
Let two operator pencils depending on the same parameter
Without loss ofcopies with
and acting in, generally speaking, in various Hilbert spaces be
as follows
B0,1

B1,1 Bk1 ,1 0

A( ) A0 A1 A2 ... An ,
2 n
0 B
0,1 B
1,1 B
k1 1.1

B 0
k1 ,1

B( ) B0 B1 B2 ... Bm
2 m

0 0 B
B1,1 Bk1 ,1
Operator Re s( A( ), B( )) is presented by the matrix Ri 1
0,1
,
B0,i B1,i Bki ,i 0. 0

A0 E2 A1 E2 ... An E2 ... 0
0 B0, i B1,i Bki ,i 0

. . ... . ... .
0 ... A0 E2 A1 E2 ... An E2 0

0
0 B0, i B1,i Bki ,i
E1 B0 E1 B1 ... E1 Bm .. 0
. . ... . ... .
i 2,3,..., n
. . ...E1 B0 E1 B1 .... E1 Bm
The number of rows with operators B , s 0,1,..., k in the
which acts in the ( H H )n m - direct sum of n m copies of s ,1 1
1 2
matrix R is equal to k and the number of rows with
the space H H In a matrix (4), the number of rows with i 1 2
1 2
operators B , s 0,1,..., k is equal to k . We designate
operators A is equal to leading degree of the parameter in s ,i i 1
i

pencils B( ) and the number of rows with B is equal to the p Bi ( ) the set of eigenvalues of an operator Bi ( ) .From
i
[5] we have the result:
leading degree of parameter in A( ). The notion of
Theorem 2.[9] n if and only if
abstract analog of resultant of two operator pencils is p ( Bi ( ))
i 1
considered in the[7] for the case of the same leading degree n 1
of the parameter in both pencils and in the [2] for, generally KerRi , ( KerBk1 { }).
speaking, different degree of the parameters in the operator i 1

pencils.
III. MAIN RESULTS
Consider the system
Theorem1 [7,8].
k1,s kn , s
Let for all operators bounded in corresponding Hilbert
spaces, one of operators A or B has bounded inverse. Ai , j , s ( ) xs ( A0, s 1r A1, r , s ... nr An , r , s
n m r 1 r 1
(4)
Then operator pencils A( ) and B( ) have a common point ... Ai1 ,...,in
1
i1 i2
2
in
n

1 2 n

## and the system (4) contains also the products of these

Remark 1. If the Hilbert spaces H and H are the finite
1 2 parameters. Divide the system of equations (4) into groups
dimensional spaces then a common points of spectra of of n in each group. If some equations remains outside, these
operator pencils A( ) and B( ) are their common eigenvalues. equations we add by others operators from the system (4).
Each group contains n operators and will be considered
(see [6], [7].)
separately.
In (4) the coefficients of the parameter

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International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology (IJEART)
Volume-1, Issue-1, July 2015

## mr , r km , m 1, 2,..., n are the operators Ai , m, j , which act in 1 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0

0 1 0 ... 0 0 0
the space H , index i indicate on the parameter , index k
j i 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0
- on the degree of the parameter . 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0
i
We introduce the notations: T1, s1 ,r 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 , Tk 1, s ,r 0 n n
0 0 ... 0 0 0
. . . ... . . . . . . ... . . .
mr k k 2 ... km1 r
, r km , m 1, 2,..., n (5)
1
0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 1
Further , we numerate the different products of
0 0 ... 0 0 0
variables 1 , 2 ,..., n in the system (4) on increasing of the
degrees of the parameter 1 . Let the numbers of term with the 0 0 0 ... 0 0 1

products of the parameters 1 , 2 ,..., n are equal to r Put 1 0 0 ... 0 0 0
further 0 1 0 ... 0 0 0

1i 2i ...ni ( 1 2 ...n )t k k
1 2
i i i
n 1 2 n
1 2 ... kn t
, tr, T( s1 , s2 ,..., sn )r 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 (8)
. . . ... . . .
where t s is the number which correspond the multiplier
at i1 i2 the ordering of multiplies of parameters in the 0 0 0 ... 1 0 0
1 2 ...nin 0
system (4). So in new notations to the product 0 0 ... 0 1 0
1i1 2i2 ...nin
correspond the parameter The number 1 stands on the diagonal elements of the first s
k1 k2 ... kn t , t r 1

## rows of the matrix diagonal elements of the rows

( ), acrdingly, operators T1, s1 , r ;
1i i2 ...in k k ... k t ,
1 2 n
1 2 n
tr
s1 s2 ... si 1 1,..., s1 s2 ... si of the matrix Tk 1, s , r
Ar , s ,i Dk1 k2 ... ks1 s ,i , r 1, 2,..., n; s 1, 2,..., kr ;
i i 1

## is equal also to 1 and so on. Besides, all

i 1, 2,..., n matrices have the order
T1, s1 , r ,..., Tki 1, si1 , r ,..., T( s1 , s2 ,..., sn )r

## kr max kr ,i , i 1, 2,..., k , (6) s1 s2 ... sn .

Adding the system (7) by the following equations

Ak1 , k2 ..., kn ;i Dk1 k2 ... km t ,i , t 1, 2,..., s;; i 1, 2,..., n (T2, n 1 1T0, n 1 2T1, n 1 ) xn 1 0
..........................................................
when s is the number of different products of parameters,
entering the system(4). (k1 k2 2T2, n k1 k2 2 k1 k2 1T0, n k1 k2 2
In new notations the system (4) in the tensor product of k1 k2 T1, n k1 k2 2 ) xn k1 k2 2 0
spaces H H ... H contains k k ... k s
1 2 n 1 2 n ........................................................
parameters and n equations. Let k k ... k k Then
1 2 n

kr
(k1 ... kn1 2T n1 k1 ... kn1 1,0T n1 ) xn k1 ... kn1 2 0
n r
ki ki
[ Dk1 k2 ... kr1 k ,i ]xi [ k t Dk t ,i ]xi 0 0
2,1 0,1
i 1 i 1
k1 k2 ... kr 1 k
r 0 k 1 k 1 (7)
k0 0; ki 0; i 1,2,..., n (k1 ... kn 2T2 k1 ... kn 1T0 k T1 ) xk 0
(9)
Adding the system (7) with help of new equations so xs R 2 , s n
manner that the connections between the parameters,
following from the equations of the system (4), satisfy. (T0,t 1Ti1 ,t k1 1Ti2 ,t ... k1 ... kn1 1Tin ,t
Introduce the operators acting in the finite
T0 , T1 , T2 , T0 , T 0
k (i1 ,i2 ,...,in )t T(i1 ,i2 ,...,in ) ) xt 0
dimensional space R 2 and defining with help of the matrices
t 1, 2,..., r

0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1
T0 , T1 , T2 , T0 ,
1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Denote the multiplier
k (i 11 , i2 ,..., in )r
1i 2i ...ni of
1 2 n
the

## parameters, entering the system (4) having the

coefficient . System ((4),(9)) form the linear
A(i11 ,i2 ,...,in )r

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On Mathematical Operator Systems and applications to information technology

## multiparameter system, containing

k1 k2 ... kn r 1 0 0 ... 0 0 0

equations and k k ... k s parameters. To this system 0 1 0 ... 0 0 0
0 0 1 ... 0 0 0
1 2 n

## we may apply all results, given in the beginning of this paper.

T1, s1 , r 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 ,,
Theorem 3. [4]. Let the following conditions: . . . ... . . .
) operators in the space H are bounded at
Ak ,t , Ak1 , k2 ,...,, kn ;t i 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0
the all meanings i and k . 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0

b) operator 1 exists and bounded satisfy:
0

## Then the system of eigen and associated vectors of (4) 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0

coincides with the system of eigen and associated vectors of
0 0 0 ... 0 0 0
each operators (i 1, 2,..., n) 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0
i

Given two equations from (9) . Let the equations be: Tk1 ... kn1 1, sn , r 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0
. . . ... . . .
(T2 1T0 2T1 ) xn 1 0
(10) 0 0 0 ... 0 1 0
(1T2 2T0 3T1 ) xn 2 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 1

0 0 0 ... 0 0 1
Let 1 0 xn 1 (1 , 1 ) 0 is the component of the
eigenvector of the system ((4),(9)). We have 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0
0 0 0 ... 0 0 0

T( s1 ,..., sn )t , r 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 1 0 . . . ... . . .
1 2 1 , 1 0 ,
0 0 0 ... 0 0 0

0 1 1 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 ... 0 0

1 1 21 0 , 1 11 0 , 2 0; 2 12 .
0 0 0 ... 0 0 0

1 0 0 ... 0 0 0
0 1 0 ... 0 0 0

Further from the condition T0, r 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0
it . . . . . . .
1 0, 2 0, xn 2 ( 2 , 2 ) 0
0 0 0 ... 1 0 0
follows 0, 0 and consequently, 0
2 2 3 2 1 2 2 1 0 0 ... 0 1 0

2 . Earlier we proved that , Consequently,
13 2 2 12 For operators, defining with help the
.
3 13 matrices
T1, s1 , k t , T2, s2 , k t ,..., Tn, sn , k t , T0.k t
act in space R s1 ... sn

On eigenvector .
On analogy for other parameters of ((4),(9)): if (1 ,..., s1 s2 ... sn ) R s1 ... sn
is the eigenvalue of the system -((4),
(1 , 2 ,..., k1 k2 ... kn s ) (T0, r 1T1, s1 , r ... n 1 T1 k1 ... kn1 , sn , r )
1 k
(9)) , then 4 , , , , , i 1
k1 1k1 k1 k2 ... kr s rs1
4 1
k t T( s1 ...snt r )
r 1, 2,..., n 1; s 1, 2,..., kn . Consequently,

## To each multiplier of 11 k t s ... s 1 n

parameters it is corresponded
( )t k t ; t r
rj1 rj2 rjk
j1 j2 jk
...............................
the equation 1 s s 1
1 1

k 1 s 1 s
1 1 1

## (T0,t k 1T1,i1 , k t k1 1T2,i2 , k t ... k1 k2 ... kn1 1Tn,in , k t .......................

k (i1 ,i2 ,...,in )t T(i1 ,...,in )t ,t k ) xk t 0 k 1 s s s s
1 1 2 1 2 1

...........................

## Consider the last equation, in which n 1 s s 2 ... s1 n 1

s1 s2 ... s 1
ki
1 n 1
1
i 1
1

ki 1
ri
i 1 i 1

....................................................

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International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology (IJEART)
Volume-1, Issue-1, July 2015
Hence,
1s 2s ns k s ; s r.
1 2 n

For the obtained linear multiparameter system we construct N. B. Okelo is amathematician and researcher who won the young
scientist national award by AU-TWAS 2013. His area of interest is pure
operator on rule (3). mathematics and application to engineering and computing.
0

Ker 01
The condition means that operators

## i 01i are pair commute [2]. So operators i act in finite

dimensional space H and operators have not the
k1 k2 ... kr 1 1
zero eigenvalues then for the any
eigenvalue of the system((4),(9))
(1 , 2 ,..., k1 k2 ... kn )
0 (2.47),(2.48)) from [7] it follows there is such eigen
element z that the equalities,
z z , i 1, 2,..., k k ... k satisfy. For analogy
i,s i,s 1 2 n

## conditions we obtain the analogy results for all groups. We

have the several systems of operator polynomials in one
parameter. We apply the results of [9]
The system has the form

i , z i , s o,i z ..

## Theorem 4. Let the conditions of the theorem1 is fulfilled.

All operators have inverse. Then the system(4) has the
o ,i

## Ker (k1 k2 ... ki1 1,i i , s o,i ) 0 .

IV. APPLICATIONS TO IT

## Tensor product is a very important technique used in solving

problems of norms in Hilbert spaces. Norms are very
important properties of operators and interesting studies have
been directed on them with applications to information
technology particularly in cyber security.
REFERENCES

## [1] Atkinson F.V. Multiparameter spectral theory.

Bull.Amer.Math.Soc.1968, 74, 1-27.
[2] Browne P.J. Multiparameter spectral theory. Indiana Univ. Math. J, 24,
3, 1974.
[3] Sleeman B. D. Multiparameter spectral theory in Hilbert space.
Pitnam Press, London, 1978, p.118.
[4] Dzhabarzadeh R.M. Spectral theory of multiparameter system of
operators in Hilbert space, Transactions of NAS of Azerbaijan, 1-2,
1999, 33-40.
[5] Dzhabarzadeh R. M, Salmanova G. H. Multtiparameter system of
operators, not linearly depending on parameters. American Journal of
Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences. 2012, vol.1, No.2.-
p.39-45.
[6] Dzhabarzadeh R.M. Spectral theory of two parameter s system in
finite-dimensional space. Transactions of NAS of Azerbaijan, v. 3-4
1998, p.12-18.
[7] Balinskii A.I. Generation of notions of Bezutiant and Resultant DAN
of Ukr. SSR, ser.ph.-math and tech. of sciences, 1980,2. (in Russian).
[8] Khayniq X. Abstract analog of Resultant for two polynomial bundles
Functional analyses and its applications, 1977, 2, p.94-95.
[9] Dzhabarzadeh R.M. On existence of common eigen value of some
operator-bundles, that depends polynomial on parameter. Baku.
International Topology conference, 3-9 oct., 1987, Tez. 2, Baku, 1987,
p.93.

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