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# LONDONS GLOBAL UNIVERSITY

## CEGEG020/CEGEM020: Introduction to Seismic Design of Structures

Tutorial on load calculation
Ref. Calculation Output
1. Structure layout
A 2-storey 2-bay reinforced concrete moment resisting frame will be
designed for an office. Building layout is shown in Fig1.
y
x
4000

3000
8000

6000
Regularity
4000

criteria

3000
satisfied!

## 5000 5000 5000 5000

10000 10000
Plan (unit:mm) Elevation (unit:mm)

## Fig. 1 Structure layout

2. Design specifications
Material: C25/30 concrete; Grade 500 steel.
The ground type of the site is D.
Type of spectrum is Type A.
The ductility class of the frame is DCM
Building is regular in plan/elevation.
Building important class is Class II with 1=1.0
The sizes of beam and column are shown in Fig2.
500

350

250 350
Beam Column
(unit:mm)
Fig. 2 Cross-section (Unite of
EC1- area/
Annex We will carry out linear analysis according to EC8 on two planar model volumn)
A1 (one on each horizontal direction).
Concrete
P52 Assume: Finishes
Concrete density =24kN/m3+1kN/m3(add per reinforced 1.0
concrete)=25kN/m3; kN/m2

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by S. Minas and C. Huang.

Outer
Floor finishes 1.0 kN/m2; walls 3.25
kN/m2
EC1 Outer walls are placed along the perimeter of the building
Annex 1 layer bricks 10cm thick: 0.118=1.8 kN/m2; Inner walls
A1 1 layer blocks 10cm thick: 0.112=1.2 kN/m2; 1.7
1 layer (internal) plaster 12mm thick: 0.01221=0.25 kN/m2
kN/m2;
total=1.8+1.2+0.25=3.25kN/m2; Slab
300kN
Inner walls-single leaf 100mm blockwork, plastered both sides
1 layer blocks 10cm thick: 0.112=1.2 kN/m2; Floor finish
2 layers plaster 12mm each: 0.02421=0.5 kN/m2; 80kN
total=1.2+0.5=1.7kN/m2
Beams
Slab depth 150mm: 0.15(5+5)(4+4)25=300kN 168.75 kN

## Floor finishes: (5+5)(4+4)1.0=80kN Column

27.56
Beams: 0.250.50(310+38)25=168.75kN kN/m
(Ignore the overlap material of primary beam and secondary
beam at the joint.)
Total walls
Column (external and internal): 0.350.35925=27.56kN/m 442.8kN

## Outer walls: 2(10+8)33.25=351kN

Perimeter
Inner walls: 1 (10+8)31.7=91.8kN
(Ignore the overlap material of inner walls at the junction.)
Total walls: 351+91.8=442.8kN

## Table 1 Weight calculation

Floor Content Calculation Mass(t)
(kN) (kN/m2)
2 a. Slab a+b+c+dstorey height/2 590 60.20 7.38
b. Finishes =300+80+168.75+27.563/
c. Beam 2
d. Column
1 a. Slab a+b+c+dstorey height +e 1074 109.44 13.42
b. Finishes ==300+80+168.75+27.56
c. Beam 3+442.8
d. Column
e. Walls
Total 1664 169.64 20.80

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## II. Imposed load

Office building (Category B): imposed loads on floor qk=2.5kN/m2
Table 2 Live load calculation
Floor Content Calculation Load(kN) Mass(t)
2 in (kN/m2)
1~2 Live load Areaqk=1082.5 200 20.387 25
EC8
total 200 20.387 25

## III. Seismic mass

Seismic masses considered in seismic design should be
associated with the seismic load combination:
G+E,iQk, where E,i= 2,i
Seismic
2,i=0.3 for quasi-static actions
mass
from table4.2 in EC8 Roof =1.0 E,i=10.3=0.3
m1=115.6t
1st Floow =0.5 E,i=0.50.3=0.15
m2=66.3t
Assume to keep worst case of the two, therefore,
E,i=10.3=0.3
Load combination becomes: G+E,iQk=G+0.3 Qk
Table 3 Seismic mass calculation
Floor G(kN) Q(kN) Ei Qk(kN) G+Ei Qk(kN) Mass(t)
2 590 200 60 650 66.3
1 1074 200 60 1134 115.6
total 1784 181.9
m2=66.3t
3000

m1=115.6t
3000

EC8 T1=0.29s
Eq4.6
Fig. 2 Seismic mass distribution

## EC8 4. Seismic base shear

Table I. Natural Peiod
3.1 Ct=0.075 for moment resistant space concrete frame
Table H=3+3=6m
3.2 For buildings with heights of up to 40m, T1 can be calculated as
followed
EC8 Eq T1=CtH3/4=0.07563/4=0.29 (s)
3.14 Check if T14Tc and T12s
II. Response spectrum
The parameters are S=1.35, TB=0.2s, TC=0.8s, TD=2.0s.
EC8 The building must resist a design earthquake with PGA = 0.3g,
5.2.2.2 therefore, agR=0.30g. Sd(T1)=
The design ground acceleration 2.55 m/s2
ag=1agR=1.00.39.81=0.3g=2.943m/s2.
TB<T1<Tc Sd= agS2.5/q
0.2s<0.29s<0.8s

## For multi-storey, multi-bay frame system with moderate ductility

EC8 (DCM)
u/ 1=1.3
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## 4.3.2.2 q0=3.0u/ 1=3.01.3=3.9

(1) kw=1.00
The upper limit value of the behaviour factor q= q0
kw=3.91=3.91.5 (Satisfied)
Therefore, Sd(T1)= agS2.5/q=2.9431.352.5/3.9=2.55 m/s2.

## III. Seismic base shear force

Fb=Sd(T1)m
Because T1=0.29s < TC=0.8s< 2TC=1.6s, =0.8
EC8 But building does NOT have more than 2 storeys, therefore
4.3.3.2. =1.0
3 Fb=Sd(T1)m=2.55181.91.0=463.85kN
(3) Net horizontal force is 463.85/1784100%=26% of total weight

z m
Fk Fb k k
z jmj
j

## Table 4 Load distribution

Height mass zk mk Force Fk moment Fk z k
floor z k (m) mk (t) (mt) (kN) (kNm)
2 6 66.3 397.8 247.8 1486.8
1 3 115.6 346.8 216.0 648
total 181.9 744.6 463.8(Fb) 2134.8 (Mb)
The ratio of total base moment to the base shear gives the effective
height of the resultant lateral force heff=Mb/Fb=2134.8/463.8=4.6m
above the base, and heff/h=4.6/6=0.77.
F2=247.8kN
3000

F1=216kN
3000

## Fig. 4 Seismic mass distribution

Slab ratio= 5/4<2, therefore, the slab is a two-way slab (working in
both direction).

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## Load corresponding to the shaded area

y
x

4000
8000 1 2

3 4
4000

EC0
6.5.3

5000 5000
10000
Plan (unit:mm)

Area
=4m2
Area=6m2
Fig. 5 Slab load distribution

## For 2nd floor beam, dead load :7.38kN/m2

For x-direction interior beams:
G=7.38(46)/10=17.71kN/m
Q=2.5(46)/10=6.00kN/m

Q=6.00kN/m
G=17.71kN/m

## Fig. 6 Beam loads

Load combination as required by EC0-6.5.3 and Annex A1
Static: (1.35G+1.50Q)
Seismic x: (G+0.30Q+EQx)
Seismic y: ( G+0.30Q+EQy)

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