Anda di halaman 1dari 59

LENS FOCUS

LENS FOCUS

Focus and Calibration Procedures


LENS FOCUS
Reproduction and Copyright Information
This document contains information which is Proprietary and Confidential. Any reproductions, adaptations, or
translations without prior written permission from Headwall Photonics, Inc. is strictly prohibited. All information
provided in this manual is believed to be accurate and reliable. No responsibility is assumed by Headwall Photonics, Inc.
for its use. Headwall Photonics, Inc. reserves the right to make changes to this information without notice.
Contact Headwall Photonics, Inc. for associated software license information on: Hyperspec application software, Nokia
QT libraries, and LGPL Public License.

Contact information
Headwall Photonics
601 River Street
Fitchburg, MA 01420
TEL (978) 353-4100
FAX (978) 348-1864
e-mail: support@headwallphotonics.com

2
CHANGE TRACKING

DOCUMENT REVISION TRACKING

Table 1-1. Document Revisions

Date Name Page Detail

6/2016 Chenevert 3, 15, 27 Added steps to clean lenses. Adjusted the blank pages from
added information.

1-a
CHANGE TRACKING

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.

1-b
LENS FOCUS PROCEDURES

Table of Contents

VNIR Lens. ............................................................................................................. 3


Lens Identification. .............................................................................................3
VNIR Lens. .........................................................................................................4
Platform. ..............................................................................................................5
Starter Kit Lens Focus. ........................................................................................................5
FOV Calculator. ................................................................................................................8
Imaging and Positioning. ....................................................................................9
Focus VNIR Lens. .............................................................................................12
NIR Lens. .............................................................................................................. 15
Lens Identification. ...........................................................................................15
NIR Lens. ..........................................................................................................16
Platform. ............................................................................................................16
Starter Kit Lens Focus. ......................................................................................................17
FOV Calculator. ..............................................................................................................20
Imaging and Positioning. ..................................................................................21
Focus NIR Lens. ................................................................................................24
SWIR Lens. ........................................................................................................... 27
Lens Identification. ...........................................................................................27
SWIR Lens. .......................................................................................................28
Platform. ............................................................................................................28
Starter Kit Lens Focus. ......................................................................................................29
FOV Calculator. ..............................................................................................................32
Imaging and Positioning. ..................................................................................33
Focus SWIR Lens. ............................................................................................36
Exterior Lens Focus ............................................................................................. 39
Lens Identification. ...........................................................................................39
Platform. ............................................................................................................41
Initial Lens Focus. ..............................................................................................................41
FOV Calculator. ..............................................................................................................43

1
LENS FOCUS PROCEDURES

Imaging and Positioning. .................................................................................. 44


Lens Focus. ....................................................................................................... 45
Light Level Calibration....................................................................................... 47
Light Levels. ..................................................................................................... 47
Test Scan. ......................................................................................................... 48
Test Capture. .......................................................................................................................50

2
VNIR LENS FOCUS

CHAPTER 1 VNIR LENS.


The following procedures apply to initial set up as well as calibration of existing devices, or when changing lenses on the
same device. In each of these instances it is necessary to focus the sensor lens.
Each Headwall sensor is supplied with an attached lens. Additional lenses are available to expand the scanning abilities of
the units to meet the needs of the individual customer. The following steps are provided so that users can properly adjust
the focus of the lenses to easily set up the systems and maximize their scan data.
The common Headwall Photonics sensor lens models are: VNIR, NIR and SWIR units. Using this categorization, each
lens construction and the steps to adjust and focus the lenses will be shown in the following procedures.
Setting the focus of any sensor unit requires that the software is properly installed and configured, the computer is
configured to communicate with the Headwall unit and both the Headwall device and computer are powered on and
connected. Once this is done the manual lens focusing is done using a combination of the Hyperspec III application
software.

1.1 LENS IDENTIFICATION.


The following figures show the three common lens types available on standard Headwall sensor units. Note that the NIR
and SWIR lenses are mechanically very similar, but different optically. Each lens is readily focused using the steps laid
out in this guide. Lens dimensions may vary to account for different focal lengths, or lenses may be ordered for a specific
application, but the focus procedures remain identical.
Click the name above the image that matches your lens, to open the section for focusing instructions.

Table 1-1. Lens Identification

VNIR Lens. NIR Lens. SWIR Lens.

1.2 LENS CLEANING


The following lists the suggested cleaning supplies:
(1) Small, soft brush or canned air maybe substituted.
(2) Windex concentrate diluted with 50% water
(3) Lens cleaning tissue, Kleenex can be used (plain no chemicals) also, toilet tissues can be substituted; however,
the last two are very linty.
(4) Alcohol and in extreme cases acetone can be used to remove oil from glass.

1-3
VNIR LENS FOCUS
To clean the lens, use the following procedures:
Lightly brush or blow the lens off using the canned air. The idea is to remove the loose dirt before cleaning.
Dip lens cleaning tissue in Windex solution. Using a circular motion, from center of lens to outside edge, clean glass (DO
NOT RUB HARD). If the lens is wet after cleaning, use a dry tissue to clean after wetting. Repeat as often as needed to
clean lens elements or filters.
For excessive oil on the lens, use acetone or alcohol if necessary.
Never clean glass with a dry tissue, Kleenex or cloth before wetting lens.

NOTE
Be very careful with Acetone, it will react with most plastics and synthetic materials.

1.3 VNIR LENS.

Figure 1-1. VNIR Lens.


The above figure identifies the different elements of the VNIR lens. The lens size in the figure may vary from the lens
ordered with the sensor, but the working elements, shown in the above figure, are identical. Use the above figure to follow
the directions for focusing the lens.
VNIR lenses are available in the standard sizes and configurations listed in the following table. While custom sizes can
also be ordered, the focus procedures remain identical.

Table 1-2. Standard VMNIR Lenses

Focal Length Description

4.8 mm F/1.8, 400-1000nm, Compact Barrel, C-Mount, 4.8 mm

8 mm F/1.4, 400-1000nm, Compact Barrel, C-Mount, 8 mm

12 mm F/1.4, 400-1000nm, Compact Barrel, C-Mount, 12 mm

1-4
VNIR LENS FOCUS
Table 1-2. Standard VMNIR Lenses

Focal Length Description

17 mm F/1.4, 400-1000nm, Compact Barrel, C-Mount, 17 mm

23 mm F/1.4, 400-1000nm, Compact Barrel, C-Mount, 23 mm

35 mm F/1.9, 400-1000nm, Compact Barrel, C-Mount, 35 mm

70 mm F/2.2 400-1000nm, Compact Barrel, C-Mount, 70 mm

1.4 PLATFORM.
There are two common platforms types that are used for hyperspectral scanning: Fixed platform such as the Headwall
Starter Kit, and moving platforms such as a UAV. For clarity, this focusing procedure will be the sensor attached to a
fixed platform, the Starter Kit.

NOTE
At this point, it is presumed that the Hyperspec III software is loaded and properly
configured onto the computer that will be used for focusing. It is also presumed that
the Starter Kit is properly assembled, sensor mounted and both are operational
according to either a Quick Start Guide or an operator manual.

1.4.1 Starter Kit Lens Focus.


The assembled Starter Kit should be as shown in the following figure. The system being focused may not have the
identical sensor mounted to the unit as the one shown below. However, the steps will describe and show the lens and the
methods to focus every VNIR lens.

NOTE
Verify that the sensor is mounted such that the travel of the linear drive is
perpendicular to the slit opening shown on the sensor front panel.

1-5
VNIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 1-2. Assembled Starter Kit.


(1) Connect the power to the sensor, the Starter Kit, and using the appropriate cable(s) connect the sensor to the
computer.
(2) Power on the computer, Starter Kit, Starter Kit light source and the connected sensor.
(3) Verify the green LED on the sensor is lit, indicating power and connectivity with the computer. The green LED
can be on the front of back of a unit, depending upon the model and size.

Figure 1-3. Green Indicator Light ON.

(4) Click the Hyperspec III icon on the computer desktop to open the application, shown in the next figure.

1-6
VNIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 1-4. Hyperspec III Main Window.

(5) The Log Dock identifies the sensor and shows it connected to Hyperspec III. For properly connected computers
and sensors the Log Dock text is blue, as shown. Red Log Dock text indicates a possible error condition. The
error should be resolved prior to continuing.
(6) Click the Motion button on the Button Dock. The motion control function, shown in the following two figures,
opens.
(7) Confirm the White Reference Target is in place on the Starter Kit, linear drive tray.

1-7
VNIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 1-5. Motion Control Interface in Viewing Area,

Figure 1-6. Motion Control Interface.


(a) The motion control interface can be reduced or moved in the viewing area to make the focusing process
easier. For details about operation of the Motion Control, see Motion in the Hyperspec III Operation section
of an operators manual.
(b) Left-click and drag the slider until the White Reference Target is directly below the sensor.
(c) Adjust the light source so the brightest light is centered on the White Reference Target.
(8) Click the Live Video button, opening the live video feed from the sensor, as seen in the following figure.

1-8
VNIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 1-7. Live Video Interface with Control Functions.

The Hyperspec III Live Video interface provides multiple viewing and analysis features to accurately define the AOI,
system performance and lens focus. The window opens with the black image feed, if the lens cap is on or there is no
illumination. The live video also includes spatial and spectral graphs for additional image detail.
The numbered areas in the above figure are identified below. These features will be used during the focus procedure.
(1) The top row of the Live Video window has both buttons, to use features, and input boxes for configuring the
operation of the video feed. The first two buttons respectively magnify (Mag +) and reduce (Mag -) the captured
image as it is shown in the target area. The X-Hair button opens a red cross hair in the target display. The X and
Y boxes along the top of the window relate to the Spectral and Spatial resolution shown in the two graphical
fields on the right and bottom of the target window. The Autoscale and Snapshot buttons allow the operator to
respectively auto-scale the image intensity in the window and select a single image from the dynamic display.
(2) The block in the lower right corner of the Live Video window contains the Field of View (FOV) calculator which
is used once the Exposure time and Frame period for the video selection are entered. The exposure time is the
length of time the sensor is collecting light. The frame period is the amount of time it takes to read each image.
The frame period is slightly longer than the exposure time.

NOTE
If the exposure time is increased beyond the frame period, the frame period will
automatically increase. If the exposure time is lowered below the frame period, the
frame period will not change. If the frame period is changed the speed of the motion
device must be changed to match. The minimum Frame period is 3.5 ms.

(3) The Min. and Max. slider controls, under the FOV Calculator, are used to adjust the resolution of the video in the
target viewing window.

1.4.1.1 FOV Calculator.

The FOV calculator is used to set the Hyperspec III to effectively capture images with the sensor unit. In the above
figure, click the FOV button in the red rectangle marked 2. The FOV Calculator, shown in the following image, opens.
The results of the FOV Calculator will be specific to a particular scan activity including distance and density of the scan.

1-9
VNIR LENS FOCUS

First select the distance to the object and the units (ft, m, etc.). The current configuration will be read from the Hyperspec
III settings. The values for the number of frames per second, focal length of the lens, spatial channels and pixel pitch will
be displayed.
Select the units for the output section. The calculator will display the values for FOV, IFOV and scan distance per second
(other units can be selected) in distance and angular values.

FOV is the width of the area that the scan will cover.

IFOV is the area that a single pixel will see.

The scan distance per second is the speed required for proper image proportions.

If the speed of the moving object is known, the Speed to frame rate can be used. Select the speed, units can be selected
above in the output section. The calculator will display the number of frames per second and the frame period setting
needed to achieve the proper image proportions. Manually enter the frame period value in the sensor settings field in
Hyperspec III.

1.5 IMAGING AND POSITIONING.

Figure 1-8. Calibration Card.


(1) Visually confirm the sensor is aligned and perpendicular to the White Reference Target.
(2) Remove the lens cap and set it aside.
(3) Locate the supplied calibration card, shown above, for use further in the procedure.
(4) Power ON the Starter Kit and the Lamp Power Source, if not already powered on.

1-10
VNIR LENS FOCUS
(5) Loosen the clamp on the light source, shown in the following figure, and position the angle of the light guide to
maximize the light signal the sensor is seeing, as shown in the Live Video window and spectral intensity plots.

Figure 1-9. Light Source Clamp.


(a) While positioning the light source, watch the Live Video screen.
(b) Once the brightest area appears, tighten the clamp on the light source.
(6) Adjust the lamp setting on the Lamp Power Source to approximately 75%.

Figure 1-10. Lamp Power Control.


(7) Adjust the Exposure setting in the Live Video window, in the red rectangle number 2 (Figure 1-11.), to bring the
intensity to approximately 85% of saturation level for the sensor, using the Spectral plot to the right of the target
window as a guide. The result should be similar to that shown in Figure 1-12.

1-11
VNIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 1-11. Exposure and Frame Rate.


(7) Click the X-Hair button on the Live Video interface. The image should appear similar to that shown below. Left
clicking in another location in the Live Video will set the cross-hair to that place, and it will adjust the spectral
and spatial results in the respective live charts. It is useful to move the cross-hair now to observe the changes in
the two graphs.
(8) Click the Auto-Scale button.

Figure 1-12. Live Screen with Reflectance Image.


(9) Place the calibration card onto the white reference tray so the lines on the card are identifiable in the Live Video
window. They need not be focused, simply obvious that the lines exist and the card is directly under the lens, as
shown in the following figure.

1-12
VNIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 1-13. Target Card, Unfocused Lines Image.


At this point in the process it is important to notice the representative graphs in the spatial and spectral views of the
display. These graphs will be important in developing sharp focus and a productive scan. Left click the cross hair into a
white area of the Live Video image.

1.6 FOCUS VNIR LENS.


The VNIR lens is commonly used on Headwall units for a number of hyperspectral applications. The following steps are
used to focus the VNIR lenses which usually have EFL values of 4.8, 8, 12, 17, 23 mm.

NOTE
It is presumed at this step that the lens is properly threaded into the sensor, the sensor
is powered ON, and the lens cap is removed.

Figure 1-14. VNIR with Aperture Lock.

1-13
VNIR LENS FOCUS

NOTE
If radiometric calibration was ordered for the lens and sensor, the aperture is locked in
place. It should not be changed from the factory setting. Changing the calibrated
aperture will void the radiometric calibration.

(1) Locate and loosen the aperture lock, shown in the above figure, by turning the screw counter-clockwise.
(2) Adjust the aperture to a maximum value, close to infinity, by turning locking ring until the smallest F-stop value,
approximately 2.0 to 2.5, is aligned with the Marker Line.
(3) Tighten the aperture lock by turning it clockwise.
(4) Using an Allen wrench, loosen the screw on the Focus Lock Ring.
(5) Slowly turn the lens to sharpen the image seen in the Live Video target area. While adjusting the focus, view the
image in the Live Video as the metric for clear focus. As the image sharpens it is necessary to make finer
adjustments and turn the lens slowly. The image should begin to resemble that in Figure 1-15.

Figure 1-15. Close Focus


The above example is a view in the Live Target window when the focus is improving. To improve and refine the results
further it is useful to use the spatial intensity plot. The red rectangle shows the spatial image of the lines in the viewing
area of the Live Target Window. When focus shown above is reached use the following steps.
(6) Click the X-Hair into a white area in the live image, as shown above.
(7) Click the Mag+ button once,
(8) Left click to place the cross-hairs on the image on or near white section and observe the change to the spectral
range.
(9) Slowly adjust the focus until the best contrast of the fine white and black lines is reached. Notice the change in
the spatial graph, as shown in the following figure.

1-14
VNIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 1-16. Good Focus Target Window.


(10) The spatial plot is a good indicator of lens focus. Note the difference in the spatial plots between Figure 1-16 and
Figure 1-17. Also, note the increase in spectral saturation, circled, between the two figures.
(11) Click the Mag+ button to increase the image size and use the sliders to scroll over the image and ensure the
image quality and focus is acceptable across the full view.
(12) Tighten the focus locking ring with an Allen wrench.
(13) After tightening the set screw, verify there is no change in focus and the aperture F-stop has not changed.
(14) Replace the lens cap.

(15) If the system only needed focusing, it is done. Shut down the sensor and Starter Kit. Close Hyperspec III and
power off the computer.

(16) If focusing was the first step to set up the sensor, close and restart the Hyperspec III application and continue to
the next procedure, setting the White and Dark References, Light Level Calibration.

1-15
NIR LENS FOCUS

CHAPTER 2 NIR LENS.


The following procedures apply to initial set up as well as calibration of existing devices or when changing lenses on the
same device. In each of these instances it is necessary to focus the sensor lens.
Each Headwall sensor is supplied with an attached lens. Additional lenses are available to expand the scanning abilities of
the units to meet the needs of the individual customer. The following steps are provided so that users can properly adjust
the focus of the lenses to easily set up the systems and maximize their scan data.
The common Headwall Photonics sensor models are: VNIR, NIR and SWIR units. Using this categorization, there are
three basic lens constructions that apply to the units. Each lens construction, and the steps to adjust and focus the lenses,
will be shown.
Setting the focus of any sensor unit requires that the software is properly installed and configured, the computer is
configured to communicate with the Headwall unit and both the Headwall device and computer are powered on and
connected. Once this is done the manual lens focusing is done using a combination of the Hyperspec III Live Video, and
Settings functions.

2.1 LENS IDENTIFICATION.


The following figures show the three common lens types available on standard Headwall sensor units. Note that the NIR
and SWIR lenses are mechanically very similar, but different optically. Each lens is readily focused using the steps laid
out in this guide. The lens dimensions may vary to account for different focal lengths, or lenses ordered for a specific
application, but the focus procedures remain identical.
Click the name above the image that matches your lens, to open the section for focusing instructions.

Table 2-1. Lens Identification

VNIR Lens. NIR Lens. SWIR Lens.

2.2 LENS CLEANING


The following lists the suggested cleaning supplies:
(1) Small, soft brush or canned air maybe substituted.
(2) Windex concentrate diluted with 50% water
(3) Lens cleaning tissue, Kleenex can be used (plain no chemicals) also, toilet tissues can be substituted; however,
the last two are very linty.
(4) Alcohol and in extreme cases acetone can be used to remove oil from glass.

2-15
NIR LENS FOCUS
To clean the lens, use the following procedures:
Lightly brush or blow the lens off using the canned air. The idea is to remove the loose dirt before cleaning.
Dip lens cleaning tissue in Windex solution. Using a circular motion, from center of lens to outside edge, clean glass (DO
NOT RUB HARD). If the lens is wet after cleaning, use a dry tissue to clean after wetting. Repeat as often as needed to
clean lens elements or filters.
For excessive oil on the lens, use acetone or alcohol if necessary.
Never clean glass with a dry tissue, Kleenex or cloth before wetting lens.

NOTE
Be very careful with Acetone, it will react with most plastics and synthetic materials.

2.3 NIR LENS.

Figure 2-1. NIR Lens.


The above figure identifies the different mechanical elements of the NIR lens. The lens sizes may vary, depending upon
which size lens was ordered with the sensor, but the working elements, shown in the above figure, are identical. Use the
above figure to follow the directions for focusing the lens.
NIR lenses are available in the standard sizes and configurations listed in the following table. While custom sizes can also
be ordered, the focus procedures remain identical.

Table 2-2. Standard NIR Lenses

Focal Length Description

25 mm F/2.0, 900-1700nm, FD to C-mount adapted, 25mm

25 mm F/2.0, 900-1700nm 42mm Universal Mount, 25mm

35 mm F/2.0, 900-1700nm 42mm Universal Mount, 35mm

2-16
NIR LENS FOCUS
Table 2-2. Standard NIR Lenses

Focal Length Description

50 mm F/1.4, 800-1700nm 21mm C-Mount, 50mm

50 mm F/2.0, 900-1700nm 42mm Universal Mount, 25mm

75 mm F/2.0, 900-1700nm 42mm Universal Mount, 75mm

100 mm F/2.0, 900-1700nm 42mm Universal Mount, 100mm

2.4 PLATFORM.
There are two common platforms types that are used for hyperspectral scanning: Fixed platform such as the Headwall
Starter Kit, and moving platforms such as using a UAV mounted unit. For clarity, this focusing procedure will be the
sensor attached to a fixed platform, the Starter Kit.

NOTE
At this point it is presumed that the Hyperspec III software is loaded and properly
configured on the computer that will be used for focusing. It is also presumed that the
Starter Kit is assembled, sensor mounted and both are operational according to either
a Quick Start Guide or an operator manual.

2.4.1 Starter Kit Lens Focus.


The assembled Starter Kit should be as shown in the following figure. The system being focused may not have the
identical sensor mounted to the Starter Kit as the one shown below. However, the steps will describe and show the lens
and the methods to focus every NIR lens.

NOTE
Verify that the sensor is mounted such that the travel of the linear drive is
perpendicular to the slit opening shown on the sensor front panel.

2-17
NIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 2-2. Assembled Starter Kit.


(1) Connect the power to the sensor, the Starter Kit, and computer. Using the appropriate cable(s), connect the
sensor to the computer.
(2) Power on the computer, Starter Kit, Starter Kit light source and the connected sensor.
(3) Verify the green LED on the sensor is lit, indicating power and connectivity with the computer. The green LED
can be on the front or back of a unit, depending upon the model and size, as shown in the following figure.

Figure 2-3. Green ON, LEDS.

(4) Click the Hyperspec III icon on the computer desktop to open the application, shown in the next figure.

2-18
NIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 2-4. Hyperspec III Main Window.

(5) The Log Dock identifies the sensor and shows it connected to Hyperspec III. For properly connected computers
and sensors the Log Dock text is blue, as shown. Red Log Dock text indicates a possible error condition. The
error should be resolved prior to continuing.
(6) Click the Motion button on the Button Dock. The motion control function, shown in the following two figures,
opens.
(7) Confirm the White Reference Target is in place on the linear drive tray.

2-19
NIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 2-5. Motion Control Interface in Viewing Area,

Figure 2-6. Motion Control Interface.


(a) The motion control interface can be reduced or moved in the viewing area to make the focusing process
easier. For details about operation of the Motion Control, see Motion in the Hyperspec III Operation section
of an operators manual.
(b) Left-click and drag the slider until the White Reference Target is directly below the sensor.
(c) Adjust the light source so the brightest light is centered on the White Reference Target.
(8) Click the Live Video button, opening the live video feed from the sensor as seen in the following figure.

2-20
NIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 2-7. Live Video Interface with Control Functions.

The Hyperspec III Live Video interface provides multiple viewing and analysis features to accurately define the AOI,
system performance and lens focus. The window opens with the black image feed, if the lens cap is on the sensor or there
is no illumination. The live video also includes spatial and spectral graphs to the right side and bottom of the target
viewing window. These are used for developing additional image detail.
The numbered areas in the above figure are identified below. These features will be used during the focus procedure.
(1) The top row of the Live Video window has both buttons, to use features, and input boxes for configuring the
operation of the video feed. The first two buttons respectively magnify (Mag +) and reduce (Mag -) the captured
image as it is shown in the target area. The X-Hair button opens a red cross hair in the target display. The X and
Y boxes along the top of the window relate to the Spectral and Spatial resolution shown in the two graphical
fields on the right and bottom of the target window. The Autoscale and Snapshot buttons allow the operator to
respectively auto-scale the image intensity in the window and select a single image from the dynamic display.
(2) The block in the lower right corner of the Live Video window contains the Field of View (FOV) calculator which
is used once the Exposure time and Frame period for the video selection are entered. The Live View window has
sensor controls for the Exposure time and Frame period. The exposure time is the length of time the sensor is
collecting light. The frame period is the amount of time it takes to read each image. The frame period is slightly
longer than the exposure time. If the exposure time is increased beyond the frame period, the frame period will
automatically increase. If the exposure time is lowered below the frame period, the frame period will not change.
If the frame period is changed the speed of the motion device must be changed to match.
(3) The Min. and Max. slider controls, under the FOV Calculator, are used to adjust the resolution of the video in the
target viewing window.

2.4.1.1 FOV Calculator.

The FOV calculator is used to set the Hyperspec III to effectively capture images and integrate with the sensor unit with
the Hyperspec III application. In the above figure, click the FOV button in the red rectangle marked 2. The FOV
Calculator, shown in the following image, opens. The results of the FOV Calculator will display in the Exposure and
Frame Period fields.

2-21
NIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 2-8. FOV Calculator.


Select the input units for performing the calculations.
GIVE AN EXAMPLE HERE IN SIMPLE STEPS.
For the focusing procedures the FOV will not be used, only the Frame period and Exposure values, which will be
manually entered.

2.5 IMAGING AND POSITIONING.

Figure 2-9. Calibration Card.


(1) Visually confirm the sensor is aligned and perpendicular to the White Reference Target.
(2) Locate the supplied calibration card for use further in the procedure.
(3) Power ON the Starter Kit and the Lamp Power Source.
(4) Loosen the clamp on the light source and position the angle of the light guide to maximize the light signal the
sensor is seeing, as shown in the Live Video window and spectral intensity plots.

2-22
NIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 2-10. Light Source Clamp.


(a) While positioning the light source, watch the Live Video screen.
(b) Once the brightest area appears, tighten the clamp on the light source.
(5) Adjust the lamp setting on the Lamp Power Source to approximately 75%.

Figure 2-11. Lamp Power Control.


(6) Adjust the Exposure setting in the Live Video window, in the red rectangle (Figure 2-12.), to bring the intensity
to approximately 85% of saturation level for the sensor. The result, using the Spectral plot to the right of the
target window as a guide, should be similar to that shown in Figure 2-13.

2-23
NIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 2-12. Exposure and Frame Rate Settings.


(7) Click the X-Hair button on the Live Video interface. The image should appear similar to that shown below. Left
clicking in another location in the Live Video will set the cross-hair to that place, and it will adjust the spectral
and spatial results in the respective live charts. It is useful to move the cross-hair now to observe the changes in
the two graphs.
(8) Click the Auto-Scale button.

Figure 2-13. Live Screen with Reflectance Image.


(9) Place the calibration card onto the white reference tray so the lines on the card are identifiable in the Live Video
window. They need not be focused, simply obvious that the lines exist and the card is directly under the lens, as
shown in the following figure.

2-24
NIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 2-14. Target Card, Unfocused Lines Image.


At this point in the process it is important to notice the representative graphs in the spatial and spectral views of the
display. These graphs will be important in developing sharp focus and a productive scan. Left click the cross hair into a
white area of the Live Video image.

2.6 FOCUS NIR LENS.


The NIR lens is used on Headwall units for a number of hyperspectral applications. The following steps are used to focus
the NIR lenses.

NOTE
It is presumed at this step that the lens is properly threaded into the sensor c-mount,
the sensor is powered ON and the lens cap is removed.

NOTE
If radiometric calibration was ordered for the lens and sensor, the aperture is locked in
place. It should not be changed from the factory setting. Changing the calibrated
aperture will void the radiometric calibration.

2-25
NIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 2-15. NIR with Focus Lock.


(1) Locate the aperture ring, shown in the previous figure.
(2) Adjust the aperture to a maximum opening, close to infinity, by turning the Aperture Ring until the smallest F
number is aligned with the Marker Line.
(3) The image in the Live Video window will resemble the Figure 2-14.
(4) Using an Allen wrench, loosen the screw on the Focus Lock Ring.
(5) Slowly turn the lens by small increments to sharpen the image seen in the Live Video target area. As the image
sharpens it is necessary to make finer adjustments. The image should begin to resemble that in Figure 2-16.
Notice in the figure that the spatial graph shows greater detail, shown in the red rectangle, as the focus improves.

Figure 2-16. Close Focus

2-26
NIR LENS FOCUS
The above example is a view in the live target window when the focus is improving. To further refine the results, use the
spatial intensity plot as a guide. When focus shown above is reached, use the following steps.
(6) If not present, click the X-Hair button above the live image.
(7) Left click to place the cross-hairs on the image near the center of the spectral range, as in the above figure.
(8) Slowly adjust the focus until the best contrast of the fine lines is reached. The contrast will become visible in the
target area and the spatial plot, as shown in the following figure.

Figure 2-17. Good Focus Target Window.


(9) The spatial plot is a good indicator of lens focus. Note the difference in the spatial plots between Figure 2-16 and
Figure 2-17. Also, note the increase in spectral saturation, red circle, between the two figures.
(10) Click the Mag+ button to increase the image size and use the sliders to scroll over the image and ensure the
image quality is acceptable across the full view.
(11) Tighten the focus locking ring with an Allen wrench.
(12) After tightening the set screw, verify there is no change in focus and the aperture F-stop has not changed.
(13) Replace the lens cap.
(14) If the system only needed focusing, it is done. Shut down the sensor, Starter Kit and computer.

(15) If focusing was the first step to set up the sensor, close and restart the Hyperspec III application and continue to
the next procedure, setting the White and Dark References, Light Level Calibration.

2-27
NIR LENS FOCUS

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.

2-28
SWIR LENS FOCUS

CHAPTER 3 SWIR LENS.


The following procedures apply to initial set up as well as calibration of existing devices or when changing lenses on the
same device. In each of these instances it is necessary to focus the sensor lens.
Each Headwall sensor is supplied with an attached lens. Additional lenses are available to expand the scanning abilities of
the units to meet the needs of the individual customer. The following steps are provided so that users can properly adjust
the focus of the lenses to easily set up the systems and maximize their scan data.
The common Headwall Photonics sensor models are: VNIR, NIR and SWIR units. Using this categorization, there are
three basic lens constructions that apply to the units. Each lens construction, and the steps to adjust and focus the lenses,
will be shown.
Setting the focus of any sensor unit requires that the software is properly installed and configured, the computer is
configured to communicate with the Headwall unit and both the Headwall device and computer are powered on and
connected. Once this is done the manual lens focusing is completed using a combination of the Hyperspec III Live
Video, and Settings functions.

3.1 LENS IDENTIFICATION.


The following figures show the three common lens types available on standard Headwall sensor units. Note that the NIR
and SWIR lenses are mechanically very similar, but different optically. Each lens type is readily focused using the steps
laid out in this guide. The lens dimensions may vary to account for different focal lengths, or specifically ordered lenses
for an application, but the focus procedures remain identical.
Click the name above the image that matches your lens, to open the section for focusing instructions.

Table 3-1. Lens Identification

VNIR Lens. NIR Lens. SWIR Lens.

3.2 LENS CLEANING


The following lists the suggested cleaning supplies:
(1) Small, soft brush or canned air maybe substituted.
(2) Windex concentrate diluted with 50% water
(3) Lens cleaning tissue, Kleenex can be used (plain no chemicals) also, toilet tissues can be substituted; however,
the last two are very linty.
(4) Alcohol and in extreme cases acetone can be used to remove oil from glass.

3-27
SWIR LENS FOCUS
To clean the lens, use the following procedures:
Lightly brush or blow the lens off using the canned air. The idea is to remove the loose dirt before cleaning.
Dip lens cleaning tissue in Windex solution. Using a circular motion, from center of lens to outside edge, clean glass (DO
NOT RUB HARD). If the lens is wet after cleaning, use a dry tissue to clean after wetting. Repeat as often as needed to
clean lens elements or filters.
For excessive oil on the lens, use acetone or alcohol if necessary.
Never clean glass with a dry tissue, Kleenex or cloth before wetting lens.

NOTE
Be very careful with Acetone, it will react with most plastics and synthetic materials.

3.3 SWIR LENS.

Figure 3-1. SWIR Lens.


The above figure identifies the different mechanical elements of the SWIR lens. The lens sizes may vary, depending upon
which lens was ordered with the sensor, but the working elements, shown in the above figure, are identical. Use the above
figure to follow the directions for focusing the lens.
SWIR lenses are available in the standard sizes and configurations listed in the following table. While custom sizes can
also be ordered, the focus procedures remain identical.

Table 3-2. Standard SWIR Lenses

Focal Length Description

17.7 mm F/2.5 telecentric

25 mm F/2.0, 900-1700nm, FD to C-mount adapted, 25mm

50 mm F/1.4, 800-1700nm 21mm C-Mount, 50mm

3-28
SWIR LENS FOCUS
Table 3-2. Standard SWIR Lenses

Focal Length Description

100 mm F/2 (F2.4 removable aperture), 900-2500nm, 100mm

3.4 PLATFORM.
There are two common platforms types that are used for hyperspectral scanning: Fixed platform such as the Headwall
Starter Kit, and moving platforms such as using a UAV. For clarity, this focusing procedure will be the sensor attached to
a fixed platform, the Starter Kit.

NOTE
At this point it is presumed that the Hyperspec III software is loaded and properly
configured on the computer that will be used for focusing. It is also presumed that the
Starter Kit is assembled, sensor mounted and both are operational according to either
a Quick Start Guide or an operator manual.

3.4.1 Starter Kit Lens Focus.


The assembled Starter Kit and sensor should be as shown in the following figure. The system being focused may not have
the identical sensor mounted to the Starter Kit as the one shown below. However, the steps will describe and show the lens
and the methods to focus every SWIR lens.

NOTE
Verify that the sensor is mounted such that the travel of the linear drive is
perpendicular to the slit opening shown on the sensor front panel.

Figure 3-2. Assembled Starter Kit.


(1) Connect the power to the sensor, the Starter Kit, and connect the sensor to the computer.
(2) Power on the computer, Starter Kit, Starter Kit light source and the connected sensor.
(3) Verify the green LED on the sensor is lit, indicating power and connectivity with the computer. The green LED
can be on the front or back of a unit, depending upon the model and size, as shown in the following figure.

3-29
SWIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 3-3. Green ON, LEDS.

(4) Click the Hyperspec III icon on the computer desktop to open the application, shown below.

Figure 3-4. Hyperspec III Main Window.

(5) The Log Dock identifies the sensor and shows it connected to Hyperspec III. For properly connected computers
and sensors the Log Dock text is blue, as shown. Red Log Dock text indicates a possible error condition. The
error should be resolved prior to continuing.
(6) Click the Motion button on the Button Dock. The motion control function, shown in the following two figures,
opens.
(7) Confirm the White Reference Target is in place on the linear drive tray.

3-30
SWIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 3-5. Motion Control Interface in Viewing Area,

Figure 3-6. Motion Control Interface.


(a) The motion control interface can be reduced or moved in the viewing area to make the focusing process
easier. For details about operation of the Motion Control, see Motion in the Hyperspec III Operation section
of an operators manual.
(b) Left-click and drag the slider until the White Reference Target is directly below the sensor.
(c) Adjust the light source so the brightest light is centered on the White Reference Target.
(8) Click the Live Video button, opening the live video feed from the sensor as seen in the following figure.

3-31
SWIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 3-7. Live Video Interface with Control Functions.

The Hyperspec III Live Video interface provides multiple viewing and analysis features to accurately define the AOI,
system performance and lens focus. The window opens with the black image feed, if the lens cap is on the sensor or there
is no illumination. The live video also includes spatial and spectral graphs to the right side and bottom of the target
viewing window. These are used for developing additional image detail.
The numbered areas in the above figure are identified below. These features will be used during the focus procedure.
(1) The top row of the Live Video window has both buttons, to use features, and input boxes for configuring the
operation of the video feed. The first two buttons respectively magnify (Mag +) and reduce (Mag -) the captured
image as it is shown in the target area. The X-Hair button opens a red cross hair in the target display. The X and
Y boxes along the top of the window relate to the Spectral and Spatial resolution shown in the two graphical
fields on the right and bottom of the target window. The Autoscale and Snapshot buttons allow the operator to
respectively auto-scale the image intensity in the window and select a single image from the dynamic display.
(2) The block in the lower right corner of the Live Video window contains the Field of View (FOV) calculator which
is used once the Exposure time and Frame period for the video selection are entered. The Live View window has
sensor controls for the Exposure time and Frame period. The exposure time is the length of time the sensor is
collecting light. The frame period is the amount of time it takes to read each image. The frame period is slightly
longer than the exposure time. If the exposure time is increased beyond the frame period, the frame period will
automatically increase. If the exposure time is lowered below the frame period, the frame period will not change.
If the frame period is changed the speed of the motion device must be changed to match.
(3) The Min. and Max. slider controls, under the FOV Calculator, are used to adjust the resolution of the video in the
target viewing window.

3.4.1.1 FOV Calculator.

The FOV calculator is used to set the Hyperspec III to effectively capture images and integrate with the sensor unit with
the Hyperspec III application. In the above figure, click the FOV button in the red rectangle marked 2. The FOV
Calculator, shown in the following image, opens. The results of the FOV Calculator will display in the Exposure and
Frame Period fields.

3-32
SWIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 3-8. FOV Calculator.


Select the input units for performing the calculations.
GIVE AN EXAMPLE HERE IN SIMPLE STEPS.
For the focusing procedures the FOV will not be used, only the Frame period and Exposure values, which will be
manually entered.

3.5 IMAGING AND POSITIONING.

Figure 3-9. Calibration Card.


(1) Visually confirm the sensor is aligned and perpendicular to the White Reference Target.
(2) Remove the lens cap and set aside.
(3) Locate the supplied calibration card for use further in the procedure.
(4) Power ON the Starter Kit and the Lamp Power Source.
(5) Loosen the clamp on the light source and position the angle of the light guide to maximize the light signal the
sensor is seeing, as shown in the Live Video window and spectral intensity plots.

3-33
SWIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 3-10. Light Source Clamp.


(a) While positioning the light source, watch the Live Video screen.
(b) Once the brightest area appears, tighten the clamp on the light source.
(6) Adjust the lamp setting on the Lamp Power Source to approximately 75%.

Figure 3-11. Lamp Power Control.


(7) Adjust the Exposure setting in the Live Video window, in the red rectangle (Figure 3-12.), to bring the intensity
to approximately 85% of saturation level for the sensor, using the Spectral plot to the right of the target window
as a guide, as in Figure 3-13.

3-34
SWIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 3-12. Exposure and Frame Rate Settings.


(7) Click the X-Hair button on the Live Video interface. The image should appear similar to that shown below. Left
clicking in another location in the Live Video will set the cross-hair to that place, and it will adjust the spectral
and spatial results in the respective live charts. It is useful to move the cross-hair now to observe the changes in
the two graphs.
(8) Click the Auto-Scale button.

Figure 3-13. Live Screen with Reflectance Image.


(9) Place the calibration card onto the white reference tray so the lines on the card are identifiable in the Live Video
window. They need not be focused, simply obvious that the lines exist and the card is directly under the lens, as
shown in the following figure.

3-35
SWIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 3-14. Target Card, Unfocused Lines Image.


At this point in the process it is important to notice the representative graphs in the spatial and spectral views of the
display. These graphs will be important in developing sharp focus and subsequently, a productive scan. Left click the
cross hair into a white area of the Live Video image.

3.6 FOCUS SWIR LENS.


The SWIR lens is used on Headwall units for a number of hyperspectral applications. The following steps are used to
focus the SWIR lenses which usually have EFL values of 50 mm or 25 mm.

NOTE
It is presumed at this step that the lens is properly threaded into the sensor c-mount,
the sensor is powered ON and the lens cap is removed.

Figure 3-15. SWIR with Focus Lock.

3-36
SWIR LENS FOCUS

NOTE
If radiometric calibration was ordered for the lens and sensor, the aperture is locked in
place. It should not be changed from the factory setting. Changing the calibrated
aperture will void the radiometric calibration.

(1) Locate the aperture ring, shown in the previous figure.


(2) Adjust the aperture to a maximum opening, close to infinity, by turning the Aperture Ring until the smallest F
number is aligned with the Marker Line.
(3) The image in the Live Video window will resemble the Figure 3-14.
(4) Using an Allen wrench, loosen the screw on the Focus Lock Ring.
(5) Slowly turn the lens by small increments to sharpen the image seen in the Live Video target area. As the image
sharpens it is necessary to make finer adjustments. The image should begin to resemble that in Figure 3-16.
Notice in the figure that the spatial graph shows greater detail, shown in the red rectangle, as the focus improves.

Figure 3-16. Close Focus


The above example is a view in the live target window when the focus is improving. To further refine the results, use the
spatial intensity plot as a guide. When focus shown above is reached, use the following steps.
(6) If not present, click the X-Hair button above the live image.
(7) Click the Mag+ button once,
(8) Place the cross-hairs on the image near the center of the spectral range, as in the above figure.
(9) Slowly adjust the focus until the best contrast of the fine lines is reached. The contrast will become visible in the
target area and the spatial plot, as shown in the following figure.

3-37
SWIR LENS FOCUS

Figure 3-17. Good Focus Target Window.


(10) The Spatial graph should show improved lens focus. Note the difference in the spatial plots between Figure 1-16
and Figure 1-17. Also, note the increase in spectral saturation, the right side graph, between the two figures.
(11) Click the Mag+ button to increase the image size and use the slider to scroll over the image and ensure the image
quality is acceptable across the full view.
(12) Tighten the focus set screw with an Allen wrench.
(13) After tightening the set screw, visually verify there is no change in focus and the aperture F-stop has not
changed.
(14) Replace the lens cap.
(15) If only focusing was needed, the process is done. Shut down the sensor, Starter Kit and computer.

(16) If focusing was the first step to set up the sensor, close and restart the Hyperspec III application and continue to
the next procedure, setting the White and Dark References Light Level Calibration.

3-38
EXTERIOR LENS FOCUS

CHAPTER 4 EXTERIOR LENS FOCUS


The following procedures apply to initial set up, as well as calibration of existing devices, or when changing lenses on the
same device.
The focusing methods performed in this section are similar to those detailed in previous sections of this document. The
difference is that the focus target is not a card on the Starter Kit, but an exterior target that is not moving at the time of
focus. This lack of motion presents a different base for lens focusing that will be shown.
Each Headwall sensor is supplied with an attached lens. Additional lenses are available to expand the scanning abilities of
the units to meet the needs of the individual customer. The following steps to focus a stationary sensor are provided so
that users can properly adjust the focus of the lenses to easily set up the systems and maximize their scan data.
The common Headwall Photonics sensor models are: VNIR, NIR and SWIR units. Using this categorization, there are
three basic lens constructions that apply to the units. Each lens construction, and the steps to adjust and focus the lenses,
are shown in previous sections of this document.

Setting the focus of any sensor unit requires that the Hyperspec III software is properly installed and configured,
including SpectralView, the computer is configured to communicate with the Headwall unit and both the Headwall device
and computer are powered on and connected. Once this is done the manual lens focusing is completed using a
combination of the Hyperspec III Live Video, and Settings functions and confirmed with the SpectralView
application.

4.1 LENS IDENTIFICATION.


The following figures show the three common lens types available on standard Headwall sensor units. Note that the NIR
and SWIR lenses are mechanically very similar, but because of the lenses, different optically. Each lens type is readily
focused using the steps laid out in this guide. The lens dimensions may vary to account for different focal lengths, or
specifically ordered lenses for an application, but the focus procedures remain identical. Click the name above the image
that matches your lens, to open the section for focusing instructions.
For this exterior focusing procedure the notated figures for each lens type are provided. Details of each lens focusing
procedure are in the sections for each lens. Clicking the name of each lens in the following table will open the respective
focusing procedures.

Table 4-1. Lens Identification

VNIR Lens. NIR Lens. SWIR Lens.

4-39
EXTERIOR LENS FOCUS

NOTE
If radiometric calibration was ordered for the lens and sensor, the aperture is locked in
place. It should not be changed from the factory setting. Changing the calibrated
aperture will void the radiometric calibration.

Figure 4-1. VNIR Lens.

Figure 4-2. NIR Lens.

4-40
EXTERIOR LENS FOCUS

Figure 4-3. SWIR Lens.


The above three figures identify the different mechanical elements of the VNIR, NIR and SWIR lenses. The lens sizes
may vary, depending upon which lens was ordered with the sensor, but the working elements, shown in the above figures,
are identical. Use the above figures to follow the directions for focusing the lens.

4.2 PLATFORM.
The following procedure is done on a sensor in a fixed position with a fixed target, in preparation for use on a platform,
such as a UAV.

NOTE
At this point it is presumed that the Hyperspec III software is loaded and properly
configured on the computer that will be used for focusing. It is also presumed that the
sensor is in a secure stable position and both the sensor and computer are operational
according to either a Quick Start Guide or an operator manual.

4.2.1 Initial Lens Focus.

NOTE
Verify that the sensor is positioned such that the view of the lens is perpendicular to
the slit opening shown on the sensor front panel. Also, this focus procedure should be
done with adequate sunlight for effective absorption and contrast.

(1) Connect the power to the computer, if necessary, and the sensor. Connect the sensor to the computer with the
appropriate cable(s).
(2) Power on the computer, and the connected sensor.
(3) Verify the green LED on the sensor is lit, indicating power and connectivity with the computer. The green LED
can be on the front or back of a unit, depending upon the model and size, as shown in the following figure.

4-41
EXTERIOR LENS FOCUS

Figure 4-4. Green ON, LEDS.

(4) Click the Hyperspec III icon on the computer desktop to open the application, shown below.

Figure 4-5. Hyperspec III Main Window.

(5) The Log Dock identifies the sensor and shows it connected to Hyperspec III. For properly connected computers
and sensors the Log Dock text is blue, as shown. Red Log Dock text indicates a possible error condition. The
error should be resolved prior to continuing.
(6) Click the Live Video button, opening the live video feed from the sensor as seen in the following figure.

4-42
EXTERIOR LENS FOCUS

Figure 4-6. Live Video Interface with Control Functions.

The Hyperspec III Live Video interface provides multiple viewing and analysis features to accurately define the AOI,
system performance and lens focus. The window opens with the black image feed, if the lens cap is on the sensor or there
is no illumination. The live video also includes spatial and spectral graphs to the right side and bottom of the target
viewing window. These are used for developing additional image detail.
The numbered areas in the above figure are identified below. These features will be used during the focus procedure.
(1) The top row of the Live Video window has both buttons, to use features, and input boxes for configuring the
operation of the video feed. The first two buttons respectively magnify (Mag +) and reduce (Mag -) the captured
image as it is shown in the target area. The X-Hair button opens a red cross hair in the target display. The X and
Y boxes along the top of the window relate to the Spectral and Spatial resolution shown in the two graphical
fields on the right and bottom of the target window. The Autoscale and Snapshot buttons allow the operator to
respectively auto-scale the image intensity in the window and select a single image from the dynamic display.
(2) The block in the lower right corner of the Live Video window contains the Field of View (FOV) calculator which
is used once the Exposure time and Frame period for the video selection are entered. The Live View window has
sensor controls for the Exposure time and Frame period. The exposure time is the length of time the sensor is
collecting light. The frame period is the amount of time it takes to read each image. The frame period is slightly
longer than the exposure time. If the exposure time is increased beyond the frame period, the frame period will
automatically increase. If the exposure time is lowered below the frame period, the frame period will not change.
If the frame period is changed the speed of the motion device must be changed to match.
(3) The Min. and Max. slider controls, under the FOV Calculator, are used to adjust the resolution of the video in the
target viewing window.

4.2.1.1 FOV Calculator.

The FOV calculator is used to set the Hyperspec III to effectively capture images and integrate with the sensor unit with
the Hyperspec III application. In the above figure, click the FOV button in the red rectangle marked 2. The FOV
Calculator, shown in the following image, opens. The results of the FOV Calculator will display in the Exposure and
Frame Period fields.

4-43
EXTERIOR LENS FOCUS

Figure 4-7. FOV Calculator.


Select the input units for performing the calculations.
GIVE AN EXAMPLE HERE IN SIMPLE STEPS.
For the focusing procedures the FOV will not be used, only the Frame period and Exposure values, which will be
manually entered.

4.3 IMAGING AND POSITIONING.


(1) Remove the lens cap from the sensor and set it aside.
(2) Aim the sensor at a target that has a vertical reference, such as a fence, flag pole or other linear geometry.
(3) The view through the Live Video will appear similar to the one below. Note the minimal spectral plot, circled.

Figure 4-8. Exterior Live Video View.


(1) Loosen the aperture ring on the lens, if a lock is present.

4-44
EXTERIOR LENS FOCUS
(2) Adjust the aperture to a maximum opening, close to infinity, by turning the Aperture Ring until the smallest F
number is aligned with the Marker Line.
(3) Lock the aperture into place, if a lock is available.
(4) Click the Auto-Scale button.
(5) Click the X-Hair button and then left click into a white space on the Live Video image, as shown below.

Figure 4-9. Live Screen with Reflectance Image.


(6) Notice the Spectral Plot improvement, circled, in the prior figure.
At this point in the process it is important to notice the representative graphs in the spatial and spectral views of the
display. These graphs will be important in developing sharp focus and subsequently, a productive scan.

4.4 LENS FOCUS.


(1) Depending upon the lens in use, locate the lock if present and, using an Allen wrench, loosen the set screw on the
Focus Ring.
(2) Once loosened, turn the focusing ring to sharpen the image in the Live Video view. This is done by closely
watching the black and white lines to obtain the sharpest contrast edge between them in the center of the Live
Video view.
(3) Slowly turn the focus ring or lens by small increments. As the image sharpens, it is necessary to make finer
adjustments.
(4) Notice the point where the image moves into and then out of focus. When the focus is again lost, reverse the
focus ring movement to the sharpest point.
(a) The Spatial Plot should show the maximum change at the point of sharp focus.
(5) Lock the focus ring, if a lock is present, in place and verify the image in the Live Video has not changed.

The White and Dark calibration steps for the exterior focus are identical to those with the Starter Kit focus procedures.To
perform the calibration steps go to Light Level Calibration.

4-45
EXTERIOR LENS FOCUS

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.

4-46
WHITE, DARK REFERENCE

CHAPTER 5 LIGHT LEVEL CALIBRATION


The following procedures apply to the initial set up of Headwall sensors as well as recalibration of existing devices,
preparing to scan under different lighting conditions, or when changing lenses on the same device. In each of these
instances it is necessary to focus the sensor lens and then establish White and Dark References.

5.1 LIGHT LEVELS.


The light saturation and balance are important to obtaining useful spectral scans. The calibration is done in the
Hyperspec III software using the Dark and White reference calibration tool. The calibration references are used to
eliminate dark noise and normalize light intensity across the spectral range. When a scan is taken, two hyperspectral data
cubes are generated and saved. One data cube file is named "Raw" and contains the raw uncorrected data, the second,
named "Data" has the Dark and White reference applied. A copy of the Dark reference and White reference images are
also saved.
Each Headwall sensor comes with a default Dark and White reference image, developed during factory testing and
qualification. Users should create new Dark and White reference images as deemed necessary. Typically, new Dark and
White references images should be set prior to operating the sensor for a scan.
To optimize scan results, reference calibration data needs to be taken at the same sensor and illumination settings that will
be used during hyperspectral scanning. If exposure time or light intensity changes while collecting hyperspectral data, it is
recommended that the user collects new white reference images.
To balance the light levels and collect the dark and white references in the Headwall sensor, use the following steps.
(1) Verify power to the computer, light source, Dual Scan system and the sensors.
(2) Verify cable connections between the sensors and computer and ensure the green LED on the NIR sensor is
illuminated. The VNIR sensor should warm slightly after being powered ON fro a few minutes.

(3) Open Hyperspec III and select the VNIR sensor from the drop down on the Button Dock.
(4) Click the Calibration button, shown circled in Figure 4-1.
(5) The Calibration window opens, labeled Uncorrected Video Histogram, as shown in the next figure. The
Histogram window is used to show the value of collected reference samples, and select the number of samples to
collect using the pull-down to the left of the buttons.

5-47
WHITE, DARK REFERENCE

Figure 5-1. Calibration, Video Histogram.


(6) The sensor lens is aimed at the center of an illuminated, reflective surface, such as the white reference template.
The following figure is numbered, corresponding to the procedural steps below.

Figure 5-2. Numbered Calibration Histogram.


(7) Using the above numbered figure, select the number of references, 100 is frequently used, or accept the default.
(8) Remove the lens cap.
(9) Click the Collect White Reference button.

NOTE
If an error message pops up during this step, follow the instructions in the pop up to
correct the error and retry the White Reference Collection.

(10) Place the lens cap over the sensor lens.


(11) Select the number of references, 100 is frequently used, or accept the default.
(12) Click the Collect Dark Reference button.
(13) Click the NIR sensor from the drop down menu on the Button Dock.
(14) Follow steps 4 through 12 for the NIR sensor.

5-48
WHITE, DARK REFERENCE

(15) Close and restart the Hyperspec III application.


(16) Verify the Dark and White reference files are in C:\\headwall\sensor1\calibration. The files are saved with a time
stamp format. The most recent have no date/time stamp.
The sensor is now focused, from the previous procedures, and calibrated for hyperspectral scanning.

5.2 TEST SCAN.


With the Headwall unit focused and calibrated, from the previous procedures, it is beneficial to take a test scan before
using the device for operational scan captures. This test scan will both familiarize users with the software and system, as
well as validate the units operational status.
Following the previous methodology, the steps will be done using the Dual Scan configuration, with the supplied
calibration card.

Use the following steps to scan the calibration card and verify the focus and calibration procedures.
(1) Place the White Reference Target under the center of the light source.
(2) Place the Calibration Card onto the White Reference Target.
(3) Remove the lens caps from the sensors.

(4) Open the Hyperspec III application select the VNIR sensor from the pull down and click the Live Video button
and the Motion button.
(5) Set the Speed on the Motion control to 12 mm/sec.
(6) Drag and release the Motion slider to an end point so the lines in the Calibration Card are visible in the Live
Video window. This is similar to the focusing steps.

Figure 5-3. Calibration Card in Focus.


(7) Click the Waterfall button on the Button Dock.

5-49
WHITE, DARK REFERENCE
(8) Drag and release the Motion slider and observe the image in the Waterfall view. While not perfectly smooth due
to travel speed, the image should recognizable. There should not be long and distorted lines and unfocused
image. The result from the waterfall will closely resemble the captured image from a scan.
The following images show the results from a poor waterfall image and a good waterfall image of the calibration card.

Figure 5-4. Poor Waterfall Image.

Figure 5-5. Acceptable Waterfall Image.


The correction to improve a waterfall view is to adjust the motion speed, or adjust the exposure time.
In the above examples, to adjust from the first figure to the second, the Speed on the Motion Control was lowered by 30%.
This fine adjustment to obtain a clear waterfall image is important to obtain a clear capture scan. Obtaining clear waterfall
images may require a few attempts with minor adjustments while generating waterfall images to obtain the clearest image,
but once done, quality scans can be captured.

5.2.1 Test Capture.


Once the waterfall image is acceptable the next step is to perform a scan and capture the data cube.
(1) Click the Settings button and then the Capture tab.
(2) Enter the folder to save the scans, or accept the default folder. Close Settings tab.
(3) On the Button Dock, click the Capture button.
(4) Set the Device Speed to match the Motion Control speed.
(5) Enter the number of images per frame, frames per cube and data cubes into the identified lines.
(6) Click GO. The button becomes grayed out.
(7) The capture function will continue until the data cubes are complete. When the capture function completes, the
Go button again becomes active.

(8) Click the SpectralView icon on the desktop to open the application, shown below.

5-50
WHITE, DARK REFERENCE

Figure 5-6. SpectralView Main Window.


(9) Click the Open button and navigate to the folder where the data cube was saved. The folder view will be similar
to the following figure.

Figure 5-7. Transfer File Directory.


(10) Select the file that ends in .hdr, in the above figure it is raw_2000.hdr.
(11) The data cube of the calibration card opens, as shown in the following image.

5-51
WHITE, DARK REFERENCE

Figure 5-8. Calibration Card Scan.

Note that the image in the SpectralView is very similar to that obtained in the waterfall steps. This is why the waterfall
steps are used to obtain a clear image in preparation for scanning.

Close the SpectralView application. The calibration, scan, and viewing were successful.

5-52