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BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
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IMPORTANT DATE..
7 OKTOBER 2016 (Jumaat)-taklimat industry
on drain

21 Oktober 2016 (Jumaat)- TEST 1 ,F2 Atas,


11.30 pagi 1.00 tghr

25 November 2016 (Jumaat)-TEST 2, F2 Atas,


11.30 pagi-1.00 tghr

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
BFC21103 Hydraulics
Chapter 1. Flow in Open Channel

NOOR ALIZA AHMAD


Section: 3

September 2016
Learning Outcomes

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:


i. Define and explain on types and states of flow
ii. Identify types of open channels
iii. Define open channel geometries

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Open channel flow is flow of a liquid in a conduit with a free surface
subjected to atmospheric pressure.

Free surface
T

A y
B
Datum
Figure. Sketch of open channel geometry

Examples: flow of water in rivers, canals, partially full sewers and


drains and flow of water over land.

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Tahan river
rapids

Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel


(SMART), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Siberian meandering
river

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Practical applications:
a. flow depth in rivers, canals and other conveyance conduits,
b. changes in flow depth due to channel controls e.g. weirs,
spillways, and gates,
c. changes in river stage during floods,
d. surface runoff from rainfall over land,
e. optimal channel design, and others

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
1.1 Flow Parameters and Geometric Elements
a. Depth of flow y is the vertical measure of water depth.
Normal depth d is measured normal to the channel bottom.
d = y cos
For most applications, d y when 10%, e.g. cos 1 = 0.9998.

Free surface

Sw = water surface slope

So = bottom slope
Datum

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
b. Flow or discharge Q is the volume of fluid passing a cross-section
perpendicular to the direction of flow per unit time.
Mean velocity V is the discharge divided by the cross-sectional area

Q
V
A

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
c. Wetted perimeter P is the length of channel perimeter that is
wetted or covered by flowing water.

T = top width

A y A = cross sectional area


covered by flowing water
P

B = bottom
width

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
d. Hydraulic radius R is the ratio of the flow area A to wetted
perimeter P.
A
R
P

e. Hydraulic depth D is the average depth of irregular cross section.


flow area A
D
top width T
T

A y
P
B
BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Table. Open channel geometries
Area Top width Wetted perimeter
Channel section
A T P
T
y By B B + 2y
B
Rectangular
T

1 y zy2 2zy 2y 1 z 2
z
Triangular
T
1 y By + zy2 B + 2zy B 2y 1 z 2
z
B
Trapezoidal
T
D2
D 2 sin2 Dsin D
2
y 8
BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Circle
Activity 1.1
1m

2m
60

3m
Find:
(a) Top surface width T, flow area A, wetted perimeter P, and
hydraulic radius R.
(b) If Q = 2.4 m3/s, determine the state of flow.
(c) If longitudinal length L = 50 m, find the cost to construct the
channel. Given excavation cost = RM 3/m3 and lining cost =
RM 5/m2.

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
(a) Top surface width T, wetted area A, wetted perimeter P and
hydraulic radius R.
1
z
0.5774
tan60

T B 2zy P B 2y 1 z 2
T 3 20.5774 2 P 3 22 1 0.57742

T 5.309 m P 7.619 m

A
A By zy 2 R
P
A 32 0.577422 8.309
R
7.619
A 8.309 m2
R 1.091 m

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
(b) If Q = 2.4 m3/s, determine the state of flow.

Q 2.4
v 0.2888 m/s
A 8.309

V
Fr
gD

VR
Re

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
(c) If the length of the channel is L = 50 m, find the cost to construct the
channel. Given excavation cost = RM 3/m3 and lining cost = RM 5/m2.

Volume of excavation Achannel L


3 3 0.5774 32 50
709.81 m3

Cost of excavation Unit cost RM 3 / m 709.81


3

RM2129.42

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Area of lining Alining Pchannel L

Alining 3 2 3 1 0.57742 50
Alining 496.41 m3

Cost of lining Unit cost Alining RM 5 / m2 496.41


RM2482.05

Total cost RM2129.42 RM2482.05 RM 4611.47

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Additional Question for Assignment #1

1.5 m 1.5 m

1.2 m 2 1.2 m
3
0.3 m
Find T, A, P, R, and D

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Activity 1.2

1m A1

A2 A4
2m A3

2m

1m 2m 4m 3m
Find:
(a) Flow area A
(b) Wetted perimeter P
(c) Hydraulic radius R

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
1.2 Types of Open Channel

Prismatic and non-prismatic channels


Prismatic channel is the channel which cross-sectional shape,
size and bottom slope are constant. Most of the man-made
(artificial) channels are prismatic channels over long
stretches. Examples of man-made channels are irrigation
canal, flume, drainage ditches, roadside gutters, drop, chute,
culvert and tunnel.
All natural channels generally have varying cross-sections and
therefore are non-prismatic. Examples of natural channels are
tiny hillside rivulets, through brooks, streams, rivers and tidal
estuaries.

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Rigid and mobile boundary channels
Rigid channels are channels with boundaries that is not
deformable. Channel geometry and roughness are constant
over time. Typical examples are lined canals, sewers and non-
erodible unlined canals.
Mobile boundary channels are channels with boundaries that
undergo deformation due to the continuous process of
erosion and deposition due to the flow. Examples are unlined
man-made channels and natural rivers.

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Canals
is usually a long and mild-sloped
channel built in the ground, which
may be unlined or lined with stoned
masonry, concrete, cement, wood
or bituminous material.

Terusan Wan Muhammad Saman, Kedah

Griboyedov Canal, St. Petersburg, Russia


BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Flumes
is a channel of wood, metal, concrete, or masonry, usually
supported on or above the surface of the ground to carry water
across a depression.

This flume diverts water from White River,


Washington to generate electricity Bull Run Hydroelectric Project diversion flume

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Open-channel flume in laboratory

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Chute
is a channel having steep slopes.

Natural chute (falls) on the left and man-made logging chute on the right
on the Coulonge River, Quebec, Canada

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Drop
is similar to a chute, but the change in elevation is within a
short distance.

The spillway of Leasburg Diversion Dam is a vertical hard


basin drop structure designed to dissipate energy

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Stormwater sewer
is a drain or drain system
designed to drain excess rain
from paved streets, parkinglots,
sidewalks and roofs.

Storm sewer

Storm drain receiving urban runoff

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
1.3 Types and Classification of Open Channel Flows
Open channel flow

Steady flow Unsteady flow

Uniform flow Non-uniform flow

Rapidly-varied flow Gradually-varied flow

Various types of open-channel flow


BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Open channel flow conditions can be characterised with respect to
space (uniform or non-uniform flows) and time (steady or unsteady
flows).

Space - how do the flow conditions change along the reach of an


open channel system.

a. Uniform flow - depth of flow is the same at every


section of the flow dy/dx = 0

b. Non-uniform flow - depth of flow varies along the flow


dy/dx 0

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
a. Uniform flow
y
y
x
dy
Depth of flow is the same at every section along the channel, 0
dx

b. Non-uniform flow
y1
y2

dy
Depth of flow varies at different sections along the channel, 0
dx

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Time - how do the flow conditions change over time at a specific
section in an open channel system.

c. Steady flow - depth of flow does not change/ constant


during the time interval under
consideration dy/dt = 0

d. Unsteady flow - depth of flow changes with time


dy/dt 0

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
c. Steady flow
y1 y2 y1 = y2
Time = t1 Time = t2
dy
Depth of flow is the same at every time interval, 0
dt

d. Unsteady flow
t3
t1
y1 t2 y1 y2 y3

dy
Depth of flow changes from time to time, 0
dt

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
The flow is rapidly varied if the depth changes abruptly over a
comparatively short distance. Examples of rapidly varied flow
(RVF) are hydraulic jump, hydraulic drop, flow over weir and flow
under a sluice gate.

The flow is gradually varied if the depth changes slowly over a


comparatively long distance. Examples of gradually varied flow
(GVF) are flow over a mild slope and the backing up of flow
(backwater).

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
RVF GVF RVF GVF RVF GVF RVF

Hydraulic Flow over


Sluice jump weir

Hydraulic
drop
Contraction
below the sluice

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
1.4 State of Flow
The state or behaviour of open-channel flow is governed basically
by the viscosity and gravity effects relative to the inertial forces of
the flow.

Effect of visco sity - depending on the effect of viscosity relative to


inertial forces, the flow may be in laminar,
turbulent, or transitional state.
- Reynolds number represents the effect of
viscosity relative to inertia,
VR
Re

where V is the velocity, R is the hydraulic radius of a
conduit and is the kinematic viscosity (for water at
20C, = 1.004 106 m2/s, dynamic viscosity =
1.002 103 Ns/m2 and density = 998.2 kg/m3).
BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Re < 500 the flow is laminar
500 < Re < 12500 the flow is transitional
Re > 12500 the flow is turbulent

VR
Re

The flow is laminar if the viscous forces are dominant relative
to inertia. Viscosity will determine the flow behaviour. In
laminar flow, water particles move in definite smooth paths.

The flow is turbulent if the inertial forces are dominant than


the viscous force. In turbulent flow, water particles move in
irregular paths which are not smooth.

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Effect of gravity - depending on the effect of gravity forces relative
to inertial forces, the flow may be subcritical,
critical and supercritical.
- Froude number represents the ratio of inertial
forces to gravity forces,
V
Fr
gD
where V is the velocity, D is the hydraulic depth
of a conduit and g is the gravity acceleration (g =
9.81 m/s2).

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Fr < 1 , the flow is in subcritical state V gD
Fr = 1 , the flow is in critical state V gD
Fr > 1 , the flow is in supercritical state V gD

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
1.5 Regimes of Flow
A combined effect of viscosity and gravity may produce any one of
the following four regimes of flow in an open channel:

a. subcritical - laminar , when Fr < 1 and Re < 500

b. supercritical - laminar , when Fr > 1 and Re < 500

c. supercritical - turbulent , when Fr > 1 and Re > 12500

d. subcritical - turbulent , when Fr < 1 and Re > 12500

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Assignment #1
Q1. [Final Exam Sem I, Session 2010/2011]
Justify the difference between:
(a) uniform flow and non-uniform flow
(b) state of flow using Reynolds number Re and Froude number Fr.

Q2. [Final Exam Sem I, Session 2008/2009]


(a) Define
(i) Wetted perimeter
(ii) Gradually-varied flow
(iii) Non-uniform flow
(iv) Froude number
(b) Explain the differences between canal and sewer.

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Q3. [Final Exam Sem I, Session 2006/2007]
Define
(a) Reynolds number
(b) Froude number
(c) Hydraulic radius
(d) Prismatic channel
(e) Uniform flow

Q4. A discharge of 16.0 m3/s flows with a depth of 2.0 m in a rectangular


channel of 4.0 m wide. Determine the state of flow based on
(a) Froude number, and
(b) Reynolds number.

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
Q5. A triangular channel of apex angle 120 carries a discharge of 1573 L/s.
Calculate the critical depth.

- End of Question -

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my
THANK YOU

BFC21103 aliza@uthm.edu.my