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# PHYS851 Quantum Mechanics I, Fall 2009

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT 12

Topics Covered: Motion in a central potential, spherical harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom, orbital
electric and magnetic dipole moments

1. [20 pts] A particle of mass M and charge q is constrained to move in a circle of radius r0 in the xy
plane.

(a) If no forces other than the forces of constraint act on the particle, what are the energy levels
and corresponding wavefunctions?

If the particle is forced to remain in the x-y plane, then it can only have angular momen-
tum along the z-axis, so that L~ = Lz ~ez and L2 = L2 .
z
The kinetic energy can be found two ways:

Method 1: Using our knowledge of angular momentum. We start by choosing as our co-
ordinate
L2 L2z
H= = (1)
2I 2M r02
so that the eigenstates are eigenstates of Lz i~
~2 m2
partial , from which we see know that the energy levels are then Em = 2M r02
, where m =
0, 1, 2, 3 . . . ..., and the wavefunctions are h|mi = 1 eim .
2

Method 2: Solution from first principles. We start by choosing s as our coordinate, where
s is the distance measured along the circle. The classical Lagrangian is then

M s 2
L= (2)
2
the canonical momentum is ps = s L = M s.
The Hamiltonian is then

p2s
H = ps L = (3)
2M
promoting s and ps to operators, we must have [S, Ps ] = i~, so that in coordinate representation,
we can take S s, and Ps i~s , which gives

~2 2
H= (4)
2M s
the energy eigenvalue equation is then

~2 2
(s) = E(s) (5)
2M s
or equivalently
2M E
s2 (s) = (s) (6)
~2

1
This has solutions of the form:
2M E
i s
(s) e ~ (7)
single-valuedness requires
(s + 2r0 ) = (s) (8)
which means
2M E
2r0 = 2m (9)
~
where m is any integer. This gives
~2 m2
E= (10)
2M r02
so that
eims/r0
m (s) = (11)
2r0
Both methods agree because s = r0 .
(b) A uniform, weak magnetic field of amplitude B0 is applied along the z-axis. What are the new
energy eigenvalues and corresponding wavefunctions?

Using the angular momentum method, we now need to add the term qB 0
2M Lz to the Hamil-
tonian to account for the orbital magnetic dipole moment, which gives
L2z qB0
H= 2 Lz (12)
2M r0 2M
im
so that the eigenstates are still Lz eigenstates, m () = e2 , where m = 0, 1, 2, . . ., but the
degeneracy is lifted so that
~ 2 m2 qB0 ~
Em = 2 m (13)
2M r0 2M

(c) Instead of a weak magnetic field along the z-axis, a uniform electric field of magnitude E0 is
applied along the x-axis. Find an approximation for the low-lying energy levels that is valid in
the limit qr0 E0  ~2 /M r02 .
Hint: try expanding around the potential about a stable equilibrium point.

Here we need to add the electric monopole energy. The electrostatic potential of a uniform
E-field along ~ex is (~r) = E0 x, so that the potential energy is U = qE0 x. The full Hamilto-
nian of the particle is then given by
L2z
H= qE0 r0 cos() (14)
2M r02
The stable equilibrium point is at = 0. Expanding to second-order about the equilibrium then
gives
~2 qE0 r0 2
H= 2 2 qE0 r0 + (15)
2M r0 2
q
qE0
This is just a harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian, with Mef f = M r02 , and = 2M r0 , so that the
energy levels are r  
qE0 1
En = qE0 r0 + ~ n+ (16)
2M r0 2

2
where n = 0, 1, 2, . . .. This approximation must be valid only when the level spacing is small
compared to the depth of the cos potential, so that
r
qE0
~  qE0 r0 (17)
2M r0
which is equivalent to
~2
qE0 r0 (18)
2M r02

3
2. [10 pts] Write out the fully-normalized hydrogen wavefunctions for all of the 3p orbitals. Expand out
any special functions in terms of elementary functions. You can look these up in a book or on-line,
but keep in mind that you will be penalized if your expression is not properly normalized.

We have
s  `  
8(n ` 1)! r/a0 n 2r (2`+1) 2r
n,`,m (r, , ) = e Ln`1 Y`m (, ) (19)
2n(a0 n)3 (n + `)! a0 n a0 n

## Using Mathematica, I then get for n = 3 and ` = 1,

1
3,1,1 (r, , ) = 7/2
er/3a0 (6a0 r)r sin ei (20)
81a0

2
3,1,0 (r, , ) = 7/2
er/3a0 (6a0 r)r cos (21)
81a0
1
3,1,1 (r, , ) = 7/2
er/3a0 (6a0 r)r sin ei (22)
81a0

## Normalization checks out:

Untitled-1 1

In:=
Clear@y, n, l, m, r, q, f, aD

In:=
8 Hn - l - 1L !
y@n_, l_, m_, r_, q_, f_D := \$%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%% ExpA E
-r
2 n Ha nL3 Hn + lL !

an

i2rz
j y
j z LaguerreLAn - l - 1, 2 l + 1, E SphericalHarmonicY@l, m, q, fD
l
2r
kan{ an
In:=
y311 = FullSimplify@y@3, 1, 1, r, q, fDD

## "####### 3 a + f r H-6 a + rL Sin@qD

Out=

!!!
r
1

a3
-

81 a2 p

In:=
y310 = FullSimplify@y@3, 1, 0, r, q, fDD

## "####### 3 a "##### H6 a - rL r Cos@qD

Out=
r
1

a3
- 2

p

81 a2

In:=
y31m1 = FullSimplify@y@3, 1, -1, r, q, fDD

"####### 3 a - f H6 a - rL r Sin@qD
Out=

!!!
r
1

a3
-

81 a2 p

In:=

## 8f, 0, 2 p<, 8q, 0, p<, 8r, 0, <, Assumptions a > 0D

Integrate@Conjugate@y311D y311 r2 Sin@qD,

Out=
1

In:=

## 8f, 0, 2 p<, 8q, 0, p<, 8r, 0, <, Assumptions a > 0D

Integrate@Conjugate@y310D y310 r2 Sin@qD,

Out=
1

4
3. [20 pts] Numerically compute the matrix elements of the z-component of the orbital electric and
magnetic dipole moments for the |200i |100i, |210i |100i, and |211i |100i transitions in
hydrogen. Be sure to show your work.

For the electric dipole moments, we need to compute ehi|Z|f i = ehi|R cos |f i. The selection rules
are mf = mi and Lf = Li 1. Of these three transitions, only |210i |100i satisfies these selection
rules. Using the wavefunction from 12.2, and mathematica, and taking a0 = 5.20 1010 m and
e = 1.6 1019 C, we find

h200|eZ|100i = 0 (23)
Z Z Z

h210|eZ|100i = dr r2 d cos d 2,1,0 (r, , )r cos 1,0,0 (r, , )
0 0 0
= 6.305 1029 Cm (24)
h211|eZ|100i = 0 (25)

e
For the magnetic dipole moments, we need = 2m e
Lz , so the selection rule is mi = mf . The
e~
dipole moment is then = 2me m` . This gives zero for all transitions. Note that when spin is
included, there will can be non-zero magnetic dipole transitions between these levels.

5
4. [15 pts] Based on the classical relation E = T +V , where E is the total energy, T is the kinetic energy,
and V is the potential energy, what is the probability that the velocity of the relative coordinate
exceeds the speed of light for a hydrogen atom in the 1s state? What about the 2s state? Based on
these answers, which of the two energy levels would you expect to have a larger relativistic correction?

## Using H = T + V and T = 12 mv 2 , we find

r
2
v= (E V )
m

so for the hydrogen system with principle quantum number n this gives

~2 1 e2
 
2 2
v (r) = +
m 2ma20 n2 40 r

## Setting this equal to c2 and solving for rc gives

ma20 n2 e2
rc (n) =
20 (m2 a20 c2 n2 + ~2 )

with the parameters (from Google) m = 9.10 1031 kg, a0 = 5.29 1011 m, e = 1.60 1019 C,
0 = 8.85 1012 C2 N1 m2 , c = 3.00 108 ms1 , and ~ = 1.05 1034 Js, we find:

## So we see that dependence on n is very weak.

The probability to be within this radius, however, depends strongly on n. For n = 1, we have
Z rc (1) Z rc (1)/a0
P (r < rc (1)) = 2
dr R10 (r) =4 dx e2x x2 = 8.00 1013
0 0

for n = 2 we have
Z rc (2) Z rc (2)/a0
P (r < rc (2)) = 2
dr R20 (r) =2 dx e2x x2 (1 x2 ) = 4.00 1013
0 0

Therefore we would expect the ground-state to have the larger relativistic correction.

6
5. [10 pts] Consider the Earth-Moon system as a gravitational analog to the hydrogen atom. What is
the effective Bohr radius (give both the formula and the numerical value). Based on the classical
energy and angular momentum, estimate the n and m quantum numbers for the relative motion
(take the z-axis as perpendicular to the orbital plane).

## The Bohr radius for Hydrogen is given by

40 ~2
a0 =
me2
From wikipedia I found MM = 7.35 1022 kg, ME = 5.97 1024 kg, rM = 3.84 108 m, and
vM = 1.022 103 ms1

To compute the Bohr radius for the moon, we just need to make the substitutions
MM ME 7.35 1022 5.97 1024
m= = = 7.261022 kg
MM + M E 7.35 1022 + 5.97 1024
e2
GMM ME = (6.67 1011 )(5.97 1024 )(7.35 1022 ) = 2.93 1037
40
This gives
~2 129
aM = 2 M = 4.67 10
GMM
m
E
The classical energy is
1 2 GMM ME
E = vE = 3.83 1028 J
2 rM
Solving
~2
E=
2a2M n2
for n gives
~
n= q = 2.77 1068
2a2M E

Lz vM rM
m= = = 2.74 1068
~ ~

## Just for fun:

For a transition from n to n 1, the energy released is
~2 ~2 (n 1)2 n2 ~2 ~2 2
 
1 1 2n 1
E = = =
2a2M n2 (n 1)2 2a2M n2 (n 1)2 2a2M n2 (n 1)2 2a2M n3

This gives a numerical result of E = 2.76 1040 J. With = 2~c/E we find = 7.10 1014 m.
Using 1lyr = 9.46 1015 m we find that = 0.075 light years. The lunar month is 27.21 days, or
0.074 years. Coincidence?