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The objective of this Information Sheet is to provide the trainee the knowledge of Human Resource



The purpose of human resource planning is to ensure that a certain desired number of persons
with the correct skills will be available at some specified time in the future .Recruitment that
is done without proper human resource planning is ad hoc and the organization may end up
with unnecessary and excess manning levels.

1.1 Forecasting Demand for Human Resource

To determine human resource requirements the human resource department mush forecast the
demand for human resource. There are two aspects to this, that is, long term and short term.

In Malaysia, most organizations have no choice when it comes to short term forecasting
because it is unavoidable if the organization were to function and achieve its objectives .
The unfortunate thing is that although many organization may understand the necessity for
long term planning of their human resources needs, very few actually do.

i. Long Term Forecasting of Human Resource Requirements

Long term human resource planning is an extension of the organization of the firms strategic
plans. Though forecasts of human resource requirements over five years are mere projections
which may not be accurate, long term forecasting of two to five years is necessary to ensure
that the companys objectives are achieved.

Knowledge of the organizations long term corporate plans are essential so that plans can be
made for the organizations future needs for human resources. For example, if the
organizations strategic plans see it becoming a major volume and price leader in the market,
this would mean an aggressive expansion plan to take full advantage of economies of scale
and this would mean that there will be g great demand for human resources. The human
resource department should therefore start planning actions to meet the future demand.

Human resource planners should also be aware that advances in technology have definite
effects on the demand for jobs in terms of nature and mixture of jobs available. For example,
advances in computer technology have resulted in a decrease in the number of bookkeepers
and an increase in the number of computer programs. New machines will result in higher
productivity, which would mean that there will be a decrease in demand for certain jobs.
Similarly, the use of robots may result in the loss of certain manual jobs.

ii. Short Term Forecasting of Human Resource Requirements

Even though many organizations in Malaysia have not started the practice of long term
planning, there is still a need for short term planning as the human resource department will
require some lead time to provide the needed work force in the short run .
In a manufacturing organization, for example, the sales forecasts for the coming year must be
translated into a production program, master schedule and department schedules. The problem
begins with determining sales quotas and projecting sales accurately. Once sales forecast and
budget are determined, then production schedules can be ascertained. Finally the human
resource requirement s needed to produce the required amounts are worked out. Various
techniques and models can be used to make these projections.

iii) Resources Supply Forecasting

Although it is generally said that determining the available supply of human resources is
easier than trying to project the demand, there are nevertheless certain complexities involved.
In projecting future supply of human resource, the first step is to take into account the current
inventory. Human resource records should be summarized in a systematic manner and stored
in such a way as to allow for easy retrieval of information so that the special skills or
proficiencies available in various jobs and departments within the organization are known.
For example, in a large organization of 5000 people, can anyone find out very quickly
whether there are any Spanish speaking engineers available, and if so how many are there.

Projections of future human resource needs are usually made on the basis of past experience.
Technology improvements, however, will increase the productivity levels of the work force
and there is therefore a need to study productivity trends to determine changes in productivity
levels. If this is not done, an expected higher demand for workers based solely on past
experience may result in a surplus of supply because of increased productivity.

Turnover refers to the number of employees who leave the organization for some reason of
other. If for example, we have 1000 employees at the beginning of the month, we cannot
expect the number to be 1000 at the end of the month. There may be retirements, deaths,
resignations, or dismissals. Retirements may be predictable, but other turnover must be
determined by looking at past trends to obtain an average turnover rate per month. Turnover
will result in a temporary shortage of supply of employees because it will usually take some
time until a replacement is found. The turnover rate is computed as follows:

Number of emplyees who leave:

Turnover Rate= _______________ x 100
Average number of employees

Absenteeism occurs when a person fails to comes to work when properly scheduled to work.
It is usually measured as a percentage of scheduled time lost and is computed as follows:

Number of man-days lost:

____________________ x 100
(average number of person)x (number of workdays)

The effect of absenteeism is that it reduces the number of personnel actually available for
work. If, for example, the absenteeism rate among our 1000 employees is 2 percent this
means that on the average only 980 people are present and ready to work.

Another aspect of human resource supply forecasting is the fact that some jobs serve as
sources of supply for other jobs. If, for example, we anticipate a need for thee new branch
managers five years from now, we should at present have more than three executives who
have the potential to be branch managers assuming that the average developmental time for
branch managers is five years. We will actually need more than three potential candidates
because some time, we should also bear in mind that promoting the executives will mean that
we will have a short supply of executives.

1.2 Human Resource Actions

Human resource actions are needed whenever demand for human resources does not match the
supply. The matching of human resources demand and supply needs to be done so that supply will
equal demand at the required time .

When the projected supply is short of projected demand, there will be a shortage of human
resources and the addition of new personnel through recruitment and selection is a likely
possibility. Organizations should, however, not rush into hiring new people. Instead, consideration
should first be given to alternatives like more overtime work (which reduces the number of people
required) or controlling absenteeism (which increases the number of available people).

i) Actions To Take A Vacancy Occurs

When a vacancy occurs, especially in a management job, it is a good idea to examine the reasons
for the vacancy and not automatically take action to recruit. An honest and objective evaluation
can save time and effort and help to avoid further expenses, disturbances or disruptions due to
recruitment and selection. The three most common reasons for a vacancy occurring are
resignations, dismissals or new vacancies.

If the vacancy is due to a resignation, an exit interview should be conducted honestly to find out
the reasons. Management must also make decisions as to whether the resignation was desirable
or not. This means management must decide whether the person who left represented a great loss
to the organization or was it a case good riddance to bad rubbish? many big organizations, for
example, do not mind young graduates leaving after a few years to develop their own careers in
other organizations, but they of course would hope to retain the best of these young graduates.
Because of their size, they would usually have a pool of young graduates and they would be
constantly recruiting management trainees. Smaller organizations, however, do not have this
luxury and would have a problem whenever a person leaves. If management feels that the
resignation represents a big loss, then the appropriate actions before recruitment would be to
examine the reasons for leaving and take actions to prevent such occurrences .

If the vacancy was due to an undesirable person being dismissed or forces to leave, again there is
a need for analysis. It is obvious that a mistake was made in the first place and this analysis
should be aimed at finding out the reason for the mistake. It could be due to the appointment of a
square peg in a round hole due to educational background , personality, incompatibility with co-
workers or bosses, or other reasons. The important point here is not to go on a witch-hunt but to
objectively conduct an analysis so as not to repeat the mistake.

A thorough analysis of human resource requirements should be conducted before a new vacancy
is approved. Getting a new person in is easy compared to getting a person out of the organization.
It would be a shame to hire a new person and find that there is not enough work for him or her to
do, or to find that the work was only for a temporary period.

If the result is that hiring of new staff is required than the next step is to conduct the recruitment
and selection process. However, before conducting the recruitment and selection process we must
obtain information as to what the job involves and what type of person is suitable for the job.
This can be obtained from a job analysis.

1.3 Job Analysis

Job analysis is the most basic human resource tool. It is the systematic process of studying and
collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. It is an
essential human resource duty and one of the first duties that needs to be performed by resource
department. The main products of job analysis are Job Descriptions and Job Specifications.

A job consists of tasks that mush be performed for an organization to achieve its objectives. It is a
group of positions that are similar as to the kind and level of work. In some jobs, only one
position may be involved, because no other similar position exists.
Job Description
A job description is a document that provides information regarding the tasks, duties,
and responsibilities of a particular job. It is an organized, factual statement of the duties
and responsibilities of the job. In brief it tells what it is to be done, how it is done and
Job Specification
A job specification is a statement of the minimum acceptable human qualities necessary
to perform a job properly. Where the job description describes the job, the job
specification is a standard of personnel and designates the qualities required for
acceptable performance.

i) The Job Analysis Process

The process of analyzing a job is essentially one of data collection. A substantial amount of
information is required for successful accomplishment of job analysis. The job is first studied to
determine the tasks to be performed, the duties, and the responsibilities. This information is then
used to decide the level of knowledge, skills and abilities required for a person to perform the job
satisfactorily. Other aspects of the job like the equipment or materials used, the products made, or
the services performed are then looked into. Since jobs are often performed in conjunction with
others in an organization, the relationships of work flow and procedures, as well as lines of
promotion are also studied.

In some organizations, the job process also process considers job standards. This involves work
measurement studies to determine how long it takes to perform a task, or how much output per
day or month is expected.

Various approaches can be used in job analysis depending on the organizational needs and
resources for conducting the job analysis. Selection of a method of job analysis will therefore
depend on what the information will be used primarily for and the approach most practical for the
organization .

Usually, the job analyst does not use only one method of job analysis. For recruitment and
selection purpose, the most popular approaches used are questionnaires and interviews for
management jobs and observations and interviews for skilled manual jobs.

For management jobs, the questionnaire method is commonly used and interviews may be used
for supplementary information. Observation is seldom used for management jobs because it is
difficult to observe what a manager does. For example a manager may appear to be sitting down
at his desk doing nothing though in actual fact he may be thinking or planning.