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8/29/12 Power Factor Correction | EEP

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Power Factor Correction

Home / Resources / Knowledge / Electrical Formulas / Power Factor Correction

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If an inductive load with an active power demand P has an uncorrected power factor of cosf1 lagging, and is
required to have a corrected power factor of cosf2 lagging, the uncorrected and corrected reactive power
demands, Q1 and Q2 , are:

Q1 = P tanf1

Q2 = P tanf2

where tanfn = (1 / cos 2 fn 1)

The leading (capacitive) reactive power demand QC which must be connected across the load is:

QC = Q1 Q2 = P (tanf1 tanf2 )

The uncorrected and corrected apparent power demands, S1 and S2 , are related by:

S1 cosf1 = P = S2 cosf2

Comparing corrected and uncorrected load currents and apparent power demands:

I2 / I1 = S2 / S1 = cosf1 / cosf2

If the load is required to have a corrected power factor of unity, Q2 is zero and:

QC = Q1 = P tanf1

I2 / I1 = S2 / S1 = cosf1 = P / S1 4/10
8/29/12 Power Factor Correction | EEP

Shunt Capacitors

For star-connected shunt capacitors each of capacitance Cstar on a three phase system of line voltage Vline and
frequency f, the leading reactive power demand QCstar and the leading reactive line current Iline are:

QCstar = Vline2 / XCstar = 2pfCstarVline2

Iline = QCstar / 3Vline = Vline / 3XCstar

Cstar = QCstar / 2pfVline2

For delta-connected shunt capacitors each of capacitance Cdelta on a three phase system of line voltage Vline
and frequency f, the leading reactive power demand QCdelta and the leading reactive line current Iline are:

QCdelta = 3Vline2 / XCdelta = 6pfCdeltaVline2

Iline = QCdelta / 3Vline = 3Vline / XCdelta

Cdelta = QCdelta / 6pfVline2

Note that for the same leading reactive power QC:

XCdelta = 3XCstar

Cdelta = Cstar / 3

Series Capacitors

For series line capacitors each of capacitance Cseries carrying line current Iline on a three phase system of
frequency f, the voltage drop Vdrop across each line capacitor and the total leading reactive power demand
QCseries of the set of three line capacitors are:

Vdrop = IlineXCseries = Iline / 2pfCseries

QCseries = 3Vdrop2 / XCseries = 3VdropIline = 3Iline2 XCseries = 3Iline2 / 2pfCseries

Cseries = 3Iline2 / 2pfQCseries

Note that the apparent power rating Srating of the set of three series line capacitors is based on the line voltage
Vline and not the voltage drop Vdrop:

Srating = 3VlineIline

8/29/12 Power Factor Correction | EEP

The symbol font is used for some notation and formulae. If the Greek symbols for alpha beta delta do not
appear here [ a b d ] the symbol font needs to be installed for correct display of notation and formulae.

B susceptance [siemens, S] Q quality factor [number]

C capacitance [farads, F] R resistance [ohms, W]
E voltage source [volts, V] S apparent power [volt-amps, VA]
f frequency [hertz, Hz] t time [seconds, s]
G conductance [siemens, S] V voltage drop [volts, V]
h h-operator [1120] W energy [joules, J]
I current [amps, A] X reactance [ohms, W]
j j-operator [190] Y admittance [siemens, S]
L inductance [henrys, H] Z impedance [ohms, W]
P active power [watts, W] f phase angle [degrees, ]
Q reactive power [VAreactive, VArs] w angular frequency [rad/sec]
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One Comment

Jan 31, 2011

we have a 420 kva transformer and the load is about 380kva help me to find the best capasitor bank
for this specification

(reply) 7/10
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