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Antenna and

Wave Propagation

R.L. YADAVA
Professor
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
Galgotias College of Engineering and Technology
Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh

New Delhi-110001
2011
ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION
R.L. Yadava

2011 by PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi. All rights reserved. No part of this book
may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in
writing from the publisher.

ISBN-978-81-203-4291-0

The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher.

Published by Asoke K. Ghosh, PHI Learning Private Limited, M-97, Connaught Circus,
New Delhi-110001 and Printed by Mohan Makhijani at Rekha Printers Private Limited,
New Delhi-110020.
To
My Parents
and
Children
Contents

Preface ....................................................................................................................................... xv

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 112


Definition of Antenna 1
Radiation from an Antenna 2
Historical View 3
Antenna Polarization 4
Typical Applications 5
Impedance Matching 6
VSWR and Reflected Power 6
Antenna Resonance 6
Bandwidth 7
Directivity, Gain and Beam Width 7
Radiation Patterns 8
Pattern Terminology 8
Types of Propagation 9
Surface Wave Propagation 9
Space Propagation 9
Troposphere Propagation 9
Ionospheric Propagation 10
Objective Type Questions 10
Exercises 11
References 12

Chapter 2 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND RADIATION .......................... 1355


Introduction 13
EM Wave Spectrum and Its Applications 14
EM Fields and Maxwells Equations 16
Poynting Vector and Velocity of EM Waves 17
v
vi Contents

Wave Polarization 17
Mathematical Interpretation of Polarization 18
Velocity of Propagation 19
Plane Wave and Uniform Plane Wave 20
Propagation of EM Waves in Different Mediums 20
Power Flow of a Uniform Plane Wave 26
Incidence of Uniform Plane Wave 27
Oblique Incidence 29
Snells Law 30
Total Transmission 32
Total Reflection 33
Solved Examples 35
Objective Type Questions 50
Exercises 55
References 55

Chapter 3 ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS AND PARAMETERS ...................... 56113


Introduction 56
Types of Antenna 56
Applications of Antenna 58
Isotropic Radiator and Radiation Field 58
Far-field Region 59
Antenna Parameters 61
Input Impedance and VSWR 61
Equivalent Circuits of Tx Antenna 63
Equivalent Circuit of Rx Antenna 65
Bandwidth 66
Impedance Bandwidth 66
Pattern Bandwidth 67
Radiation Bandwidth 68
FBR 68
Radiation Resistance 69
Directivity 69
Antenna Gain and Efficiency 73
Radiation Pattern 74
HPBW, FNBW, Side Lobe Level and Antenna Resolution 75
Radiation Intensity, Beam Efficiency and Solid Angle 78
Effective Aperture and Effective Height 80
Effective Aperture 80
Antenna Noise Temperature, Noise Figure and SNR 84
Antenna Noise Temperature 84
Effective Noise Temperature and Noise Figure 86
Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) 86
Antenna Coupling 87
Antenna Polarization and Parameters 90
Antenna Polarization 90
Field Polarization in Terms of Two Circularly Polarized Components 91
Contents vii

Polarization Vector and Polarization Ratio 92


Polarization Loss Factor and Polarization Efficiency 92
Reciprocity Theorem 93
Solved Examples 95
Objective Type Questions 109
Exercises 111
References 113

Chapter 4 ANTENNA ARRAY ................................................................................ 114180


Introduction 114
Design Considerations and Design Approach 115
Array Configurations 115
Broadside Array 116
End-fire Array 116
Collinear Array 117
Parasitic Arrays 117
Principle of Pattern Multiplication 123
Array with n-isotropic Point Sources of Equal Amplitude
and Linear Spacing 124
Broadside Array 125
End-fire Array 128
Electronic Phased Array 129
Effect of Earth on Vertical Patterns 130
Comparison of Methods 131
DolphTchebyscheff or Chebyshev Array 132
Tchebyscheff Polynomial 132
Dolph Pattern Method of Obtaining Optimum Pattern Using
Tchebyscheff Polynomial 134
Calculation of DolphTchebyscheff Amplitude Distribution 135
Advantages of DolphTchebyscheff Distribution 136
Beam Width between First Nulls of Chebyshev Polynomial Patterns 136
Stacked/Rectangular Area Broadband Array 137
Directivity 138
Super Directive Receiving Array 140
SNR and Directive Gain 140
Sensitivity Factor 141
Radiation Efficiency of Super Directive Array 142
Adaptive Array 142
Weighting of Signals 143
Adaptive Antenna in Cellular Systems 145
Binomial Array 147
Disadvantages of Binomial Array 148
Mutual Coupling between Arrays 149
Solved Examples 150
Objective Type Questions 175
Exercises 177
References 180
viii Contents

Chapter 5 LINEAR WIRE ANTENNAS ................................................................ 181234


Introduction 181
Small Dipole and Radiation Mechanism 181
Hertzian Dipole 183
Half-wave Dipole Antenna 186
Radiation Resistance and Input Resistance 190
Parameters of a Dipole Antenna 190
Monopole Antenna 193
Folded Dipole Antenna 194
Theoretical Analysis 195
Input Impedance of Folded Dipole Antenna 197
Applications of Folded Dipole Antenna 197
Harmonics Antenna 198
Parametric Specifications 199
V-dipole Antenna 202
Design Parameters 204
Sleeve Wire Antenna 206
Sleeve Monopole 207
Design Specifications and Experimental Results 209
Sleeve Dipole Antenna 210
Open-sleeve Dipole Antenna 211
Performance Characteristics 212
Beverage Antenna or Wave Antenna 215
Principle of Operation 216
Rhombic Antenna 217
Advantages 220
Disadvantages 220
Solved Examples 221
Objective Type Questions 229
Exercises 231
References 233

Chapter 6 LOOP ANTENNAS ................................................................................. 235274


Introduction 235
Historical View 235
Principle of Operation 237
Radiation Fields 239
Induced EMF of Loop Antenna 242
Radiation Pattern of Loop Antenna 243
Large Loop Antenna 245
Loop Antenna Parameters 249
Maximum Effective Area and Gain 250
Multi-turn Loop Antenna 251
Impedance of a Loop Antenna 254
Resistive Part of Impedance 255
Impedance of Loop Antenna in Conducting Medium 256
Contents ix

Ferrite Rod Antenna 259


Applications of Loop Antenna 261
Solved Examples 261
Objective Type Questions 270
Exercises 271
References 273

Chapter 7 METAL-PLATE LENS ANTENNAS ................................................... 275302


Introduction 275
Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 276
Lens Antenna Design 277
Types of Lens Antenna 279
E-plane Lens Antenna 279
H-plane Metal-Plate Lens Antenna 282
Antenna Analysis and Design 283
Distribution of Illustration on the Aperture of the Lens 286
Luneburg Lens Antenna 287
Maxwells Fisheye Lens 288
Applications 289
Rotman Lens Antenna 290
Applications 291
Tolerances in Lens Antenna 292
Solved Examples 293
Objective Type Questions 300
Exercises 300
References 301

Chapter 8 PARABOLIC REFLECTOR ANTENNAS ......................................... 303326


Introduction 303
Feeding Systems 306
Basic Requirements of Reflector Feeding Systems 306
Parabolic Reflector 309
Field Distribution on an Aperture of Parabolic Reflector 312
Parabolic Reflector Antenna Parameters 314
Polarization Loss Efficiency 316
Parabolic Cylindrical Antenna 317
Multiple-reflector Antenna 318
Advantages of Dual Reflector 320
Solved Examples 320
Objective Type Questions 323
Exercises 325
References 325

Chapter 9 YAGI ANTENNA .................................................................................... 327353


Introduction 327
Principle of Operation 328
x Contents

Design Parameters 328


Length of Elements 328
Design of YagiUda Antenna 332
HansenWoodyard End Fire Array 335
Analysis of Yagi Antenna 338
System of Linear Equation 340
Far-field Pattern 341
Circular Polarization from the YagiUda Array 342
YagiUda Loop Antennas 343
Effects of Array Parameters 346
Effect of the Reflector 346
Effect of the Directors 346
Effect of Exciter and Wire Cross-section 346
Advantages and Applications 347
Solved Examples 351
Objective Type Questions 350
Exercises 351
References 352

Chapter 10 LOG-PERIODIC ANTENNA ............................................................... 354382


Introduction 354
Mathematical Analysis and Design Parameters 355
Feed Techniques 358
Effect of Truncation on Efficiency and Radiation Pattern 359
Performance Characteristics and Design of LPDA 362
Power Gain 362
Input Impedance and VSWR 363
Design of LPDA 364
E-plane Pattern 365
Types of Log-periodic Antennas 367
Log-periodic Toothed Planar Antenna 367
Log-periodic Toothed Wedge Antenna 369
Log-periodic Toothed Trapezoid Antenna 370
Log-periodic YagiUda Array Antenna 371
Log-periodic YagiUda Array Design and Performance Characteristics 374
Applications of Log-periodic Antenna 374
Solved Examples 376
Objective Type Questions 379
Exercises 381
References 382

Chapter 11 HORN AND CONE ANTENNAS ....................................................... 383419


Introduction 383
Waveguide and Horn Antennas 383
Various Configurations of Horn Antennas 384
Horn Antenna Parameters 387
Contents xi

H-plane Sectoral Horn Antenna 390


E-plane Sectoral Horn Antenna 392
Pyramidal Horn Antenna 394
Polarization of Pyramidal Horn 396
Bi-conical Antennas 399
Radiation Pattern of Bi-conical Antennas 400
Broadband Slotted Cone Antenna 405
VSWR, HPBW and Polarization 407
Advantages and Applications of Horn Antenna 408
Solved Examples 409
Objective Type Questions 415
Exercises 418
References 419

Chapter 12 HELICAL ANTENNAS ........................................................................ 420443


Introduction 420
Reflector Model of Helix 421
Parameters of Helix Antenna 423
Types of Helix Antenna 423
Axial Mode Helical Antenna 423
Normal Mode Helical Antenna 428
Helical Antenna with Different Finite Ground Size 430
Hemispherical Helix 432
Applications of Helical Antenna 434
Helical Antenna for G.P.S. Applications 435
Solved Examples 439
Objective Type Questions 440
Exercises 441
References 442

Chapter 13 MICROSTRIP ANTENNA .................................................................. 444476


Introduction 444
Basic Configurations of Microstrip Antenna 445
Fringing Fields and Mechanism of Radiation 446
Advantages of Microstrip Antenna 447
Disadvantages of Microstrip Antenna 447
Applications of Microstrip Antenna 447
Feeding Techniques of Microstrip Antenna 447
Probe Feed 448
Microstrip Line Feed 448
Aperture Coupled Feed 449
Proximity Coupled Feed 450
Bandwidth Enhancement and Higher Order Modes 452
Rectangular Patch Antenna 454
Radiated Fields 454
Design Parameters 455
xii Contents

Radiation Resistance 455


Radiation Conductance 456
Directivity 457
Circular Patch Antenna 457
Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna 461
Other Parameters 463
Double Tuning 463
Coupling 463
Selection of Substrate Material 464
Laminate Composite for MSA 464
Photonic Band Gap Antennas 464
Mobile Antennas 465
Integrated Antennas 465
Solved Examples 466
Objective Type Questions 472
Exercises 474
References 475

Chapter 14 SURFACE WAVE PROPAGATION ................................................. 477511


Introduction 477
Historical View 478
Characteristics of EM Waves 479
Applications of EM Waves 480
Fundamental Equation of Wave Propagation 481
Electric Field Intensity at Finite Distance from Tx Antenna 483
Modes of Wave Propagation 484
Surface Wave Propagation 485
Surface Wave Tilt 486
Plane Earth Reflection 487
Reflection Coefficient for Vertical and Horizontal Polarizations 488
Refraction and Reflection of Waves 489
Refraction 490
Reflection 490
Phase Difference between the Direct and the Ground Reflected Waves 492
Field Strength at Finite Distance due to Ground Wave 493
Field Strength due to Vertically Polarized Wave 494
Field Strength due to Horizontally Polarized Waves 496
Relation between A, p and b 496
Multi-hop Transmission 498
Effect of Ground 499
Effects of Polarization 499
Solved Examples 500
Objective Type Questions 507
Exercises 509
References 511
Contents xiii

Chapter 15 TROPOSPHERIC AND SPACE WAVE PROPAGATIONS .......... 512547


Introduction 512
Troposphere 514
Troposphere Wave Propagation 514
Relation between the Radius of Curvature and Change of Dielectric
Constant 518
Troposphere Scattering and Troposcattering Propagation 522
Transmission Loss 523
M-Curves and Duct Propagation 524
Duct Propagation Loss 526
Diffraction 527
Space Wave Propagation 529
Space Wave Propagation Parameters 531
Line of Sight (LOS distance) 531
Field Strength 533
Solved Examples 535
Objective Type Questions 542
Exercises 545
References 547

Chapter 16 IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION ...................................................... 548586


Introduction 548
Historical Views 549
Structure of Ionosphere 549
Propagation Effect as a Function of Frequency 554
Measures of Ionosphere Propagation 555
The Critical Frequency 555
The Angle of Incidence 555
Maximum Useable Frequency 557
Calculation of MUF 558
Lowest Useable Frequency 561
Optimum Working Frequency 561
Skip Distance 562
Relation between Angle of Incidence and Skip Distance 562
Virtual Height 563
Refractive Index of the Ionosphere 566
Effect of the Earth Magnetic Field 568
Gyrofrequency 569
Gyromagnetic Field (GMF) 570
Regular and Irregular Variations in the Ionosphere 570
Eleven-year Sunspot Cycle and 27-day Sunspot Cycle 570
Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SID) 571
Ionospheric Storms 571
Fading 572
Attenuation Factor for Ionospheric Wave Propagation 574
xiv Contents

Energy Loss due to Collision in Ionosphere 575


Solved Examples 576
Objective Type Questions 583
Exercises 584
References 586

Chapter 17 ANTENNA MEASUREMENTS ........................................................... 587638


Introduction 587
Anechoic Chamber 591
Radiation Pattern Measurement 596
Concept of Near- and Far-fields 598
Far-field Measurements 599
Near-field Measurements 599
Measurement of Reflectivity 600
Beam Width and Directivity Measurements 601
Measurement of Radiation Efficiency 601
Wheeler Method 602
Q-Method 603
Polarization Pattern Measurement 604
Polarization Pattern Method 605
General Method of Polarization Measurement 608
Gain Measurement 611
Absolute Gain Method 612
Gain Transfer (Gain Comparison) Method 617
Gain Measurement of CP Antenna 618
Impedance Measurement 618
Mutual Impedance between Dipole Antennas 620
Current Measurement 621
Measurement of Current Distribution for Antenna on a Finite
Conducting Earth 622
Design Specification 622
Phase Measurement 623
Measurements of Noise Figure and Noise Temperature 625
Solved Examples 629
Objective Type Questions 633
Exercises 636
References 637
Appendices ....................................................................................................................... 639675
Glossary ........................................................................................................................... 677785

Review Questions ............................................................................................................ 687698


Question Bank with Solutions ...................................................................................... 699726
Index ................................................................................................................................ 727732
Preface

The present book is organized into two parts. The first part of the book is devoted to the
study of various types of antennas and the second part to the phenomenon of wave propagations.
Each chapter provides an in-depth understanding of all the important aspects of the particular
topic. In addition, each chapter contains sufficient number of solved examples, exercises and
many related references. The division of the book into seventeen chapters is as follows.
Chapter 1 provides a historical introduction to the subject and enumerates its applications.
Chapter 2 deals with the concept of electromagnetic (EM) wave radiation and wave propagation
in different mediums. Chapter 3 is devoted to the fundamental properties and parameters of
antennas. Chapter 4 focuses on the antenna array and its synthesis, whereas linear wire
antennas and loop antennas are covered in Chapters 5 and 6 respectively. Each type of
antenna has been described in detail, particularly the adaptive array, and the beverage and
ferrite-rod antennas. Loop and metal-plate lens antennas have been described in Chapter 7,
and Chapter 8 describes the reflector antenna in full length. YagiUda and log-periodic
antennas have been described in Chapters 9 and 10 respectively. Horn/Cone and helical antennas
along with concepts of design and applications are explained in Chapters 11 and 12. Microstrip
antennas and their various types and applications have been covered in Chapter 13.
Chapters 14, 15 and 16 deal with surface, space and ionospheric wave propagations and
the related parameters. Chapter 17 is fully devoted to the measurement of antenna properties,
such as gain, efficiency, radiation pattern, noise-figure and noise-temperature, etc. Just after
Chapter 17, there is a question bank which contains numerical problems and review questions
pertaining to the entire text.
So far as the appendices are concerned, Appendix A discusses the scalar and vector
potentials. Appendix B provides a list of antennas expressions. Appendix C discusses the
relative permittivity (er) and relative permeability (mr) of materials. Appendix D deals with
the requirement of antennas for different applications. Appendix E throws light on frequency
spectrum for various communications systems. Poincares sphere and Stokes parameters
have also found place in Appendix F. Appendix G discusses the dB, dBm and dBi technology
and their relations. The important terms are listed in the Glossary.
xv
xvi Preface

I thank the Almighty for providing me such a wonderful opportunity to be the author
of such a standard book. I feel immense pleasure in offering my heartiest and humble thanks
to honourable Prof. B.R. Vishwakarma, Banaras Hindu University, for his sagacious guidance
and motivation, without which the book could not have seen the light of day. I express my
grateful thanks to all the professors, senior faculty and scientists of the department of ECE,
IT, BHU for their motivation and encouragement during the writing of the book. The support
and environment provided by the Management of Galgoitas Educational Institutions (GEI)
is very much appreciated. Also, the pleasant support of senior professors, HODs and Registrar
of Galgotias College of Engineering and Technology deserves special thanks. The constant
motivation and help of colleagues and technical staff of the Department of Electronics and
Communication Engineering are sincerely acknowledged. Also, it is a great pleasure and
honour for me to be associated with PHI Learning. I express my sincere gratitude to the
entire team, including the production department for maintaining a high degree of precision
and accuracy in the production of the book.
I am indebted to all the reviewers for their valuable suggestions and comments, which
have helped me in adding more student-friendly material in the book. My sincere thanks go
to Prof. R.K. Yadava, Er. Surendra Prasad and Mr. Rakesh Kumar for their encouragement
and silence support. Their untiring efforts in searching the materials and ardent exercises
towards word processing are deeply appreciated. I also express my deep sense of gratitude
to my colleagues and well wishers: Prof. Vikram Singh, Prof. Krishnraj and Prof. Yashpal
Singh, Prof. B.K. Kanoujiya, Prof. V.K. Pandey and Prof. Neetha Awasthi for their unstinted
cooperation in early completion of the book. My thanks are also due to Prof. R.P. Yadava,
Prof. S.K. Koul, Prof. Ashok De, Prof. D.R. Bhasker, Dr. Sushrut Das and Prof. D.C. Dhubkariya
for their comments and suggestions on some topics of the book.
I am grateful to my parents who have inculcated in me good values and culture. My
wife, Om Lalitha, expressed her solidarity with me by allowing me to work for long hours.
My sincere thanks go to my children Om Vikash, Saichethana and Om Prakash as without
their wholehearted cooperation and sacrifices, this book would not have come in the present
shape. Last but not the least, I wish to avail myself of this opportunity to express a sense
of gratitude and love to my beloved research scholars and students for their helpful support
during the preparation of this book.
Though every effort has been made to produce an error-free text. However, I shall feel
much obliged to readers who can provide valuable suggestions/feedback to enhance the
quality of the book.

R.L. YADAVA
C H A P T E R

1 Introduction

DEFINITION OF ANTENNA

An antenna is defined as a transitional device between free space and wave-guiding structures.
An antenna may also be considered a transducer used in matching the guiding device to the
surrounding medium or vice versa. The antennas used to transmit and receive radio energy
are called transmitting and receiving antennas respectively. There are many structures that
can radiate and receive the electromagnetic (EM) energy, but not all can serve the purpose
efficiently. Most antennas are resonant devices, which operate efficiently over a relatively
narrow frequency band. Antennas forward voltage and current from the transmission line and
EM fields from the wave guide to launch the EM waves (radiation) into the space/medium.
A complete description of radiation of EM waves through an antenna is shown in Fig. 1.1.

Transmitter
E-lines
Receiver

EM waves
P0 P1
Source Tx line Tx line

FIG. 1.1 Radiation mechanism of an antenna.

An antenna must be tuned (matched) to the same frequency band as the radio system
to which it is connected. If not so, reception and/or transmission of energy will be less
effective. Though there are varieties of antenna such as dipoles, folded dipoles, helix, reflectors
1
2 Antenna and Wave Propagation

and patch antennas, all of them function according to the same principlethe principle of
electromagnetism. Besides radiating and transmitting signals, antenna optimizes the radiation
in some direction and suppresses it in the other directions, that is, antenna also acts as a
directional device in addition to a probing device. In communication systems, antennas are
needed for two purposesefficient radiation and matching wave impedance in order to
minimize reflections [1]. As far as their importance is concern, antennas are used at many
placeshomes, vehicles, radars, ships, satellites and in mobile phones as well; this is because
of their compact structure at microwave frequencies. Antennas are employed in different
systems in different ways. In some cases, the operational performance of the system is
defined around the directional properties of the antenna. Antennas link us with the entire
world. It can be said that they are the backbone of communication technology.

RADIATION FROM AN ANTENNA

In order to describe the radiation of waves from an antenna, let us refer to Fig. 1.1, where
a two-conductor transmission line is connected with voltage source at one end and an antenna
at second end at Tx side and vice versa at Rx side. Applying the voltage across transmission
line creates electric force lines which are tangential to the electric field at each point and
their strength varies with the electric field intensity. The force lines have a tendency to act
on the free electrons associated with each conductor and force them to move. By this
tendency, the movements of charges generate current, that in turn creates magnetic field
intensity. Associated with magnetic field intensity are magnetic lines of force, which are
tangential to the magnetic fields.
Since electric field lines start at positive charge and end at negative charge, they can
also start at positive end and end at infinity or vice versa. In other words, they form closed
loops neither starting nor ending at any charge. Magnetic field lines always form closed
loops encircling current-carrying conductors. Therefore, it is convenient to introduce magnetic
charges and magnetic currents to a region involving electric and magnetic sources. Since the
existence of electric field lines between two conductors represents distribution of charges,
so if the source voltage is sinusoidal the electric fields between the conductors need also to
be sinusoidal with period equal to that of the applied source. The relative magnitude of the
electric field intensity will be indicated by bunching of the force lines, with the arrows
showing the relative directions (positive or negative). This continuous creation of time-
varying electric and magnetic fields between conductors forms EM waves, which travel along
the transmission line and finally enter the antenna. Now, suppose that the antenna is not
there; then free space waves can be formed by connecting the open ends of the electric lines
(dashed lines). The waves are also periodic, but a constant phase point P0 moves outwardly
with the speed of light c and travels a distance of l/2 to point P1 in the time duration of one-
half of a period. It is observed that near the antenna the constant phase point P1 moves with
a speed greater than c and approaches c at point far away from the antenna. These waves
are detached from the antenna and transformed into the free space waves by forming
closed loops [1]. Once EM waves are created by an electric disturbance, they travel inside
Introduction 3

the transmission line and then into the antenna, and are finally radiated as free space waves
even if the disturbance is ceased. If the disturbance is continued, EM waves will exist
continuously and follow in their travel behind the others. This phenomenon is termed radiation.
At the receiving end the electric field lines of radiating waves strike as plane waves and are
finally transformed into guided waves and received at the receiver.

HISTORICAL VIEW

In general, an antenna means a metallic device (a rod or wire) used to radiate or receive
radio energy. However, scientifically speaking, antennas are a group of conductors that
transmit an electromagnetic field in response to EMF signals. In olden days, antennas were
called aerials; in Japan it is still known as middle sky wire. The history of antennas began
with the design of a loop antenna in the year 1887 by Hertz [1]. He proposed a complete
radio system integrated with an end-loaded dipole transmitting antenna and a resonant square
loop antenna as receiver. In addition, he also exercised testing with a parabolic reflector
antenna. It was not until 1901 that Marconi managed to design an array of 50 copper wires
in the form of a fan connected to the ground through a spark transmitter. Since then several
antennas have been designed; patch antennas and fractal antennas are also among them. The
big difference in todays antennas is that decades ago they were mostly huge and heavy,
while modern antennas are usually of small size, low profile and light weight.
The greatest advancement of antenna was accomplished during the Second World War
with the invention of high frequency antenna in the form of reflection apertures and arrays.
Apart from designing and experimentation, numerical methods were also introduced to analyze
complex antenna systems in the 1960s. The first mathematical formulation for radiation
mechanism for many antennas was given by the scientists of Bell Laboratories. Their achievement
bridged the gap between theory and experiments, and provided better understanding of the
antenna to the people of the world. In subsequent years, various models such as moment
methods, finite difference and finite element models for low frequencies, and geometrical
and physical theories of diffraction for high frequencies, were also introduced to analyze
various antennas. The antenna as a boundary value problem was treated long back by Abraham.
However, the earliest treatments of the cylindrical centre-driven antenna as a boundary value
problem are the Hallen and L.V. King models. The Hallen method leads to integral equations
and approximate solutions of which give the current distribution. Using Hallen method the
input impedance of the antenna can be determined as the ratio of voltage to current at the
terminals, if the terminal is connected with a voltage source [2]. With the advent of high
frequency antennas, the concept of radio wave and wireless communications were developed
around 1920.
In 1924, Professor Hidetsugu Yagi and Shintaro Uda designed and constructed a sensitive
and highly-directional antenna, very important for radar, television, and amateur radio. The
antenna was named YagiUda antenna based on their names. A United States patent was
issued to Yagi in 1932 and assigned to RCA. Such antennas were available for television by
the late 1930s, but were more widespread for receiving purposes in the 1940s and 1950s. The
4 Antenna and Wave Propagation

theory and design of linear wire antenna was introduced by R.W.P. King and his colleagues
at Harvard University. A new antenna known as helical antenna was introduced by
J.D. Kraus through a research paper entitled The helical beam antenna, which was published
in the April 1947 issue of Journal of Electronics. The design and working principle of slot
antenna and array was described by Babinet and extended by Henry Brooker. The widespread
interest in antennas is reflected by the large number of books written and research papers
being published on the subject [3, 4]. In recent years, antennas such as patch antenna, fractal
antenna, PIFA antenna and many more have played a vital role in modern communication
and related technologies.

ANTENNA POLARIZATION

The polarization of an antenna is defined as the orientation of the wave (electric field) being
transmitted or received during propagation with negligible loss. So all the characteristics of
wave polarization can directly be correlated to antenna polarization. The polarization
characteristics of an antenna are usually found to be constant over its main beam, and the
polarization on the main beam peak is preferably used to describe the polarization of the
antenna. However, the radiation from side lobes differs in polarization greatly from the main
beam polarization. In case the direction of polarization is not specified, it is taken to be the
direction of maximum gain of the antenna. However, in general, polarization of radiation
varies with the direction from the centre of the radiator. A transmitting antenna is matched
to a receiving antenna if its polarization, axial ratio, sense and major axis rotation are
identical.
Polarizations are classified as linear, elliptical and circular polarizations. An antenna is
said to be vertically polarized (linear) if its electric field is perpendicular to the earths
surface. The vertical polarization is mostly dominant in surface wave propagation, where
wave propagation takes place along the earths curvature. On the other hand, antennas
having their electric field lines along the earths surface are termed horizontally polarized
antennas. Most communication systems use vertical and circular polarizations. A circularly
polarized antenna radiates energy in both the horizontal and vertical planes and all planes
in between. Circular polarization of an antenna is characterized by a factor known as axial
ratio (AR)which is the ratio of fields in the vertical and horizontal planes. The values of
axial ratio are found to be 1 AR . If the values of axial ratio lie between 0 and 2 dB,
the antenna is said to be circularly polarized. If the axial ratio is greater than 2 dB, the
polarization is often referred to as elliptical, whereas AR is infinite for linear polarizations.
Polarization may also be classified as co-polarization and cross-polarization. The
polarization in the plane of radiation is termed co-polarization; however cross-polarization
is observed orthogonal to the co-polarization plane. With reference to directions of rotation
of the field vector, polarization may also be classified as clockwise polarization (RHP) and
counterclockwise polarization (LHP). In a linearly polarized system, a misalignment of
polarization of 45 will degrade the signal by up to 3 dB and if misaligned by 90 the
attenuation can be 20 dB or more. Likewise, in a circular polarized system, the antennas
must have the same sense. For example, in the line-of-sight (LOS) propagation, it is very
Introduction 5

important that the antennas (Tx and Rx) should have identical polarizations. If not, an
additional loss of 20 dB or more may be incurred. The main advantage of polarization
matching between antennas (Tx and Rx) is the maximum transfer of energy with minimum
loss.

TYPICAL APPLICATIONS

Depending on specifications, antennas have applications in various fieldscommunications,


sensing, policing, medical, etc. It is important to have the right antennas for each device.
Circular polarization is most often used on satellite communications. This is particularly
desired since the polarization of a linear polarized radio wave may be rotated as the signal
passes through any anomalies (such as Faraday rotation) in the ionosphere. Furthermore, due
to the position of the Earth with respect to the satellite, geometric differences may vary,
especially if the satellite appears to move with respect to the fixed Earth-bound station.
Circular polarization maintains signal strength which remains constant despite these anomalies.
Circularly polarized antennas are normally more costly than linear polarized types, since true
circular polarization is difficult to achieve. An example of true circularly polarized antenna
is the helix. They are mainly used in mobile stations. The performances of these antennas
greatly affect the performance of the mobile station. Helical antennas are also used in
portable communication devices, such as cellular phones, because of their wideband
characteristics and having the advantage of requiring small space. However, the most common
circularly polarized antenna uses crossed Yagis for near-circular or elliptical polarization
[3]. Applications of Yagis would include any system usually less than 1000 MHzin the
HF and SHF portions of the spectrum, where antenna gain and directivity are factors. Avionic
systems and VHF radars were very suitable technical areas for YagiUda antenna applications.
Vertically polarized antenna is often preferred whenever there is a need to transmit
radio waves in all directions, such as in widely distributed mobile units. It also works well
in the hill areas. As a result, nowadays most two-way wave communications in the frequency
of greater than 30 MHz use vertical polarization. Horizontal polarization was originally
chosen because there is an advantage in not having TV reception interfered with by vertically
polarized stations, and hence it is used mainly to broadcast television in the USA.
Since man-made radio noise is predominantly vertically polarized, the use of horizontal
polarization would provide some discrimination against interference from noise. In the early
days of FM radio in the 88108 MHz frequency range, the radio stations broadcasted horizontal
polarization. However, in the 1960s FM radios became popular in automobiles which used
vertical polarized receiving whip antennas. That why the FCC has modified its standard and
permits FM stations to broadcast elliptical or right hand polarization to improve reception
to vertical receiving antennas as long as the horizontal component was dominating. There are
various types of whip antenna; l/4 whip antenna, l/8 whip antenna and l/16 whip antenna;
each has its own importance and applications. Naturally, mobile communication needs antennas.
The right antenna improves quality of Tx and Rx, reduces power consumption, lasts longer
and improves marketability of the device. In particular, stubby helical antennas are used in
the frequency range of 800 MHz to 2 GHz and patch antennas for GPS devices.
6 Antenna and Wave Propagation

IMPEDANCE MATCHING

There is a term called impedance matching which we come across in various areas of
electronics, particularly EM wave and antennas. In the field of antennas it is a sort of
impedance adjustment between the source, connector (Tx) and antenna to avoid loss of
energy. The source always has its own internal resistance; so wherever a load is connected
to its output terminal, some of the output power is dissipated as heat, unless we maintain the
source temperature close to absolute zero (273C). A survey on how the power varies as
the load resistance is varied shows that the amount of power reaches maximum when the
load resistance is the same as the source resistance and it is altered in all other cases (higher
or lower). The idea of adjusting the load and source resistances/impedances is termed impedance
matching.
For efficient transfer of energy, the impedance of the source, the antenna and the
transmission line must be the same. Sources typically are designed for 50 W impedance, and
the coaxial cables (transmission lines) used with them should also have a 50 W impedance.
However even efficient antenna configurations often have impedance other than 50 W. Therefore
some sort of impedance matching circuit is then required to transform the antenna impedance
to 50 W. Radial/Larsen antennas come with the necessary impedance matching circuitry as
part of the antenna. We must use low-loss components in the matching circuits to provide
the maximum transfer of energy between the transmission line and the antenna. The most
common matching network is a l/4 transformer matching, which is nothing but a l/4 wave-
length long transmission line of characteristic impedance Z 0 R A , where Z0 is characteristic
impedance of transmission line and RA is antenna input resistance. The other matching
network/devices are lumped elements, stub turners and baluns.

VSWR and Reflected Power


The VSWR stands for voltage standing wave ratio and indicates the quality of the impedance
matching. The values of VSWR lie between 1 and ; the values 1 and correspond to
proper and improper matchings respectively. A high VSWR indicates that the signal is
reflected prior to being radiated by the antenna. Another disadvantage of high VSWR is that
very high voltages will be generated at certain points along a transmission line, which are
called hot spots and may cause arcing. A VSWR of 2.0:1 is often considered good and leads
to 89% power transmission. Most commercial antennas, however, are specified to be 1.5:1 or
less over some bandwidth. Based on a 100 W radio, a 1.5:1 VSWR equates to a forward
power of 96 W and a reflected power of 4 W, i.e. the reflected power is 4.2% of the forward
power.

Antenna Resonance
By definition an antenna is a form of tuned circuit consisting of resistance, capacitance, and
inductance; as a result, an antenna has a resonant frequency, that is, the frequency at which
the inductive and capacitive reactances cancel each other out; therefore at this frequency,
Introduction 7

an antenna is purely resistive and a combination of the loss resistance and the radiation
resistance. The capacitance and inductance of an antenna are determined by the physical
properties, dimensions and the surrounding environment.

Bandwidth
The bandwidth (BW) of an antenna is usually defined as the frequency range within the
performance of the antenna with respect to certain characteristics. It is expressed as the
percentage of the difference between upper and lower frequency to the centre frequency and
f fO
BW = u 100% . The bandwidth of an antenna can also be defined in terms of
f0
VSWR 1
radiation patterns or VSWR/reflected power as follows: BW = , where Q is a
Q VSWR
quality factor of the antenna.

Directivity, Gain and Beam Width


Directivity is the ability of an antenna to focus energy in a particular direction when transmitting
or to receive energy better from a particular direction when receiving. Gain is the practical
value of the directivity. The relation between gain and directivity includes a new parameter,
which describes the efficiency of the antenna; G = hDmax. The simplest method of measuring
gain is to compare the antenna under test with a known standard antenna. This method is
known as gain transfer technique. At lower frequencies, it is convenient to use a l/2-dipole
as the standard. At higher frequencies, it is common to use a calibrated gain horn as a gain
standard with gain typically expressed in dBi. Beam width describes the angular aperture
where the most important part of the power is radiated. In general, we referred
3 dB beam width which represents the aperture (in deg) on radiation pattern, in which about
92% of the energy is radiated in major lobe. Beam width of an antenna is measured in terms
of two parameters: HPBW and FNBW. Decibels (dB) are the accepted parameter to describe
the parameters of an antenna. The beauty of dB is that they may be added and subtracted.
A decibel relationship (for power) is calculated using the following formula dB = 10 log
Power. Table 1.1 tabulates various such relationships.

TABLE 1.1 Relationships between decibels and power

Power gain Power loss


3 dB = 2 Power 3 dB = 1/2 Power
6 dB = 4 Power 6 dB = 1/4 Power
10 dB = 10 Power 10 dB = 1/10 Power
20 dB = 100 Power 20 dB = 1/100 Power
8 Antenna and Wave Propagation

RADIATION PATTERNS

Radiation or antenna pattern describes the relative strength of the radiated field at various
orientations from the antenna at a constant distance. The radiation pattern is a reception
pattern as well, since it also describes the receiving properties of the antenna. Based on
radiated fields from the antenna, there are two types of radiation pattern: near-field and far-
field patterns.
The term near-field refers to the field pattern existing close to the antenna, and far-field
to the field pattern at large distances. The far-field is also called the radiation field and
varies as per (1/r). The near-field is also called the induction field (although it also has a
radiation component) and varies as (1/r2), where r is distance away from the antennas. For
pattern measurement it is important to choose a distance sufficiently large to be in the far-
field, well out of the near-field. The lowest permissible distance varies as per the dimensions
2D 2
of the antenna in relation to the wavelength, as r . The intensities of near- and far-
M0
fields are found to be equal at a distance almost equal to l /2p from the transmitting antenna.
Where D is larger aperture of an antenna and l0 is operating wavelength.

PATTERN TERMINOLOGY

The various terms related to antenna pattern which describe radiation characteristics are:
(a) Directional antenna: It is highly directive antenna, which radiates/ receives power
very efficiently and effectively in the particular directions than in the rest directions.
It is usually applied to the antennas whose maximum directivity is greater than that
of a half-wave dipole.
(b) Omni-directional antenna: Antenna which has a non-directional pattern in a given
plane, and a directional pattern in any orthogonal plane. That is, omni-directional
pattern is a special kind of directional pattern.
(c) Isotropic pattern: It is a pattern of antenna having equal radiation in all directions.
This is an ideal concept generally it is achievable only in light sources. It is usually
referred for expressing the directive properties of practical antennas. Isotropic pattern
is represented by a sphere whose centre coincides with the location of the isotropic
radiator. Other patterns of the antenna pattern are pencil beam pattern, fan beam
pattern and shaped beam pattern.
(d) Principal pattern: These are the radiation patterns of lineally polarized antennas.
They are measured particularly in E-plane and H-plane of radiation area. E- and
H-plane patterns contain electric and magnetic field vectors as well as the corresponding
direction of maximum radiation respectively.
(e) Lobes: Lobes are portion of radiation pattern carrying definite amount of energy.
Lobes are classified as a major lobes, minor/side lobes and back lobes. Except major
lobes, all represent radiation in undesired directions. However in radar systems, side
lobes are also important to minimize false target indications.
Introduction 9

(i) Major lobe/main lobe: The radiation lobe contains maximum radiation. In some
cases, there may be more than one main lobe.
(ii) Minor lobes: All lobes, other than major lobes in a plane are termed minor lobes.
(iii) Back lobes: It appears in the plane opposite to main lobe, i.e., 180 w.r.t. main
beam.
(f) Pattern beam width: It is the angular width on the major lobe of radiation. There
are two types of beam width: HPBW and FNBW. HPBW is the angle between two
points at 3 dB down from the top on main lobes, whereas FNBW is the angle
between two vectors drawn at the origin and tangent to the main beam. It is very
often found that FNBW 2 HPBW.

TYPES OF PROPAGATION

Basically, there are four categories of radio-wave propagation [5].

Surface Wave Propagation


In this propagation waves travel along curvature of the earth and modified by the ground or
terrain over they travel. Signals heard on the medium wave band (upto 2 MHz) during the
day. The surface wave suffers ground attenuation to the same factor as the free space. These
ground losses are caused by the ohmic resistive losses in the conductive earth. Surface wave
attenuation increases as frequency increases. Surface wave propagation is also affected by
the heights as well as the distance of/between Tx and Rx antennas and the terrain, and the
weather conditions along the transmission paths.

Space Propagation
In this case the radio waves travel in free space or away from the object which influenced
the way they travel. This type of radio wave propagation is encountered with signals travelling
to and from satellites. Waves reach at Rx either directly or after reflection from the ground.
Space propagation is of practical importance in the frequency band > 30 MHz. This is
because at such frequencies both ionosphere and surface wave propagations are failed. The
reason behind that at 30 MHz, ionosphere wave length becomes too short to be reflected, and
groundwaves propagate close to the antenna and hence lost the energy before reaching to the
destination. At VHF, UHF and microwave frequencies, the space wave propagation are
limited to the so-called LOS (line-of-sight) distance.

Troposphere Propagation
The signals are influenced by the variation of refractive index in the troposphere (approximately
15 km above the earth). This mode of propagation is often the means by which signals at
VHF, UHF and microwave frequencies (in the range of GHz) are heard over extended
10 Antenna and Wave Propagation

distances. The normal refraction is the main mechanism for the troposphere propagation
phenomenon. Duct propagation is a special type of propagation that occurs due to temperature
inversion in the troposphere. M-curves show the variation of modified index of refraction
with height, and they are useful to predict, at least roughly, the transmission path that is
usually expected.

Ionospheric Propagation
In this mode of propagation, signals reach the destination after reflection from the ionized
region in the upper atmosphere called ionosphere between 110 and 400 km from the ground
under suitable conditions. There are various parameters that characterize the ionospheric
propagation: the critical frequency, MUF, skip-distance as well as virtual height. Ionospheric
propagation is also affected by the earths magnetic fields. Fading is the main factor that
degrades the propagation and severe fading reduces the field strength of radio waves from
10 dB to 20 dB. Ionospheric propagation is of practical importance at medium and high
frequencies (2 to 30 MHz) and useful for very long distance communication. Extremely long
distance, i.e., round-the-globe communication is also possible with multiple reflections of
waves by Ionospheric propagation [6].
Further details about the above topics will be provided in subsequent chapters.

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

1. An antenna may be considered as a transducer that


(a) Provides matching between guiding devices and the surrounding medium
(b) Provides matching between guiding devices and other antennas
(c) Provides matching between guiding devices and waveguide
(d) None of these
2. The basic principle behind the functioning of antennas is the
(a) Principle of energy conversion
(b) Poynting theorem
(c) Babinets theorem
(d) Principle of electromagnetism
3. Which of these is not the purpose of use of an antenna?
(a) Efficient radiation
(b) Impedance matching
(c) Increasing the velocity of radiation
(d) Both (b) and (c)
4. History of antenna begun with
(a) Maxwell (b) Hertz
(c) Marconi (d) YagiUda
Introduction 11

5. The first antenna used in a communication system was


(a) Patch antenna (b) Dipole antenna
(c) Square loop antenna (d) Parabolic antenna
6. The polarization of an antenna is defined as
(a) The orientation of the electric field
(b) The orientation of the magnetic field
(c) The orientation of both the fields
(d) None of these
7. Which of these is incorrect?
(a) Polarization characteristics of the antenna remain constant over its main beam.
(b) Polarization characteristics of the antenna remain constant over its minor beam
(c) Polarization on main beam peak describes the polarization of the antenna.
(d) None of these
8. A transmitting antenna is matched to a receiving antenna if
(a) Polarization, axial ratio and sense are identical.
(b) Polarization, axial ratio, sense and minor axis rotation are identical.
(c) Polarization, axial ratio, sense and major axis rotation are identical.
(d) None of these
9. Which of the following is a whip antenna?
(a) l/4 whip antenna (b) l/8 whip antenna
(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these
10. Which of the following takes place up to 2 MHz and is affected by the height and
distance between Tx and Rx?
(a) Ionosphere propagation (b) Surface wave propagation
(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these

Answers

1. (a) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (c)


6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (c) 9. (c) 10. (b)

EXERCISES

1. An antenna is also variously termed a transitional device, directional device, resonant


device and transducer. Explain each term with a suitable example.
2. Why does an antenna need a communication system?
3. With the help of a neat diagram, describe the radiation mechanism of an antenna.
4. What is the general classification of antenna based on frequency of operation?
5. What is axial ratio? Describe its advantages for different types of polarization.
12 Antenna and Wave Propagation

6. List out advantages of circularly polarized antennas.


7. What are the physical meanings of dB, dBi, dBd, and dBm?
8. What do you mean by impedance matching in an antenna system? What should be
the range of VSWR for good impedance matching?
9. Define bandwidth and write its different expressions. Also define one radian and one
steradian with regard to beam width of an antenna.
10. Define radiation pattern, HPBW, gain and directivity of an antenna.
11. What is the basis of classification of different types of wave propagation?
12. Define MUF and skip-distance for ionospheric wave propagation.
13. Microwave communication is limited to around 50 km. Justify this statement.
14. What are the advantages of LOS communication?

REFERENCES

[1] Kraus, J.D., Antennas since Hertz and Marconi, IEEE Trans., Antennas and Propagate,
Vol. AP-33, No. 2, pp. 131137, Feb. 1985.
[2] Elliot, R.S., Antenna Theory and Design, Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 1981.
[3] Stutzman, S., Bibliography for antennas, IEEE Trans., Antennas and Propagate
Magazine, Vol. 32, pp. 5457, August 1990.
[4] Lo, Y.T. and S.W. Lee, Antenna Handbook: Theory, Applications and Design,
Van Nostrand Rein, New York, 1988.
[5] www.rfip.eu/propagation
[6] JPLs Wireless Communication Reference, websites.
C H A P T E R

Electromagnetic Waves
2 and Radiation

INTRODUCTION

The existence of electromagnetic (EM) waves started with Maxwells equations, which he
presented to the British Royal Society in 1864, in his paper entitled A Dynamic Theory of
the Electromagnetic Fields. He had predicted theoretically the existence of electric and
magnetic Fields associated with electromagnetic wave propagation. This was confirmed by
Heinrich Hertz in 1893 when he conducted an experiment on a dipole fed parabolic antenna
and found that it sends a signal by wave motion to a similar receiving antenna kept at a finite
distance. It was the first strong support to the theoretical conclusion drawn by Maxwell for
electromagnetic fields. In the same year, William Thomson proposed the waveguide theory
for propagation of EM waves. Later, in 1897, Lodge described the mode properties of wave
propagation first in free space and then in a hollow metallic tube named as waveguide. In
1898, J.C. Bose developed the horn antenna, which is still useful for high frequency EM
wave propagation [1,2].
The properties of EM waves in a medium are characterized by electrical parameters;
namely permittivity (e), permeability (m), conductivity (s) and characteristic impedance (h),
and also the presence of boundary between media. The values of these parameters for free
space are: e0 = 8.854e12, m0 = 4pe7, s = e14 and h0 = 120p. The properties of EM waves
are associated with oscillating electric and magnetic fields. These fields are perpendicular to
each other as well as perpendicular to the direction of propagation. The direction of propagation
is generally taken to be along the z axis. The vector in this direction is known as Poynting
vector or propagation vector. There are various modes of propagation of EM waves such as
TE mode (Ez = 0), TM (H z = 0) and TEM mode (Ez = 0, H z = 0). In free space, at sufficient
distance from source, the wave propagates in TEM mode, where both E and H fields are
perpendicular to the direction of propagation [3,4]. The field configuration of TEM wave
propagation is shown in Fig. 2.1.
The region close to radiating sources is most likely to carry high intensity of fields
having both longitudinal and transverse components with respect to direction of propagation.
13
14 Antenna and Wave Propagation

x E
H

O z

Direction of propagation
y

FIG. 2.1 Field configuration of TEM wave propagation.

In general, these locations are characterized by complicated field structure, including reactive
(stored) and real (propagated) energies, irregular phase structures and undefined polarizations.

EM WAVE SPECTRUM AND ITS APPLICATIONS

The electromagnetic or EM wave spectrum (see Fig. 2.2) is a continuum of all electromagnetic
waves arranged according to frequency/wavelength. This spectrum includes visible, ultraviolet
and infrared, microwave, radio and gamma waves. The sun, earth and other bodies radiate
electromagnetic energy of varying wavelengths. All electromagnetic energy passes through
space at the speed of light i.e., 3 108 ms1 in the form of sinusoidal waves.
The spectrum of waves is divided into sections based on wavelength. The shortest
waves are gamma rays, which have wavelengths of 106 microns or less. The longest waves

FIG. 2.2 EM wave spectrum.


Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 15

are radio waves, which have wavelengths of many kilometres. Visible light has a particular
band of electromagnetic radiation that can be seen and sensed by the human eye. This energy
consists of the narrow portion of the spectrum, from 0.4 micron (blue) to 0.7 micron (red). The
infrared range starts at the end of the red spectrum with wavelengths greater than 0.7 micron.
1. Radio waves: Radio waves have wavelengths that range from less than a centimetre to
tens or even hundreds of metres. FM radio waves are shorter than AM radio waves. For
example, an FM radio station at 100 on the radio dials (100 MHz), would have a wavelength
of about three metres. An AM station at 750 on the dials (750 kHz) uses a wavelength of
about 400 metres. They are used to transmit radio and television signals. Radio waves can
also be used to create images. Radio waves with wavelengths of a few centimetres can be
transmitted from a satellite or airplane antenna. The reflected waves can be used to form an
image of the ground in complete darkness or through clouds.
2. Microwaves: Microwaves wavelengths range from approximately 1 mm to 30 cm. In a
microwave oven, the radio waves generated are tuned to frequencies that can be absorbed
by the food. The food absorbs the energy and gets warmer. The dish holding the food does
not absorb a significant amount of energy and stays much cooler. Microwaves are emitted
from the Earth, from objects such as cars and planes, and also from the atmosphere. These
microwaves can be detected to give information, such as the temperature of the object that
emitted the microwaves. They are used in various communications, media and medical
laboratories for testing.
3. Infrared: Infrared is the region of the electromagnetic spectrum that extends from the
visible region to about one millimetre (in wavelength). Infrared waves include thermal radiation.
Infrared radiation can be measured using electronic detectors and has applications in medicine
and in finding heat leaks from houses. Infrared images obtained by sensors in satellites and
airplanes can yield important information on the health of crops and can help us see forest
fires even when they are enveloped in an opaque curtain of smoke. The rainbow of colours
we know as visible light is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths
between 400 and 700 nanometres. It is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that we see,
and coincides with the wavelength of greatest intensity of sunlight. Visible waves have great
utility for the remote sensing of vegetation as well as for the identification of various objects
by their different visible colours.
4. Ultraviolet: Ultraviolet radiation has a range of wavelengths from 400 107 of a metre
to about 108 of a metre. Sunlight contains ultraviolet waves which can burn your skin. Most
of these are blocked by ozone in the Earths upper atmosphere. A small dose of ultraviolet
radiation is beneficial to human beings, but larger doses cause skin cancer and cataracts.
Ultraviolet wavelengths are used extensively in astronomical observatories. Some remote
sensing observations of the Earth are also concerned with the measurement of ozone.
5. X-rays: X-rays wavelength ranges from 1010 to 1012 of a metre. They are high energy
waves which have great penetrating power and used extensively in medical applications as
well as in inspecting welds. X-ray images of the sun can yield important clues to solar flares
and other changes on our sun that can affect space weather.
16 Antenna and Wave Propagation

6. Gamma rays: Gamma rays have wavelengths of less than about 1012 of a metre. They
are more penetrating than X-rays. Gamma rays are generated by radioactive atoms and in
nuclear explosions, and are used in many medical applications. Images of our universe taken
in gamma rays have yielded important information on the life and death of stars, and other
violent processes in the universe.

EM FIELDS AND MAXWELLS EQUATIONS

Let us consider a medium in which waves travel without loss of energy, i.e. wave amplitude
is constant with distance. The electric and magnetic fields for such waves are defined as
E = E0 cos(w t kz) x (2.1a)
H = H0 cos(w t kz) y (2.1b)
where E0 and H 0 are field amplitudes, w = 2p, angular frequency, t is time, k is wave
number, z is distance along z-axis and x and y are the unit vectors along positive x and
y directions. The wave number represents the rate of change of phase of field with distance
that is phase of the wave changes by kr radians over distance r metres. The existence of EM
waves can be predicted as the direct consequence of Maxwells equations. Maxwells equations
specify the relationship between the variations of electric and magnetic fields (E, H) in time
and space within medium. The electric field is generated either by time varying magnetic
field (B/t) or by the free space. The H field is generated either by a time varying electric
field (E/t) or by current distribution and measured in A/m. Mathematical forms as well as
physical significance of Maxwells equations are summarized as follows:
E
H = J + Jc = T E + F (2.2a)
t
A magnetic field is produced by a time varying electric field or by a current.

B H
E= = N (2.2b)
t t
An electric field is produced by time varying magnetic field.
.D = r (2.2c)
Electric field lines may either start or end on charges or continuous.
.B = 0 (2.2d)
Magnetic field lines are continuous, and
S
.J = (2.2e)
t
where e, m, s and r are the electrical parameters of the medium. The permittivity e and
permeability m are normally expressed relative to the values in free space; m = m0mr, e = e0er.
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 17

Here er and mr are known as relative permittivity and relative permeability respectively and
each have value 1 for free space. Any EM wave consisting of E and H fields satisfy Maxwells
equations, provided the ratio of the field amplitudes is constant for a given medium.

Ex E E0 N
= = = =I (2.3)
Hy H H0 F
where h is known as wave/characteristic/intrinsic impedance of medium and measured in W.
Since for the free space er = 1, mr = 1, the intrinsic impedance h becomes

Nr N0 N0 4Q e 7
I = I0 = = = = 377 : (2.4)
Fr F 0 F0 8.854 e 12

Poynting Vector and Velocity of EM Waves


Poynting vector is also known as power density of EM waves; it represents the magnitude
and direction of the power flow carried by the waves per unit square metre of area parallel
to the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation. It is vector quantity and measured
in W/m2. The instantaneous value of Poynting vector
P = E H* (2.5)
where H* is complex conjugate of H. Usually, only the time average of the power flow over
one period is of concern, that is, P = 1/2 EH z . Since the ratio of E and H is constant and
equal to h
1 1
P= IH 2 = E2 (2.6)
2 2I
For the wave propagating in particular plane (plane wave), the direction of energy flow is
in the direction of propagation. Thus, the Poynting vector offers a useful, easy and coordinate-
free way to specify the direction of propagation as well as determining the direction of the
fields if the direction of propagation in known. This can be particularly valuable where
incident, reflected and transmitted waves are being examined [1].

WAVE POLARIZATION

The orientations of the electric field vector of a plane wave relative to the direction of
propagation define the polarization of wave. If an electric field vector of an EM wave is
parallel to x-axis, wave is said to be linearly x-polarized. This wave could be generated by
a straight wire antenna parallel to x-axis. Similarly y-polarized waves can also be defined
and generated. If two plane waves of equal amplitude and orthogonally polarized are combined
with 90 phase difference, the resulting wave is circularly polarized and the electric field
18 Antenna and Wave Propagation

vector describes a circle centred on propagation vector. The field vector will rotate by 360
for every wavelength travelled. Circular polarization is generated as either RHCP or LHCP.
The right hand circularly polarized wave describes a wave with E field vector rotating
clockwise when looking in the direction of propagation. In most cases, the components of
EM waves are not equal in amplitude or are at a phase angle other than 90 (see Fig. 2.3).

y y y
E1
E0 E0
E0

E02 E02
E E
E
O O x
x E01 x
E01 O

E0 E0 E0
z z z
(a) Linear polarization (b) Circular polarization (c) Elliptical polarization

FIG. 2.3 Polarization of EM waves.

The resultant polarization is elliptical polarization. Here the electric field vector still
rotates at same rate but varies in amplitude with time. In case of elliptical polarization, the
waves are characterized by the ratio between the maximum and minimum values of the
instantaneous electric fields, called axial ratio (AR), given by

Emax
AR = (2.7)
Emin

Mathematical Interpretation of Polarization


Assume that a TEM wave is propagating in the z-direction; in general an E-field vector can
be decomposed in two orthogonal components at any time on the z-constant plane.
Ex = E01 sin wt
Ey = E02 sin(w t + q)
Hence the resultant field is
E = (E x2 + E y2 )1/2

or E 2 = E01
2
sin X t + E02
2
sin (X t + R )

2
E01 sin X t 2
E02 sin (Xt + R )
+ =1 (2.8)
E2 E2
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 19

which represents an ellipse with its semi-major and minor axes inclined to the x and y axes.
That is electric field vector E constantly changes both its magnitudes and direction describing
an ellipse. Such waves are known as elliptically polarized plane wave. There are different cases;
Case I When q = 0 with Ex = E01 sin w t, and Ey = E02 sin w t, at any point on the z-constant
plane, wave is said to be linearly polarized with sinusoidal time variation.

Hence E = (Ex2 + Ey2 )1/2 = E0 sin X t (2.9a)

Here tip of E describes a plane surface and is constant in direction.


Case II When q = p/2 with E01 = E02 = E0, the above equation reduces to a circle

E x2 + E y2 = E02 (2.9b)

Here tip of E describes a circle of radius E0. These waves are called circularly polarized
plane wave. If d = 90 and E1 = E2 = 2 E , the wave is linearly polarized but in a plane
at an angle of 45 w.r.t. the x-axis.

VELOCITY OF PROPAGATION

Phase velocity
This is a measure of how fast a signal travels along a line/in a medium. A radio signal
(all EM waves) travels in free space at the speed of light (c) 2.998 108 ms1. A signal
in a Tx line travels at much lesser than this speed and however in twisted pair cable the
velocity of propagation may be between 40% and 75% of velocity in free space. The velocity
of a point of constant phase on the EM waves in any medium is known as phase velocity
(vp) and equal to

X 1 (2.10)
vp = =
k NF
It is frequency dependent and often stated either as a percentage of c or as time to distance;
when time to distance figure is used, it may also be called propagation delay and will be
expressed as ms/km. The velocity of propagation is also known as velocity factor and it is
used in communication media such as data cablescategory 5 cables, plenum data and
ethernet/fast ethernet. Plenum data cables typically have vp ranging from 42% to 72% of
speed of light [2].

Group velocity
The group velocity of a wave is the velocity with which the variation in the shape of the
waves amplitude (known as the modulation or envelope of the wave) propagates through
space. The group velocity is of special importance in the propagation of modulated waves,
20 Antenna and Wave Propagation

pulses and transmission through wave-guides. The phase and group velocity are related by
vpvg = c2.

Plane Wave and Uniform Plane Wave


When EM waves propagate with phase remains constant over a set of planes, are called
plane waves. The magnitude of waves fields are constant in the xy-plane, and surface of
constant phase (a wave front) forms a plane parallel to the xy-plane, hence the term plane
wave. The oscillating electric field produces a magnetic field, which itself oscillates to
recreates an electric filed and so on, accordance with Maxwells curl equations. This interplay
between the two fields stores energy and hence carries power. Variation/modulation of the
properties of the wave (amplitude, frequency or phase) then allows information to be carried
in the wave between its source and destination, which is the central aim of a wireless
communication system.
In particular, the EM waves which electric field is independent of y and z axes and
function of x and t (time), known as uniform plane wave, and have special importance in
propagation. A uniform plane wave has the following properties:
(i) These waves are TEM waves.
(ii) E and H fields are always in time phase.
(iii) The magnitude of the two fields is always constant.
(iv) The stored energies are equally divided between E and H fields.
(v) The power transmitted by the two fields is in the direction of propagation.

PROPAGATION OF EM WAVES IN DIFFERENT MEDIUMS

Before discuss wave propagation in various media, let us consider the criteria of these
mediums in terms of electric parameters (m, e and s). In electromagnetic, the materials are
classified as conductor, dielectric and lossy dielectric. We can explain this classification
using Maxells equation for time varying fields.
H = sE + j w E = Jc + JD
or H = jwe (1 + s /jwe)E (2.11)
The term s/we is therefore just the ratio of conduction to displacement current densities;
it may be considered a mark line to divide the different materials/media. For good conductor,
(s/jwe) is much greater than unity over entire radio frequency, whereas it is much lesser than
unity for a good dielectric. For a lossy dielectric, e = e je and s << we.
The study of EM wave propagation began with the investigation of uniform plane
wave, which perhaps represent the simplex form of wave propagation. The propagation of
waves is described by the standard equation, called wave equation, which can be derived
from Maxwells equations. Let us consider a linear, isotopic, and homogeneous medium. The
net free charge in the region is zero (r = 0) and the existing currents in the region are
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 21

conduction currents, i.e. (j = sE). Maxwells equations, in this particular case, are reduced
to (see [3]).
E
H = TE + F (2.12a)
t
H
E=N (2.12b)
t
H = 0 (2.12c)
E = 0 (2.12d)
Taking the curl of (2.12b) and substituting it into (2.12a) yields

E 2 E
E = NT NF (2.13)
t t 2
Similarly, taking the curl of (2.12a) and substituting it into (2.12b) yields

H 2 H
H = NT NF (2.14)
t t 2
We know the vector identity
A = ( . A) 2A (2.15)
Solving (2.13) using (2.12d) and (2.15) yields

E 2 E
2 E = NT + NF (2.16)
t t 2
This is known as electric wave equation for a medium.
If electric field is in phasor form, i.e. E = Eeiwt, then the electric wave Eq. (2.16) is
reduced to
2E = jwm(s + jwe)E = g 2E (2.17)
Similarly, we get the magnetic wave equation
2H = jwm(s + jwe)H = g 2H (2.18)
where g is equal to [jwm(s + jwe)] and known as propagation constant. Since
1/2
g2 is a
complex quantity, its square root will also be a complex quantity.
Hence, let g = [jwm(s + jwe)]1/2 = a + jb (2.19)
Separating real and imaginary parts from Eq. (2.19), we get
1/2

NF T
2

B = X 1+ 1 (2.20a)
2 XF

22 Antenna and Wave Propagation

1/2

NF T
2

C =X 1+ + 1
2 XF (2.20b)

where a is attenuation constant, measures the rate of decrease of amplitude of wave per unit
length. It is measured in Np/m. b is known as phase constant and is a measure of phase shift
in radians per unit length.

T
Again H = jXF 1 + E = jXF *E (say)
jXF

where e* = e (1 + s /jwe) is known as complex permittivity of any conducting medium of


finite conductivity. The intrinsic impedance is hence defined as

N N jXN
I= = = (2.21)
F* F (1 + T /jXF ) jXN + T

Basically there are three types of wave propagation:


(a) Wave propagation in good conductor
As, for a good conductor s/jwe >> 1, Hence, the propagation constant g reduces to

jXF
H jXN (jXF + T ) = jXNT 1 + = (jXNT ) = (XNT ) 45
T
=

So, if g = a + jb, we get


XNT
B =C = (2.22)
2
The phase velocity

X 2X
vp = (2.23)
C NT
The characteristic impedance

jXN /T jXN XN
I= = = 45
1 + jXN /T T T

XN
= (1 + j )
T
(2.24)
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 23

So, if h is equal to Rs + jXs

XN
Rs = X s =
2T

where Rs and Xs are respectively known as surface conductor resistance and reactance.
For a good conductor, the depth of penetration

1 2
E= =
B XNT
and hence

1
Rs = X s = (2.25)
TE

(b) Wave propagation in good dielectric


For a good dielectric, s/jwe << 1. In this condition, the propagation constant

T 1/2
H = B + jC = jX NF 1 j
XF
where

T 1/2
T 1 T
2

1 j =1 j +j + ...
XF 2XF 8 XF
Hence

1/2
T 1 T
2 T N 1 T
2
H = X NF 1 j +j = + jX NF 1 + (2.26a)
2XF 8 XF 2 F 8 XF

Separating real and imaginary parts yields

T N 1 T
2

B= and C = X NF 1 +
(2.26b)
2 F

8 XF

The phase velocity

X 1 1 1 T
1
2
vp = = (2.26c)
C 1 T
2 NF 8 XF
NF 1 +
8 XF

24 Antenna and Wave Propagation

The characteristic impedance

N N T
I= = 1 + j (2.26d)
F (1 + T /jXF ) F 2XF

where N /F is the characteristic impedance of the dielectric when s = 0; hence it is clear


that the main effect of a small amount of loss is to add a small reactive component to the
intrinsic impedance.
(c) Wave propagation in lossy dielectric
In a lossy dielectric, we know that e = e je and s << we, that is, s 0 [3]. Hence the
propagation constant g is equal to

T 1/2
T
H = jX NF 1 j = jX NF 1 j =B + j C (say) (2.27a)
XF 2XF
therefore,
T
B= N /F and C = X NF (2.27b)
2
The intrinsic impedance of the dielectric is given by

jXN N T N T
1/2

I= 1 j (2.27c)
XF 1 + j
= =
jXF + T F F 2 XF

The phase velocity


X X 1
(2.27d)
vp = = =
C X NF NF
(d) Wave propagation in lossless dielectric
In case of a lossless dielectric medium, e = e, e = 0 and s = 0. Hence the attenuation
constant a = 0 and the intrinsic impedance, phase velocity and propagation constant are
given by
N 1
I= , vp = and H = j C (2.28)
F NF
where, b = X NF .
Here s, m and e are together known as constitutive parameters of the medium. Due to
attenuation of waves, the field strength of both E and H diminishes exponentially as the
wave travels through the medium, as shown in Fig. 2.4. The distance to which the wave
travels, before its field strength reduces to e1 = 36.8% of its original value, is its skin-depth
(d) and the phenomenon is known as skin-effect. Skin-depth (d) and attenuation constant (a)
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 25

0.9

0.8

0.7
E(x)
Value of E-field

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
x
Distance along propagation vector (skin-depth, m)

FIG. 2.4 Attenuation of EM waves.

is related as follows: d = 1/a. Thus the amplitude of the electric field strength at a point z,
compared with its value at z = 0, is given by E(z) = E(0)ez/d.
If we deal with wave propagation in the dielectric medium, there is wave-attenuation
if the conductivity of the medium is not zero. A quantity known a loss-tangent (tan d), which
is the phase of the complex dielectric constant, is normally used as measure of the medium
attenuation. It is equal to s/we, i.e., smaller the loss-tangent, lesser is the attenuation and
better is dielectric.
We know that the first Maxwells equation for any material yields
H = jwe (1 js /we)E
The loss properties of the materials may be treated in a similar fashion as conductive loss,
by replacing s we and e e, i.e. the loss-tangent reduces to tan d = e/e. Skin-effect
occurs, generally at very high frequencies (in range of GHz), but we can include the effect
in similar fashion as for conductive material even if a dielectric material has non-zero
conductivity.
H = (s + jwe*)E (2.29a)
where e * is complex permittivity and equal to e je.
H = (s + we)E + jwe E (2.29b)
26 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Hence, the loss tangent of any medium can be defined as

T + XF
tan E = (2.29c)
XF
where (s + we ) is considered to be effective conductivity and e to be the effective permittivity
of the material having conductivity (s) and permittivity (e).

POWER FLOW OF A UNIFORM PLANE WAVE

If both the fields E and H of a wave are time varying, i.e. E = E0ejw t and H = H0ejw t
E0 jXt
H = e , then the average power density of the wave is
I
1 1 E
Pav = Re ( E H *) = Re E0 e jXt 0 e jXt x y
2 2 I

1 E02 1 1
= Re z = E02 Re (2.30a)
2 I* 2 I*
Similarly
1
Pav = H 02 Re (I*) (2.30b)
2
These are the expressions for average power densities in terms of E and H fields for any
medium. Next let us consider the Pav for particular mediums.
(a) Good conductor
In the case of good conductor

XQ
I = (1 + j)
2T

1 Re (I) XN /2T T
Re = = =
I* |I | 2XN /2T 2XN
2

1 T
Pav = | E0 |2 (2.31a)
2 2XN
Similarly
1 | H 0 |2 1 2XN
Pav = = | H 0 |2 (2.31b)
2 Re (I) 2 T
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 27

(b) For lossless dielectric


We know that
N
I=
F
Hence
1 E02 1
Pav = = H 02I (2.32a)
2 I 2

(c) Good dielectric and lossy dielectric medium


We know that

N T
I= 1 + j
F 2XF

which is a complex number; however E and H are not in time phase; consequently Pav has
to be determined using

| E0 |2 1 | H 0 |2
Pav = Re Re (I) (2.32b)
2 I 2

INCIDENCE OF UNIFORM PLANE WAVE

Basically there are two types of incidence of wave: normal incidence and oblique incidence.
1. Normal incidence of uniform plane waves on plane boundaries: Let us consider a
uniform plane wave incident normally from left to right on a boundary between two media
(Fig. 2.5). Electrical parameters of medium (1) are e1, h1, m1 and s1 and those of medium (2)
are e2, h2, m2 and s2. If (Ei, Hi), (Er, Hr) and (Et , Ht) are the electric and magnetic field
intensities of incident, reflected and transmitted waves, then they can be written in their
phasor forms as follows:

Ei = Ei e H 1 z a x = Ei e (B1 + jC1 )z a x (2.33a)

Ei
H i = Ei e H 1z a y = e (B1 + j C1 )z a y (2.33b)
I1
2. Reflected wave
Er = Er eH 1z a x = Er e(B1 + jC1 )z a x (2.34a)

Er
Hr = H r eH 1z a y = e (B1 + jC1 )z a y (2.34b)
I1
28 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 2.5 Vector representation of incident, reflected and transmitted waves.

where g1 is propagation constant for medium 1 and equal to a1 + jb1 with a1 and b1 as
attenuation and phase constants and

jXN1
I1 = I < R i/r = (2.34c)
jXF1 + T1
3. Transmitted waves
Et = Et eH 2 z a x = Et e (B 2 + j C2 )z a x (2.35a)

Et
H t = H t eH 2 z a y = e (B 2 + j C2 )z a y (2.35b)
I2
where g2 is propagation constant for medium 2 and equal to a2 + jb2 with a2 and b2 are
attenuation and phase constants and

jXN2
I2 = I < Rt = (2.35c)
jXF 2 + T 2

As the second medium is infinite in extent there will not be backward travelling component
of transmitted wave, thus there will be no reflection at its right most surface. At the boundary
z = 0, the boundary condition reveals that the tangential components of the total electric and
magnetic fields be continuous. Since Ei, Er and Et are defined in the x direction
Ei + Er = Et at z = 0 (2.36a)
Similarly, if Hi, H r and H t are defined in the y direction
Hi + Hr = Ht at z = 0 (2.36b)
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 29

Substituting the phasor forms of the fields into (2.36a), we get


Ei Er Et Et + Er
= =
Ii I1 I2 I2
Ei + Er I2 Er I I1
= or = 2 (2.37a)
Ei Er I1 Ei I2 + I1
is known as reflection coefficient and represented by G.
Also
Er I2 I1
+1= +1
Ei I2 + I1
Er + Ei 2I2 Et 2I2
= = (2.37b)
Ei I2 + I1 Ei I2 + I1
is known as transmission coefficient and represented by T.
Again, from (2.37b) it is clear that

Er Ei
+ =T 1+*=T (2.38)
Ei Ei
The coefficients G and T will be real only if both the mediums are lossless, that is,
s1 = 0 and s2 = 0. Otherwise, they will be, in general, complex quantities i.e., G = G < qr
and T = T < qt. From (2.37) it is also clear that the magnitude of T may exceed unity, but
the magnitude of G will always be 1. If region 2 is perfect conductor, then h2 = 0 and we
get G = 1 and T = 0; so there is no signal transmitted in region 2. Just as in transmission,
we can define wave impedance, which describes the ratio of electric field to magnetic field
at any point in space. This gives the familiar impedance transformation formula

I2 + jI1 tan kl
Z in ( l) = I1
I1 + jI2 tan kl
where, k = wave-vector (bn).
We can then treat the situation just as in a quarter wave transformer and multiple
dielectric boundaries just as we do for transmission lines.

Oblique Incidence
When a uniform wave incidence at any angle from the normal (say qi) then as resultant, i.e.,
reflected as well as transmitted waves also makes certain angles (say, qr and qt). This case
is referred to as oblique incidence. Basically there two cases of oblique incidence:
(a) parallel polarization and (b) perpendicular polarization. To define these types of polarization,
first we have to specify the plane of incidence. If the electric field (E) is polarized in the
30 Antenna and Wave Propagation

plane of the page, with H is perpendicular to page pointing outward. Then plane of page may
be referred as plane of incidence and uniform plane is said to have parallel polarization
(P-polarized). As the magnetic field H is perpendicular to plane of incidence (transverse
magnetic or TM), it is also called TM polarization. In another case, H is parallel to the plane
of incidence (or H lies in plane of incidence) and E is perpendicular to the plane of incidence.
This is perpendicular polarization (S-polarized). Due to similar region, it is also called TE
polarization. Reflection and transmission coefficients differ for these two polarizations. But
reflection and transmission angles are independent of polarization.

Snells Law
Consider any two rays of an incident wave (as shown in Fig. 2.6), say, rays 1 and 2 travel
from medium 1 to medium 2. One part of wave is transmitted at an angle qt in the second
medium, whereas another part is reflected in medium 1 itself at an angle qr.

FIG. 2.6 Reflection of EM wave at oblique incidence.

From the diagram, it is clear that the incident ray 2 travels the distance CB, whereas
the reflected ray 1 travels the distance AE and the transmitted ray 1 travels the distance A to
D. If v1 and v2 are the velocities of the waves in corresponding mediums, then (see [2])

CB v1
= (2.39a)
AD v2
Now from geometry, CB = AB sin qi and AD = AB sin qt. Hence

sin Ri v1
= (2.39b)
sin Rt v2

1
As the velocity of uniform plane wave is
NF
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 31

sin Ri F2
= (2.39c)
sin R t F1
From the properties of uniform plane wave, the ratio of electric and magnetic field vectors
are constant and known as intrinsic impedance of the medium, i.e.,

E N
= =I
H F
Hence
sin R i I1
= (2.40)
sin R t I2

In view of optics, if n1 and n2 are refractive indexes of medium 1 and medium 2, then

sin R i n1
=
sin R t n2
The final expression shows that

sin Ri F 2 I2 v n
= = = 1 = 1 (2.41)
sin R t F1 I1 v2 n2

Further, AE = CB, then sin qi = sin qt which is known as Snells Law. For parallel polarized
wave, the reflection and transmission coefficients are given as

I2 cos Rt I1 cos Ri F1 cos Rt F 2 cos Ri


*P = = (2.42a)
I2 cos Rt + I1 cos Ri F1 cos Rt + F2 cos Ri
and
2I2 cos Rt F1 cos Rt
2
TP = = (2.42b)
I2 cos R t + I1 cos Ri F1 cos Rt + F 2 cos Ri
The corresponding wave impedance in mediums 1 and 2 is given by

E1 (x )
I1P = = I1 cos Ri (2.43a)
H 1 (y) z =0

E1 ( x ) I1
I2P = = I2 cos Ri = cos Rt (2.43b)
1
H (y) z =0
I2

For the perpendicularly polarized incident waves, the reflection and transmission coefficients
are given by
32 Antenna and Wave Propagation

I2 sec Rt I1 sec Ri F1 sec Rt F 2 sec Ri


*S = = (2.44a)
I2 sec Rt + I1 sec Ri F1 sec Rt + F 2 sec Rii
and
2I2 sec Rt 2 F1 sec Rt
TS = = (2.44b)
I2 sec Rt + I1 sec Ri F1 sec Rt + F 2 sec Ri
The corresponding wave impedance in mediums 1 and 2 is given by

E1 (x )
I1S = = I1 sec Ri (2.45a)
E1 (y) z =0

E1 (x ) I1
I2S = = I2 sec Ri = cos Rt (2.45b)
1
E (y) z =0
I2

Reflection coefficients for both the polarizations could be defined in term of wave impedance
as
I2P I1P I I1S
*P = and * S = 2S (2.45c)
I2P + I1P I2S + I1S

Total Transmission
If the angle of incident is varied, there will be an angle where | G | = 0, i.e. there will be no
reflection, and total transmission of parallel polarized wave occurs at the interface. For this
case, Eq. (2.42a) can be written as

F1 cos R t F 2 (1 sin 2R i )
*P = (2.46a)
F 2 (1 sin R i )
2
F1 cos R t +

From Snells Law


F1
sin 2R t = sin 2R i
F2

Hence, Eq. (2.46a) can be written as

F2 F2
cos Ri sin 2Ri
F2 F1
*P = (2.46b)
F2 F2
cos R i + sin 2Ri
F1 F1
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 33

Therefore | G | = 0 only when qi = qb (say), where


1/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 2
1 F2 F2 F2
R i = Rb = sin = cos1 = tan 1 (2.46c)
F 2 + F1 F 2 + F1 F1

where qb is called Brewster angle. Any arbitrary wave incident at qb will be reflected back
with E-polarization parallel to the interface, and the other component of E is totally transmitted.
The angle qb is 45, provided e1 = e2. We could also find a similar angle for perpendicular
polarization such that T = 0, but this would require mediums of different permeability and
identical permittivity, something which does not often occur in nature qi = qb. However, if
the incident wave is not arbitrarily polarized, there will be some reflection, but the reflected
rays will be entirely of perpendicular polarization. Reflection coefficient G S never becomes
zero, as long as the two media are different (h1 h2). Hence, we can say that Brewster angle
does not exist for perpendicular polarization.

Total Reflection
The incident wave is reflected back in same medium for | G P | = 1. If both media are
lossless non-magnetic dielectrics, the quantity under square root (2.46b) will be positive and
GP will be real provided (e2 > e1), i.e., the wave is incident from rare medium to dense
medium. If, however, the wave is incident from more dense medium onto less dense medium
(e2 >> e1) and if
F1
sin 2R i
F2

then GP becomes complex and | GP | = 1. In this particular case, incident wave is totally
reflected back into denser medium. Therefore, there exist an incident angle qc (say), for
which | GP | = 1 < 0, called critical angle and given by (see [4])

1
F2
R c = sin (2.47)
F1

For the entire incident angle greater than qc, | G P | = 1. Then qc = 90 when e2 = e1.
Physically there is still some field penetration into region 2, but the field strength decays
exponentially away from the boundary. This is called evanescent field and propagates along
the boundary. Additional parameters, P-polarized and S-polarized power reflectivity, are
expressed as
P-polarized power reflectivity

tan 2 (R1 R 2 )
RP =
tan 2 (R1 + R 2 )
34 Antenna and Wave Propagation

S-polarized power reflectivity

sin 2 (R1 R 2 )
RS =
sin 2 (R1 + R2 )

The above critical angles field reflectivity are in the form of pure phase shifts. The power
reflectivity is 100%. The P- and S-polarized phase shifts differ, and functions of incidence
n
angle and the relative refractive index n = 2 . The formula for relative phase shift is
n1

cos R sin 2 R n2
E = GS GP = 2 tan 1 1 1
(2.48a)
sin 2 R1

For the total transmission, GP = 0 implies that h2P = h1P h2 cos qt = h1 cos qi:
Using Snells Law of refraction

sin R i n2
=
sin R t n1

1/2
n
I2 1 1 sin 2Ri = I1 [1 sin 2Ri ]1/2
n2

I0 I0
1/2
n1
1 sin Ri [1 sin 2Ri ]1/2
2
= from (2.41)
n2 n2 n1

n1 2
21 n sin R i
n2 2
=
n
1 [1 sin 2
R i ]

which gives
n2
sin R1 = = sin R B (2.48b)
n12 + n22

where qB is called the Brewster angle of total transmission. From Snells Law
n1
sin R2 = (2.48c)
n12 + n22
or transmitted angle = 90 q1.
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 35

SOLVED EXAMPLES

Example 2.1 An uniform plane wave of frequency 2 GHz travelling in a large block of Teflon
(er = 2.1, mr = 1 and s = 0). Determine the values of vp and h.

c 3 108
Solution: We know that vp = = = 2.07 108 m/s
Nr F r 2.1

I = I Nr /F r = 377 2.1 = 260 :

Example 2.2 A wave of frequency 1 MHz travels in a large block of copper (s = 5.7
107, er = 1 and mr = 1). Determine the values of vp, h, l, a and b. Also find the phase shift
between the electric and magnetic fields and the distance that the wave must travel to be
attenuated by a factor 100 (40 dB).
Solution: We know
g = [jwm(jwe + s)1/2
= [j2p 106 4p 107 (5.7 107 + j2p 106 8.854 1012)]1/2
= 2.14 104 < 45 = 1.513 104 + j1.513 104
Hence a = 1.513 104 Np/m and b = 1.513 104 rad/m
The wave velocity

X 2 Q 10 6
vp = = = 415.3 m/s
C 1.513 10 4
The wavelength in copper at the given frequency is

2Q 2Q
M= = = 415.3 10 4 m/s
C 1.513 10 4

The intrinsic impedance h

jXN j 2Q 10 6 4Q 10 7
1/2

= = 12
= 3.689 10 4 < 45
jXF + T (5.7 10 + j 2Q 10 8.854 10
7 6

So, it is confirmed that the intrinsic impedance of a conductor should be very small.
The angle of intrinsic impedance is 45. As the field attenuated by a factor 100, i.e., ead =
1/100, where d is distance travelled for the given attenuation

4.605
B d = ln 100 or d = 4
= 3.0437 10 4 m
1.513 10
36 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Example 2.3 A copper conductor of finite length supports a uniform wave to propagate at
kHz. Determine the values of a, b, g and vp. Also find the value of ratio of s/we.
Solution: We know that for a good conductor

B = C = NXT /2 = 2Q 50 10 3 4Q 10 7 5.8 10 7

= 11.437 10 6
= 3.38 103

XN 10 7
I= = 2Q 50 103 4Q 10 7
T 5.8
= 67 10 5 < 45
= 8.245 10 5 < 45

2Q 3.14
M= =2 = 1.85 mm
C 3.38

v p = 2 X /NT = 2 2Q 50 103 /4Q 10 7 5.8 10 7


= 92 m/s
The ratio of
T 5.8 10 7
= = 2.08 10 3
XF 2Q 50 103 8.854 10 12

Example 2.4 A linearly polarized waves of frequency 1 GHz propagating in +z direction


in a medium specified with er = 3.0, m = 1.0 and s = 0.02 S/m. If the electric field magnitude
at z = 0 is 2 V/m, determine (a) the wave impedance, (b) |H| at z = 0, (c) average power
available in an 0.6 m2 area perpendicular to direction of propagation at z = 0, (d) time taken
to travel 20 cm, and (e) distance travelled at which field strength drops to 1/20.
Solution: The ratio of
T 0.02
= = 0.06 << 1
XF 2Q 1 10 3 8.854 10 12
9

i.e., the medium can be considered as good dielectric


(a) Wave impedance

N
= 218 :
377
Z= = z0 1/Fr =
F 3
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 37

(b) As
E E 2
=Z H = = = 9.2 mA/m 1
H Z 377
(c) Total available power

A 0.6
P = SA = EH = 2 9.2 103 = 5.5 mW
2 2
(d) The time taken is ratio of distance to phase velocity

d d 0.2 3
t= = Fr = = 1.2 ns
v c 3 108

(e) As E z = E0 e z/E

E 1 2 F 1
z = E ln z = E ln = ln
E0 20 T N 20

2 1 2
= ln = 2.99 = 2.743 m
T Z 20 0.01 218

Example 2.5 A dielectric material has er = 18 and tan d = 103 at a frequency of 200 MHz.
Find the conductivity of material and distance over which the field strength drops to
(1/c) of its value at the surface.
Solution: We know that
T
tan E = T = XF 0F r tan E
XF
= 2p 200 106 8.854 1012 18 103 = 2 104 S/m
Since the loss tangent of given material is very small, the material may be regarded as a
lossless dielectric, and the corresponding attenuation constant (a) can be used.

T N T 1 2 10 4 1
B= = I = 377 = 8.885 10 3 Np/m
2 F 2 Fr 2 18

Hence the distance travelled at which the field strength goes down to the (1/e), i.e.,

1 103
Skin-depth (d) = = = 1.125 10 2 m
B 8.885
38 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Example 2.6 At point inside a lossy medium electric field intensity of a wave is 10 V/m
at frequency 300 MHz. Find the power density of the wave at this point and at distance
1 cm in the direction of propagation, if
er = 8 and s = 100 S/m.

Solution: We know that the intrinsic impedance of the medium is

jXN
1/2
I =
jXN + T

1/2
j 2 Q 3 108 4Q 10 7
=
100 + j 2 Q 3 108 8.854 10 12

= (3.44 + j 3.44) :

The power density of the wave is

|E0 |2 1
Pav = Re
2 I*

As h = 3.44 + j3.44 and hence h* = 3.44 j3.44

1 3.44 + j 3.44
=
I* (3.44)2 + 3.44 2

1
Re = 0.145
I*
Hence
(10)2 0.145
Pav = = 7.25 W/m 2
2
Now since the conductivity of the medium is not zero, there will be attenuation and can be
calculated from the propagation constant

H = B + jC = jXN (jXF 0 F r + T )

= j 2Q 3 4Q 10 7 (100 + j 2Q 3 8 8.854 10 12 )
= 3.43 + j 344.36

Hence a = 3.43 Np/m.


Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 39

Power at a distance of 2 cm is
Pave2 d a = Pave2 10
2 343.9
= Pave6.878
= 7.25 e6.878 = 7.47 mW/m2

Example 2.7 Polystyrene has dielectric constant of 2.7. If a uniform plane wave is incident
at angle of 35 onto it, calculate the angle of transmission and the Brewster angle.
Solution: From Snells law

sin Ri F2
=
sin R t F1

1
or sin R t = sin 35
2.7
qt = 20.02

qB = tan1 ( 2.7) = 58.67

Example 2.8 A linearly polarized plane wave incident from water onto the waterair interface
at an angle 45. Show that wave is totally reflected back. (Hint: er = 81; mr = 1 and s = 0.)
Solution: We know that

1 F1 1
R c = sin = sin 1 = 6.38
F2 81

which is less than the incident angle; thus the incident wave is totally reflected back.

Example 2.9 A parallel polarized wave is incident from air onto (a) distilled water (er = 81),
(b) flint glass (er = 10.5) and (c) paraffin (er = 2.05). Determine the Brewster angle for each
case.
Solution: We know that

1
F2
R B = tan
F1

Hence,
R B = tan 1 ( 81) = 83.7

R B = tan 1 ( 10.5) = 72.85

R B = tan 1 ( 2.05) = 55.06


40 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Example 2.10 A uniform plane wave incident from air onto a glass at an angle of 30 from
normal. Determine the percentage of incident power that is reflected and transmitted for
(a) P-polarized and (b) S-polarized wave if glass has refractive index 1.45.
Solution:
sin 30
sin Rt = sin 1 Rt = 20.02
1.45
(a) For parallel polarization

h1P = h1 cos q1 = 377 cos 30 = 326 W

I1
cos 20.2 = 244 :
377
I2P = I2 cos R t = cos 20.2 =
I2 1.45

I2P I1P 244 326


*P = = = 0.144
I2P + I1P 244 + 326

The percentage of power reflected is

Pr
% = | * P |2 = 0.021 = 2.1%
Pinc

Hence, the transmitted power is 97.9%.


(b) For perpendicular polarization
I1
= 435 :
377
I1S = =
cos R i cos 30

I2
= 277 :
377
I2S = =
I2 cos R t 1.45 cos 20.2

I2S I1S 277 435


*S = = = 2.22
I2S + I1S 277 + 435

The percentage of power reflected is

Pr
% = | * S |2 = 0.049 = 4.9%
Pinc

The transmitted power is 95.1%.


Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 41

Example 2.11 Show that for


(a) Parallel polarization
tan (R1 R 2 )
tan (R1 + R 2 )
(b) Perpendicular polarization
sin (R 2 R1 )
sin (R 2 + R1 )

Solution: We know from Snells Law

F1 sin R1 = F 2 sin R 2

F 2 cos R1 F 1 cos R 2 sin R1 cos R1 sin R 2 cos R 2


(a) *P = =
F 2 cos R1 + F 1 cos R2 sin R1 cos R1 + sin R2 cos R2

sin 2R1 sin 2 R 2 sin (R1 R 2 ) cos (R1 + R 2 ) tan (R1 R 2 )


= = =
sin 2R1 + sin 2R 2 sin (R1 R 2 ) cos (R1 R 2 ) tan (R1 + R 2 )

F 1 cos R1 F 2 cos R2 sin R2 cos R1 sin R1 cos R 2 sin (R2 R1 )


(b) *S = = =
F 1 cos R1 + F 2 cos R 2 sin R 2 cos R1 + sin R1 cos R2 sin (R 2 + R1 )

Example 2.12 A light ray is incident from air on to glass at the Brewster angle. Determine
the incident and transmitted angles, and also the reflection coefficient for S-polarized waves.
Solution: Since the glass has refractive index = 1.45, the incident angle is
n2 1.45
R i = R B = sin 1 = sin 1 = 55.4
n12 + n22 1 + 1.452

n1 1.45
R t = sin 1 = sin 1 = 34.6
n12 + n22 1 + 1.452

i.e. the sum of the incident and transmitted angles at the Brewster condition is always 90,
i.e., sin q2 = cos qB.
I1
= 664 :
377
I1S = =
cos R i cos 55.4

I1 I1
= 315.75 :
377
I1S = = =
cos R i I2 cos R t 1.45 cos 34.6
42 Antenna and Wave Propagation

I2S I1S 316 665


*S = = = 0.355
I2S + I1S 316 + 665

Example 2.13 Find the rate of energy flow per unit area of a uniform plane wave travelling
with a velocity (v) = 1/NF .

Solution: Total energy of an EM wave, due to its electric and magnetic fields is given by

1
(F E 2 + N H 2 )
2
For a wave travelling with velocity (v) the rate of flow of energy per unit area would be

1
P = (F E 2 + N H 2 ) v
2
Property of plane wave says that
E N
=
H F
Hence the above equation can be written as

1 N F
P = F EH + N eH v
2 F N

( )
1
NF EH + NF EH v
2

EH G G
v = E H
v
G G
So, P= E H

Example 2.14 An EM wave propagating in a certain medium is described by


E = 25 sin (2p 106t 6x) az V/m
(a) Determine the direction of wave propagation.
(b) Compute the period T, the wavelength l and velocity u.
Solution: Given E = 25 sin (2p 106t 6x) az V/m
(a) Direction is along az.
(b) w = 2p 106, b = 6
2Q 2Q
Time period T = = = 10 6 s.
X 2Q 10 6
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 43

If u is the velocity of EM wave, the phase of a point is constant on the wave, i.e.

X
dt
C
dx
(X t C x) = k =0
dt dt

X 2 Q 106
which gives X Cu = 0 u= = = 1.047 10 6 m/s
C 6
Wavelength l = Velocity Time period = 1.047 106 (2p/w)
= 1.047 106 (1 106) = 1.047 m

Example 2.15 Given that propagation constant g 2 = jwm(s + jwe) and g = a + jb, derive
the equation for a and b.
Solution: Re(g 2) = b 2 a 2 = w2me (i)

and Im (H 2 ) = C 2 + B 2 = XN T 2 + X 2 F 2 (ii)
Adding (i) and (ii)

2C 2 = X 2 NF + XN T 2 + X 2F 2

X 2 NF XN T 2 + X 2F 2 X2 N 2 2 2
C2 = + = NF + T +X F
2

2

2 X

X2 NXF 2
T
C 2
= NF + 1+
2 X XF

1/2

NF T
2

C =X 1+ + 1
2
XF

Similarly, by subtracting (i) and (ii), we get


1/2

NF T
2

B =X 1+ 1
2 XF

Example 2.16 A lossy material has m = 5m0 and e0 = 2e0. If at 5 MHz the phase constant
is 10 rad/m, calculate (a) the loss-tangent, (b) the conductivity of the material, (c) the complex
permittivity and (d) the intrinsic impedance.
44 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Solution:
(a) Loss-tangent
F T 2F 0
tan R = = =2
F0 XF F0
(b) Conductivity
T = XF tan R = 2 2Q f F =4 3.14 5 10 6 8.854 10 12
= 1.11 103 S/m
(c) Complex permittivity
T
Fc = F jF Fc = F j
X

1.11 10 3
F c = 2F 0 j
2 3.14 5 10 6

1.11 10 3
= 2 8.854 10 12 j
2 3.14 5 10 6

= (17.7) j(35.4) 10 12

Hence, attenuation constant

1/2

NF T
2
B =X 1+ 1
2 XF

5 N0 2 F 0
1/2

B =X 1 + (2)2 1
2

X
B=
1/2
5 5 1
c

2 3.14 5 106
= 3.2 = 33.5 10 2 B = 0.335
3 108
(d) Intrinsic impedance

N /F 5N0 /2F 0 5N0 /2F 0


I= 1/4
= =
2 1/4 1/4
T 1 + (2) 1 + (2)2
2
1 +

XF
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 45

5/2 N0 /F 0
377 = 398.7 :
1.5811
= =
( 5)1/2 1.495
G
Example 2.17 In free space (z 0), a plane wave with Hi = 10 cos(108t b z) ax (in mA/
m) is incident normally on a lossless medium (e = 2e0, m = 8m0) in region z 0. Determine
the Hr and Er components of the reflected wave as well as Ht and Et of the transmitted wave.
Solution: For free space, b1 = w/c = 108/(3 108) = 1/3 and h1 = h0 = 120p.
For the lossless dielectric medium,

C2 = X NF = X N0 F 0 2 8 = 4X /c = 4/3

I2 = N /F = N0 /F 0 8/2 = 2I0
G
Since H i = 10 cos(108t C z) ax
We expect that
G
Ei = Ei 0 cos (10 8 t C z ) aEi
G G G G
where aEi = aHi aHj = a x a z = ay

Ei 0 = I1 H i 0 = 10 I0

Hence Ei = 10h0 cos (108t b1z) a y mV/m

Er 0 I2 I1 1 E
Now =*= = Er 0 = i 0
Ei 0 I2 + I1 3 3

Thus Er = Er 0 = 3.33 I0 cos (108 t + 0.33z) a y mV/m

10
Since E = hH Hr = cos(108 t + 0.333 z) a x mA/m
3

Et 0 4Ei 0
Similarly = U = 1 + * = 4/3 or Et 0 =
Ei 0 3

Thus Et = Et 0 cos(108 t C2 z ) a Et

where a Et = a E1 = a y
Hence
40 4z
Et = I0 cos 108t a y mV/m
3 3
46 Antenna and Wave Propagation

From which we obtain


Et Et
I= and H t =
Ht 2I0

20 4z
Ht = cos 108 a x mA/m
3 3

Example 2.18 Show that 1 + G = t, if an electromagnetic wave is normally incident from


one medium (s1, e1, m1, h1) to second medium (s2, e2, m2, h2).
Solution: We have considered uniform plane waves travelling in unbounded, homogeneous,
isotropic media. When a plane wave from one medium meets a different medium, it is partly
reflected and partially transmitted. The portion of the incident wave that is reflected or
transmitted depends on the constitutive parameters (e, m, s) of the two media involved.
Incident wave
Ei, Hi is travelling (+) az in the medium. If we suppress the time factor e jwt and assume
that
Eis (z) = Ei 0 eH 1z a z (i)

His (z) = Hi 0 eH 1z a y

E
His (z) = i 0 e H 1z a y (ii)
I1

Ei 0 , H i 0 = Amplitudes of incident wave


H is(z), Eis(z) = Incident wave in medium 1

Reflected wave
G G
Ers (z) = Er 0 eH 2 z az (iii)
G G
Hrs (z) = Hr 0 eH 2 z ay
G
G E H 2z
or Hrs (z ) = r 0 e ay (iv)
I1

Transmitted wave
Ets (z) = Et 0 eH 2 z a x (v)

Hts (z ) = Ht 0 e H 2 z a y
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 47

E
Hts (z ) = t 0 eH 2 z a y (vi)
I2
where g1 and g2 are propagation constants.

Boundary condition
Since waves are transverse at z = 0, the tangential components of E and H fields must be
continuous, i.e.,
Ei(0) + Er(0) = Et (0) (vii)
Hi(0) + H r(0) = Ht(0)

1 Et 0
or ( Ei 0 Er 0 ) = (viii)
I1 I2
From Eqs. (vii) and (viii), we get

I
Et 0 1 = Ei 0 Er 0
I2

I I2
Et 0 = 2 Ei 0 Er 0
I1 I1

I2 I
Et 0 1 + = 2 2
I1 I1
Ei 0

2I2
Et 0 = Ei 0 (ix)
I1 + I2
(I2 I1 )
and Er 0 = Ei 0 (x)
(I2 + I1 )
Reflection coefficient
E I I1
* = r0 = 2 (xi)
Ei 0 I2 + I1
Transmission coefficient
Et 0 2I2
U = = (xii)
Ei 0 I1 + I2
From Eq. (xi)
(I2 I1 + I1 + I2 ) 2I2
1+* = = =U
I1 + I2 I1 + I2
48 Antenna and Wave Propagation

or 1+ G = t
Hence, proved.

Example 2.19 Derive the wave equation for infinite, isotropic and homogeneous media.
Solution: The Maxwell equations for the given medium are
G
G G E
H = TE + F (i)
t
G
G H
E = N (ii)
t
G
.H =0 (iii)
.E = 0 (iv)
Taking the curl of Eq. (ii) yields
G
( H )
G
E = N (v)
t

Putting the value of Eq. (i) in Eq. (v) gives


G G G
G G G
G E E 2 E
E = N T E + F = NT NF (vi)
t t t t 2

Similarly taking the curl of (i) and substituting (ii) yields


G G
H 2 H
H = NT NF (vii)
t t 2
Using vector identity A = (A) 2 A
Since (A) is zero, the Eqs. (vi) and (vii) reduces to
G G G G
G E 2 E G H 2 H
E = NT
2
+ NF and H = NT
2
+ NF
t t 2 t t 2
which are known as electric and magnetic wave equations respectively.

Example 2.20 For the given two mediums a linearly polarized wave is incident from
medium 1 (s = 0, e1, m1) to medium 2 (s = 0, e2, m2). Prove that for total reflection of wave,
N2 F 2 u1
the incident angle must be R i = , where u1 and u2 are the velocities of wave
N1F1 u2
in mediums 1 and 2 respectively.
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 49

Solution: Applying Snells Law, n1 sin qi = n2 sin qt


which gives
n
sin Ri = 2 sin Rt
n1

For total reflection of light, qi > 90; hence

n
sin Ri = 2 sin 90
n1

n
or sin R i = 2
n1
From reflection
c
n2 = c N2 F 2 =
u2

c
n1 = c N1F1 =
u1

Putting the value of reflective index in above equation gives

c N2F 2
sin Ri =
c N1F1

N2 F 2 u1
sin R i = =
N1F1 u2

N2 F 2 u1
if qi is small sin R i = R i = =
N1F1 u2

N2 F 2 u1
or Ri > =
N1F1 u2

Hence, proved.
50 Antenna and Wave Propagation

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

Group A: Electromagnetic Wave and Radiation


1. Electromagnetic wave can be characterized by
(a) Permittivity (e) and conductivity (s)
(b) Permeability (m) and characteristic impedance (h)
(c) Presence of boundary between media
(d) All the above is correct.
2. Assuming the Poynting vector along z-axis, choose the correct option.
(a) In TE mode of propagation, Ez 0
(b) In TM mode of propagation, Hz = 0
(c) TEM mode of propagation, Ez 0, H z = 0
(d) Only (a) and (c) are correct.
3. The shortest wave is
(a) Gamma rays (b) Radio waves
(c) Visible light (d) Infrared light
4. The wavelengths of microwave lies between
(a) 0.1 mm and 30 cm (b) 1 mm and 30 cm
(c) 1 cm and 300 cm (d) 1 m and 100 m
5. Choose the incorrect statement:
(a) X-rays can be produced by excitation and ejection of core atomic electron.
(b) Lien-energy gamma ray is produced by creation of particleantiparticle pairs.
(c) Gamma ray is produced by energetic ejection of core electron in heavy metals.
(d) Ultraviolet light can be produced by excitation of molecule and atomic valence
proton as well as neutron.
6. Given waves and their cause of production
Statement 1: Radio collective oscillation of charge carrier in bulk material-plasma
oscillation
Statement 2: Microwave: Plasma oscillation, molecular production.
Statement 3: Near Infrared: Molecular vibration, plasma oscillation.
Choose the correct option:
(a) Statement 1 is correct but 2 and 3 are wrong
(b) Statement 2 is correct but 1 and 3 are wrong
(c) All the statements are correct
(d) None of the above is a correct statement
7. Choose the correct option (More than one may be correct.)
(a) Microwave is absorbed by molecules that have a dipole moment in liquids.
(b) In microwave oven, H2O, HCl as well as BF3 will heat up.
(c) Microwave is super high frequency (SHF) and extremely high frequency (EHF)
wave.
(d) Microwave is produced with klystron and magnetron tubes and with solid state
diodes such as Gunn and IMPATT devices.
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 51

8. Choose the correct option:


(a) Low intensity microwave radiation is used in Wi-Fi.
(b) High intensity microwave radiation is used in Wi-Fi.
(c) Both (a) and (b) are correct.
(d) None of these.
9. MaxwellFaradays equation is
G
G B
(a) E =
t
(b) B . ds = 0

(c) Both (a) and (b) are correct (d) None of these.
10. Choose the incorrect option:
S
(a) Gauss law is . E =
F0
G K v
(b) Gauss law is
w
E . dA =
F0
, where v is the total enclosed charge
v

(c) If . B 0 and w B . dA 0 , then monopole exist in Universe.


v
(d) (a) and (b) are correct but c is incorrect.
11. Amperes circuit law states that
G G
G K G D G G D
(a) H = J +
t
(b) H . dl = J +

ds
t
S L
G
G G D
(c) H . dl = J +

ds
t
(d) None of these
S L

12. Choose the correct option about Poynting vector:


(a) Poynting vector represents electron flux of an electromagnetic field.
(b) Energy flux of an electromagnetic field.
(c) Both (a) and (b) are correct.
(d) None of these
13. Choose the correct one:
G G G G G G
(a) p = E H (b) p=H E
G G G G G G
(c) p = H x Ex (d) p = H y Ey
14. The time-averaged magnitude of the Poynting vector is (more than one option may
be correct).
1 G
(a) <S> = E02 , S = Poynting vector
2 N0 c
52 Antenna and Wave Propagation

2
F0 c G
(b) <S > = E02 , S = Poynting vector
2
(c) (a) is correct but (b) is wrong
(d) None of these.
15. Choose the correct option:
G <S > G
(a) Linear momentum of electromagnetic field is given by p = 2 , S = Poynting
C
vector.
<S >
(b) Radiation pressure is given by Prad =
(c) Both (a) and (b) are correct C
(d) None of these.
16. The concept of displacement current was a major contribution attributed to
(a) Faraday (b) Lenz
(c) Maxwell (d) Hertz
(e) Your Professor
17. Identify which of the following expressions are not Maxwells equations for a time-
varying field:
S
(a) . J + =0 (b) . D = Sv
F
G
B
(c) . E =
t
(d) v Hdl = (T E + F E/t ) ds

(e) v B ds = 0

18. Choose the incorrect option:


(a) Plane wave is a constant frequency wave.
(b) Wave front is surface of constant phase.
(c) Wave fronts are infinite parallel planes of constant amplitude normal to the
phase velocity vector.
(d) Wave fronts are infinite parallel phases of constant amplitude parallel to the phase
velocity vector.
19. Choose the incorrect option about uniform plane wave:
(a) Phone waves are TEM waves
(b) E and H fields are always in time phase
(c) The magnitude of the two fields is always variable.
(d) The stored energy is equally divided between the E and H fields.
20. Choose the correct option.
G
(Multiple
G
options may be correct.)
(a) In static EM field E and B are independent.
(b) In dynamic EM field, the two s fields are interdependent.
(c) Both (a) and (b) are incorrect.
(d) None of these.
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 53

Group B: EM Waves in Mediums


1. Which of these is not a correct form of the wave Ex = cos (w t b z)?
(a) cos (b z w t) (b) sin (b z w t + p /2)
2Q 2Q
(c) cos t (d) Re(e j(w tb z))
M
z
T
(e) cos b (z w t)
2. Which of the following statement is not true for the waves in general?
(a) The phenomenon may be a function of time only.
(b) The phenomenon may be sinusoidal or co-sinusoidal.
(c) The phenomenon must be a function of time and space
(d) For practical reasons it must be finite in extent.
3. If the electric field component of a wave in free space is given by E = 10 cos
(107t + kz) a y V/m, which of the following is incorrect?
(a) The wave is transverse along x-axis
(b) The wavelength, l = 188.5 m
(c) The wave amplitude = 10 V/m
(d) The wave number, k = 0.33 rad/m
(e) The wave attenuates as it travels.
4. Select the correct option:
(a) Electromagnetic wave travels faster in conductors than in dielectrics
(b) In a good conductor E and H are in time phase
(c) The Poynting vector physically denotes the power density leaving or entering a
given volume in a time-varying field.
(d) None of these.
5. Choose the incorrect option:
(a) 1 + G = t, t = Transmission, G = Reflection coefficient.
(b) Both G and t are dimensionless and may be complex.
(c) 0 G .
2I2
(d) U = where h1 and h2 are intrinsic impedances of the medium.
I1 + I2
G G
G 2 E E
6. In the wave equation E = NF
2
+ NT , which term is responsible for attenuation
2 t t
of the wave?
G
G 2 E
(a) E
2 (b) NF
2t
G
E
(c) NT (d) All of the three.
t
54 Antenna and Wave Propagation

7. Two statements are given below. Read the statement and give the correct option.
Statement 1: The Poynting vector represents the particular case of an energy flux
vector for electromagnetic energy.
Statement 2: The Poynting vector represents any type of movement in space as
well as its density, and so the energy flux vector can be defined for other types of
energy as well, for example, mechanical energy.
(a) Statement (1) is correct but (2) is wrong.
(b) Statement (1) is wrong but (2) is correct.
(c) Statement (1) and Statement (2) both are correct.
(d) Both are wrong statements.

Answers

Group A
1. (d) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (d)
6. (c) 7. (a, c, d) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (d)
11. (a) 12. (b) 13. (a) 14. (a, c) 15. (c)
16. (c) 17. (a, c) 18. (d) 19. (c) 20. (a, b)

Group B
1. (b)
Explanation:
Q
E x = sin C z X t = cos R
2

Q Q Q
sin C z X t = sin v = sin v +
2 2 2

cos C (z ut ) = cos(C z C ut ) C =X /u

cos (1) (w t bz) = cos(w t b z)


2. (c) must be a function of both time and space.
3. (a) Given E = 10 cos(107t + kz) a y
E = A cos(107t + kz) a y
(b) Transverse in z direction ( Ez)
(c) Amplitude, A = 10 V/m
X 10 7
(d) w = 107, C = =k or k = = 0.033 rad/m
c 3 108
c is free space velocity.
Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 55

(e) Wavelength l = Distance travel in 2p radius.


l = Velocity Time period
2Q 2
=c = 3 10 3.14
8
= 188.5 m
X 10 7
4. (c)
Explanation:
(a) Velocity of dielectric > velocity of conductor
(b) E and H not in time phase
(c) Correct
5. (c) 0 | G | 1
6. (c)

EXERCISES

1. A uniform plane wave incident from air onto glass at an angle of 60 from the
horizon. Determine the amount of power reflected and transmitted for (i) P-polarization
(ii) S-polarization. Refractive index of glass is 1.52 and total incident power is 60 mW.
2. A material has a relative permittivity of 2.8. If a wave is incident at an angle of 30
onto it from air, determine the angle of transmission and Brewster angle.
3. A plane wave of frequency 4 GHz is incident normally air onto a half-space of
dielectric having s = 0, mr = 1 and er = j3. Find the dB value of reflected power.
4. Light is incident from air onto metal plate of refractive index 1.52 at Brewster angle.
Determine incident and transmitted angles and also find the reflection coefficient for
the perpendicular polarization.

REFERENCES

[1] Maxwell, James, C., A Dynamic Theory of the Electromagnetic Fields, Scientific
papers reprinted by Devers, NY, 1952.
[2] Jordan, E.C. and K.G. Balmin, Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Structures,
2nd ed., Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 1995.
[3] Das, A. and S.K. Das, Microwave Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2000.
[4] Paul, C.R., et al., Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields, McGraw-Hill, USA.
C H A P T E R

Antenna Fundamentals
3 and Parameters

INTRODUCTION

Communications between human beings began first by sound through voice using devices
such as drums. The visual methods such as signal flags and smoke signals were also used
for this purpose. Later, for all the long distance communication, the electromagnetic waves,
outside the visible region, have been employed, through the use of radio. The antenna used
in this communication is termed radio antenna, which is an essential component in the radio
communication system [1]. By the definition of an antenna, information can be transferred
between different locations without any intervening structures. Antennas are popular in
broadcast situations where one transmit terminal can serve unlimited number of receivers,
which can be mobile phones (or car radio sets). The group of frequencies of the electromagnetic
(EM) waves carrying this information form EM spectrum which is one of humankinds
greatest natural sources and the antenna has been instrumental in harnessing this source.
Most antennas are reciprocal devices and show identical behaviour on transmit/receive signals.
Antennas have directional characteristics; EM power density is radiated from a transmitting
antenna with intensity that varies with the angle around the antenna.

Types of Antenna
There are various configurations of antennas (Fig. 3.1); broadly they can be classified as
given in Table 3.1. In other words, based on their performance and function of frequency,
the commonly used antennas (across the radio spectrum) are divided into four groups:
Electrically small antennas
Resonant antennas
Broadband antennas
Aperture antennas

56
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 57

Dipole Loop Patch

Slot Spiral Helix

YagiUda Horn Notch

FIG. 3.1 Various antenna configurations.

TABLE 3.1 Various types of antenna

Shape and geometry Gain Beam shapes Bandwidth


Wire antennasdipole, High gainDish Omnidirectional Widebandlog, spiral
loop, helix antennas antennas Dipole antennas and helix antennas
Aperture antennas Medium gainHorn Pencil beam Widebandlog, spiral
Horn, slot antennas antennas dish, array antennas and helix antennas
Printed antennas Low gainDipole, loop, Fan beamone- Narrow bandPatch
patch, spiral antennas slot and patch antennas dimensional array and slot antennas.

Electrically small antennas are much less than operating wavelength. They are simple
in structure and their properties are not sensitive to construction specifications. These antennas
are used for VHF frequencies applications. The vertical monopole used for AM reception on
cars is a best example. It is about 0.002l long and has nearly omnidirectional pattern in
horizontal plane. Resonant antennas are often used where simple structure with good input
impedance over a narrow band of frequencies is needed. It has a broad main beam and low
or moderate gain. The l/2 dipole, Yagi antenna and patch antenna are the popular examples.
There are many applications that require antenna which could operates over a wide
frequency range, such antenna is known as broadband antenna. They have acceptable
performance over a 2:1 bandwidth ratio of upper to lower operating frequency. Examples are
log-periodic dipole, Yagi and spiral antennas. Since only portion of a broadband antenna is
responsible for radiation at a given frequency, the gain is low. But it may be an advantage
to have gain that is nearly constant, although low [2, 3].
58 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Aperture antenna is usually several wavelengths long in one or more dimensions. The
pattern usually has a narrow main beam leading to high gain. Bandwidth is moderate as large
as 2:1. Most useful aperture antenna is a horn antenna; it acts as a funnel directing waves
into the connected wave-guide.

Applications of Antenna
Non-communication applications of antenna include remote sensing and industrial applications.
Remote sensing systems are either active (radar) or passive (radiometry). They receive scattered
energy or inherent emission from the object respectively. The received signals are proposed
to infer information about the object or scenes. Industrial applications are mainly cooking
and drying using high frequency waves. There are several other applications of antenna. For
example, mobile communication involving aircraft, spacecraft, ships or land vehicle requires
antennas. Non-broadcast radio applications such as municipal radio and amateur radio also
require antennas. Personal communications devices such as pagers and cellular phones are
common places where antennas are being used.

ISOTROPIC RADIATOR AND RADIATION FIELD

An isotropic radiator is a theoretical point antenna that cannot be realized in practice. It


radiates energy equally well in all directions, as shown in Fig. 3.2(a). The radiated energy
will have a spherical wave front with its power spread uniformly over the surface of a
sphere.

FIG. 3.2(a) Isotropic radiator.

If the source transmitting power is Pt, the power density Pd at a distance R from the
source can be calculated using

Pt
Pd = W/m 2 (3.1)
4Q R 2
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 59

Although the isotropic antenna is not practical, it is commonly used as a reference with
which to compare other antennas. For a large value of R, the transmitted wave can be
G
approximated by uniform plane. The electric field ( E ) is ^r to direction of propagation and
G G G G
H is normal to E and n is unit rector along the direction of propagation. Both E and H
lie in the constant-phase-plane and the wave is a TEM wave [see Fig. 3.2(b)].

FIG. 3.2(b) Plane wave.

1 E2
As time-average power density is Pd = , one can find the electric field at a
2 I0
distance R from isotropic antennas as follows [4]:

60 Pd
E= = 2 Erms (3.2)
R
where E is peak magnitude of electric field and Erms is its rms value.

Far-field Region
Generally, it is assumed that the antenna operated properly in the far-field region and radiation
pattern are measured in this region only. In the far-field region, the transmitted wave of the
transmitting antenna resembles a spherical wave from the point source that only locally
resembles a uniform plane wave. To derive the far-field criterion for the distance R, consider
the maximum antenna dimension to be D as shown in Fig. 3.3. We have
2
D
R 2 = ( R 'l)2 +
2
2
D
= R2 + ('l)2 2R'l + (3.3)
2
60 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 3.3 Calculation of far-field region criterion.

For R >> Dl, Eq. (3.3) becomes 2RDl D2/4. Therefore

D2
R= (3.4)
8'l

If we let, Dl = l0/16, which is equivalent to 22.5 phase error, be the criterion for far-field
operation, we have

2D 2
Rfar-field = (3.5)
M0
Thus, the condition for far-field operation could be given by

2D 2
R (3.6)
M0
where l0 is the free space wavelength and D is the maximum aperture/dimension of the antenna.
The far-field conditions are summarized as follows:

2D 2
R> (3.7a)
M0
R >> D (3.7b)
r >> l (3.7c)
The condition R >> D is associated with the approximation R = r for use in the magnitude
2Q r
dependence. The condition r >> l follows from br = >> 1. Equation (3.5) is a
M
sufficient condition for the antenna operating in the UHF region and above. However, at
lower frequencies, where antenna is small compared to the wavelength, the condition of far-
field region is given by Eq. (3.6), provided that all conditions in Eq. (3.7) are satisfied. In
far-field region, the radiation pattern of an antenna is independent from the distance [5].
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 61

ANTENNA PARAMETERS

Input Impedance and VSWR


The input impedance is the one port impedance appearing into the antenna. It is impedance
presented by the antenna to the receiver or transmitter connected to it. If the input impedance
of an antenna (Zin) is not equal to the characteristic impedance (Z0) of Tx, line used to feed
the antenna, impedance mismatching occurs. In this situation, total voltage and current
present across the Tx line are expressed as the sum of two travelling waves moving opposite
directions as on infinite Tx line. The waves travelling from left to right are regarded as
incident waves having voltage and current V0 and I0, and waves travelling opposite to these
as reflected waves, having voltage and current V1 and I1 (say) (Fig. 3.4). As a result of these,
two travelling waves along the Tx line, third wave, are generated known as standing wave
and described by voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR). The voltage V at any point on the
line is equal to the sum of the voltages V1 and V0, i.e., V = V0 + V1. The ratio of reflected
to incident voltages is constant, and termed as reflection coefficient (r), i.e.

V1
Sv = (3.8)
V0

It can also be described in terms of impedances as:

Z A Z0
Sv = (3.9)
Z A + Z0

Hence, the input impendence of an antenna (ZA) can be expressed in terms of rv as follows:

1 + Sv
Z A = Z0 (3.10)
1 Sv

For maximum power transfer or perfect matching the input impedance of the antenna should
be equal to Z0. However, VSWR is given by

Vmax I max
VSWR = = (3.11)
Vmin I miin

where (Vmax, Imax) and (Vmin, Imin) are the maximum and minimum values of voltage and
current respectively.
Hence, equation (3.11) becomes,

V1
1+
V0 + V1 V0 1 + Sv
VSWR = = = (3.12)
V0 V1 V 1 Sv
1 1
V0
62 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Total wave

Vmax
Vmin
I

Z0
Source Zi Antenna
V

Incident wave

Reflected wave

FIG. 3.4 Impedance matching antenna as load.

and the return loss in the process of energy transfer is given by


RL = 20 log |r| dB (3.13)
That is optimum VSWR appears when |r| = 0 and corresponding value of VSWR = 1. This
means all the power is being transmitted to the antenna and there is no reflection (no power
loss). On the other hand, maximum VSWR occurs, when |r| = 1 and VSWR = . This is case
when all the power reflected back and there is no power transmission to the antenna. Typically,
VSWR less than 2 is acceptable for most of the applications. The power reflected from the
antenna is |r|2 times the power available from the source. The power coupled to the antenna
is (1 |r|2) times the power available from the source.
Transmission coefficient for voltage

2Z A
*v = = 1 + Sv (3.14a)
Z 0 + Zi

Reflection coefficient for current

Z 0 Z in
Si = = Sv (3.14b)
Z 0 + Z in

Transmission coefficient for the current

2 Z0
*i = = 1 + Si (3.14c)
Z 0 + Zi

The equivalent circuit models of Tx and Rx antennas are shown in Figs. 3.5 and 3.6 respectively.
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 63

Source Antenna
Guide

A
XS RA

RS Rr

B
VS XA

(a) Thevenins equivalent

IS GS BS BA Gl Gr

(b) Nortons equivalent

FIG. 3.5

Equivalent Circuits of Tx Antenna


In general, antenna impedance is expressed by
ZA = RA + jXA
where RA is the antenna resistance and XA is the antenna reactance. Antenna resistance RA
is sum of the two resistances; radiation resistance (Rr) and loss resistance (Rl), i.e. RA = Rr
+ Rl. The radiation resistance (Rr) relates the radiated power to the current (or voltage) at
the antenna terminals by Rr = 2Pr /|I|2 W.
In this model it is considered that the source is connected directly to the antenna. If not
so, i.e. if there is guiding structure (Tx line) between the source and the antenna, the
Zs = Rs + jXs represent the equivalent impedance of the source/generator, transferred to the
input terminals of the antenna. Existence of Tx line may cause significant loss of power. The
maximum power transformation from source to antenna happens only when conjugate matching
of impedance is occurred, i.e.
RA = R r + Rl = R s and XA = Xs
64 Antenna and Wave Propagation

ZL load Antenna

A
RA

XL Rr

RL VA

XA

(a) Thevenins equivalent

GL BL BA Gl Gr IA

(b) Nortons equivalent

FIG. 3.6

Using circuits theory, the following expressions are derived in the condition of matched
impedances:
(i) The power delivered to the antenna
2
Vs
PA = (3.15a)
8(Rr + Rl )
(ii) Radiated power
2
Rr Vs
Pr = (3.15b)
(Rr + Rl )2 8

(iii) Power dissipated as heat in antenna


2
Rl Vs (3.15c)
Pl =
(Rr + Rl )2 8
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 65

(iv) Power dissipated as heat in antenna


2
Vs
Ps = PA = (3.15d)
8(Rr + Rl )2

Equivalent Circuit of Rx Antenna


The incident space wave induces voltage VA (say) at the antenna terminals, when antenna is
open circuited. Similar to transmitting antenna, the following expressions for delivered power
are found in condition of conjugate matched impedances:
(i) The power delivered to the load is
2 2
VA VA
Pl = = (3.16a)
8 RL 8 RA
(ii) The power dissipated as heat in the antenna is
2
VA Rl
Pa = (3.16b)
8 R A2
(iii) The re-radiated power is
VA Rr (3.16c)
Pr =
8 R A2
(iv) Total received power captured is

VA2 VA
2

Pc = = (3.16d)
4(Rr + Rl ) 4 RA

Conjugate impedance matching is compulsory between the antenna and the load (receiver)
to achieve maximum power delivery; RL = RA = Rl + Rr and XL = XA. When conjugate
matched impendence is achieved, only half of the captured power Pc is delivered to the load
(receiver) and another half is still dissipated by the antenna as antenna losses. Antenna losses
take place in terms of heat dissipation Pl and scattered power Pr. Even in case of lossless
antenna, only half of the power is delivered to the load (though there is conjugate impedance
matching), the other half being scattered back into space.
The antenna impedance (ZA) is related to the radiated power (Pr), the dissipated power
(Pl) and stored reactive energies as follows [4]:

Pr + Pd + 2jX (Wm We )
ZA = (3.17)
0.5 I 0 I 0*
66 Antenna and Wave Propagation

where I0 is the current at the antenna terminals, We and Wm are the average electric and
magnetic energies stored in the near-field region. When these energies are equal, a condition
of matching occurs, where the reactive of antenna impedance (XA) vanishes. The antenna
impedance is frequency dependent thus it is matched to its source and load in a certain
frequency band. The input impedance of the antenna also depends on many other factors
including its geometry, feed techniques and its proximity to surrounding objects.

Bandwidth
It is found that most of the antennas operate around there resonant point (frequency), i.e.
there is only a limited frequency range over which they can operate efficiently. This is
because outside particular frequency range (BW), the levels of reactance rise high and
deteriorate satisfactory operation of the antenna. The bandwidth of antenna is usually defined
as the frequency range within the performance of the antenna, with respect to a certain
characteristic, conforms to a specified standard; particularly the antenna gain and (FBR)
ratio hold up. The standards may be higher gain than some acceptable value or atleast FBR
or the value of SWR closer to unity. It is expressed as the percentage of the difference
between upper and lower frequencies to the centre frequency. As we have seen in case of
impedance of the antenna, antenna characteristics are affected in different ways as frequency
changes, there is unique definition of the bandwidth. For the antenna of relatively small
dimensions (< half wavelength) and low frequency, the bandwidth is generally measured by
impedance variation, because pattern performance is less sensitive to the frequency, i.e. the
pattern changes less rapidly with the frequency. The most commonly used bandwidths are
pattern bandwidth and impedance bandwidth. In addition, there is another bandwidth known
as radiation bandwidth.

Impedance Bandwidth
It is the range of frequencies over which the input impedance conforms to a perfect matching
and hence maximum power deliberation. This standard is commonly to be VSWR 2
(or |r 0.5|) and translate to a power reflection of about 11%. Certain applications may
require a more stringent specification, such as a VSWR of 1.5 (Fig. 3.7(a)). The operating
bandwidth of the antenna could be smaller than the impedance bandwidth, since other parameters;
Gain, FBR, VSWR, beam width, radiation patterns and polarization are also functions of
frequency and may deteriorate over the impedance bandwidth. Impedance bandwidth also
termed the fractional bandwidth of an antenna and it is a measure of how wideband the
antenna is. For the narrow band antennas [5], fractional bandwidth is defined as
fu f l
FBW = 100% (3.18)
f0

where fu and fl = Upper and lower frequencies


f + fl
f0 = Design/centre frequency u or fu . f l .
2
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 67

Frequency

fl fu

VSWR = 2

Return loss

FIG. 3.7(a) Bandwidth determination of antenna.

The fractional bandwidth varies between 0 and 2, and is often quoted as a percentage
(between 0% and 200%). The higher the percentage the wider the bandwidth. Wideband
antennas typically have a fractional bandwidth of 20% or more. Antennas with a FBW of
greater than 50% are referred to as ultra-wideband antennas. From Eq. (3.18) it is clear that,
higher the difference between fu and fl, wider the bandwidth. However, the development of
frequency-independent antenna led to unlimited bandwidth where upper and lower frequencies
limits are specified independently and, in this case, FBW = fu/f0. In terms of quality factor
Q and VSWR, the bandwidth of an antenna is also defined as
fc VSWR 1
BW = and BW = (3.19)
Q Q VSWR

Total energy stored by the antenna


where Q = 2Q
Energy dissipated per cycle
i.e. the lower value of Q of the antenna leads to higher BW and vice versa.

Pattern Bandwidth
Pattern bandwidth is the frequency range over which the pattern characteristics vary within
the acceptable limits. A broadband antenna generally has a relatively low level of pattern
variation over the bandwidth. However, design techniques used to optimize impedance bandwidth
can degrade pattern bandwidth.
The major factors associated with antennas are their resonance (centre frequencies) and
BW over which they operate. Naturally, they are very important features for the operation
of antenna and as such they are specifications of an antenna. Whether the antenna is used
for broadcasting, Wide Local Area Netowrk (WLAN), cellular and mobile communications,
satellites/radars or any other applications, the performance of the antenna is paramount, and
the resonant frequency and bandwidth are of great importance.
68 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Radiation Bandwidth
This is another feature of antenna that changes with its operating frequency. In the case of
antenna beam, it is particularly noticeable. In particular the front-to-back ratio (FBR) will
fall off rapidly outside a given bandwidth, and so will the gain. In an antenna such as Yagi,
this is caused by a reduction in the currents in the parasitic elements as the frequency of
operation is moved away from the resonance. In such a case, the radiation pattern B/W is
defined as the frequency range over which the gain of the main lobes is within 1 dB of its
maximum values. In general, for many beam antennas, especially high gain it is found that
the impedance BW is wider than the radiation BW, although both the bandwidths are inter-
related in many respects. Similarly polarization bandwidth can also be defined as frequency
range in which polarization of antenna is under acceptable limits (0 dB < AR < 3 dB).

FBR
FBR stands for forward to backward radiation ratio and defined as the ratio of power radiated
in desired direction to the power radiated in opposite direction (Fig. 3.7(b)). That is
Power radiated in forward direction
FBR =
Power radiated in backward direction
FBR is mostly observed in array/Yagi antenna. The FBR changes with frequency of
operation and its value decreases with increasing the spacing between elements. The values
of FBR also depend upon tuning condition as well as electrical length of parasitic elements.
The gain of a directional antenna is inversely coupled to the front-to-back ratioas one goes
up, the other goes down. Therefore higher value of FBR is obtained at the cost of gain of
antenna; because diverting more radiation in opposite direction reduces the gain of antenna.

Backward Forward
radiation radiation

FIG. 3.7(b) Forward and backward radiations.


Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 69

Radiation Resistance
Radiation resistance describes the relation between the total radiated energy from a transmitting
antenna and the current flowing in it. It is fictitious parameter and represented by Rr. Radiation
resistance acts as a load for the transmitter or for the radio-frequency Tx line connecting the
transmitter and antenna. Antenna is a radiating device which emits radiation in the form of
EM waves in the free-space, provided it is excited with proper input power. Since there is
physical contact as well as impedance differences between feed and antenna, there is power
dissipation. As a result, not all power supplied to the antenna is transformed into EM
radiation, but some of it is lost in the heating of antenna wire. That is the total energy
supplied to antenna is used in radiation as well as heating the antenna. Hence associated with
each one, there are resistancesradiation resistance (Rr) and ohmic resistance (Rl). Therefore
the total energy given to the antenna is sum of radiation energy and power dissipation, i.e.,
P = Pr + Pl = I2Rr + I2Rl = I2[(R)r + Rl] = I2R
where R = Rr + Rl. The radiation resistance of a radiator and depends upon
(i) Geometry of the antenna and hence point of measurement of resistance
(ii) Orientation of antenna as well as number of objects present around
(iii) Length and width of antenna conductor
(iv) A luminous discharge round the surface of antenna due to ionosphere of air
Presence of ground significantly affects the radiation resistance, because the EM waves
radiated from it are reflected from ground which induced current in the antenna while
flowing through it. The magnitude of induced current as well as its phase depends upon the
height of antenna from ground. If the height is such that the induced current is in phase with
antenna current, then the total current is larger and this results in a series of variation in the
free space value of radiation resistance. In general since reflected waves are weaker than
incident waves, fluctuation in radiation resistance decreases as height increases. Radiation
resistance of wire antenna and rod-tubing antenna are found between 55 and 65 W; however
for half-wave dipole its value is 72 W.

Directivity
Directivity of an antenna in a given direction is the ratio of the radiation intensity in that
direction and the radiation intensity averaged over all directions. The radiation intensity
averaged over all directions is equal to the total power radiated by the antenna divided by
4p. If direction is not specified, then the direction of maximum radiation is implied. The
directivity Dmax is defined as the value of the directive gain in the direction of its maximum
values. The directive gain D(q, f) over power density radiated by an isotropic radiator fed
by the same account of power is given by

P (R , G )
D(R , G ) = (3.20)
PT /4Q
70 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Pmax (R , G ) Pmax (R , G )
and Dmax = D0 = = 4Q (3.21)
PT /4Q PT

1 G G
where P(R , G ) = Re [ E H ]
2
PT = Total radiated power.
Directivity is a dimensionless quantity. The maximum directivity is always 1.

Directivity of an isotropic source


This is given by
P(q, f) = P0 = constant
PT = 4 p P 0

P (R , G ) 4Q P0
D(R , G ) = 4Q = =1
PT 4Q P0
D0 = 1
Thus by definition, the directivity of an isotropic radiator is one, and that of other antenna
will always be greater than one. Thus, directivity serves as a figure of merit relating the
directional properties of an antenna w.r.t. those of an isotropic radiator.

Partial directivity
The partial directivity of an antenna is specified for a given polarization of the wave. It is
defined as that part of the radiation intensity, which corresponds to given polarization,
divided by the total radiation intensity averaged over all directions. The total directivity is
the vector sum of partial directivities for any two orthogonal polarizations.
D0 = Dq + D f (3.22)

PR
where DR = 4Q
(PT )R + (PT )G

PG
DG = 4Q (3.23)
(PT )R + (PT )G

in which Pq and Pf are the radiation intensities in desired directions containing q and f field
components respectively. (PT)q and (PT)f are total radiated power in all directions of q and
f field components respectively.
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 71

Directivity in terms of relative radiation intensity 3 (q, f)


As per definition, directivity can also be expressed by
[P (R , G )]max
D0 = (3.24)
[ P(R , G )]av
where power density average over a sphere is given by

1 2Q Q
[P(R , G )]av =
4Q
0 0
[P(R , G )] sin R dR dG (3.25)

Therefore from Eq. (3.24), the directivity

P(R , G )max 1
D0 = = 4Q Q 2Q
(3.26)
1 Q 2Q

4Q 0 0
P((R , G )sin R dR dG ) 0 0
P ((R , G )sin R dR dG )

P ((R , G )
where P (R , G ) = .
P (R , G ) max
Q 2Q
The integration 0 0
P (R , G ) sin R dR dG = : A is termed beam solid angle of an

antenna. The beam solid angle of an antenna is the solid angle through which all the power
of radiation would flow provided its radiation intensity is constant and equal to the maximum
radiation intensity Pmax for all angles with WA. Hence, the relation between the maximum
directivity and the solid beam angle is found to be D = 4p/WA. The complexity of the
determination of the directivity D0 depends upon the power pattern P (R , G ) to be integrated
over a spherical surface. But in most practical antenna cases it is not available in closed
analytical form. Hence, in practice, simpler formulas, based on the two orthogonal plane half
power beam widths (HPBW) of the pattern, are often used for fast and approximate calculation
of D0.

Kraus formula
For antennas with narrow major lobes and with negligible minor lobes, the beam solid angle
WA is approximately equal to the product of the HPBWs in two orthogonal E- and H-planes,
i.e., WA = qE qH, where qE and qH are in radians. Hence
4Q
Dk = when qE and qH are in radians (3.27a)
RE RH

4Q 56.94 4.1 10 4
Dk = = when qE and qH are in degrees (3.27b)
R E R H R E R H
72 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Directivity is a parameter of antenna that is most of time, calculated in term measured


power density. There is another approach to calculate the directivity of antenna with the help
of E-plane and H-plane patterns. In experimental work, we measure power pattern in two
principal planes, E-plane and H-plane. These patterns correspond to [Eq (q, 0)]2 in the
E-plane pattern and [Ef (0, p/2)]2 in the H-plane pattern. In terms of these two patterns, the
directivity of antenna can be expressed as

1 1 1 1
= + (3.28)
D 2 D1 D2

2
ER max
where D1 = which corresponds to directivity of antenna with a
1 Q

2
ER (R , 0) sin R dR
2 0
2
rotationally rationally symmetrical pattern ER max
.

2
EG
max
D2 = which corresponds to directivity of antenna with a
1 Q

2
EG (0, Q /2) sin R dR
2 0
2
rotationally symmetrical pattern EG (0, Q /2) .
The arithmetic mean directivity formula (3.28) is quite accurate for the arrays made of
half-wave-dipoles, however for uniform arrays of short dipoles operated in broadside and
end fire configurations, the formula is found to be exact. However, for narrow beam antennas,
D1 and D2 can be estimated in terms of HPBW of E-plane and H-plane patterns as follows:
ln 2 ln 2
D1 16 and D2 16
R E2 R H2
Hence, resultant directivity of antenna will be
32 ln 2
DT = (3.29)
R E2 + R H2
Equation (3.29) is known as Tai and Pereira formula for antenna directivity [6]. For qE =
qH, Eq. (3.29) gives D = 4.62 whereas Eq. (3.27) gives D = 5.09. All the equations involved
in getting DT and DK are obtained by considering the asymptotic expression for the directivity
of an antenna with a rotationally symmetrical power pattern of the form U(q) = cosmq for
(p/2 q 0) and U(q) = 0, for (q > p > p/2) with very large value of m. However the
U max M2
maximum directivity is Dmax = and the maximum effective area is Aem = .
U av 4Q
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 73

Antenna Gain and Efficiency


Similar to directivity, antenna gain is also dimensionless quantity. The gain of an antenna
is the directivity multiplied by the aperture or illumination efficiency of the antenna to
radiate the energy presented at its terminal, i.e.
G = hDmax (3.30)
where h is the illumination efficiency.
The gain of an antenna also defined as the ratio of the radiation intensity P in a given
direction and radiation intensity that would be obtained if the power fed to the antenna is
radiated isotropically (in all directions). That is

P (R , G )
G(R , G ) = 4Q (3.31)
Pin

Gain is calculated via the input power Pin, which is measurable quantity unlike directivity,
which is calculated via the radiated power Pr. Since power radiated by the antenna is always
less than the power fed to the antenna system, i.e., Pr Pin, D G, unless the antenna has
integrated active devices. When antenna has no losses, i.e. Pin Pr, G(q, f) = D(q, f).
However, as per IEEE standards, the gain does not include losses arising due to impedance
and polarization mismatching. Therefore gain takes into account only the direct and conduction
losses of the antenna system itself. Partial gains with respect to given-field polarizations are
determined in the similar way as the partial directivities of antenna. In general, the narrower
the beam width, the higher the gain of antenna.
In experimentation, the gain of antenna, also called forward gain, is defined as the
ratio of the signal transmitted by an antenna in the maximum direction to that of a standard
or reference antenna. Basically there are two types of reference antenna used. One is dipole
antenna, which is easily available and considered as basis antenna for many other antennas.
In this case gain often expressed in dBd, i.e. gain expressed in decibels over a dipole. The
second one is isotropic radiator. In this case gain specified in dBi, i.e. gain in decibels over
an isotropic source. It is possible to relate two gains as dipole has a gain of 2.1 dB over an
isotropic source, i.e. 2.1 dBi. In other words, the gain over an isotropic source will be 2.1 dB
higher than those relative to a dipole. So, when choosing and looking for gain specifications,
be sure to check whether the gain is relative to a dipole or an isotropic source.
The directive gain (Gg) is a measure of the extent to which the total radiated power is
concentrated in one direction. It defined as the ratio of the power density in particular
direction, at a given distance by antenna under test (AUT), to the power density of an
isotropic antenna, provided both are radiating the same total power. That is, it is a quantity
that varies with the change in directions and solely depends on the distribution of radiated
power in space. It is free from input power as well as antenna losses. However, power gain
(Gp) is defined as the ratio of the radiated power density by actual antenna, to that of an
isotropic antenna at same distance provided both are given same input power. That is, both
define gain of an antenna; directive gain after radiation and power gain before radiation of
waves. The basic difference is that the directive gain considers radiated power whereas
74 Antenna and Wave Propagation

power gain involves input power to the antenna, i.e. power gain also takes into account the
losses occurs in the antenna. They may be related as
Gp = h G g
where h is termed efficiency of antenna and its value lies between 1 and 0. In case there are
no losses in the antenna, Gp = Gg.
The efficiency of antenna represents the fraction of total energy supplied to it, which
is converted into free space EM waves. In general, it is defined as the power radiated from
antenna to total power supplied to the antenna, i.e.

Radiated power Prad Prad


Antenna efficiency (h ) = = = (3.32a)
Total input power Pin Prad + Ploss
where Prad = actual power radiated
Pin = power coupled to the antenna
Ploss = power lost in the antenna (conductor dielectric losses)
As power is proportional to resistance (i.e. P0 = I2R), antenna efficiency can also be
expressed as
Rr
I= (3.32b)
Rr + Rl
where Rr and Rl are the radiation and loss resistances respectively.
The total efficiency of the antenna (hT) represents the total loss of energy at the input
terminals of the antenna and within the antenna structure. It includes all mismatch losses as
well as the dielectric and conduction losses; hence it can be expressed as follows:
h T = h p h r h c h d = h ph r h (3.33)
In which, h = h c hd and called radiation antenna efficiency, which is used to relate gain and
directivity. The conduction and dielectric efficiencies hc and hd are measured experimentally.
Here the subscripts p, r, c and d represent reflection, polarization, conduction and
dielectric respectively. The reflection efficiency can be calculated in terms of reflection
coefficient at the input terminal as follows:
h r = 1 | r| 2 (3.34)
If polarization losses are negligible or zero, the total efficiency (h t) relates to the radiation
efficiency (h) by
hT = h(1 |r|2) (3.35)
where r is the volatage reflection coefficient at the input terminals of the antenna.

Radiation Pattern
Radiation pattern generally describes the normalized field/power values with respect to the
maximum values. The radiation pattern of antenna is the representation (or trace) of the
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 75

radiation properties of the antenna as a function of space coordinates (angles and distances).
The radiation pattern is measured at electrically large distance where spatial (angular) distribution
of the radiated power does not depend on the distance. At the large distances, the power
density drops off as (r2) in any direction [7]. The variation of power density with angular
position can be plotted by the radiation pattern. Generally, the field intensities (E and H) or
received/transmitted powers are measured at a constant distance from the antenna and plotted,
and they are referred as field pattern and power pattern. The power pattern and field pattern
are the same when they are computed and plotted in dB. However, both the patterns are
related to each other field pattern is square root of power pattern, i.e.

E (R , G )
I H (R , G ) P(R , G ) (3.36)
I
In the view of properties of EM waves, the antenna has E plane and H plane patterns
each with co- and cross-polarizations. The E plane pattern refers to the plane containing the
electric field vector (Eq) and the direction of maximum radiation with Ef as cross-polarization
components. Similarly, the H plane pattern contains the magnetic field vector (Hq) and the
direction of maximum radiation with Hf as cross-polarization components. The radiation
pattern of antenna is a 3-D plot and hence the co-ordinate system used for the same is the
spherical co-ordinate (r, q, f), with antenna to be located at the origin [see Fig. 3.8(a)].

FIG. 3.8(a) 3D Antenna pattern co-ordinate system.

HPBW, FNBW, Side Lobe Level and Antenna Resolution


In direction of the maximum beam, the angle between the two directions in which the
radiation intensity is half of that of maximum value is termed the half power BW (HPBW).
In other words, the half power BW is the range in degrees in which the radiation falls to
76 Antenna and Wave Propagation

one half of its maximum values (or 3 dB down). Usually it referred to as 3 dB beam width
and it increases as side lobes decrease and vice versa. It is a very important figure of merit,
used to describe the resolution capabilities of an antenna. The half-power beam width is
approximately equal to FNBW. Two- and three-dimensional antenna radiation patterns along
with HPBW, FNBW and all lobe levels are shown in Figs. 3.8(b) and (c) respectively. In
particular, the radiation pattern of a half-wave dipole antenna is shown in Fig. 3.8(d). The
side lobes are power radiation peaks in addition to the main lobe. They are given as the
number of decibels below the main lobe peak. FNBW refers to first null beam width. In
practice the test antenna is used as receiver and Tx antenna is placed in the far-field region
of the test antenna and vice versa; this is because radiated fields are plane waves in the
vicinity of the Tx antenna.

FIG. 3.8(b) 2D Antenna pattern characteristics.

First null beam width (FNBW)


Major lobe

Half power beam width (HPBW)

Side lobe
Minor lobes
y

Back lobe
Minor lobes
x

FIG. 3.8(c) 3D Radiation pattern characteristics.


Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 77

0 dB

10
20
30

Antenna

FIG. 3.8(d) Typical radiation pattern of a half-wave dipole antenna.

A convenient equation for predicting the HPBW of an antenna is also given by [5].

M0
HPBW = K (3.37)
DA

where DA is the aperture dimension in the plane of pattern. K is constant; one can use
K = 70. So, if the length of antenna is 5 cm, the beam width at 20 GHz, in the plane of
length, will be 70.
Side lobe level (SLL) is defined as the ratio of the pattern value of a side lobe peak
to the pattern value of the main lobe. The largest side lobe level for the whole pattern is the
maximum (relative) side lobe level. Mathematically, it is given by

F (SLL)
(SLL)dB = 20 log (3.38)
F (max)

where |F(max)| is the maximum value of the pattern magnitude and |F(SLL)| is the pattern
value of the maximum of the highest side lobe magnitude. For a normalized pattern, F(max)
is 1.
Resolution of an antenna is equal to half of the first null beam width, i.e. FNBW/2.
That is, if any antenna has FNBW = 3, so it has resolution of 1.5. We also know that half
power beam width is approximately equal to half of FNBW, i.e. HPBW = FNBW/2 and
product of HPBW in two orthogonal planes of the antenna pattern is referred as solid beam
angle or antenna beam area, i.e.

FNBW FNBW
: A = (R E , R H ) HPBW =
2 E 2 H

which reveals that the total number of transmitters (N, say) of radiation distributed uniformly
over sky, which an antenna could resolve, is approximately proportional to 4p/WA. Hence
D = N = 4p/WA. That is ideally the number of transmitter/point sources that an antenna can
resolve is numerically equal to the directivity of the antenna.
78 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Radiation Intensity, Beam Efficiency and Solid Angle


Radiation intensity in a given direction is defined as the power per unit solid angle radiated
by the antenna in that direction, i.e.
dPr
U= W/Sr (3.39)
d:
However, the radiation power density P is the Poynting vector magnitude of the far-field, i.e.

dPr
P= W/m 2 (3.40)
ds
There is radiation between radiation intensity and radiation power density
U = r2 P (3.41)
Radiation intensity is useful in calculating gain and directivity of an antenna. It is measured
in W/Sr. The far-field magnitude depends on r as r1 and hence the power density of the far-
field depends on r (distance from the source) as r2. Thus the radiation intensity U is
independent from the distance (r) and depends only on the direction (q, f), i.e., angular
positions. In the far-field region, the radial field component vanishes, and the remaining
transverse component of the electric and magnetic fields are in phase and have magnitude
related by |E| = h |H|. That is why the far-field Poynting vector has only a radial component
and it is a real number corresponding to the radiation density
2
1 E 1
IH
2
Prad = P = = (3.42)
2 I 2

Therefore, the radiation intensity can be expressed in terms of the fields as

r2 2 1 2
U (R , G ) = E = r 2I H (3.43)
2I 2
2
If Eq and Ef are the field components of E along q and f directions E = ER2 (r, R , G ) + EG2 (r, R , G ) .
Then, Eq. (3.43) reduces to

r2
U (R , G ) = ER2 (r, R , G ) + EG2 (r , R , G ) (3.44a)
2I

1
or U (R , G ) = ER2p (R , G ) + EG2p (R , G ) (3.44b)
2I

where h is the intrinsic impedance of medium.


Equations (3.44a and b) lead to a useful relation between the field pattern and power
pattern.
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 79

Radiation intensity and radiation pattern of an isotropic radiator


These are given by
Pr
P(r , R , G ) =
4Q r 2

Pr
U (R , G ) = r 2 P = = constant
4Q

U (R , G ) = 1 (3.45)

where U (R , G ) is normalized radiation intensity. From Eq. (3.45), it is clear that the normalized
radiation pattern of an isotropic radiator is simply a sphere of unit radius.
Beam efficiency is defined as the ratio of the power radiated in a cone of angle 2q1
(say) and the total radiated power. The angle 2q1 can be generally any angle, but usually
this is the first null beam width, i.e.
2Q R1

Beam efficiency =
PR 1
=
U (R , G ) sin R dR dG
0 0
(3.46)
Q Q
PT 2
U (R , G) sin R dR dG
0 0

Equation (3.46) defines beam efficiency, provided the antenna has its major lobe directed
along the z-axis (q = 0). If q1 is the angle where the FNBWs minima occurs in two
orthogonal planes, then the beam efficiency will represent only the part of the total radiated
power channeled through the main beam. Antennas of very high beam efficiency are needed
in radar, radiometry and astronomy.
One steradian is the solid angle with its vertex at the centre of a sphere of radius r,
which is subtended by a spherical surface of area equal to that of a square with each side
of length r. It is defined as

S:
Solid angle (W) = Sr (3.47)
r2
where SW is angular area. As infinitesimal area ds on a surface of a sphere of radius r in a
spherical co-ordinate is given by ds = r2 sin q dq df (in m2).

ds
Therefore, d: = = sin R dR dG (Sr) (3.48)
r2

and ds = r2 dW
80 Antenna and Wave Propagation

EFFECTIVE APERTURE AND EFFECTIVE HEIGHT

Effective Aperture
It is the ratio of the available power at the terminals of the antenna to the power flux density
of a plane wave incident upon the antenna which is polarization matched to the antenna, i.e.

PA
Ae = (3.49)
Wi
where PA = power delivered to the load from the antenna
Wi = power flux density of the incident wave
In case a specific direction is chosen, the direction of maximum radiation intensity is implied.
For aperture types of antenna, the effective area is smaller than the physical aperture area.
Aperture antennas (i.e., parabolic reflector and dish) with constant amplitude and phase
distribution across the aperture have the maximum effective area, which is practically equal
to the geometrical area. The effective aperture of the wire antenna is much larger than the
surface area of the wire itself. Using the Thevenin equivalent of a receiving antenna, the
effective aperture can be expressed in terms of the antenna impedance as
2 2
I A RL /2 VA RL
Ae = = (3.50)
Wi 2Wi (Rr + Rl + RL )2 + ( X A + X L )2

Under the condition of conjugate matched impedance, i.e. XA = XL and RA = Rl = RL.


Equation (3.50) reduces to
2
VA
Ae =
8Wi (RA = Rl + Rr )
i.e.
2
VA
Ae = if Rl = 0 (3.51)
8Wi Rr

The effective area, beam solid angle and gain of an antenna is linked by the expressions

4Q Ae
AeW A = l 2 and G= (3.52)
M2
Hence, maximum effective area (Aem) can be given by

DM 2 M2
Aem = = = 0.077 M 2
4Q 4Q
i.e., all the lossless antenna must have Ae 0.0077l2.
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 81

The aperture efficiency of an antenna is defined as ratio of the effective aperture area
Ae
and its physical area, i.e., I p = , where Ae effective area and Ap physical area of antenna.
Ap
We also know that even in case of lossless antenna only half of power delivered to the
load (received), although there is conjugate matched impedance. Another half power dissipated
back or scattered into space. Power delivered to the load is product of antenna effective area
and incident power density. Therefore to account for another half power density, scattered
and dissipated power, we must define scattered loss and capture areas, such as effective area.

Scattered equivalent area


It is an area which produces scattered/re-radiated power when multiplied with the incident
power density, i.e.
2
Ps I A Rr
Ps = As Wi As = = m2 (3.53)
Wi 2Wi
In case of conjugate matched impedance
2 2
VA Rr VA Rr
As = 2
= m2 (3.54)
8Wi (Rr + Rl ) 8Wi RA2
where Rr + Rl = RA
Hence, scattered power
2
VA Rr
Ps = AsWi = W (3.55)
8 RA2

Loss area
The loss area is defined as the equivalent area which leads to power dissipated from the
antenna under multification with incident power density. Therefore, similar to Eq. (3.54), we get
2
VA Rl
Al = m2 (3.56)
8Wi RA2
2
VA Rl
and power loss Pl = W (3.57)
8 RA2

Capture area
The area which when multiply with the incident wave power density produces the total
power intercepted by the antenna.
82 Antenna and Wave Propagation

2
PT I A ( Rr + Rl + RL )
Ac = = (3.58)
Wi 2Wi

In case of conjugate matching


2 2
VA (Rr + Rl + RL ) VA (RA + RL )
Ac = =
8 Wi (Rr + Rl )2 8 Wi (RA )2

2
VA
= when RA = RL (3.59)
4Wi RA2

On multiplication by the incident power density, Eq. (3.59) leads to total power captured by
the antenna. In general, capture area is the sum of effective area, loss area and scattered area.
A c = Ae + Al + As (3.60)
Under conjugate matching for the antennas

1
Ae = Al + As = Ac (3.61a)
2

If conjugate matching is received for a lossless antenna, then


1
Ae = Al = Ac (3.61b)
2
The effective aperture has more general application to all types of antenna.

Effective height
The effective height of an antenna is another parameter, useful for transmitting tower type
of antennas. It may be defined as the ratio of induced voltage to the incident field across the
antenna,

V
i.e. he = m (3.62)
E
In other words, the effective height of a transmitting antenna is the physical height (length)
multiplied by the ratio of the average current to the peak current, i.e. [8]
1 h I av
he =
I 0
I (z ) dz =
I0
h m (3.63)

where he = effective height (m)


h = physical height (m)
Iav = average current (A)
I0 = peak current (A)
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 83

Effective height can also be expressed as a vector quantity

V = he E = he E cos R (3.64)

where q = angle between polarization angles of antenna and wave (deg)


he = effective height (m)
E = field intensity of incident wave (V/m)
The effective height of an antenna is also linked with radiation resistance (Rr), efficiency (h )
and effective aperture (Ae). We know that the power delivered to the load is

1 V2 he2 E
P= = (3.65)
4 Rr 4 Rr

E2
which is also equal to P = SAe = Ae (3.66)
I0
Comparing Eqs. (3.65) and (3.66) yields

Rr Ae
he = 2 m (3.67)
I
There are some additional parameters related to scattered loss and captured areas, namely
effectiveness ratio, scattered ratio and absorption ratio. They are defined as follows:

Effectiveness ratio (a)

A Effective area
Effectiveness ratio (a) = =
(Ae ) max Maximum effective area

Values of a lies between 0 and 1, a = 1 implies a perfectly matched antenna of 100%


efficiency.

Scattered ratio (b )
The ratio of scattered area to effective area is known as scattered ratio (b); b = As/Ae and
its value lies between 0 and .

Absorption ratio (g)


(Ae ) max
The ratio of maximum effective aperture to the physical aperture, H = , and its
Ap
2
VA
values lie between 0 and ; (Ae ) max = .
8Wi Rr
84 Antenna and Wave Propagation

ANTENNA NOISE TEMPERATURE, NOISE FIGURE AND SNR

Antenna Noise Temperature


In addition to collecting signals from the space, antenna also collects external noise from
source such as ground, sky and other obstacles present. Every object with a physical temperature
above absolute zero (0 K = 272C) radiates the energy and amount of radiated energy is
represented by an equivalent temperature (TB), which is also known as brightness temperature
and expressed as (see [8]).
TB(q, f) = xmTp = (1 |r|2)Tp (3.68)
where xm = emissivity and 0 xm 1
Tp = physical temperature (0 K)
r = reflection coefficient of surface wave for the polarization of wave

Antenna noise is generally not a major component field of total system noise unless
very low noise converters (LNCs) are being used. But, if 1 dB (say) noise figure is being
used, we must attention to the antenna noise. For a lossless antenna, antenna temperature is
strong related to the temperature of distant region of space coupled to the antenna through
its radiation resistance. In this regard, the receiving antenna may be considered a remote
sensing temperature measuring device. Actually the equivalent temperature caused by the
surrounding sources is intercepted by the antenna and appears at the antenna terminals as an
antenna temperature (TA). As far as temperature of antenna, receiver and surrounding (in a
measurement set-up) is concerned there are three cases.
(i) If there is no loss
If in case there is neither mismatch nor guiding structure (Tx line) losses between antenna
and the receiver, then the total noise power transferred to the receiver is given by
Pr = kTADf (3.69)
where Pr = total antenna noise power (W)
k = Boltzmanns constant = 1.38 1023 J/K
TA = antenna temperature (0 K)
Df = bandwidth (Hz)
Therefore the noise power transfer per unit available bandwidth will be
Pr = kTA W/Hz (3.70)
In particular, if an antenna has effective area (Ae) and its beam is directed as a source of
radiation, which produces a flux density (S) at the antenna, then total power received from
the source will be
Pr = S Ae Df (3.71)
Equating (3.69) and (3.71), the power density per unit bandwidth/flux density from the
source at the antenna is
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 85

2
kTA SAe 1 E Ae
S= or TA = = (3.72)
Ae k 2I0 k

where E = electric field intensity (V/m)


h0 = 377 W (intrinsic impedance of free space)

In view of received power from any source at antenna (50% power only received at antenna),
then the total actual flux density/Poynting vector is twice of present flux density (S). Hence

2 SAe 1 Et Ae
2
I0 Ht 2 Ae
TA = = = (3.73)
k I0 k k

Once the antenna temperature is known, the source temperature (Ts) can also be determined
in terms of TA and solid beam angle as follows:

: S TA
Ts = when (Ws < WA) (3.74)
:A

where WS = angular size of source (deg)


WA = antenna solid beam angle (deg)
(ii) If there is transmission loss
If Tx line used between antenna and receiver is lossy, then the antenna temperature seen at
the receiver must have significant modification to include the lines losses. As a result, we
need to modify the antenna noise power at the receiver input. If l is length of Tx line, T0
is constant physical temperature and a is uniform attenuation, then the effective temperature
at the receiver terminals is given by
Te = TAe2a l + T0(1 e2a l) (3.75)
and total effective power received
(Pr)e = kTeDf (3.76)

(iii) If receiver has own temperature Tr


If the receiver has its own centre temperature Tr (due to thermal noise), the system noise
power at the receiver terminals is given by
Ps = k(Te + Tr)Df = kTs Df (3.77)
where Ts = system noise temperature = (Tr + Te)
Te = effective antenna noise temperature
Tr = receiver noise temperature
Ps = system noise power (W)
86 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Effective Noise Temperature and Noise Figure


The noise introduced by a network may also be expressed as effective noise temperature (Te).
Effective noise temperature defined as that fictional temperature at the input of the network,
which would account for additional noise introduced by the network itself at the output.
Effective noise temperature (Te) is related to noise figure (F) as follows (see [9]):

Te + T0
F=
T0

T
or Te = (F 1)T0 and F = 1 + e (3.78)
T0

The noise figure in dB is FdB = 10 log F, where T0 = 290 K = (273 + 17) F.


A complete set-up of receiver arrangement for system noise power measurement, along
with TA, TB, Te, and Tr, is shown in Fig. 3.9.

Te TA TB

Ts = Te + Tr

Tx line

Receiver Length, l

Antenna

FIG. 3.9 Set-up of receiver arrangement.

The devices with no gain (i.e., attenuators) have a noise figure equal to their attenuation,
L (absolute value, not in dB), provided their physical temperature equals T0. Thus, for an
attenuator at a physical temperature Tphy, the effective noise temperature is Te = (L 1)Tphy.
Thus giving a noise figure

(L 1)Tphy
F =1+
T0

Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)


The SNR is defined as the ratio of power received to system noise power, i.e.

Pr
SNR =
PN
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 87

in which the system noise power PN (in watts) is related with the system noise temperature
Ts as follows:
PN = kTsDf

Pr
i.e. SNR = (3.79)
kTs 'f

In general, both signal and noise powers must be measured at the same/equivalent point in
a system and within the same bandwidth. However, if the signal and the noise are measured
across the same impedances, then the SNR can also be calculated in terms of amplitudes.

2
Pr A
SNR = = S
PN AN
P A
SNR(dB) = 10 log r = 20 log S
PN AN

where AS and AN are the rms values of amplitudes. From Friis equation, the received power
by an antenna is
2
M
Pr = Pt Gt Gr
4Q R
Therefore
2
PG G M
SNR = t t r
kTs 'f 4 Q R

We also know that maximum directive gain and effective area of an antenna are related as

4Q Aet 4 Q Aer
Gt = and Gr =
M 2
M2
Hence the value of SNR reduces to
Pt Aet Aer
SNR = (3.80)
(M R)2 kTs 'f

ANTENNA COUPLING
Like other parameters, it also important to discuss the interaction (coupling) between two
antennas paced at finite distance in space for the purposes of Tx and Rx of EM waves. In
order to describe the coupling between two antennas let us consider Fig. 3.10(a). Using the
relations of voltages and currents at the terminals of each antenna as a pair of coupled equations
88 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 3.10 Equivalent circuit model of coupling between two antennas.

V1 = Z11I1 + Z12I2 (3.81a)


V2 = Z21I1 + Z22I2 (3.81b)
If the medium of transmission between antennas is merely free space (which is linear
and isotropic), then Z12 = Z21, representing the general form of the reciprocity theorem,
which states that: If I1 is a current applied to the terminals of Antenna (1) and the terminal
of Antenna (2) is opened (i.e. I2 = 0), then a voltage V2 will appear at the terminals of
Antenna (2) or vice versa at terminals (2) and (1), i.e. I1 = 0 and V1 appears at Antenna (1).
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 89

Then

V2 V1
= (3.82)
I1 I 2 =0
I2 I1 = 0

i.e. the ratio of each driving currents to its resulting open circuit voltages are the same.
Again from Eq. (3.81a), we have

V1
Z12 = (3.83a)
I2 I1 = 0

and from Eq. (3.81b)


V2
Z 21 = (3.83b)
I1 I2 = 0

which implies that Z12 = Z21 = Zm (say)


Thus, Eq. (3.81a and 3.81b) becomes
V1 = Z11I1 + ZmI2 (3.84a)
V2 = ZmI1 + Z22I2 (3.84b)
These equations may be represented as a lumped two-port equivalent circuit [Fig. 3.10(b)].
Equation (3.84) and [Fig. 3.10(b)] are an exact representation of coupling between two
antennas. If Antenna 1 is driven by source with phase source voltage Vs of impedance Zs and
Antenna 2 is terminated in a load impedance ZL, then input impedance (Z1) to Antenna 1,
[see Fig. 3.10(c)], becomes

Z1 = (Z11 Z m ) + Z m {(Z 22 Z m ) + Z L } (3.85a)

and equivalent source impedance (Z2) is equal to

Z 2 = (Z 22 Z m ) + Z m {(Z11 Z m ) + Z s } (3.85b)

The open-circuit voltage source (Voc21) is given by


Voc21 = I1Zm
The power delivered by the source to Antenna 1 becomes
1 2
PT = I1 R1 (3.86a)
2
and similarly, power delivered to the matched load will be
2
I1 Z m
PR = (3.86b)
8R2
90 Antenna and Wave Propagation

provided the load is matched to the receiving antenna, i.e., ZL = ZB (impedance across BB),
where R1 and R2 are resistive parts of impedances Z1 and Z2. Therefore, from Eq. (3.86), we
get
2
PR Zm
= (3.87)
PT 4R1 R2
where Zm is known as mutual impedance between the antennas.
Suppose we modify the arrangement of elements shown in Fig. 3.10(c), and place the
voltage source Vs in the terminated circuit of Antenna 2, retaining impedances Zs and ZL at
their original positions [as shown in Fig. 3.10(d)]. The open-circuited voltage source Voc12
is given by
Voc12 = I2 . Zm (3.88)
In this situation, it is found that Z 1 = Zs and Z 2 = ZL, where Z 1 and Z 2 are impedances at
Antenna 1 and Antenna 2 in case of re-arrangement of elements [see Fig. 3.10(d)]. So, we
can conclude that the input impedance of an antenna when it is used for transmission is
equal to the equivalent source impedance when it is used for reception, provided the terminal
impedances for each antenna remain unchanged.
If the distance between antennas is large, Zm will be small compared to Z11 and Z22,
and Z1 = Z 1 = Z11 and Z2 = Z 2 = Z22 will be independent from the source and load impedances,
Zs and ZL. Equation (3.87) indicates that the amount of power coupled inversely depends on
R1 and R2 and directly on Zm. The coupling impedance (Zm) is related to angular position
(q, f) in the same manner, whether antenna is used as transmitter or receiver. Hence, by
interchanging R1 and R2, when the roles of the antennas are reversed, we can measure the Tx
and Rx patterns of the antennas and obtain the desire results.

ANTENNA POLARIZATION AND PARAMETERS

Antenna Polarization
In general, polarization of EM waves is a time-harmonic field characteristic. In the case of
antennas, we are concerned with polarization of fields in a plane normal to the direction of
propagation. This is because in the far-field zone, the longitudinal field components are
negligible, i.e., the field is a quasi-TEM field. The type of polarization, where the field
vector at a given point traces an ellipse (termed polarization ellipse) as a function of time,
is known as elliptical polarization. This is the most general type of polarization obtained for
any phase difference dL between the fields and the field ratio (Ey/Ex). Linear and circular
polarizations are the special cases of elliptical polarization. The circular polarization may be
classified as RHCP and LHCP. Like the circular polarization, elliptical polarization can be
RHEP and LHEP, depending on the relation between the direction of propagation and the
direction of rotation. With reference to Fig. 3.11, the parameters of the polarization ellipse
are given by
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 91

FIG. 3.11 Polarization ellipse at tilt angle along with field.

( )
1/2
1
Major axis OA = E x2 + E y2 + E x4 + E y4 + 2 E x2 E y2 cos(2E L ) (3.89a)
2

( )
1/2
1 2
Minor axis OB = E x + E y E x4 + E y4 + 2 E x2 E y2 cos(2E L )
2
(3.89b)
2

1 2E x E y
and tilt angle U = arc tan 2 2
cos E L (3.90)
2 E x + E y

Field Polarization in Terms of Two Circularly Polarized Components


The representation of a complex vector in terms of CP components is comparatively less
easy, but more useful in calculation of the polarization parameters. Here the total field is
represented as the superposition of two CP waves: left and right handed CP.
E = EL(x iy) + ER(x + iy)
or = x(ER + EL) + iy(ER EL) (3.91a)
Equation (3.91a) represents the relation between the linear components and circular
components of the field polarization with x and y as the unit vectors. If dL is the relative
phase difference between ER and EL, then dL = fL fR, where fL and fR are phase angles
of LHCP and RHCP waves. Then (Eq. 3.91a) can be re-written as
E = ER(x + iy) + ELejdL(x iy) (3.91b)
92 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Polarization Vector and Polarization Ratio

The polarization vector S L is a normalized phasor of the electric field vector and it is a

complex-number vector of unit magnitude, i.e., S L S L = 1. Mathematically it is given by
E Ex Ey
S L = =x +y e jE L with ET = E x2 + E y2 (3.92)
ET ET ET

In particular cases the polarization vector [i.e., Eq. (3.92)] reduces to

Ex Ey
S LL = x +y (linear polarization) (3.93a)
ET ET

Ex 1
S LC = ( x jy) = ( x jy) (circular polarization) (3.93b)
Ex 2 2

as E x = E x and ET = 2 E x = 2 E y

The polarization ratio is the ratio of the phasors of the two orthogonal polarization components.
It is a complex number and mathematically it is given by

Ey E y e jE L EV
rL = rL eE L = = or rL = (3.94)
Ex Ex EH

However, in the case of circular components, the polarization ratio is defined as rc = rcejdc
= ER/EL. It is also known as circular polarization ratio, where t = dc/2 is termed the tilt
angle. The circular polarization ratio rc is of particular interest, since the axial ratio (AR) of
rc + 1
the polarization ellipse can be expressed as AR = .
rc 1

Polarization Loss Factor and Polarization Efficiency


In general, the polarization of the receiving antenna differs from the polarization of the
incident wave; the condition is termed polarization mismatch. A parameter representing the
loss of EM power due to polarization mismatch is known as polarization loss factor (PLF)
and given by (see [10]).
PLF = |ri ra|2 (3.95)
where ri and ra are the polarization vectors of incident wave and receiving antenna respectively.
The polarization efficiency has the same physical sense as the PLF. The value of polarization
loss factor lies between 0 and 1 (i.e. 0 PLF 1). If PLF = 1, then antenna is polarization-
matched and there is no polarization power loss. If PLF = 0, then the antenna is incapable
of receiving the signal.
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 93

RECIPROCITY THEOREM

There are several forms of the reciprocity theorem; however, the most common one is: If
an emf is applied to the terminals of Antenna 1 (Tx) and current is measured at the terminals
of Antenna 2 (Rx), then an equal current (in both amplitude and phase) would be observed
at the terminals of Antenna 1 (Tx) in case the same emf is applied to the terminals of antenna
2 (Rx). This theorem was originally proposed by Rayleigh in 1929. There are some considerations
involved in the reciprocity theorem:
(i) The values of emf should have the same frequency, and the media between Tx and
Rx need to be linear, passive and isotropic.
(ii) Generator and ammeter need to have either zero or equal impedance. Reciprocity
theorem will be more powerful if impedances of generator and ammeter are large
(Zs = Zm = ); in such cases, the generator becomes constant source and ammeter
becomes an infinite-impedance voltmeter.
(iii) There should be polarization matching between Tx and Rx; it is necessary because
antennas (Tx/Rx) need to transmit and receive the same field components; hence
there is total power radiation. In case an antenna is used as a probe to measure the
radiation fields of AUT of different polarization, even though radiation patterns are
the same. For example, if Tx antenna is circularly polarized and probe antenna is
linearly polarized and used to measure q and f-components of radiation field one by
one, then the sum of two components can be a circularly polarized pattern in either
case of Tx/Rx mode.
In order to prove reciprocity theorem, let us refer to Figs. 3.12 and 3.13, where an
antenna is used as transmitter and receiver respectively. Since any 4-terminal network can
be reduced to an equivalent T-section, in both the cases antennas (Tx and Rx) are represented
by T-networks.

I01 Z1 Z2

I2 Zm I2
V1 V1
Mesh 1 Mesh 2

FIG. 3.12 Antenna 1 as Tx and its T-network.

From Figure 3.12


V1 V2
= Z12 = Z 21 =
I2 I1
94 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Then from Mesh 1, the current I01 is

V1 V1 (Z 2 + Z m )
I 01 = = (3.96)
Z2 Zm Z1 Z m + Z1 Z 2 + Z 2 Z m
Z1 +
Z2 + Zm

Again from Mesh 2,


(Z 2 + Z m )I 2 Z m I 01 = 0
Therefore current across the ammeter will be

I Z
I 2 = 01 m
(Z 2 + Z m )
Substituting the value of I01 from Eq. (3.96) yields

Zm V1 (Z 2 + Z m ) V1 Z m
I2 = = (3.97)
(Z 2 + Z m ) Z1 Z m + Z1 Z 2 + Z 2 Z m Z1 Z m + Z1 Z 2 + Z 2 Z m

In case Antenna 2 is used as transmitter (i.e., the location of source and ammeter is interchanged
as in Fig. 3.13), then from Mesh 1, the current I02 is

V2 V2 (Z1 + Z m )
I 02 = =
Z1 Z m Z1 Z m + Z1 Z 2 + Z 2 Z m
Z2 +
Z1 + Z m

I02 Z2 Z1

I1 Zm I1
V2 V2

Mesh 1 Mesh 2

FIG. 3.13 Antenna 2 as Tx and its T-network.

Again from Mesh 2,


(Z1 + Z m )I1 Z m I 01 = 0
Therefore the current across the ammeter

I Z
I1 = 02 m
(Z 2 + Z m )
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 95

Substituting the value of I02 from Eq. (3.97) yields


V2 Z m
I1 =
Z1 Z m + Z1 Z 2 + Z 2 Z m

Therefore from Eqs. (3.97) and (3.98), it is clear that


I1 = I2
Provided V1 = V2.
Thus the radiation pattern of Tx and Rx are the same in the two cases. Using reciprocity
theorem, it can also be proved that the effective lengths, antenna impedances and directivities
of Tx and Rx are also equal. Power flow in antennas will also be the same, provided there
is proper impedance matching in the set-up. However, there are certain limitations in the
theorem; it is true only for separate antennas and not for two points on the antennas. It is
valid for radiation pattern and not for current distribution in Tx and Rx. Reciprocity theorem
fails when wave propagation between antennas is affected by the earths magnetic fields and
also when communication takes place through the ionosphere.

SOLVED EXAMPLES

Example 3.1 The distance between two horn antennas situated in free space is 200 m. The
antennas are identical. The dimensions are 12 6 cm2 and have directive gains of 15 dB in
the direction of transmission. Determine (a) whether the receiving antenna is in the far-field
of the transmitter, (b) the received power, and (c) the electric field intensity at the receiving
antenna. Assume that the transmitting power is 5 W at a frequency of 2 GHz.
Solution: The far-field distance will be

2d 2 2 12 2
df = = = 28.8 cm
M 10
which is less than 100 m; hence both the antennas are in the far-field region of each other.
The received power is
(PR)dB = (PT)dB + (GT)dB + (GR)dB 20 log fHz 20 log Dm + 148
= 6.98 + 15 + 15 20 log (2 109) 20 log (200) + 148
= 26.98 + 148 20 (log 2 + 9 + log 2 + 2)
= 184.98 20 (9 + 0.477 + 0.2010 + 2)
= 50.58 dB = 8.75 mW
The magnitude of the electric field near the receiving antenna is obtained as

60 PT GT 60 5 31.62
E = = = 0.487 V/m
d 200
96 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Example 3.2 Calculate the maximum effective aperture of the Hertzian dipole for an incident
linearly polarized uniform wave.
Solution: Let a dipole of input impedance Zin = Rrad + jX be terminated along its length
in an impedance ZL, such that Zin = Rrad jX, i.e., the dipole is supposed to be lossless. For
maximum response, let us suppose that incident wave is striking in broadside (q = 90) to
the antenna, i.e., the axis of dipole is parallel to the electric field of the incident wave E, then
the average power density in the incident wave is
2
1 E
Sav =
2 I0
and open-circuit voltage |Voc| = |E| dl
Since there is perfect load match, maximum power transfer occurs and the power
received is
2 2
Voc E (dl)2
PR = =
8 Rrad 8 Rrad

2
E (M 0 ) 2
2
dl
Therefore, for a half-wave dipole Rrad 80 ; hence we obtained PR = , and
M 640 Q 2
PR M02
thus the maximum effective aperture is Aem = = 1.5 , as h0 = 120p, which shows that
Sav 4Q
the effective aperture does not necessarily depend on the physical aperture of antenna. We
M02
know that for Hertzian dipoles, Aem depends on frequency through l0 as Aem = Dmax . Thus
4Q
M02
maximum effective aperture of antenna reflects its directivity through , and Dmax = 1.5 in
4Q
this case, when incident angle q is 90. In general, if wave is incident at an angle q, then
induced open-circuit voltage in the antenna will be |Voc| = |E| dl sin q, as (Et = E sin q), where
Et is component of E along the dipole axis. Thus, the maximum effective aperture in this
direction is

M02 M02
em
A = 1.5 sin R = D (R , G )
4Q 4Q
where D(q, f) = 1.5 sin q.

Example 3.3 A 1 m long dipole antenna is fed by a 150 MHz source having resistance of
50 W and an open-circuited voltage of 100 V. If the radius of antenna wire is 4.06 104 m
and the wire is made up of copper, determine the total time average power radiated and the
power dissipated in the antenna.
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 97

FIG. 3.14(a) Half-dipole fed by source VA. FIG. 3.14(b) Equivalent l/2 fed by source Vs.

Solution: We know that radiation resistance and reactance of dipole antenna are Rr = 73 W,
Xin = 42.5 W and skin-depth is defined as

2 1
d = =
XNT Q f NT
1
= = 5.4 10 6 m
7
3.14 150 10 4 3.14 10
6
5.8 10 7

That is, the radius of wire is larger than the skin-depth at the given frequency. Hence, high
frequency approximation for wire resistance can be used for calculation.

Rs 1
Rw = = = 01.25 :/m
2Q rw 2 3.14 4.06 10 6
5.8 10 7 5.4 10 6
The ohmic power loss of the wires is given by

Rw l/2

2
Pl = I ( z) dz
2 l/2

Hence, for half-wave dipole


2
l Im
( Pl )dipole = Rw
2 2
Therefore, the net ohmic resistance of the dipole is

Rw l
Rl = = 0.63 :
2
So, the total input impedance to the antenna as seen by the source is

Z A = Rl + Rr + jX in = 0.63 + 73 + j 42.5 = (73.63 + j 42.5) :


98 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Then the antenna input current is

Vs 100 < 0 o
IA = = = 0.765 < 18.97o A
(Rs + Z A ) (50 + 73.63 + j 42.5)

Therefore, the average radiated and dissipated powers are

1 2 1 2
Prad = I A Rrad = 0.765 73 = 21.36 W
2 2

1 2 1 2
Ploss = IA Rloss = 0.765 0.63 = 184 mW
2 2

Rrad 73
and efficiency I% = = = 99.10%
Rrad + Rloss 73 + 0.63

This efficiency can be improved further by cancelling reactance Xin at the antenna terminal
(i.e., by Xin), a capacitor whose reactance is equal to Xin at 150 MHz, i.e.,
1
= X in = 42.5 : C = 25 pF
XC
Under this condition, antenna current becomes
VS 100 < 0 o
IA = = = 0.809 < 0 o
Rl + Rr 123.63

1 2 1 2
Prad = IA Rrad = 0.809 73 = 23.89 W
2 2

1 2 1 2
Ploss = IA Rloss = 0.809 0.63 = 206.8 mW
2 2

Example 3.4 Find the maximum effective aperture and directivity of the Hertizian dipole
at the frequency of 20 MHz, if an uniform linearly polarized wave incident at an angle 45,
and also find Voc if E = 10 V/m and length is 5 cm.
Solution: (i) We know that for a dipole antenna
D(q, f) = 1.5 sin q
1
= 1.5 sin 45o = 1.5 = 1.061
2
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 99

M02
(ii) Hence Aem = Dmax
4Q

300 300
where M0 = = = 10 m
f MHz 30

10 2
Aem = 1.061 = 8.45 m
4 3.14
(iii) Voc = Edl sinR
1
= 10 5 10 2 sin 45o = 10 5 10 2 = 0.25 V
2

Example 3.5 Determine the maximum effective aperture and directivity of a short dipole,
supposed to be operated at f = 450 GHz.
Solution:
300 300
M0 = = = 67 cm
f MHz 450

Maximum effective aperture can be found only when antenna losses are zero, i.e., RL =
Rr + R l
RL = Rr is radiation resistance.
2
VA
We also know that =
8 Wi Rr
where VA is induced voltage in the dipole and equals |E|dl.
2 2
1 E dl
Also Wi = and Rr = 80 Q 2
2 I0 M

(E dl)2 I0 M02 3 M02


Therefore Aem = = =
E2 2
320 Q 2 8Q
2 dl
8 80 Q
2 I0 M0

Example 3.6 In a 20 km microwave communication link, two identical antennas are operating
at frequency 20 GHz with a power gain of 40 dB. The transmitted power is 1.5 W. Find the
received power if there are no losses.
100 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Solution: As antennas are identical, Gp = Gr = G = 40 dB

40
Therefore, G = antilog = 10 4
10
300
M= = 1.5 10 2 m , Wt = 1.5 W and r = 3 104 m
20 10 3

2
Wr M
We know that = Gt Gr
Wt 4Q r
2
1.5 10 2
2
Wr 2 M 4 2
= G Wt = (10 ) 1.5
4
Wt 4Q r 4 3.14 3 10

1.5 2.25 3.375 10 8


= = = 2.377 10 7 = 23.77 W
(37.68 10) 1419.78

Example 3.7 An antenna with effective temperature 25 K is fed into a microwave amplifier
that has an effective noise temperature of 30 K. Find the available noise power for a noise
bandwidth of 5 MHz.
Solution: Te = 25 K, Tr = 30 K and Df = 5 106 MHz
Hence, Ps = k(Te + Tr) Df = 1.38 1023 (25 + 30) 5 106
= 3.795 1015 W
and therefore the power per unit bandwidth = 7.59 1022 W/Hz.

Example 3.8 The radial component of the radiated power density of an infinitesimal linear
dipole of length l << l is given by

ar Pm sin 2R
Pav = 2
W/m 2
r
where Pm = peak value of power density
q = spherical co-ordinate

ar = radial unit
Find directivity and then effective aperture of the antenna at l = 1.5 m.

Pm sin 2R
Solution: Given that Pr = , as Pav = ar Pr
r2
Therefore the radiation density U = r2Pr = Pm sin2q.
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 101

Hence maximum radiation intensity Umax = Pm, as q = 90


The total power radiated can be obtained by
2Q Q
UT = U d : = 0 0
Pm sin 2 R sin R dR dG

Q 2 8Q
= Pm [2Q ] 0
sin 3 R dR = 4Q Pm
3
=
3
Pm

Hence the directivity,

4QU max 4 Q Pm 3
D= = = 1.5
Prad 8Q

M2 1.5 1.5 1.5


Ae = D= = 0.27 m 2
4Q 4 3.14

Example 3.9 Calculate the effective height of a half-wave dipole antenna operating at
l = 1.55 m if maximum effective area Aem = 0.15 l2.
Solution: We know that

Rr Aem 73 0.15 M 2
he = 2 =2
I 377
= 0.3174 M = 0.3174 1.55 = 0.5 m

Example 3.10 The electric field intensity of wave radiated by an antenna is defined by
Em = sin q sin f, where q is the angle measured from the z-axis and f is the angle measured
from the x-axis. E has value only for 0 q p and 0 f p and zero elsewhere (i.e., the
pattern is unidirectional with maxima in y-direction). Find the exact and approximate directivities
and decibel difference. Also, find the average power density and radiation resistance if the
antenna current is 4.5 A.
Solution: We know that
2Q Q P(R , G ) sin R
Pav =
0 0 4Q
dR dG

E (R , G )
EN = in which Emax = (q, f) = sin 90 sin 90 = 1
Emax (R , G )

EN = E(q, f) = sin q sin f


102 Antenna and Wave Propagation

E2 E2
P(R , G ) = =
I0 377

2Q Q sin 3R sin G 2Q /3
Pav =
0 0 4Q 120 Q
dR dG =
4 3.14 120Q
= 1.38 10 3 W/Sr

(sin 90 sin 90)2 1


Pmax (R , G ) = =
120 Q 120 Q
Normalized power densities

4Q 4Q
D1 = 2Q Q
= =6
2Q /3
0 0
sin 3R sin G dR dG

41000 41000
D2 = = = 5.1
R ER H 90 90

6.0
D = D1 D2 = 10 log = 0.7 dB
5.1
Q 2Q

R=
P:
=
0
sin 3 R 0
sin G dR dG
=
2Q /3
I 2
120Q (4.5) 2
120 Q (4.5)2
= 2.743 :

Example 3.11 If an antenna radiates over a half space above a perfect conducting ground
plane such that E = 60 102 V/m at a distance of 2 km from the antenna. Calculate the
radiated power and the radiation resistance if the antenna terminal current is 60 mA.
Solution: We know that the power density is given by

E2 (60 10 2 )2
S= = = 9.54 10 4 W/m 2
I0 377

Pr = 2Q r 2 S = 2 3.14 (2 10 3 )2 9.54 10 4

= 2.39 10 4 :
1 2 Pr
Pt = I 02 Rr Rr =
2 I 02
2 2.39 10 4
Rr = = 97.55 10 2 k:
(70 10 3 )2
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 103

Example 3.12 (a) The electric field of a linearly polarized EM wave is


G
E i = x Em (x, y)e j C z

It is incident upon a linearly polarized antenna whose polarization is given by


G
Ea = (x + y ) E (r, R , K )
Find the PLF.

(b) An elliptically polarized wave travelling in positive z-direction in a medium of


relative permittivity 4.5. Find the average power per unit area covered by the waves
Ex = 3 sin(w t bx) and Ey = 7 sin(w t bx 60)

2
1 1
Solution: (a) PLF = x (x + y ) =
2 2
Hence, PLF (dB) = 10 log 0.5 = 3.
(b) We know that average power per unit area is equal to the average Poynting vector.

1 E2 1 E2 F r
Sav = =
2 I 2 I0

E 2 = E12 + E22 = 9 + 49 = 58

1 58 4.5
Sav = = 16.32 10 3 W/m 2
2 377

Example 3.13 Why is test antenna preferred for use in receivers?


Solution: In practice the AUT is used as receiver and Tx antenna is placed in the far-field
region of the test antenna and vice versa. This is because radiated fields are plane waves in
the vicinity of test antenna.

Example 3.14 Show that the SNR for a communication link at 1 W transmitter and isotropic
antenna is given by

M2
SNR =
kTS 'f (4Q R)2
Solution: We know that
2
t t Gr M
PG
SNR =
kTS 'f 4Q R
104 Antenna and Wave Propagation

2
1 1 1 M
SNR =
kTS 'f 4Q R

M2
SNR =
(4Q R)2 kTS 'f

This is because Pt = 1 W and directive gain of isotropic antennas are 1.

Example 3.15 Find SNR of a communication link operating with 50 MHz bandwidth over
a distance of 1500 km if the parabolic dish antennas of 1 m diameter operating at 3 GHz.
The transmitter power is 10 W and the receiver system temperature is 200 K.
Solution: The power gain of parabolic circular antenna is
2 2
D 1
Gt = Gr = 6.289 = 6.289 = 628.9
M 0.1
2
t t Gr M
PG
SNR =
kTS 'f 4Q R

2
10 628.9 628.9 0.1
= 2
1.38 10 23 200 50 10 6 4 3.14 1500 10

= 8.211 102 = 29.2 dB

Example 3.16 A satellite transmitter produces an effective radiated power (ERP) at an


earth station of 35 dB over 1 W isotropic. Determine SNR under the following specifications:
(i) Rx antenna effective area = 3.53 m2, temperature = 25 K
(ii) Receiver temperature = 75 K and bandwidth = 20 MHz
(iii) Distance between earth and satellite is 26000 km

Solution:
We know that ERP = PtGt

Since
2
Pt Gt Gr M
SNR =
kTS 'f 4 Q R

ERP M 2 Gr
=
4 Q R 2 kTS ' 4 Q

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 105

ERP Aer
or SNR =
4Q R kTS 'f
2

M 2Gr
where Aer =
4Q
Since the receiver system consists of an antenna and a receiver, hence Tsys = 75 + 25
= 100 K.
ERP = 35 dB = 3163

3162 3.53
SNR = 22 6
4 3.14 1.38 10 100 26 10 20 10
2 12

11161.86
SNR = = 16.6 = 12.2 dB
672.899

Example 3.17 An ideal omni-directional antenna has constant radiation in the horizontal plane
(q), and would fall rapidly to zero outside that plane, in such a way that the pattern follows:
F(0) = 1 for 60 q 120
= 0 elsewhere
Find its directivity.
Solution: The solid beam angle
2Q 120
:A = (F (R , G )2 ) d : = 0 60
12 sin R dR dG

= 2Q { cos (R )}120
60 = 2Q (0.5 + 0.5) = 2Q
Therefore, directivity
4Q
D= = 2 or 3.010 dB
2Q

Example 3.18 Describe the difference between directivity and gain. Are they the same in
any case?
Solution: Directivity of an antenna would be the same as gain, provided all the input
power given appeared as radiated power, i.e. Pin = Pr. However, gain reflects the fact that
practical antenna cannot function as ideal antenna. Some of the power always lost in the
antenna and surroundings. This fact introduces a new parameter called efficiency, those
values lie between 0 and 1.
Pr
I=
Pin

which also gives G = hD


106 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Example 3.19 What are the different units for gain measurement?
Solution: There are three units for gain measurement: dB, dBi and dBd. Of these, dB is
absolute gain, dBi is gain relative to isotropic reference antennas, and dBd is gain relative
to half-wave reference antennas. The dBi and dBd gains are related as follows: dBd = dBi 2.15.
For example, 6.1 dB of any antenna can also be expressed as 6.1 dB = 6.1 dBi = 3.95 dBd.

Example 3.20 Describe ideal dipole and short dipole antennas.


Solution: There are the following differences and similarities between these antennas:
(i) The physical length (Dz) of both the dipoles are the same (Dz << l).
(ii) Both the dipoles have equal directivity (= 1.5), because pattern shape completely
determines directivity.
(iii) The ideal dipole has uniform current distribution (rectangular in shape); the current
on the wire smoothly goes zero at the ends, whereas in short dipole current distribution
is approximately triangular in shape and then goes to zero at the ends (see Fig. 3.15).
(iv) Since the length of both the dipoles satisfies (Dz << l), the pattern of short dipole
will also be sin q, the same as the radiation pattern of ideal dipole.
(v) The radiation resistance of short dipole is one-fourth of that of ideal dipole, because
area is one-half of that of ideal dipole.
(vi) The ohmic resistance of short dipole is one-third of that of ideal dipole.
(vii) Since the radiation resistance decreases more relatively to the ohmic resistance, the
efficiency is lower for the short dipole than it is for an ideal dipole for the same length.

FIG. 3.15 Current distribution along (a) ideal dipole and (b) short dipole.

Example 3.21 Radiation resistance of a short dipole is one-fourth of that of an ideal dipole. Why?
Solution: In short dipole, its triangular current distribution leads to an equivalent length, that
is, one-half of its physical length. This is because the equivalent length is proportional to the area
under the current versus distance curves (see Fig. 3.15). In turn, radiated fields are proportional
to this equivalent length. Since the radiation resistance is proportional to the far-field squared,
the radiation resistance will also be proportional to the equivalent length squared. Since the area
of triangular shape current distribution is one-half of that uniform current distribution on the ideal
dipole, so the radiation resistance is one-fourth of that of the ideal dipole and it is equal to
2
'z
R = 20Q
2

M
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 107

Example 3.22 Find the radiation resistance of a 1.575-m long short dipole operating at
10 6 S
1 MHz, if the diameter of the wire T = 2 is 1.59 cm.
m

Solution:
2
1.575 2
Rr = 20Q 2 = 5.45 10 :
200
2
NX 4Q 10 7 2Q 10 6 2
RS = = = 1.40 10 :
2T 2.2 10 6

LRS 1.575 1.4 10 2


RL = = 2
= 7.26 10 2 :
2.2 Q a 2 2 3.14 1.59 10

Therefore, the efficiency

Rr 5.45 10 2
I= = = 6.7%
Rr + RL 5.45 10 2 + 7.26 10 2

Example 3.23 Derive the expression for an antenna following the pattern:

Q Q
1, for B R + B
F= 2 2

0, elsewhere

Solution: The solid beam angle


2Q Q /2+B
:A = [F (R , G )2 ] d : = 0 Q /2 B
12 sin R dR dG

Q Q
= 2Q { cos (R )}QQ /2+ B
/2 B = 2Q cos + B cos + B
2 2
= 2p (2 sin a) = 4p sin a
Therefore, directivity
4Q
D= = cosec B
4 Q sin B
108 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Example 3.24 Describe the importance of impedance matching in the antenna system.
Solution: Antenna impedance is important for the transfer of power, whether from a transmitter
to an antenna or from an antenna to a receiver. In order to maximize the power at the Rx
antenna, the receiver impedance should be conjugate to the antenna impedance (equal resistance,
equal magnitude and opposite sign). In general, receivers have real value impedance, typically
50 W, so it is necessary to turn out the antenna reactance using a matching network.

Example 3.25 What are disadvantages of impedance matching in antenna systems?


Solution: There are two disadvantages of impedance matching in antenna systems:
(i) Ohmic losses in the network components, such as tuning, reduces antenna efficiency;
(ii) Matching network provides a matching only over a narrow band of frequencies, which
reduces the functional bandwidth of the antenna.

Example 3.26 (a) Define plane waves; (b) Sketch linear and circular polarizations.
Solution: (a) The phase-front (surface of constant phase) of wave radiated by a finite-
sized antenna becomes nearly planar over small observation regions. This wave is referred
as a plane wave and its E and H lie in a plane.
(b) If the electric field vector of a wave moves back and forth along a line, the wave
is said to be linearly polarized, whereas if the E-vector remains constant in length and rotate
around the axis, the wave is said to be circularly polarized. Rotation at radian frequency w,
in one of two directions, is termed sense of rotation (Fig. 3.16).

FIG. 3.16 Various types of polarization.


Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 109

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

1. The horn antenna was developed by


(a) J.C. Bose (1900, India) (b) Maxwell (1800, USA)
(c) J.D. Kraus (1789, UK) (d) None of these
2. Directivity of antenna is determined by
(a) Gain (b) Impedance pattern
(c) Radiation pattern (d) Efficiency
3. Which is not a modern antenna?
(a) Dipole antenna (b) Slot antenna
(c) Reflector antenna (d) Lens antenna
4. Power loss during power transformation through antenna at distance R is proportional
to (R2), whereas power loss during power transformation through a Tx line at
distance R is proportional to
(a) (R2) (b) (R2)
a R
(c) e (d) (eaR)2
5. Directive antennas are useful in point to point communication, whereas omni-directional
antennas are useful in
(a) Broadside situation (b) Microwave ovens
(c) As a feed in reflector (d) None of these
6. Double polarized antennas enable the doubling of communication capacity by carrying
separate information on orthogonal polarizations over the same physical link and at
(a) Different frequency (b) Same frequency
(c) Both of these (d) None of these
7. A type of antenna acts as a funnel and directs the waves into the connecting wave-
guide. This is the
(a) Horn antenna (b) Slot antenna
(c) Reflector (d) Lens antenna
Select the properties which are not possessed by the given antennas in Questions 810:
8. Electrically small antennas
(a) High directivity (b) Low input impedance
(c) High input reactance (d) Low radiation efficiency
9. Resonant antennas
(a) Moderate gain (b) Real input impedance
(c) Narrow bandwidth (d) Finite reactance
10. Broadband antennas
(a) Wide BW (b) Real input impedance
(c) Constant gain (d) High reactance
110 Antenna and Wave Propagation

11. Quasi-fields vary with the distance as


(a) 1/r (b) 1/r2
(c) r2 (d) None of these
12. The distance at which far- and near-fields are equal is (l/2p) is termed
(a) Radian sphere (b) Radian distance
(c) Equi-distance (d) None of these
13. Ohmic losses on an antenna are due to
(a) Antenna temperature (b) Noise figure
(c) Noise temperature (d) Noise sources
14. The external noise picked up by antenna is proportional to the antenna radiation
resistance and it is larger than the noise arising from internal ohmic losses.
(a) True (b) False
(c) Not known (d) None of these
15. The reactive part of input impedance (XA) of an antenna represents power stored in the
(a) Near-field (b) Far-field
(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) Quasi-field
16. The short dipole has a capacitive reactance, whereas an electrically small dipole has
(a) Inductive reactance (b) Capacitive reactance
(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these
17. Helix antenna provides complete
(a) Linear polarization (b) Circular polarization
(c) Elliptical polarization (d) Parallel polarization
18. In general, the value of AR is +ve for RHCP and ve for LHCP. It is measured in
dB, which is converted by using
(a) 10 log AR (b) 10 loge AR
(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) 20 log AR
19. An antenna has directivity of 20 and a radiation efficiency of 90%. What is its gain
(dB)?
(a) 2.55 dB (b) 12 dB
(c) 12.55 dB (d) 90 dB
20. A horn antenna has half-power beam width of 29 in both the principal planes. What
is the directivity in dB?
(a) 22 dB (b) 45 dB
(c) 24 dB (d) 17 dB

Answers
1. (a) 2. (c) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (a)
6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (a) 9. (d) 10. (a)
11. (b) 12. (a) 13. (d) 14. (a) 15. (a)
16. (a) 17. (b) 18. (d) 19. (a) 20. (d)
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 111

EXERCISES

1. Determine the same parameters, taking d = 100 m, and dimensions of antennas are
14 cm 7 cm and operating frequency is 4 GHz.
2. Determine the same parameters and gain of receiving antenna (GR) if D = 100 m,
f = 2 GHz, PT = 5 W, PR = 21.7 mW, GR = 15 dB and the antenna dimensions are
12 cm 6 cm.
3. Determine the electric field intensity at a distance of 10 km from a dipole antenna
of directive gain of 6 dB and radiating power of 20 kW.
4. A certain antenna with an efficiency of 90% has maximum radiation intensity of
0.5 W Sr1. Determine its directivity assuming input power of 0.5 W and radiated
power of 0.4 W.
5. Determine the directivity, if the radiation intensity of an antenna is defined by

4.5 sin 2R sin 2G 0 (R , G ) Q


U=
0 elsewhere

6. The power pattern of an antenna is given by

2 sin 2R sin 2G
P (R , G ) =
Q
within 0 (q) p and 0 (f) p and zero elsewhere. Determine the directivity and
radiation resistance if the antenna terminal current is 2.5 A.
7. In a communication links the Tx and Rx antennas are separated by a distance of 200l
and have directive gains of 25 and 20 dB respectively. Calculate the amount of
power received, if Tx power is 1.582 W.
8. An antenna radiates in such a way that maximum radiated field strength measured
at 25 km from the antenna is 14 mW. Find, it directivity and gain in dB if efficiency
is 95%.
9. A radar operating at 2.5 GHz transmits power of 200 kW. Determine the signal
power density at ranges 200 km and 450 km, if the effective area of the radar
antenna is 9 m2 with a 20 m2 target at 200 km. Calculate the power of the reflected
signal at the radar.
10. The field pattern of an antenna is defined as
E(q) = 2 cos q . cos 2q for 0 (f) p/2
Determine HPBW and FNBW.
11. Estimate the directivity of an antenna with qE = 3 and qH = 1.5. Also calculate the
gain of the antenna if the efficiency of antenna is 60%.
112 Antenna and Wave Propagation

12. Two spacecrafts (A and B) are at a distance of 3 103 km. Each has directivity 200
at 2 GHz. If craft As receiver requires 20 dB over 1 pW, what transmitter power
is required on craft B to achieve this signal level?
13. A wave travelling normally out of the page is the result of two linearly polarized
components, Ex = 4 cos w t and Ey = 5 cos (w t + 90). For the resultant wave, find
(a) axial ratio, (b) tilt angle (t) and (c) nature of rotation (left or right).
14. What do you understand by effective area of an antenna? Show that it can be
expressed as

V2
Ae = M 2 (m2)
4 PRr
15. In a satellite communication, Tx transmits 107 W, 10 s pulse of right-hand circular
radiation at 5 GHz. The antennas at Tx and Rx have the same diameter of 100 m.
What will be the maximum distance at which the signal can be received with
SNR = 2.5 dB? Assume antennas have efficiency of 50% and the earth station has
a system temperature of 20 K and bandwidth of 0.2 Hz.
16. In a mobile communication system, a 5-m diameter antenna radiates at 800 MHz.
How much power is required to establish the link with a mobile user at 10 km with
SNR = 2 dB? The bandwidth is 2 Hz, Tsys = 20 K and effective area of Rx is 20%
of that of Tx antenna.
17. A 2-m long dipole made up of 10.5 mm diameter aluminium is operated at 500 kHz.
Compute its radiation efficiency, assuming:
(i) The uniform current distribution
(ii) The triangular current distribution
18. Compute the gain of an antenna which has radiation efficiency of 90% and follow
the radiation pattern

1 R R 20

F (R ) = 0.707 20 R 120

0 120 R 180

19. (a) Show that there is 4p (Sr) in all space by integrating dW over a sphere;
(b) Describe the difference between power gain and directive gain.
20. Using far-field criterion for a linear antenna with length L, find the far-field region
for two antennas L = 5l and L = 8l.
Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 113

REFERENCES

[1] Ramsay, Jack, Highlights of antenn history, IEEE, Ant. and Prop., Soc., Newsletter,
pp. 820, Dec. 1982.
[2] Collin, R.E. and F.J. Zucker, Antenna Theory, Part I, Mc-Graw Hill, New York, 1969.
[3] Van Bladel, J., Lorentz, IEEE, Ant. and Prop., Magazine, Vol. 22, p. 67, April 1991.
[4] Navarro, J.A. and K. Chang, Integrated Active Antenna and Spatial Power Combining,
John Wiley, New York, 1996.
[5] Johnson, R.C., Antenna Engineering Handbook, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York,
1992.
[6] Tai, C. and C. Pereira, An approximate formula for calculating the directivity of an
antenna, IEEE, Trans., Antenna Propagate, AP, Vol. 24, No. 2, March 1976,
pp. 225226.
[7] Kraus, J.D., Antennas: For All Applications, 2nd ed., Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi,
2007.
[8] Balanis, C.A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 2nd ed., John Wiley, India,
2007.
[9] Prasad, K.D., Antenna and Propagation, Satya Prakashan, India, 2006.
[10] Mott, Harold, Polarization in Antennas and Radars, John Wiley & Sons, NY, 1986.
C H A P T E R

4 Antenna Array

INTRODUCTION

The study of a single small antenna indicates that the radiation fields are uniformly distributed
and antenna provides wide beam width, but low directivity and gain. For example, the
maximum radiation of dipole antenna takes place in the direction normal to its axis and
decreases slowly as one moves toward the axis of the antenna. The antennas of such radiation
characteristic may be preferred in broadcast services where wide coverage is required, but
not in point to point communication. Thus, to meet the demands of point to point communication,
it is necessary to design the narrow beam and high directive antennas, so that the radiation
can be released in the preferred direction. The simplest way to achieve this requirement is
to increase the size of the antenna, because a larger-size antenna leads to more directive
characteristics. But from the practical aspect, the method is inconvenient as antenna becomes
bulky and it is difficult to change the size later. Another way to improve the performance
of the antenna without increasing the size of the antenna is to arrange the antenna in a
specific configuration, so spaced and phased that their individual contributions are maximum
in desired direction and negligible in other directions. This way particularly, we get greater
directive gain. This new arrangement of multi-element is referred to as an array of the
antenna. The antenna involved in an array is known as element. The individual element of
array may be of any form (wire, dipole, slot, aperture, etc.). Having identical element in an
array is often simpler, convenient and practical, but it is not compulsory. The antenna array
makes use of wave interference phenomenon, that occurs between the radiations from the
different elements of the array [1]. Thus, the antenna array is one of the methods of combining
the radiation from a group of radiators in such a way that the interference is constructive in
the preferred direction and destructive in the remaining directions. The main function of an
array is to produce highly directional radiation.
The field is a vector quantity with both magnitude and phase. The total field (not
power) of the array system at any point away from its centre is the vector sum of the field
produced by the individual antennas. The relative phases of individual field components
114
Antenna Array 115

depend on the relative distance of the individual element and in turn depend on the direction.
The main types are:
Linear array: An array in which individual elements are equally spaced along a straight line.
Uniform linear array: Elements of array are fed with a current of equal magnitude and
uniform progressive phase shift along the line.
The geometrical configuration of the array may be of many types: straight line, rectangular,
circular, etc., but there are strict limitations. The simplest and most practical array configuration
is a straight line array. In multi-element array antenna, elements are generally l/2 long
dipoles. The length of element not strictly limited to l/2; it can vary by upto 5%, provided
the radiating property of the element remains unaffected.

Design Considerations and Design Approach


The designs of antenna array is based on the proper selection of design parameters such as
the number of elements, elements spacing, excitation techniques, directivity, gain, efficiency
and beam width. In design procedure, some of the parameters are specified and others are
determined using certain design expressions. The specified as well as calculated parameters
vary design to design. For most of the uniform arrays, the side lobe is always around
13.5 dB, and spacing as well as length of array element is usually taken as l/2. Practically,
phase array design (where maximum array radiation can be directed in desired direction) is
primarily based on control of the phase excitation of the elements. In this array
(i) Beam width and side lobe level can also be controlled by proper amplitude excitation
and tapering of the elements.
(ii) The level of the minor lobes can be controlled using binomial techniques.
With reference to directivity, there are four types of array configuration: edge, uniform,
optimum and binomial array. From the radiation pattern of these arrays it is found that lower
the side lobe level, larger the half power beam width, and vice versa. However, it is desired
to have both simultaneously; a very low side lobe level and a considerable half-power beam
width. In order to optimize the side lobe and HPBW, someone must look for a compromise
design which could meet both the requirements. The DolphTschebyscheff array design is
used effectively to achieve a good compromise between side lobe level and beam width.

ARRAY CONFIGURATIONS

Broadly, array antennas can be classified into four categories:


(a) Broadside array
(b) End-fire array
(c) Collinear array
(d) Parasitic array
116 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Broadside Array
This is a type of array in which the number of identical elements is placed on a supporting
line drawn perpendicular to their respective axes.
Elements are equally spaced and fed with a current of equal magnitude and all in same
phase. The advantage of this feed technique is that array fires in broad side direction (i.e.
perpendicular to the line of array axis, where there are maximum radiation and small radiation
in other direction). Hence the radiation pattern of broadside array is bidirectional and the
array radiates equally well in either direction of maximum radiation. In Fig. 4.1 the elements
are arranged in horizontal plane with spacing between elements and radiation is perpendicular
to the plane of array (i.e., normal to plane of paper.) They may also be arranged in vertical
and in this case radiation will be horizontal. Thus, it can be said that broadside array is a
geometrical arrangement of elements in which the direction of maximum radiation is
perpendicular to the array axis and to the plane containing the array element. Radiation
pattern of a broad side array is shown in Fig. 4.2. The bidirectional pattern of broadside array
can be converted into unidirectional by placing an identical array behind this array at distance
of l/4 fed by current leading in phase by 90.

Direction of Major lobe


maximum radiation
Minor lobe

Axis of
array

FIG. 4.1 Geometry of broadside array. FIG. 4.2 Radiation pattern of broadside array.

End-fire Array
This is an arrangement of elements with the principal direction of radiation along axis of
array. The basic concept of array is similar to broad side array. The elements are fed by a
current of equal magnitude but their phases vary progressively usually 180 along the line
in such way as to make the entire array sustain unidirectional. In other words, we can say
that individual elements are excited in such a way that a progressive phase different between
adjacent elements becomes equal to the spacing (in l) between the elements. End-fire array
may be bidirectional also, if a two elements array is fed with the currents of equal magnitude
and 180 out of phase. Since phase shift between the adjacent elements is 0 or 180, the
field amplitude now adds in phase in the plane of array. The direction of maximum radiation
can be changed at will by introducing the appropriate phase-shift between successive elements
of the array. In fact it is possible to produce a radar beam which sweeps around the horizon,
without any mechanical motion of array, by varying the phase difference between successive
elements of the array electronically.
Antenna Array 117

Collinear Array
In collinear array the elements are arranged co-axially, i.e., antennas are either mounted end
to end in a single line or stacked over one another. The collinear array is also a broadside
array and elements are fed equally in phase currents. But the radiation pattern of a collinear
array has circular symmetry with its main lobe everywhere normal to the principal axis. This
is reason why this array is called broadcast or amni-directional arrays.
Simple collinear array consists of two elements; however, this array can also have more
than two elements (Fig. 4.3). The performance characteristic of array does not depend directly
on the number of elements in the array. For example, the power gain for collinear array of
2, 3, and 4 elements are respectively 2 dB, 3.2 dB and 4.4 dB respectively. The power gain
of 4.4 dB obtained by this array is comparatively lower than the gain obtained by other
arrays or devices. The collinear array provides maximum gain when spacing between elements
is of the order of 0.3l to 0.5l; but this much spacing results in constructional and feeding
difficulties. The elements are operated with their ends are much close to each other and
joined simply by insulator.

Direction of
maximum radiation
Direction of L
maximum radiation

L
Array axis

Array axis

(a) (b)

FIG. 4.3 (a) Vertical collinear antenna array; (b) Horizontal collinear antenna array.

Increase in the length of collinear arrays increases the directivity; however, if the
number of elements in an array are more (3 or 4), in order to keep current in phase in all
the elements, it is essential to connect phasing stubs between adjacent elements. A collinear
array is usually mounted vertically in order to increase overall gain and directivity in the
horizontal direction. Stacking of dipole antennas in the fashion of doubling their number
with proper phasing produces a 3 dB increase in directive gain.

Parasitic Arrays
In some way it is similar to broad side array, but only one element is fed directly from
source, other element are electromagnetically coupled because of its proximity to the feed
118 Antenna and Wave Propagation

element. Feed element is called driven element, while other elements are called parasitic
elements. A parasitic element lengthened by 5% to driven element act as reflector and
another element shorted by 5% acts as director. Reflector makes the radiation maximum in
perpendicular direction toward driven element and direction helps in making maximum
radiation perpendicular to next parasitic element. The simplest parasitic array has three
elements: reflector, driven element and director, and is used, for example in YagiUda array
antenna. The phase and amplitude of the current induced in a parasitic element depends upon
its tuning and the spacing between elements and driven element to which it is coupled.
Variation in spacing between driven element and parasitic elements changes the relative
phases and this proves to be very convenient. It helps in making the radiation pattern
unidirectional. A distance of l/4 and phase difference of p/2 radian provides a unidirectional
pattern. A properly designed parasitic array with spacing 0.1l to 0.15l provides a frequency
bandwidth of the order of 2%, gain of the order of 8 dB and FBR of about 20 dB. It is of
great practical importance, especially at higher frequencies between 150 and 100 MHz, for
Yagi array used for TV reception.
The simplest array configuration is array of two point sources of same polarization and
separated by a finite distance. The concept of this array can also be extended to more number
of elements and finally an array of isotropic point sources can be formed [2].
Based on amplitude and phase conditions of isotropic point sources, there are three
types of arrays:
(a) Array with equal amplitude and phases
(b) Array with equal amplitude and opposite phases
(c) Array with unequal amplitude and opposite phases

(a) Array with equal amplitude and phases


Let us consider that there are two point sources at a distance d, symmetrically situated wrt
the origin (see Fig. 4.4). Let P be an observation point at distance R from the origin O. From
Fig. 4.4, it is clear that ray 2 radiated from source 2 leads ray 1 due to path difference AB
involved between two rays. The path difference

d d d
AB = OA + OB = cos R + cos R = d cos R = cos R per wavelength
2 2 M
Hence, the phase difference

d
(Z ) = 2Q cos R = C d cos R rad (4.1)
M
If E1 = E1e jZ /2 is field component due to source 1, then field component due to source 2
jZ /2
will be E2 = E1e (because source 2 is opposite wrt source 1).
Antenna Array 119

FIG. 4.4 Array of two point sourcescase 1.

Therefore, the total far-field at observation point P will be

e jZ /2 + e jZ /2
ET = E0 (e jZ /2 + e jZ /2 ) = 2E0 = 2E0 cos Z /2 (where E1 = E2 = E0 )
2

C d cos R
ET = 2E0 cos (4.2)
2
i.e., maximum value of total field ET is 2E0, when cos(y/2) = 1. In another case, if
reference point, i.e., origin O is shifted to the point source number 1, then the amplitude field
pattern will remain unchanged but change in phase will occur, i.e.,

ET = E0 e j 0 + E0 e jZ = E0 (1 + e jZ )

e jZ /2 + e jZ /2 Z jZ /2
= 2 E0 e jZ /2 = 2 E0 e jZ /2 cos(Z /2) = 2 E0 cos e (4.3)
2 2

Hence, it is clear that phases of ET and ET are not the same. In order to draw the field pattern
of this array, we must know the position of maxima, half-power and minima.
(a) Maxima direction: ET is maximum, i.e.,

C d cos R 2Q M Q
ET = cos = cos . cos R = cos cos R is maximum.
2 M 2 2

Q
cos cos R = 1
2
which gives qmax = 90 or 270.
120 Antenna and Wave Propagation

(b) Half-power point directions: Half-power occurs when

Q 1
cos cos R =
2 2

q = 60 or 120

(c) Minima direction: Minimum power occurs

Q
when cos cos R = 0 R min = 0 and 180
2
Hence, the pattern will be as shown in Fig. 4.5, which is similar to field pattern of broad-
side array and also known as broadside couplet.

FIG. 4.5 Radiation pattern array of two-point sourcescase 1.

(b) Array with equal amplitude and opposite phases


Geometrical arrangement of this array is similar to previous one, except that point source 1
is out of phase (i.e. 180) with point source 2. This means that if there is maximum field
at source 1 at particular moment, the field at source 2 will be minimum at that instant and
vice versa. The amplitude and phase of this array are shown in Fig. 4.6, where E1 and E2
are radiated fields due to source 1 and source 2 having phases y/2 and y/2 with reference
point O respectively. Hence, the total far-field at distance point P can be given by

jZ /2 + jZ /2
e jZ /2 e jZ /2
ET = E1e + E2 e = E0 2j
2j

C d cos R
= 2E0 j sin Z /2 = 2jE0 sin (4.4)
2
Antenna Array 121

FIG. 4.6 Array of two-point sourcesCase 2.

That is, Eq. (4.4) involves the sine function instead of cos function in Eq. (4.2), and also
addition operator j. Presence of j indicates that opposite phases of the point sources (1, 2)
introduces a phase-shift of 90 in total field at P.
For particular array with d = l/2 and term 2E0j = 1

Q
En = sin (4.5)
2 cos R

i.e., maxima occurs at qmax = 0 and 180, and minima occurs at qmin = 90 and 270 and
half-power at q3dB = 60 and 120. Hence, the field pattern of the array is as shown in Fig. 4.7.

FIG. 4.7 Radiation pattern array of two point sourcesCase 2.

That is, the field pattern is shifted by 90 from the horizontal in comparison to the field
pattern shown in Fig. 4.5. Since this array provides maximum radiation in direction along
the line joining two point sources, it can be called end-fire array; the previous one is called
broadside array.
122 Antenna and Wave Propagation

(c) Array of unequal amplitude and arbitrary phase


It is an array in which amplitude of current radiated from both the point sources is not equal
and therefore they are infinite phase difference. Let us consider source 1 as the reference for
the phase and amplitude of fields due to source 1 and source 2, i.e., E1 and E2 (where
E1 > E2) as shown in Fig. 4.8. Hence the total phase difference between radiations from two
point sources at observation point P is

2Q
Z = d cos R + B (4.6)
M
where a is the phase angle between the currents I2 and I1. Current I2 leads the current I1.
Hence, if a = 0 and 180, this is a special case of the previous two cases, because E1 =
E2 = E 0 .

FIG. 4.8 Array of two point sourcesCase 3.

In general, the total far-field intensity at point P is given by

E = E1e j 0 + E2 e jZ = E1 (1 + ce jZ ) (4.7)

where
E2
c= i.e. 0 c 1
E1

Hence, from Eq. (4.7) the magnitude of field at P is


E = [ E1 {1 + c(cos Z + i sin Z )}]

or E = E1 (1 + c cos Z )2 + (c 2 sin Z )2 < G


E = E1 1 + c2 cos2Z + 2 c cos Z + c 2 sin 2 Z <G
1/2

E = E1 [1 + c2 + 2 c cos Z < G ]1/2 (4.8)


Antenna Array 123

c sin Z
in which f is phase angle at point P and it is equal to tan 1 . If E1 = E2,
1 + c cos Z
c = 1 and a = 0, then Eq. (4.7) becomes Eq. (4.2), which is the case of broadside array. On
the other hand, if E1 = E2, c = 1 and a = 180 then this is the case of end-fire array.

PRINCIPLE OF PATTERN MULTIPLICATION

In the previous sections we have discussed the arrays of two isotropic point sources radiating
field of constant magnitude (i.e., E0). In this section the concept of array is extended to non-
isotropic sources. The sources identical to point source and having field patterns of definite
shape and orientation. However, it is not necessary that amplitude of individual sources is
equal. The simplest case of non-isotropic sources is when two short dipoles are superimposed
over the two isotopic point sources separated by a finite distance. If the field pattern of each
source is given by
E0 = E1 = E2 = E sin q
Then from Eq. (4.2) the total far-field pattern at point P becomes

Z Z Z
ET = 2E0 cos = 2E sin R cos ETn = sin R cos (4.9)
2 2 2

Z
or ETn = E (R ) cos
2

2Q d
where Z = cos R + B
M

Equation (4.9) shows that the field pattern of two non-isotropic point sources (short dipoles)
is equal to product of patterns of individual sources and of array of point sources. The
pattern of array of two isotropic point sources, i.e., cos y/2 is widely referred as an array
factor. That is
ET = E (Due to reference source) Array factor (4.10)
This leads to the principle of pattern multiplication for the array of identical elements. In
general, the principle of pattern multiplication can be stated as follows:
The resultant field of an array of non-isotropic but similar sources is the product of
the fields of individual source and the field of an array of isotropic point sources, each
located at the phase centre of individual source and having the relative amplitude and
124 Antenna and Wave Propagation

phase. The total phase is addition of the phases of the individual source and that of isotropic
point sources. The same is true for their respective patterns also.
The normalized total field (i.e., ETn), given in Eq. (4.9), can re-written as
E = E 1 (q ) E 2 (q )
where E1(q) = sin q = Primary pattern of array
2Q d
E2 (R ) = cos cos R + B = Secondary pattern of array.
M
Thus the principle of pattern multiplication is a speedy method of sketching the field pattern
of complicated array. It also plays an important role in designing an array. There is no
restriction on the number of elements in an array; the method is valid to any number of
identical elements which need not have identical magnitudes, phase and spacing between
them. However, the array factor varies with the number of elements and their arrangement,
relative magnitudes, relative phases and element spacing. The array of elements having
identical amplitudes, phases and spacing provides a simple array factor. The array factor
does not depend on the directional characteristic of the array elements; hence it can be
formulated by using pattern multiplication techniques. The proper selection of the individual
radiating element and their excitation are also important for the performance of array. Once
the array factor is derived using the point-source array, the total field of the actual array can
be obtained using Eq. (4.10).

ARRAY WITH n-ISOTROPIC POINT SOURCES OF


EQUAL AMPLITUDE AND LINEAR SPACING

In this section the concept of array is extended to n-isotropic point sources, which are
equally spaced by d and is fed with in-phase currents of equal amplitudes, i.e., E0 (see
Fig. 4.9). Hence the total far-field pattern at the observation point P will be the vector sum
of the fields of individual sources, i.e.,

ET = E0 (e0jZ + e2jZ + ... + e j (n +1)Z ) = E0 (1 + e2jZ + e3jZ + ... + e j (n +1)Z )

or ET e jZ = E0 (e jZ + e2jZ + ... + enjZ ) multiplying by ejy on both sides

After subtraction we get


ET (1 ejy) = E0(1 ejny)

1 e jnZ
ET = E0 jZ
(4.11)

1 e
Antenna Array 125

FIG. 4.9 Array of n-point sources.

After further modification

1 e jnZ /2 e+ jnZ /2 e jnZ /2 (e jnZ /2 e jnZ /2 ) j (n 1)Z /2 (e


jnZ /2
e jnZ /2 )
= = jZ /2 = e
1 e jZ /2 e+ jZ /2 e (e jZ /2 e jZ /2 ) (e jZ /2 e jZ /2 )

sin n Z /2
= e j ( n 1)Z /2
sin Z /2

n 1
If G = Z is the resultant phase-angle, then
2
sin n Z /2 jG
ET = E0 e (4.12)
sin Z /2
where ejf represents the phase-term. Equation (4.12) is the total far-field pattern of a linear
array of n-isotropic point sources with source 1 as reference point for phase. In case the
reference point is shifted to the centre of the array from source 1, then phase angle f is
eliminated and Eq. (4.12) is reduced to

sin n Z /2
ET = E0 (4.13)
sin Z /2
Again, it is clear that Eq. (4.13) is a product of the two terms: E0, the primary pattern, and
sin n Z /2
, the secondary pattern or array factor of the n-element array. There are two
sin Z /2
particular cases of the n-array: broadside array and end-fire array.

Broadside Array
As we know that the array is said to be broadside, if (i) maximum radiation occurs in
direction perpendicular to the line of array, and (ii) array sources should be in phase, i.e.,
126 Antenna and Wave Propagation

a = 0 and y = 0 must be satisfied, i.e., q = 90, 270. Hence, from Eq. (4.13), it is clear
that Et is maximum when sin ny/2 is maximum, i.e.,

nZ
sin =1
2

nZ Q
or = (2N + 1)
2 2

Q
which gives Z (2N + 1)
n

Q
C d cos(R max ) + B = (2N + 1)
n

1 (2N + 1)Q
R max = cos1
Cd n
where N = 0, 1, 2, 3, ..., n
and N = 0 corresponds to major lobe maxima; hence

1 2Q
(R max ) major = cos1 B (4.14)
Cd n

In either case, N 0 corresponds to minor lobe maxima, i.e.

1 (2N + 1) Q
(R max ) minor = cos1 B
Cd n

For broadside array, a = 0 and b = 2p/l; Hence

(2N + 1) M
(R max )minor = cos1 (4.15)
2 nd

Similarly, Et will be minimum when

nZ 2N Q
sin = 0, i.e. Z =
2 n

1 2N Q
or (R min )minor = cos1 B
Cd n
Antenna Array 127

Since for broadside array, a = 0, therefore

NM
(R min ) minor = cos1 (4.16)
nd

Beam width of major lobe (broadside array)


Beam width is defined as the angle between first nulls, i.e., BW = 2 qb
qb = 90 q or qmin = (90 qb)

NM
cos R min = cos (90 R b ) = sin R b = from Eq. (4.16)
nd
If qb is very small,
NM NM
sin R b R b = Rb =
nd nd

M
Hence N = 1, which gives R b = , therefore the beam width between the first nulls is
nd
2M
BWFN = (4.17)
nd
Here n is the total number of elements and d is spacing between the elements. Hence
(n 1)d = nd = L (total length of the array, in m)

2M 2
BWFN = = rad
L LM

2 57.3 114.6
= deg = deg
LM LM

Another pattern is HPBW, which is commonly half of BWFN, i.e.

BWFN 1
HPBW = = rad
2 LM

57.3
= deg
LM
128 Antenna and Wave Propagation

End-fire Array
We know that an array is said to be end-fire if the phase angle is such that it makes
maximum radiation in the direction of array axis, i.e., q = 0 or 180. Thus for an array to
be end-fire, y = 0 and q = 0 or 180, i.e., bd cos q + a = 0
2Q d
bd = a or B=
M
As we know for pattern maxima

nZ (2N + 1)Q
sin =1 Z =
2 n
where N = 0 corresponds to major lobe maxima.
For end-fire array y=0 and a = bd

(2N + 1)Q
Hence C d cos(R max ) C d =
n
(2N + 1)Q
cos(R max ) = +1
C nd
Beam widths of major lobes for both the arrays are shown in Fig. 4.10.

FIG. 4.10 Beam width of major lobes: (a) broadside array; (b) end-fire array.

(2N + 1)Q
(R max ) minor = cos1 + 1 (4.18)
C nd
Similarly, for pattern minima
1
2N Q NM R NM 2
(cos R min 1) = = or sin min =
C nd nd 2 2nd
Antenna Array 129

NM
(R min )minor = 2 sin 1
2nd

NM
If qmin is very small, sin(qmin)minor (qmin)minor = 2
2nd

2N M
Hence (R min ) minor = (4.19)
nd

Beam width of major lobe (end-fire array)


This is given by

2N M
BWFN = 2 R min = 2
nd

2 2
BWFN = 2 rad = 114.6 deg (4.20)
LM LM

L
where LM = , known as the length of the array per unit length.
M

ELECTRONIC PHASED ARRAY

From the previous discussions, it is clear that the maximum radiation from an array can be
released in the desired direction by controlling the phase excitation between the elements of
array. In particular case, if the maximum radiation of an array is required to be oriented at
an angle q0(0 q0 180), the corresponding phase excitation a between the elements will
be
Z = (C d cos R + B )R =R0 = 0

bd cos q0 + a = 0 a = bd cos q0 (4.21)


i.e., by controlling the progressive phase difference between the array elements, the maximum
radiation can be released in the desired direction, hence forming a scanning/phased array.
This is basic concept of scanning/phased array operation. In order to have continuous scanning
the array system must be capable of continuously varying the progressive phase between the
elements. In practice it is accomplished electronically by the use of ferrite phase shifter.
Hence the progressive phase change is controlled by the magnetic field within the ferrite,
which in turn is controlled by the amount of current flowing through the wires wrapped
around the phase shifter.
130 Antenna and Wave Propagation

EFFECT OF EARTH ON VERTICAL PATTERNS

In general, it is assumed that radiators are fixed far away from the earth surface; but in
practice they are erected right at or within a few l off the earth surface. Under such situations,
currents flow in the reflecting surface which magnitude and phase depends upon frequency,
conductivity and dielectric constant of reflecting surface. These induced currents modify the
radiation pattern of antenna accordingly. For the practical purposes, the resultant radiation
fields are often computed on the assumption that reflecting surfaces are perfectly conducting.
However, this computation is limited up to medium frequencies for the earth as reflecting
surface, and radio frequency for the metallic reflector surface. The horizontal and vertical
antennas located above perfect ground are shown in Fig. 4.11(a).



++
++
++
++
Perfectly conducting plane



++
++
++
++
(i) Vertical antenna (ii) Horizontal antenna

FIG. 4.11(a) Actual and image charges and current of antennas.

According to boundary conditions the ET and HN must vanish, i.e., at the surface E is
normal and H is tangential. Hence the charge distribution and currents flow on conducting
surface would be in such a way that boundary condition is satisfied. Therefore, the total
electric and magnetic fields will not be only due to charges and currents on the antenna, but
also due to these induced charges and currents. The E and H above the conducting plane can
be obtained by removing this plane and replacing it by suitably located images and currents;
the image charges will be mirror images of actual charges, but are opposite nature. The
currents in original and image antennas will have the same direction for vertical antennas,
but opposite direction for horizontal antennas. The present case can be dealt with simple ray
theory, where resultant field is considered as made up of direct and reflected waves. Actual
antenna and image antenna will be the sources of direct and reflected waves. The vertical
component of E for the incident wave is reflected without phase reversal, whereas horizontal
component will have phase reversal of 180. The phase delay due to path difference is
automatically controlled.
Antenna Array 131

Therefore, using image theory, it is simple to take into account the effect of earth on
the radiation pattern. The earth is replaced by an image antenna, located at a distance below
2h, where h is the height of actual antenna above the earth. The field of image antenna is
added to that of the actual antenna and obtain the resultant field. The shape of the vertical
pattern is affected greatly, whereas horizontal pattern found remains unchanged (only the
absolute value changes).
The effect of the earth on the radiation pattern can also be explained using the principle
of pattern multiplication of array theory [see Fig. 4.11(b)]. The vertical pattern of the antenna
(or array) is multiplied by the vertical pattern of two non-directional radiations of equal
amplitude and 2h spacing.

ray
y
y

ray

t ra
t ra

ted
ed

c
c

Dire
Dire

lect

flec
Ref

Re

FIG. 4.11(b) Direct and reflected rays from actual and image antennas.

In case of vertical antenna pattern there will be equal phase, whereas there will be
opposite phase for the horizontal antenna. That is, vertical antenna may be treated as broadside
array and horizontal antenna array as end-fire array. The resultant radiation patterns of such
antennas are shown in Fig. 4.12 (a and b). Only a half-portion of the pattern is visible; the
rest is hidden in both the cases.

Comparison of Methods
When antennas are sloped (i.e., neither vertical nor horizontal), or when antennas are not
multiples of half-wavelength long, the antenna array process fails; but image theory still be
useful to obtain the resultant field. Similarly, when the finite conductivity of the earth is
considered, the image theory will still be valid, whereas the array theory will no longer be
adequate.
132 Antenna and Wave Propagation

+
O

(a)

(i) Unit pattern (ii) Group pattern (iii) Resultant pattern

(b)

FIG. 4.12 (a) Vertical pattern of a horizontal antenna using array theory. (b) Vertical pattern
of a vertical antenna using image theory.

DOLPHTCHEBYSCHEFF OR CHEBYSHEV ARRAY

Generally in the antenna design it is often desired to achieve narrowest beam width besides
low side level. However these characteristics of an antenna system are so related that any
attempt in the improvement of the one deteriorates other. C.L. Dolph proposed a method to
minimize the beam width of the main lobe for a specific side-lobe level and vice versa. In
other words, if the beam width between first nulls is specified, then the side-lobe level is
minimized. Thus, Dolph array produces narrowest beam width for given side lobe-level and
vice versa. Dolphs approach indicates that reduction inside lobe can be accomplished at a
cost of antenna performance in some other respect such as beam width, and gain or directivity.
DolphTchebyscheff current distribution is optimum for d l/2. It has been found that a
high gain narrow beam antenna can be designed for side lobe levels of 2030 dB in VHF
and UHF bands, particularly for radar applications. A 20 dB level is considered good and
30 dB is excellent; however, it is difficult to achieve 40 dB levels.

Tchebyscheff Polynomial
The Tchebyscheff polynomial is represented by letter T and defined as
Tm(x) = cos (m cos1 x) for |x| < 1 (4.22a)
and Tm(x) = cosh (m cosh1 x) for |x| > 1 (4.22b)
Antenna Array 133

where m is integer and equal to 0, 1, 2, 3,


If m = 0 Tm(x) = cos (0 cos1x) = cos(0 d) = 1
where d = cos1x or x = cos d. Similarly, for other values of m, we get
m = 1 T1(x) = cos (1 d) = x
m = 2 T2(x) = cos (2 d) = 2cos2d 1 = 2x2 1
m = 3 T3(x) = cos (3 d) = 4cos3d 3cos d = 4x3 3x
m = 4 T4(x) = cos (4 d) = 2cos2 2d 1 = 2[(2cos2 d 1)2 1]
= 8 cos4 d 8 cos2 d + 1
T4(x) = 8x4 8x4 + 1
Further higher term can be obtained from the expression
Tm+1(x) = 2xTm(x) = Tm1(x) (4.23)
So, for m = 5, we must put m = 4 in the above equation, i.e.,
T5(x) = 2xT4(x) T3(x) = 2x[(8x4 8x2 + 1) (4x3 3x]
T5(x) = 16x5 20x3 + 5x
Similarly, the values of T6, T7, T8, T9 and T10 are also found and summarized as follows:
T0(x) = 1
T1(x) = x
T2(x) = 2x2 1
T3(x) = 4x3 3x
T4(x) = 8x4 8x2 + 1
T5(x) = 16x5 20x3 + 5x
T6(x) = 32x6 48x4 + 18x2 1
T7(x) = 64x7 112x5 + 56x3 7x
T8(x) = 128x8 256x6 + 160x4 32x2 + 1
T9(x) = 256x9 576x7 + 432x5 120x3 + 9x
T10(x) = 512x10 1280x8 608x6 + 40x4 14x2
Hence, in general the Tchebyscheff polynomial can be expressed as
Tm(x) = cos (m cos1x) = cos md = cos (my/2)
or Tm(x) = cos (my/2) (4.24)
134 Antenna and Wave Propagation

The general characteristics found are shown in Fig. 4.13.

m
Tm(x) when
m is odd (x0, r)
Tm(x) when
(x0, r)
m is even +1

+1 r 1
a O +1
a O
1 1
+1 x0
1
x0

(a) when m is even (b) when m is odd

FIG. 4.13 General characteristics of Tchebyscheff polynomial in two cases.

The side lobes arise in the region x < 1.


The main lobe extends into the range x > 1. It is also seen from Tchebyscheff polynomial
that the value of m and the degree of the polynomial are the same.

Dolph Pattern Method of Obtaining Optimum Pattern Using


Tchebyscheff Polynomial
Consider a linear array of n number of isotropic point sources; n may even or odd number.
All the sources are in same phase and at uniform spacing d. The individual sources have the
amplitudes A0, A1, A2, , Ak, etc. as indicated, the amplitude distribution being symmetrical
about the centre of array. The direction q = 0 is the direction perpendicular to array with
origin at the centre of the array. The total field ET at a larger distance in a direction q from
the even number of sources is then sum of the fields of the symmetrical pairs of sources, i.e.,

Z 3Z n 1
ET = 2A0 cos + 2A1 cos + ... + 2AK cos e Z (4.25)
2 2 2
where ne = 1, 2, 4, ..., 2(K+1)
2Q
Z = d sin R
M
Each term in Eq. (4.25) represents the field due to a symmetrically disposed pair of the
sources.
If ne = 2(K+1), where K = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...

ne 1 2K + 1
Therefore =
2 2
Antenna Array 135

K = N 1
2K + 1
Hence ETE = 2 AK cos
2
Z

(4.26)
K =0
ne
where N = .
2
Similarly, consider the case of a linear array of an odd number of isotropic point
sources, i.e. n0 [see Fig. 4.13(b)] under the same condition. In addition the amplitude distribution
is symmetrical about the centre source. The amplitude of the centre source is taken as 2A0
and sequent next amplitudes, A1, A2 and Ak. The total field ET at a larger distance in a direction
q from the odd number of sources is the sum of the fields of the symmetrical pairs of
sources, i.e.,

Z 3Z n 1
ET = 2A0 + 2A1cos + 2A2 cos + ... + 2AK cos 0 Z (4.27)
2 2 2
n0 = 1, 3, 5, ..., (2K+1)
Each term in Eq. (4.27) represents the field due to a symmetrically disposed pair of the
sources.
As ne = 2K+1, where K = 0, 1, 2, 3, ....

ne 1 2 K
Therefore =
2 2
K=N
2K
Hence ETE = 2 AK cos Z where N =
ne 1
(4.28)
K =0 2 2
Equation (4.28) may be recognized as a finite Fourier series of N terms. Since for
K = 0, we have constant term 2A0, which represents the contribution of centre source.
Similarly each higher value of K gives a higher harmonics term, which in turn represents the
contribution of a pair of symmetrically disposed sources. Therefore the total field pattern is
the summation of the series of terms in increasing order of Fourier series having constant
term, fundamental terms and 2nd harmonic term, etc., as is being represented in case of
alternating currents. However, the total field pattern of an even number of sources is also
represented by a finite Fourier series, but without constant term and having odd harmonics.
The coefficients A0, A1, A2, A3, in either series are arbitrary and expressed in amplitude
distribution.

CALCULATION OF DOLPHTCHEBYSCHEFF AMPLITUDE DISTRIBUTION

The factor 2 that appeared in the expression of ETe (4.27) and ETo (4.28) can be omitted as
we are mainly concerned with relative field pattern. If the total number of sources involved
in array are n, the steps below need to be followed:
136 Antenna and Wave Propagation

(a) Let the ratio of main lobe maximum to minor lobe level be specified as R, i.e.

Main lobe maximum


r=
Side lobe level
i.e., r can be calculated from the side lobe level below the main lobe maximum in dB as
follows: 20 log r.
(b) Select Tchebyscheff polynomial of the same degree as the array polynomial, i.e.,
Tn1(x0) = r and solve it for x0 using the equation

1
x0 = {r + r 2 1}1/m + {r r 2 1}1/m
2

where m = n1. The above formula is used only for high degree of Techebyscheff polynomial.
(i) Choose array polynomial ET from

ETe = A0 z + A1 [4z 3 3z ] + A2 [165 20z 3 + 5z ] + A3 [ A3 (64z 7 112 z 5 + 56 z 3 72)] + ...

ETo = A0 + A1[2z 2 1] + A2 [8z 4 8z 2 + 1] + A3 [32z 6 48z 4 + 18 z 2 1] + ...


in which z = (x/x0)
(ii) Equate Tchebyscheff polynomial Tn1(x) with array polynomial Et, i.e., Tn1(x) = Et,
and calculate the coefficients and take ratios for relative amplitudes.

Advantages of DolphTchebyscheff Distribution


(i) It provides a minimum optimum beam width for a specified degree side lobe level
reduction,
(ii) It results in side lobes are all of the same amplitudes, unlike in uniform distribution
in which side lobes near adjacent to the main lobe are largest and others progressively
decrease as angle increase from main lobe.
(iii) Ratio of current between centre element and end element is small, which provides
ease in feeding design.

Beam Width between First Nulls of Chebyshev Polynomial Patterns

M 1 Q
BWFN = 2sin 1 cos1 cos (4.29)
Q d x0 2(m 1)

Half power beam width (HPBW) and minor lobe maxima of Chebyshev polynomial patterns
is given by
Antenna Array 137

r
cosh cosh 1
HPBW = 2 sin 1 M cos 1 1 2
Q d (4.30)
x0 m 1


and the angle at which null maxima occur is

M 1 kQ
R nm = sin 1 cos1 cos (4.31)
Q d x0 m 1

where the parameters have the usual meaning and have been defined already.

STACKED/RECTANGULAR AREA BROADBAND ARRAY

As the name suggests, it is an array where elements are arranged one above the other and
the array occupies a flat area of rectangular shape. It is just an extension of obtaining the
field-pattern of linear array to the rectangular broadside array. The array may consist of
isotropic radiators or be a continuous current sheet.
If all the elements of the array operated are in phase, the array is called broadside
rectangular array, i.e., maximum radiation is in the direction perpendicular to the plane of
array. If a unit array is stacked upto height m, the power gain in the direction of maximum
radiation over single unit is mn, provided all the elements are co-operated in phase (see
Fig. 4.14), where m and n are numbers of elements along length (l) and width (b) of the
array. The 3-D configuration of a rectangular array is shown in Fig. 4.15. Let the field
pattern across the array in the y-direction is same for any value of z between ( b/2), while
the field pattern across the array in z-direction is the same for all values of y between ( a/2).
Therefore, the field pattern in x-y plane is a function of q and depends only on the y-direction
(i.e., l) of the array, while the field pattern in x-z plane is function of f and depends only
y
n-elements

O x
m-elements

FIG. 4.14 Rectangular array of m n isotropic radiators.


138 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 4.15 A rectangular array of dimensions l b in 3-D coordinate system.

on z-dimension (i.e., b) of the array. That is, array is combination of y-array of height l and
z-array of height b, in addition the array also has depth in x-direction (i.e., has end-fire
directivity). Therefore the resultant field-pattern of the rectangular array can be obtained by
using principle of pattern multiplication for y-array and z-array. Radiation pattern of the
array of dimension l b is bidirectional, i.e., having forward and backward radiating beams
(see Fig. 4.16).

y z

x x x x

y z

(a) x-y plane (b) x-z plane

FIG. 4.16 Radiation pattern of rectangular array antenna.

Directivity
If qhp and fhp are the half-power beam width in (x-y) and (x-z) planes respectively, the
directivity of a rectangular antenna array is given by (see [3]).

41.287
D= (4.32)
R hp G hp

However, in general the directivity of a large rectangular broadside array of height (l) and
width (b) of the uniform amplitude distribution is given by
Antenna Array 139

4Q F (R , G ) max
D= (4.33)
F (R , G ) sin R dR dG

Subject to condition that the minor lobes are not large, where F(q, f) is a parameter termed
space-power pattern and varies as the square of the space-field pattern. The space-field
pattern of a large rectangular array is given as

Q l sin R Q b sin R
sin
M
sin
M
E = E xy (R , G ) + E xz (R , G ) =
Q l sin R Q b sin R

M
M

The main beam maximum is in the direction of q = f = 0; thus for larger array sin q = q, and
sin f = f; therefore

Q lR Q bG
sin sin
M M
E=
Q lR Q bG

M M

sin 2 (R l ) sin 2 (R b )
E2 =
(R l ) (R b )
where
Q lR Q bG
Rl = and Gb =
M M

Hence | E2(q, f)max |2 = 1


In the condition of maximum directivity, i.e. q at North pole, sin q = 1; therefore
4Q
D= dR l dGb (4.34)
Q /2 Q /2 sin 2 R l sin 2 R b
Q /2 Q /2 Rl

Rb
i.e., the array is radiating only in forward direction, there is no lost of power in backward
direction. Assuming the limit to in place of limit p/2 to p/2, the above equations
denominator reduces to l2/l b. Therefore approximate directivity is
4Q 12.56 12.56
D= l b= l b= Area of aperture
M 2
M 2
M2
For example, the directivity of a broadside rectangular array of height h = 20 l and width
b = 12l is 34.5 dB.
140 Antenna and Wave Propagation

SUPER DIRECTIVE RECEIVING ARRAY

Antenna designs which result in greater directive gain than the ordinary directive gain is
termed as super directive. Super directive antennas are those antennas whose directivity is
very high compare to conventional antennas of the same specifications. In antenna array,
super directivity is accomplished by inserting number of elements within a fixed length of
array. However, it leads eventually to a very large magnitudes and rapid changes of phase
in the excitation coefficients of the elements of the array and therefore adjacent elements
have very large and oppositely directed currents. As a result, the ohmic losses increase and
the efficiency of the array decreases very sharply. In addition, increases in reactive power
relative to the radiated power and the quality factor of the array are also observed. Super
directivity antenna arrays are also called super gain array, as such antennas have actual
overall gains (because of very low efficiency) less than the gain of uniform array of the same
length. The main limiting factor to the directivity of any array is its length. Available results
show that theoretically very high directivity can be obtained from linear end-fire arrays.
DolphTschebyscheff arrays with element spacing less than l/2 can provide desired directivity,
however, the efficiency of array system goes down.
The most important parameter which characterizes the performance of receiving array
antenna is the signal to noise ratio (SNR), which is proportional to the directive gains.
Conventional method to design a high directive gain (hence SNR) antenna is to feed the
array elements with constant amplitude and proper phase, so that radiation from each element
gets added in-phase in the desired direction. But the array becomes huge when more number
of elements is added in order to have high directivity. The alternative way to design an array
for maximum directive gain has been proposed by E.M. Newman [4]. The array is designed
in order to achieve maximum directive gain subject to a constraint on the sensitivity factor.
The involved parameters are directive gain, sensitivity factor, bandwidth, efficiency, number
of elements and array spacing. It is also found that the conventional receiving arrays can be
substantially reduced in size without a loss in directive gain and SNR.

SNR and Directive Gain


As already mentioned, SNR and directive gain are proportional; hence, if the external noise
is uniformly distributed in space, the system SNR can be expressed as

ISex D(R m , Gm )
SNR = (4.35)
I N ex + N ai + N R
where Nex = Power at antenna/load interface due to external noise
Nai= Power at antenna/load interface due to internal noise
NR= Power at antenna/load interface due to receiver noise
Sex= External signal level incident from the direction (qm, fm)
D(qm, fm)= Directive gain
h = Antenna efficiency expressed by h = PL/PcL, in which
Antenna Array 141

PL = power delivered to the actual load (the receiver) of the antenna


PcL = power delivered to the conjugate matched load assuming lossless conditions
If the receiving system is external or background noise limited, then by definition
hNex >> Nai + NR
Hence Eq. (4.35) reduces to

Sex D(R m , G m )
SNR = (4.36)
N ex

i.e., SNR is proportional to the directive gain and independent from the efficiency. Therefore,
the SNR could be maximized by maximizing the directive gain without effecting the efficiency
so long as the system has limited background noise (i.e., hNex >> Nai + NR).

Sensitivity Factor
Sensitivity factor is an important parameter to describe the performance of an array, especially
in practical implementation. The sensitivity factor for an N-element array is defined by

| I n | 2
K= (4.37)
| nn=1 I n e jkrn | 2

where I n = current at nth feed port


rn = distance between nth feed port and observation point located in the far-field
region in direction of maximum radiation.
k = measure of the susceptibility of the pattern to random errors in the excitation
and position of the array elements.
In practice, the excitation coefficients and the positioning of the array elements which
results in the desired pattern cannot be obtained as specified. A certain amount of electrical
and mechanical error will always be present, i.e., in reality, if any array of N-element is built
the ideal pattern is not precisely realized. This discrepancy is due to two factors; one is
current difference in real antenna and ideal antenna, second one is location specification
between them. If Cn be the feed port current at the nth feed port of the real array, then

C n = I n + I n B n = I n (1 + B n )

where Cn is realized, current excitation coefficient and ( I n B n ) represents the error in the nth
excitation coefficient and mean square value of an is denoted by
2 2
F = <| B n | >

To take into account the error associated with the location of the elements, let define s be
the root mean square value of the element position error, such that
142 Antenna and Wave Propagation

k 2T 2
E2 =
3
Combining the above equations yields

k 2T 2
E 2 + F 2 = '2 = + < |B n |2 > (4.38)
3
where D combines measures of electrical and mechanical error. Therefore in presence of
these errors the pattern of real array is treated as sum of patterns of ideal array and an error
pattern.

Radiation Efficiency of Super Directive Array


It is defined as the ratio of the far-field amplitude of the super directive radiation pattern in
the broad side direction to the far-field amplitude that would obtained if all the elements
were fed in phase. Radiation efficiency [5]

1N I p
Irad = 100% (4.39)
1N | I p |

This relation is pre-reference to the used expression;

| 1N I p |2
Irad = (4.40)
1N | I p |2

Since it produces 100% efficiency for all in-phase current distribution and it also provides
a more discrepancy measure of super directive array efficiency. Super directive functions
become more efficient when the overall length of the array is reduced. A greater number of
elements permit greater beam width reduction at the cost of radiation efficiency.

ADAPTIVE ARRAY

In general the antenna element along with their transmission line feed produce a beam or
beams in predetermined directions, on the other hand receiving array/antenna look in a
particular direction regardless of whether any signals are arriving from this direction or not.
If by processing the signals from the individual elements, an array can become active and
reacts intelligently to its environment. And steering its beam towards a desired signals while
simultaneously steering a null towards an undesired, interfering signal and thereby the maximum
signal to noise ratio of the desired signal. This antenna is termed adaptive array antenna.
Also, by appropriate sampling and dignifying the signals at the terminals of each element
(of such array) and processing them with a computer, a very efficient antenna can be
built up, this new antenna is termed SMART antenna.
Antenna Array 143

Earlier adaptive antennas were used as radar antenna with the side lobe elimination
characteristics. The side lobe eliminator antenna consists of a conventional radar antenna
where output is coupled with that of much lower gain auxiliary antennas. The gain of the
auxiliary antenna is slightly greater than the gain of maximum side lobe of radar antenna.
Addicting the weighted signals received by the auxiliary antenna to those received by the
radar antenna permitted suppression of interfering sources located in direction other than the
main beam of the radar antenna. This early use of adaptive antenna evolved to adapted array
and multiple beam antennas. An antenna is an essential component of an adaptive antenna
system, which is uniquely related to the disciplines of antenna design. In fact, adaptive
antenna system uses antenna of various types and configurations, however, they can be
classified as phased array, multiple-beam antenna and a combination of both. Each of these
antenna configurations has several ports where received signals Pr appears in response to
sources located in the antennas field of view. By characteristics, phased array have identical
elements each of which has a port where the output signal is represented as
M
Er = I m Fn (R m , Gm ) e jHn (4.41)
n =1

where
Pm Gm
Im = C2
(4Q Rm ) f
2

in which
Pm = power radiated by mth source
Gm = gain of antenna used by mth source
Rm = distance between mth source and adaptive antenna
f = operating frequency
Fn and Hn represent the amplitude and phase that relates Im to a signal at the antenna port.
The (qm, fm) part gives angular position of mth source and measured in a suitable spherical
co-ordinate system. In most of adaptive phased array antennas, Fn is identical whereas
Hn is generally different for all elements of the array. For signals at the output port of multi-
beam antenna (MBA), the Hn are nearly equal and Fn differ; however; this fundamental
difference between phased array and an MBA results in the inherently larger bandwidth of
the MBA.

Weighting of Signals
Weighting of signals received at the port of an adaptive antenna determines directional
response of antenna to incident signals, weights attenuate and alter the phase of received
signals and designed to be either frequency-independent or adaptively varied as a function
of frequency. Some adaptive antenna operates entirely at the received frequency and use RF
weights; however, many others have mixer amplifier at each antenna port and the weights
operate at lower IF (see Fig. 4.17). All the antenna systems have frequency dependent
144 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 4.17 Receiver with adaptive antenna array.

response to incident signals. Whenever frequency independent weights are used, suppression
of undesired signals varies with frequency. Because of scenario-dependent, this inherent
performance characteristic cannot be succinctly and accurately described. However, it is
found that for frequency independent weights the cancellation parameters C (suppression of
an interfering signal) of an adaptive array antenna is limited as follows (see [6]):

2Q
C 20 log K DW sin (R m /2) (4.42)
c
where
qm = maximum angle subtended by antennas field of view
D = maximum dimension of antenna aperture
W = nulling bandwidth
c = velocity of light in free space
The K is constant depends on the array configuration and particular scenario of interfering
and desired sources and its values ranges from +5 to +15.
As we know that adaptive antennas use both phased-array and multi-beam antennas, so
it is necessary to be aware of the fundamental difference between these two antennas in
regard of adaptive antenna. Phased-array antennas are focused to receive signals from a
particular direction by adjusting phases of array elements. The differential time delay tm
associated with signals arriving at the ports of the array elements is created by inserting
delay tm in the range of

pM
0 Um U
c
where p is constant. That is, the array is perfectly focused at the design frequency fc and its
performance deteriorates as the operating frequency altered from the fc.
Antenna Array 145

The parameter p is constant for a signal source located adjacent to the bore sight
direction of the array and array does not focused effectively even for a large bandwidth
(Df = fc f). According to rule of thumb relating Df to antenna aperture D and q1, the
fractional bandwidth is given by

2FM fc
'f = (4.43)
D sin R

D 'f
where F = sin R
M 2 f0
and known as differential path delay. In case e is less than 0.1 (a path-length error = l/10),
and q = 10 and D = 120l. Equation (4.43) gives

'f 2 0.1 M
%= 1.0%
fc 120 M sin 10

The available result shows that for e = 0.1 the interference signal suppressed 20 dB.
Halving or doubling Df changes the signal suppressed to 26 dB or 14 dB respectively. That
is signal suppression varies approximately as (Df)2. As far as MBA is concerned, most MBA
uses lens or parabolic reflector antennas and focused over wide frequency band. The side
lobes and receiving patterns shape changes with frequency and alter the phase of received
signals significantly.
Reports indicate that this effect of varying frequency does not degrade related
adaptive antenna performance as much as that of an equivalent planar, because each beam
of MBA performs like a phase array with its receiving beam in the bore sight direction. As
the side lobes of an MBA do not dominate the determination of the weight applied to beam
port, MBA with an aperture of D = 120l can suppress interfering signals more than 20 dB
for

'f
= 5%
fc

If the expected Df/fc meets or exceeds system requirements, the phased-array may be the best
choices, however, if the estimated Df/fc is less than required, an MBA may be the best
choice.

Adaptive Antenna in Cellular Systems


The major limiting factor on the capacity of a cellular mobile system is interfering from co-
channel mobile in neighbouring cells. Adaptive antenna technology can be used to overcome
this intelligent combination of the signals at multiple antenna elements at the base station.
As we have discussed, two types of antenna phased array and multiple beam antenna.
146 Antenna and Wave Propagation

In cellular mobile system a set of antennas (phased array) is arranged in space and the
output of each element is multiplied by a complex weight and combined by summing as
shown in Fig. 4.18, where Y is resultant out of new radiation pattern. In arrangement shown
in Fig. 4.18 the radiation pattern of individual elements are summed with phase and amplitude
depending upon both the weights applied and their positions in space providing a new and
combined pattern. If the weights are allowed to vary in time the array becomes an adaptive
array, and it is exploited to improve the overall performance of mobile communication
system by choosing the weights so as to optimize some measure of the system performance.
The reason behind using a mobile adaptive antenna system is to improve the performance
of the system in the effect of the noise and interference. If a base station in a cellular system
uses an adaptive array to direct its radiation patterns towards a mobile phone which is in
communication, there are the following advantages:
(a) The transmitted power for a particular signal quality can be reduced in both up-link
and down-link directions. In other words, the cell radius and thereby the number of
base stations required to cover a given area can be increased.
(b) Since the mobile transmit power is reduced, its battery life can be extended.
(c) Channel delay spread is reduced because off-axis scatters are no longer illuminated.
(d) Depending on the direction of the mobile the probability of base-stations causing
interference to co-channel mobile in surrounding cells is reduced.
(e) In the same way, the probability of mobile causing interference to co-channel base
station is also reduced.

FIG. 4.18 Four-element phased array antenna.

Hence the applications of adaptive antenna to mobile system have significant advantages
in terms of coverage, capacity and quality. Currently few operational mobile systems actually
use adaptive antennas in standards operation; however, it is expected that in the next few
years, such antennas will form a standard feature of virtually all systems.
Antenna Array 147

BINOMIAL ARRAY

In order to increase the directivity of an array its total length need to be increased. In this
approach, number of minor lobes appears which are undesired for narrow beam applications.
In has been found that number of minor lobes in the resultant pattern increases whenever
spacing between elements is greater than l/2. As per the demand of modern communication
where narrow beam (no minor lobes) is preferred, it is the greatest need to design an array
of only main lobes.
The ratio of power density of main lobe to power density of the longest minor lobe is
termed side lobe ratio. A particular technique used to reduce side lobe level is called tapering.
Since currents/amplitude in the sources of a linear array is non-uniform, it is found that
minor lobes can be eliminated if the centre element radiates more strongly than the other
sources. Therefore tapering need to be done from centre to end radiators of same specifications.
The principle of tapering are primarily intended to broadside array but it is also applicable
to end-fire array. Binomial array is a common example of tapering scheme and it is an array
of n-isotropic sources of non-equal amplitudes. Using principle of pattern multiplication,
John Stone first proposed the binomial array in 1929 [2, 3], where amplitude of the radiating
sources are arranged according to the binomial expansion. That is, if minor lobes appearing
in the array need to be eliminated, the radiating sources must have current amplitudes
proportional to the coefficient of binomial series, i.e.
(n 1)(n 2) (n 1) (n 2) (n 3)
(1 + x )n = 1 + (n 1)x + x2 + x 3 ... (4.44)
!2 !3
where n is the number of radiating sources in the array.
For an array of total length (nl/2), the relative current in the nth element from the one
end is given by
n!
=
r !(n r )!

where r = 0, 1, 2, 3, and the above relation is equivalent to what is known as Pascals


triangle.
For example, the relative amplitudes for the array of 1 to 10 radiating sources are as follows:
No. of sources Pascals triangle
n = 1 1
n = 2 1 1
n = 3 1 2 1
n = 4 1 3 3 1
n = 5 1 4 6 4 1
n = 6 1 5 10 10 5 1
n = 7 1 6 15 20 15 6 1
n = 8 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1
n = 9 1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1
n = 10 1 9 36 84 126 126 84 36 9 1
148 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Since in binomial array the elements spacing is less than or equal to the half-wave
length, the HPBW of the array is given by

10.6 1.06 0.75


HPBW = = = (4.45a)
n 1 2L LM
M
and directivity
D0 = 1.77 n = 1.77 1 + 2LM (4.45b)
Using principle of multiplication, the resultant radiation pattern of an n-source binomial
array is given by

Q
En = cosn 1 cos R
2
In particular, if identical array of two point sources is superimposed one above other, then
three effective sources with amplitude ratio 1:2:1 results. Similarly, in case three such elements
are superimposed in same fashion, then an array of four sources is obtained whose current
amplitudes are in the ratio of 1:3:3:1.
The far-field pattern can be found by substituting n = 3 and 4 in the above expression
and they take shape as shown in Fig. 4.19(a) and (b).
It has also been noticed that binomial array offers single beam radiation at the cost of
directivity, the directivity of binomial array is greater than that of uniform array for the same
length of the array. In other words, in uniform array secondary lobes appear, but principle
lobes are narrower than that of the binomial array.

Disadvantages of Binomial Array


These are:
(a) The side lobes are eliminated but the directivity of array reduced.
(b) As the length of array increases, larger current amplitude ratios are required.

FIG. 4.19(a) Radiation pattern of 2-element array with amplitude ratio 1:2:1.
Antenna Array 149

FIG. 4.19(b) Radiation pattern of 3-element array with amplitude ratio 1:3:3:1.

Mutual Coupling between Arrays


The mutual coupling between array elements can be described by taking an array of two
elements. For example, two dipoles of lengths L1 and L2 such that first dipole is fed by
voltage V1 and second one is coupled with the first one, as shown in Fig. 4.20(a). (The second
one is passive.)
If I1 and I2 are the currents in the terminals, then from the network theory:
Z11I1 + Z12I2 = V1 (4.46a)

Z21I1 + Z22I2 = 0 (4.46b)


where Z11 and Z22 are the self-impedances of elements (1) and (2), and Z12 ~ Z21 are the
mutual impedances between the elements. In case the lengths of both the dipoles are equal
in length (L1, = L2 = L), then self-impedances is also equal. Therefore
(I1 + I2) [Z11 + Z12] = V1
So, if I1 = I2, we get
V1
I1 = (4.47)
Z11 + Z12

For the present case (thin half-wave length dipoles), the self-impedance values are found to
be
Z11 = 73.1 + j42.5 W
The variations of mutual impedance between two similar half-wave dipoles with normalized
distance d/l are shown in Fig. 4.20(b). In the limiting case of the separation distance d
0, the mutual impedance approaches self-impedance, which is to be expected.
150 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 4.20 (a) Arrangement of two dipoles; (b) Mutual impedance vs d/l of dipoles.

SOLVED EXAMPLES

Example 4.1 Find and plot the array factor for three identical antenna arrays, which individually
consists of two isotropic elements. Elements of array are separated by 5, 10 and 20 cm and
each element is excited in phase and fed by a signal of 1.5 GHz.
Solution: The operating wavelength

3 108
M= = 20 cm
1.5 10 9
Therefore normalized separations between elements are: l/4, l/2, l.
The corresponding phase difference is zero, i.e., d = 0. Therefore the array factor will
be

C d cos R + E 2Q d cos R Q d cos R


F (R , G ) = cos = cos = cos
2 2M M

M Q
(a) d = , F (R , G ) = cos cos R ; therefore
4 4
1
q = 0, F (R , G ) = = 0.707
2
q = 30, F(q, f) = 0.77
Antenna Array 151

q = 45, F(q, f) = 0.852


q = 60, F(q, f) = 0.92
q = 90, F(q, f) = 1

M Q
(b) d = , F (R , G ) = cos cos R ; therefore
2 2
q = 0, F(q, f) = 0
q = 30, F(q, f) = 0.22
q = 45, F(q , f) = 0.444
q = 60, F(q , f) = 0.707
q = 90, F(q, f) = 1
(c) d = l, F(q, f) = cos(p cos q); therefore
q = 0, F(q, f) = 1
q = 30, F(q , f) = 0.99
q = 45, F(q , f) = 0.606
q = 60, F(q, f) = 0
q = 90, F(q, f) = 1
Radiation patterns of three-element arrays are shown in Fig. 4.21.

90 1 90 1 90 1
120 60 120 60 120 60

0.5 30 0.5 30 0.5 30


150 150 150

180 0 180 0 180 0

210 330 210 330 210 330

240 300 240 300 240 300


270 270 270
(a) (b) (c)

FIG. 4.21 Radiation patterns of three-element arrays: (a) d = l/4, (b) d = l/2, (c) d = l.

Example 4.2 Draw the radiation pattern of 4-isotropic sources of equal amplitudes and
phases in broadside and end-fire arrays.
Solution: Broadside array:

Given that n = 4 and d = l/2, then Eq. (4.15) becomes


152 Antenna and Wave Propagation

(2N + 1)M ) 1 (2N + 1)


(R max ) min = cos1 = cos
2 nd 4

3
= cos1 = 0.75 for N = 1
4
which gives
(qmax)minor = 41.4 or 138.6
That is there will be 4 minor lobes (maxima) adjacent to major lobes. No major lobes occur
for other values of N, i.e., 2, 3, , because cos (qmax)min 1, which violates the rule of
cosine function. The major lobe occurs at q = 90 and 270. Again from Eq. (4.16), N = 1.

1M 1 1
(R min ) minor = cos1 = cos
4 M /2 2
which gives
(qmin)minor = 60 or 120
Also, N = 2. Therefore,
2M
(R min ) minor = cos1 1
= cos [ 1]
4 M /2
(qmin)minor = 0 or 180
That minor lobes (minima) occurs at 0, 60, 120, 180; i.e., 6 lobes. No other minor
lobe minima occur because for N = 3, the values of cosine become greater than one (Fig. 4.22a).

FIG. 4.22(a) Field pattern in broadside case.


Antenna Array 153

End-fire array:
(2N + 1) M 1 (2N + 1)
(R max ) 1 = cos1 = cos
C nd 4

M
n = 4, , B = Q, N = 1
2

3 7 1
= cos1 + 1 = cos1 or cos1
4 4 4

in which cos1(7/4) does not exist whereas cos1(1/4) gives qmax = 75.5.
Similarly for N = 2,

5 9 1
cos1 + 1 = cos1 or cos1
4 4 4

Again cos1(9/4) does not exist whereas cos1(1/4) gives qmax = 75.5

NM
R min = 2sin 1
2 nd

M
n = 4, ,N =1
2

1M 1
(R min )1 = 2 sin 1 = 2 sin 1 = 2 30 = 60
2.4 M /2 4

Similarly
1
(R min )2 = 2sin 1 = 2 45 = 90
2

3
(R min )3 = 2 sin 1 = 2 60 = 120
4

(qmin)4 = 2 sin1(1) = 2 90 = 180

N = 5 is not possible as its values exceed one [Fig. 4.22(b)].


154 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 4.22(b) Field pattern in end-fire case.

Example 4.3 Find the FNBW of 18l long antenna arrays.


Solution:
114.6 114.6
(FNBW) broad = M= = 6.37
L 18 M

2M 114
(FNBW)end-fire = 114 = = 38.2
18 M 3

Example 4.4 Find and plot the radiation pattern of two parallel thin half-wave length
electric dipoles separated by

M 3M
d= , M and
2 2
Solution: The array factor for this case is given by

M Q
(a) d= , F (R , G ) = cos cos R ; therefore
2 2
q = 0, F(q, f) = 0
q = 45, F(q, f) = 0.444
q = 90, F(q, f) = 1
(b) d = l, F(q, f) = cos(p cos q); therefore
q = 0, F(q, f) = 1
q = 45, F(q, f) = 0.606
q = 90, F(q, f) = 1.
3M 3Q
(c) d= , F (R , G ) = cos cos R ; therefore
2 2
q = 0, F(q, f) = 0
Antenna Array 155

q = 45, F(q, f) = 0.982


q = 90, F(q, f) = 1.
Radiation patterns of three-element array are shown in Fig. 4.23.
90 1 90 1 90 1
120 60 120 60 120 60

0.5 30 0.5 30 0.5 30


150 150 150

180 0 180 0 180 0

210 330 210 330 210 330

240 300 240 300 240 300


270 270 270
(a) (b) (c)

FIG. 4.23 Radiation patterns of three-element array: (a) d = l/2, (b) d = l, (c) d = 3l/2.

Example 4.5 Using the concept of principle of pattern multiplication, find the radiation
pattern of the four-element array separated at l/2 as shown in Fig. 4.24(a).

FIG. 4.24(a)

Solution: To solve this problem, we have to consider the case of binomial array. Let us
consider that we have a linear array that consists of three elements which are physically
placed away d = l/2 and each element is excited in phase (d = 0), the excitation of the centre
element is twice as large as that of the outer two elements [see Fig. 4.24(b)].

FIG. 4.24(b) Example 4.5.


156 Antenna and Wave Propagation

The choice of this distribution of excitation amplitudes is based on the fact that 1:2:1
are the leading terms of a binomial series. Corresponding array which could be generalized
to include more elements is called a binomial array. As the excitation at the centre element
is twice that of the outer two elements, it can be assumed that this three-element array is
equivalent to two-element array that are away by a distance d = l/2 from each other. If so,
equation

NZ
sin
2
F (R , G ) =
Z
N sin
2

can be used for N = 2, where it is interpreted to be the radiation pattern of this new element,
i.e.,

sin Z Z C d cos R Q cos R


F (R , G ) = = cos = cos = cos
Z 2 2 2
2 sin
2
i.e., the array factor of these elements is the same as the radiation pattern of one of the
elements. Therefore from pattern multiplication principle, the magnitude of the far-field
radiated electric field from this structure can be given by

Q cos R
F (R , G ) = cos2
2
Hence in general, for an array of n-elements:

Q cos R
F (R , G ) = cosn 1
2
Therefore, in given question, the array could be replaced by an array of two elements
containing three sub-elements (1:2:1), each and new array will have the individual excitation
(1:3:3:1), and

Q cos R 2 Q cos R Q cos R


F (R , G ) = cos cos = cos
3

2 2 2
Three patterns are possible:
Q cos R
(a) The element pattern: cos
2
Antenna Array 157

Q cos R
(b) Array factor: cos2
2

Q cos R
(c) The array pattern: cos3
2
The radiation patterns are shown in Fig. 4.24(c).

90 1 90 1 90 1
120 60 120 60 120 60

0.5 30 0.5 30 0.5 30


150 150 150

180 0 180 0 180 0

210 330 210 330 210 330

240 300 240 300 240 300


270 270 270
(a) (b) (c)

FIG. 4.24(c) Radiation pattern of 4-element array separated at a distance d = l/2.

Example 4.6 Show that the directivity for a broadside array of two identical isotropic
in-phase point sources separated at distance d is given by

2
D(R , G ) =
sin C d
1+
Cd
Solution: As we know that the directivity of an array is given by

4 Q E 2 (R , G ) max
D= 2Q Q

0 0
F (R , G ) sin R dR dG

or
4 Q F (R , G ) max
D= 2Q Q

0 0
F (R , G ) sin R dR dG

sin 2Z /2 2 Z 2 Z
where F (R , G ) = E 2 (R , G ) = 2
= 2 cos = 4 cos
sin Z /2 2 2
158 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Taking N = 2, in which y = bd cos q + a = bd cos q as a = 0 for broadside array.


F(q, f) = 4 cos (0.5 bd cos q) = F(q, f)max = 4

2Q Q Q Z
Let I= E 2 (R , G ) sin R dR dG = 2Q 4 cos2 sin R dR
0 0 0
2
Q Q Q
2Q 0
2(1 + cos Z ) sin R dR = 4Q
0
sin R dR + 0
cos Z sin R dR

= 4 Q [2 + I1 (say)]
where
Q Q
I1 = cos Z sin R dR = cos (C d cos R ) sin R dR
0 0

dx
If x = C d cos R dx = C d sin R dR or sin R dR =
Cd
and the corresponding limit varies between bd and bd.
Therefore
Cd dx 1 2 sin C d
I1 = Cd
cos x = =
Cd Cd
[ sin x ]C Cd d =
Cd
Hence,
4Q 4 2
D= =
2sin C d sin C d
4 Q 2 + 1+
Cd C d

Similarly, we can find the directivity of end-fire array as


2
D=
sin 2 C d
1 + 2 C d

Hint: In case of end-fire array, a = bd and y = (bd cos q bd).
Take x = (bd cos q bd), dx = bd sin q dq. The limit varies between 0 and 2bd.

Example 4.7 A uniform array consists of 18 isotropic point sources, each separated at
distance of (l/4). If the phase difference d = 90. Calculate (i) HPBW, (ii) solid beam
angle, (iii) beam efficiency and directivity, and (iv) effective aperture. Also find the improved
directivity using HansenWoodyard uniform array approach as well as change in directivity
value.
Antenna Array 159

Solution: (i) HPBW of end-fire is given by

57.3
L/2 M
where the length of array
M 17 M
L = (n 1)d = (18 1) =
4 4

57.3 57.3
HPBW = = = 39.32
17 M 1.457
2M
4
(ii) Directivity
4L 4 17 M
D= = = 17 = 12.30 dB
M M 4
(iii) Beam solid angle

4 Q 4 3.14
:= = = 0.74 Sr
D 17
(iv) Effective aperture

D M2 17 M 2
Ae = = = 1.353 M 2 = 1.353 3.52 = 16.57 cm 2
4Q 12.5

where l is 3.5 cm.


We also know that

d M
Dim = 1.789 4 n = 1.789 4 18 = 32.02 = 15.07 dB
M 4 M

Therefore change in directivity


DD = 15.07 12.30 = 2.77 dB

Example 4.8 Find the current in one of dipole in an antenna array, if


(a) No mutual coupling exists between the dipoles.
(b) Mutual coupling exists between the dipoles.
Assume that the first dipole of array is fed by voltage 100 V and the dipoles are
separated by d = l/2. Also, determine the amplitude and the phase changes.
160 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Solution: (a) In case of no coupling, Z12 = 0; hence

V1 100
I1 = = = 1.183 exp ( j 30.70)
Z11 73.1 + j 42.5

(b) For the case where coupling is existing, we obtain [from Fig. 4.20(b)],
Z12 = (12.5 j29.9) W
Hence from Eq. (4.47), we get
I1 = 1.2 ej21.8A
The amplitude of the input current changes slightly while the changes in phase is more
significant.

Example 4.9 Design an 8-element broadside array of isotropic sources having l/2 spacing
between elements. The pattern is to be optimized with a side lobe 25 dB down the minor
lobe maximum.
Solution: (i) Side lobe below main lobe is maximum in
dB = 20 log (r) 25 20 log (r)

25
log r = = 1.25 r = 17.78 = 18
20
(ii) n = 8; Tchebyscheff polynomial of degree (n 1) = 8 1 = 7.
From the relation
T7(x0) = r

64 x07 112 x05 + 56 x03 7x0 = 18

where x0 can be found from the equation

1 1/m 1/m
x0 = r+ (r 2 1) + r (r 2 1)
2

1 1/7 1/7
= 18 + (182 1) + 18 (182 1)
2

1 1
= {[18 + 17.97]1/7 + [18 17.97]1/7} = {[35.97]1/7 + [0.03]1/7}
2 2

1 1 1
x0 = log 35.97 + log 0.03
2 7 7
Antenna Array 161

1 1.556 2.4771 1
= + = (0.222 + 1.7824)
2 7 7 2

1
= = (anti-log 0.222 + anti-log 1.7824)
2

1
x0 = = (1.6680 + 0.6060) = 1.137 = 1.14
2
The array of 8 elements can be shown as follows:

a3 a2 a1 a0 a0 a1 a2 a3

Each has spacing l/2

Therefore the total E due to this array, i.e., E8 can be obtained as

E8 = A0 z + A1 (4z 2 3z ) + A2 (16z 5 20z 3 5z ) + A3 (64 z 7 112z 5 + 56z 3 7z )


T7(x) = E8

x x 2 x
64 z 7
112z + 56z 7z = A0 + A1 4 3
5 3

x0 x0 x0

x 5
x
3
x
+ A2 16 20 5
x0 x0 x0

x 7 x
5
x
3
x
+ A3 64 112 + 56 7
x0 x0 x0 x0

Equating coefficient similar terms

x
64x 7 = 64 A3 A3 = (x0 ) 7 = (1.14) 7
x0
log A3 = 7 log 1.14 A3 = 2.502

x 5 x
5
112 x = A2 16 112 A3
5
x0 x0

162 Antenna and Wave Propagation

112 x05 = [16 A2 112 A3 ]

16 A2 = 112 [x05 A3 ] = A2 = 4.039

3 3 3
x x x
3
56 x = 4A1 20 A2 + 56 A3
x0 x0 x0
1
A1 = [56(x0 )3 + 20 A2 56 A3 ]
4
1
[56(1.14)3 + 20 4.039 56 2.502] = 5.9085
4

x x x x
7x = A0 3 A1 + 5 A2 7 A2
x0 x0 x0 x0
A0 = 3A1 5A2 + 7A3 7x0

= 3 5.9085 5 4.039 + 7 2.502 7 1.14 = 7.0645


Thus it is clear that in array centre elements have maximum current amplitude while last
ones have minimum current amplitudes. And relative amplitudes will be
1.0 : 1.614 : 2.362 : 2.823 : 2.823 : 2.362 : 1.614 : 1.0
Thus tapering of current amplitudes start symmetrically on either sides of the centre source,
hence DalphTchebyscheff gives optimum pattern.
We know that
M 1 cosh 1 (r/ 2)
HPBW = 2 sin 1 cos1 cosh
Q d x m 1


Let
cosh 1 (r/ 2) cosh 1 (18 0.707) 1
y= = = cosh 1 (12.73)
1 7
m 7

1 1
= log (12.73 + 12.732 1) = log (25.416)
7

7
y = 0.2007
Hence
y2 y4
cosh(y) = 1 + + ... = 1 + 0.0204 = 1.020
12 14
Antenna Array 163

M 1.020 1 2
HPBW = 2 sin 1 cos1 = 2 sin 26.5 = 34.26
Q M /2 1.14 Q

The angle at first null maximum occurs

M 1 kQ
R nm = sin 1 cos1 cos
Q d x0 m 1

2 1 1 Q
= sin 1 cos1 cos = 24.82
Q 1.14 7

Example 4.10 Calculate the directivity of a broadside stacked antenna of height 10.5 m
and length 21 m in dB, if operating frequency f = 3.5 GHz.
Solution: We know that

12.56 12.56 2769.48


D= h l= 10.5 21 =
M 2
M 2
M2
where
c 30
M= = = 8.57 cm
f 3.5

2769.48
D= = 37.695 = 15.763 dB
8.572
Example 4.11 Describe the directivity of DolphTchebyscheff array.
Solution: Directivity of large DT array with side lobes in the range of 20 dB to 60 dB,
is generally defined in term of a factor called beam broaden factor (f). Where the beam
broaden factor is given by [2].
2
2
f = 1 + 0.636 cosh { (cosh 1 Rv )2 Q 2 }
Rv
where Rv is the major to minor lobe voltage ratio.
The directivity relates f as follows:

2 Rv2
D0 =
M
1 + (Rv2 1) f
(L + d )
164 Antenna and Wave Propagation

where (L + d) is the array length. The beam width of DT array can also be given in terms
of D0 as follows:
101.5
BW3dB =
D0

in degree. That is, the product of directivity and 3 dB beam width is approximately equal
to 100. This is similar to the product of the gain and beam width for electronic amplifier.
The above expression can also be considered for most of linear broadside array (see [7]).

Example 4.12 Calculate the directivity of DT array antenna, if the pattern is to be optimum
at side lobe 20 dB down to the minor lobe and length of array is 4l.
Solution: From the question, Rv = 20
The total length of the array is (L + d) = 4l
Hence the beam broaden factor
2
2
f = 1 + 0.636 cosh { (cosh 1 20)2 Q 2 }
20
2 2
1 1
= 1 + 0.636 cosh { (3.69)2 3.142 } = 1 + 0.636 3.52
10 10
f = 1 + 0.079 = 1.079
Therefore the directivity

2 20 2 800
D0 = = = 7.364
M 108.63
1 + (22 1) 1.079
2
4M
= 8.67 dB

Therefore the beam width of the array will be

101.5 101.5
R3dB = = = 13.78
D0 7.364

Example 4.13 Show that the directivity of an ordinary end-fire array can be expressed as

n
D=
M n =1 n k 4Q kd
1+ k =1 sin
2nd k M
Antenna Array 165

Solution: If the spacing between array elements is uniform and constant (d, say), the beam
area

nZ
2

sin 2

1 2 Q Q
:A = sin R dR dG
n2 0 0 Z
sin
2

where q is angle form the array axis. Since array pattern is not function of f, hence above
equation reduces to

nZ
2

sin 2
2Q Q

:A = sin R dR
Z
2
n 0
sin
2
in which
Z Qd dZ Qd
= (cos R 1) = sin R dR
2 2 2 M
M dZ
= sin R dR =
Qd 2
Hence above equation reduces to

nZ
2

sin 2
2M Q
dZ
:A =
n d 2 0 Z 2
sin
2
Further, let
Z Z Z 2Q d
=R = 0, if R = 0 and = , if R = Q
2 2 2 M
Also

nZ
2

sin 2
n =1
2kZ
= n + 2(n = k ) cos
Z k =1 2
sin
2
166 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Therefore the value of WA reduces to


2M 2Q d/M n =1
2kZ dZ
:A = 2
n d 0
n + 2(n = k ) cos
k =1

2

2
2Q d/ M
2M nZ n =1 2(n k )
2kZ
= 2 + sin
n d 2 k =1 2k 2 0

2M 2Q nd n =1 (n k ) 2Q d
= + sin 2k
n d M
2
k =1 k M
The directivity

4Q 2n2 dQ /M
D= =
:A 2 Q nd n k 2Q d
+ nk =1 sin 2 k
M =1
k

M

n
D=
M (n k ) 2Q d
nk =1 sin 2k
M
1+
2 Q nd
=1
2

Example 4.14 Find HPBW and directivity of a 17-element binomial array.


Solution:
1.06 1.06
HPBW = = = 0.253 rad = 15.2
17 1 4
and directivity
D0 = 1.77 17 = 7.3 = 8.64 dB

Example 4.15 Using the principle of pattern multiplication, describe radiation characteristics
of binomial array antenna.
Solution: We know that relative far-field pattern of two-point sources of same amplitude
and phase is given by

Q
En = cos cos R
2
If another identical array is superimposed on this array, the resultant relative far-field pattern
Q
(using pattern multification) is En = cos2 cos R . This arrangement doubles the current
2
Antenna Array 167

amplitude of the array at centre than that at the edges. In other words the array has the three
effective sources with current amplitudes ratio 1:2:1. Similarly if same procedure is repeated
for an array of three sources array, then an array of four effective sources with current
amplitude in ratio 1:3:3:1 is obtained. Both the above arrays have no minor lobes in radiation
pattern. The total far-field pattern of array will be as shown in Fig. 4.19(a) and (b). From
the above examples, it is clear that current amplitudes of the array are according to the
binomial coefficients. Therefore we can design binomial array of n-sources without minor
lobes for any desired directivity using principle of pattern multiplication and superimposing
sources on the others. That is, the current amplitudes should correspond to the coefficient
of binomial expansion. The far-field pattern of n-sources binomial array therefore will be

Q
En = cos1 cos R
2

Example 4.16 Derive the relation between length of n-elements array and its directivity.
Show that directivity of end-fire array is twice that of broadside array.
Solution: We know that the directivity is defined as

Maximum radiation intensity of AUT Gmax


D= =
Radiation intensity of isotropic antenna G0
In general, the radiation intensity is defined as
2
sin z
G (R ) =
z
where
nC d
z= cos R i.e. f(q) = fmax =1 at q = 90
2
In particular, for broadband array
2
1 sin z Q
G (R ) = G0 =
nC d

z
dz =
nC d
Therefore
G max nC d d L d L d
Db = = = 2n = 2 1 + 2
G0 Q M d M d M

L
Db = 2
M
where L is the length of the array and
168 Antenna and Wave Propagation

L = (n 1)d
Similarly, for end-fire array
2
1 sin z Q
G (R ) = G0 =
nC d 0

z
dz =
2 nC d
Therefore

Gmax 2 nC d d L d L d
De = = = 4 n = 4 1 + 4
G0 Q M d M d M
L
=4
M
Therefore De = 2Db.

Example 4.17 Show that the maximum of minor lobe of the n-array factor:

1 sin [nZ /2]


(AF) n =
n sin [Z /2]

is 13.46 dB down from the maximum at the major lobe in a linear array of uniform amplitude,
phase and spacing.
Solution: We know that the maximum of first minor lobe occurs when ny/2 = 1. Therefore,
Z Q
n = (2n + 1)
2 2

Z C d cos R + B 3Q
n = n =
2 2 2

Z Q
sin n sin 3
2 2 2Q
(AF) n = = = = 0.212
Z Q 3
n 3
2 2

AFn = 20 log10 (0.212) = 13.46 dB


i.e., maximum of first minor lobe of the array factor is 13.46 dB down from the maximum
at major lobe.

Example 4.18 Find the percentage change in directivity of a 12-element array in the cases
of broadside and end-fire array configurations.
Antenna Array 169

Solution:
n = 12
d 2 12 M
Db = 2 n = = 12 = 10.8 dB
M 2M

d 4 12 M
Db = 4 n = = 24 = 13.8 dB
M 2M
DD = Db De = 13.8 10.8 = 3.002 dB
% change = 3.002 100/13.8 = 21.75% w.r.t. De
% change = 3.002 100/10.8 = 27.85% w.r.t. Db

Example 4.19 Three isotropic point sources with spacing l/4 between them are placed
along the x-axis. The excitation coefficient of each outside element is unity while that of
centre element is 2. Find the resultant array factor and show that
(i) No nulls exist on the pattern between 0 q 180.
(ii) Only one maximum exists at q = 90 on the pattern 0 q 180.
Solution: As per question, arrangement is shown in Fig. 4.25. If E1, E2 and E3 are the
amplitudes of corresponding radiation field, then the resultant field ET = E1 + E2 + E3.

exp ( jkr1 ) exp ( jkr ) exp ( jkr2 )


ET = E0 + 2E0 + E0
r1 r r2
in which for the far-field region, r1 = r2 = r for amplitude variation, whereas for phase-
distribution (from Fig. 4.25)
r1 = r d cos q
r2 = r + d cos q

FIG. 4.25 3-element array placed along x-axis.


170 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Therefore
exp( jkr )
ET = E0 [2 + e jkd cos R + e jkd cos R ]
r

exp( jkr )
= E0 [2 + 2 cos(x )]
r
where x = kd cos q
exp ( jkr )
= 2E 0 [1 + cos(x )]
r

exp( jkr )
ET = 2E0 2 cos2 (x/2)
r
Therefore
kd cos R
(AF)n = [1 + cos(kd cos R )] = 2 cos2
2
If
2Q M
k= and d =
M 4
Hence
kd cos R 2Q M Q
= , cos R = cos R
2 2M 4 4

Q
(AF) n = 2 cos2 cos R
4
(i) If qn are the positions of null on the pattern, then

Q
(AF) n = 0 = 2 cos2 cos R
4
Q nQ
cos R n = cos1 (0) =
4 2
or qn = cos1 (2n)
where, n = 1 3 5, ...
Since for none of the values of n, the value of qn satisfies the cosine function, hence
no null exists.
Antenna Array 171

(ii) Similarly, maximum value occurs at angle qm, if

Q
2 cos2 cos R m = maximum
4

Q
cos cos R m = 1
4

Q
= cos R m = cos1 ( 1) = mQ m = 0, 1, 2, 3
4
qm = cos1(4m)
So, if m = 0,
q0 = cos1(4.0) = 90
No other value of m satisfies the cosine function, therefore only one maximum exists,
on the radiation pattern 0 q 180.

Example 4.20 Design a 4-element ordinary end-fire array of isotropic sources, positioned
along the x axis such that spacing between elements are d and its only one maximum occurs
at q0 = 0. Assuming d = l/2, find
(a) Progressive phase excitation between elements
(b) Angle where nulls occur
(c) Angle where maximum of array factor occurs
(d) FNBW and directivity (dB).
Solution:
2Q M
(a) B = C d = = Q = 180
M 2

M 1 M 1 N
(b) R n = cos1 1 N = cos 1 N = cos 1
nd 4M /2 2
where, N = 1, 2, 3,
Therefore, for
N = 1 q1 = cos1(1/2) = 60
N = 2 q1 = cos1(0) = 90
N = 3 q1 = cos1(1/2) = 120
(c) qm = cos1(1 ml/nd) = cos1(1 2m)
where m = 0, 1, 2,
172 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Therefore, for
m = 0, q0 = cos1(1) = 0
m = 1, q0 = cos1(1) = 180
(d) FNBW = 2 cos1(1 l/nd) = 2 cos1 (1 l/(4 0.5l))
= 2 cos1(1/2) = 2 60 = 120
D = 4n(d/l) = 4 4(l/2l) = 8 = 9.03 dB

Example 4.21 Show that in order to have no minor lobe for a uniform array of n-elements
the spacing and progressive phase shift between elements must be:
(a) D = l/n; b = 0 for a broadside array
(b) D = l/2n; b = kd for an end-fire array
Solution: We know that for an array of n elements:

1 sin[nZ /2]
(AF)n =
n sin[Z /2]

C d cos R C d cos R
where Z = +B =
2 2
as a = 0, for broadside array.
(a) In order to have no minor lobes, first null should occur at q = 0 or 180, thus

1 sin [nZ /2]


(AF) n = =0
n sin [Z /2]

nC d M
=Q d =
2 n
(b) Similarly, for end-fire array

C d cos R + C d Cd
Z = = (cos R + 1)
2 2

Cd
sin n (cos R + 1)
(AF) n = 2
Cd
(cos R + 1)
2
So, if
Cd
sin n (cos R + 1) = 0
2
Antenna Array 173

nC d
(cos R + 1) = Q
2

2nC d
=Q
2
which gives d = l/2n.

Example 4.22 In order to suppress grating lobes from a linear scanning array the maximum
spacing between elements is as follows:

M
d=
1 + cos R m

where q m is deviation of maximum radiation. What will be maximum spacing between


element without lobes at f = 3.0 GHz, when the array is designed to scan a maximum angle
of 30.
Solution:
l = 10 cm
M
d= , R m = scan angle
1 + cos R m
at qm = 30
M
d= = 0.5359 M = 5.4 cm
1 + cos 30

Example 4.23 Show that a three-element binomial array with a spacing of d l/2 between
the elements does not have a side lobe.
Solution: The excitation coefficient of a thee-element binomial array will be 1:2:1. The
normalized array factor of the array will be:

C d cos R
AF3 = cos2
2
Hence it is clear that its maxima occur at q = 90. In order to have no side lobe, the phase
factor

R
C d cos at R = 0 or 180
2
must be equal to or less than p/2. Thus,
174 Antenna and Wave Propagation

C d cos R Q
at q = 0, 180
2 2

2pd/2l p/2
2Q Q
d
2M 2

Q
d
2

Example 4.24 The total length of DT array is 4l. For a 30 dB side lobe level design and
spacing of (l/2) between the elements along the array axis, find (i) number of elements,
(ii) directivity and (iii) half-power beam width.
Solution: (i) N = 2n + 1 = 9 as n = 4
R0 = 30 dB R0 = 101.5 = 31.6222 dB

2
2
(ii) F = 1 + 0.636 662 cosh (cosh) 1 (31.662)2 Q 2
31
2
2
= 1 + 0.636 (7.54)
31.662
= 1 + 0.144 = 1.144
Hence

2 R02
D=
M
1 + (R0 1) f L + d
2

2 (31.662)2 2004.96
= = = 7.844
1 255.559
1 + ((31.662) 1) 1.144 4.5
2


= 8.945 dB

M 1 M
(iii) HPBW = f cos1 cos R 0 0.443 cos cos R + 0.443
L +d L + d
Antenna Array 175

M 1 1
= 1.144 cos1 0.443 cos 0.443 at R = 90
L +d 4.5

= 1.44(95.65 84.35]
= 12.93
Using direct formula, BW3dB = 101.5/D = 101.5/7.844 = 12.93, which is the same as above.

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

1. The essential condition for an array to be linear is that


(a) Elements should be of equal length
(b) Elements should be fed with equal current
(c) Elements should be equally spaced
(d) None of these.
2. The total field produced by an array is
(a) Vector sum of fields produced by individual elements
(b) Sum of fields produced by individual elements
(c) Sum of vector fields produced by first three elements
(d) None of these.
3. The essential condition for an array to be uniform linear is
(a) Elements should be of equal length
(b) Element should be fed with a current of equal magnitude and uniform progressive
phase shift.
(c) Elements should be equally spaced and opposite phased
(d) None of these.
4. In multi-elements array, variation in electrical length from l/2 within ________ does
not affect the radiating properties.
(a) 10% (b) 5%
(c) 15% (d) 1.3%
5. Bi-directional properties of broadside array can be converted into unidirectional if
an identical array exciting by current leading in phase 90o is placed
(a) Behind the array at l/2 distance
(b) Front of the array at l/2 distance
(c) Behind the array at l/4 distance
(d) None of these.
6. The variation between lengths of reflector, driven element and director of 3-element
parasitic array is
(a) 10% (b) 5%
(c) 5% (d) 1.3%
176 Antenna and Wave Propagation

7. In practice parasitic arrays are successfully used in frequency range of 100 MHz
1000 MHz. This antenna also known as:
(a) YagiUda antenna (b) Log antenna
(c) Folded dipole antenna (d) None of these.
8. A broadside couplet is formed if two isotropic radiators operates in phase, whereas
end-fire couplet is formed if two equal radiators are operated
(a) In-phase quadrature at a distance of l/2
(b) In-phase quadrature at a distance of l
(c) In-phase quadrature at a distance of l/4
(d) None of these.
9. Which statement is incorrect for collinear array?
(a) Its other name is broadcast array
(b) Gain is maximum when d = 0.3 l to 0.5 l.
(c) Two elements collinear array known as collinear couplet.
(d) Power gain does not increase with number of elements after four (04).
10. The directivity of a 10-element uniform linear end-fire array with separation of l/4 is
(a) 10 dB (b) 20 dB
(c) 0 dB (d) 2 dB
11. The directivity of a collinear array increases with
(a) Increase in the length of the array
(b) Decrease in the length of the array
(c) Increase in the size of elements
(d) None of these.
12. The FNBW for 20-element broadside array with separation l/4 is
(a) 12.92 (b) 20.5
(c) 10.58 (d) 22.92
13. This antenna array has the largest beam width:
(a) Edge array (b) Uniform array
(c) Optimum array (d) Binomial array
14. In electronic phased array, the direction of maximum radiation is controlled by
(a) Controlling the progressive phase difference between the elements
(b) Controlling the current amplitudes of the elements
(c) Tapering the array
(d) None of these.
15. Tapering is a technique in which ________ of the array is controlled.
(a) FNBW (b) HPBW
(c) Side lobe (d) Spillover
16. Main constraint with DT array is that it increases beam width at the cost of
(a) Radiation pattern (b) Efficiency
(c) Directivity (d) None of these
Antenna Array 177

17. Broadside rectangular array is a


(a) Broadside array (b) End-fire array
(c) Parasitic array (d) None of these
18. The directivity of a broadside rectangular array of height h = 20l and width b = 12l
is
(a) 40.5 dB (b) 50 dB
(c) 5 dB (d) None of these
19. Super directivity is accomplished by inserting a number of elements within a fixed
length of array
(a) True (b) False
(c) Partially true (d) None of these
20. In mobile communication adaptive antenna is used mainly to reduce
(a) Size of handset (b) Co-channel interference
(c) SNR (d) Scattering power loss

Answers
1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (b) 4. (c) 5. (c)
6. (c) 7. (a) 8. (c) 9. (c) 10. (a)
11. (a) 12. (d) 13. (d) 14. (a) 15. (c)
16. (c) 17. (a) 18. (d) 19. (a) 20. (b)

EXERCISES

1. What are the advantages of array antenna? Describing principle of pattern multiplication
and sketch the radiation pattern of a three-element array separated at l/2.
2. Show that the directivity for an end-fire array of two identical isotropic in phase
point sources separated at distance d is given by

2
D (R , G ) =
sin 2C d
1+
2 Cd

3. Design a 5-element broadside array of isotropic sources separated at l/2. The pattern
is to be optimized with a side lobe 15 dB down the minor lobe maximum.
4. Calculate the directivity and effective area of DT array antenna operating at l = 3 cm,
if the pattern is to be optimized a side lobe 15 dB down to the minor lobe.
5. Find HPBW, directivity, effective area and gain of a 15-element binomial array.
Assume that array efficiency is 92%.
178 Antenna and Wave Propagation

6. A uniform array consists of 20 isotropic point sources such that elements are l/2
away and fed in same phase. Assuming operating wavelength of 2.5 cm, find FNBW,
WA, directivity and effective area.
7. Find the change in directivity of a 10-element array antenna when they are arranged
in (a) broadside and (b) end-fire configurations.
8. A broadside array consisting of several l/2-long isotropic radiators is used to have
a directive gain of 30 dB. Estimate array specifications. What will be these values
for end-fire array?
9. Derive an expression for beam width of a uniform linear array between first nulls
and also determine its value for n = 5 to 8 elements, if the spacing between elements
is l/4.
10. What do you mean by electronic phased array antenna? Find the beam width of
primary lobes of 4 and 10 elements in case of (a) broadside array, (b) end-fire array.
Comment on the array with reference to its directivity.
11. Find the FNBW and HPBW for end-fire and broadside linear array consisting of
20 Hertzian dipoles with element spacing l/4 and l/2 respectively.
12. Distinguish between end-fire, broadside, parasitic and collinear arrays. Show that
array of two isotropic sources fed with equal amplitudes and opposite phases acts as
an end-fire array.
13. Find the location of the first nulls on the either side of the centre beam for a linear
array of 60 in phase elements spaced at l/2 and fed with equal amplitude current.
14. What are the advantages of DolphTchebyscheff array antenna? Write the expression
for its design parameters.
15. Derive the expression of directivity for the length of n-elements broadside array.
16. Design broadside and end-fire array to be used for 30 MHz communication where
30 dB directive gains are needed for proper communication.
17. Describe stacked array antenna. Show that the directivity of a broadside rectangular
stacked array is

12.56 A
D=
M2
where A is the area of array.
18. Describe the principle of operation of super directive antenna. Show that its SNR is
proportional to the directive gain and independent from the efficiency.
19. A 4-element broadside array, where elements are spaced at l/2, is operating at 250 MHz
such that each element carries current in the same phase and of 0.5 A amplitude.
Find its HPBW, FNBW and power radiating from the array.
Antenna Array 179

20. Describe the design procedure of a binomial array with suitable example. Also
mention its disadvantages. Find the directivity and gain of a 5-element binomial
array.
21. Sketch the radiation pattern of 3-element isotropic point array in end-fire and broad-
side array configurations.
22. What is tapering? Find the HPBW and directivity of a 19-element binomial array?
23. Find the half power bandwidth of 10-element binomial array with a spacing of l/2
between the elements. Also find the change in maximum directivity if the value
obtained, assuming the array factor is 7.32 dB.
24. Describe the effect of earth on the radiation pattern of the antenna. Mention the
merit of image principle in comparison to simple array method. Also sketch the
radiation pattern of vertical and horizontal antennas, if they are at height h which is
a multiple of l/2.
25. Design a two-element array of isotropic point sources positioned along x-axis such
that spacing between elements are l/4 and its only one maxima occurs at q = 0.
Assuming end-fire condition, find: (i) Array factor of the array; (ii) Relative phase
excitation of each element.
26. Design an ordinary end-fire uniform linear array with only one maximum so that its
directivity is 20 dBi. If the length of array is much greater than the spacing (l/4).
Find:
(a) Total length of array (l)
(b) HPBW (degree) and progressive phase shift.
(c) Amplitude level (compared to maximum of the major lobe) of first minor lobe
(dB).
27. Find the beam width and directivity of a 10-element uniform array of isotropic
sources placed along the x-axis, if the spacing between the elements is l/4 and the
maximum is directed at 45 from its axis.
28. Design a five-element 50 dB side lobe level DT array of isotropic elements, if
spacing between elements are l/4. Also find: (a) array factor; (b) directivity and
(c) HPBW.
29. Describe the stacked antenna array. Estimate the directivity of a broadside stacked
array of height 10 m and length 20 m, at operating frequency f = 3.2 GHz.
30. Write short notes on the following:
(a) SMART antenna
(b) Mutual coupling between array antennas
(c) Sensitive factor of super directive array.
180 Antenna and Wave Propagation

REFERENCES

[1] Prasad, K.D., Antenna and Wave Propagation, Satya Prakasan, New Delhi, 1996.
[2] Balanis, C.A., Antennas, John Wiley & Sons, N.Y., 2001.
[3] Kraus, J.D., Antennas for All Applications, 3rd ed., Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi,
2003.
[4] Newman, E.H., et al., Super directive receiving arrays, IEEE Trans. Antennas and
Propagate, AP. 26, No. 5, pp. 629635, Sept. 1978.
[5] M.M. Dagwood and A.P. Anderson, Design of super directive array with high
radiation efficiency, IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagate, AP. 26, No. 6, pp. 819823,
Nov. 1978.
[6] Meghan, J.T. et al., Wideband adaptive antenna nulling using tapped delay lines,
Tech Note 197945, Lincoln Laboratory, MIT, Lexington, Mass, June 26, 1979.
[7] R.S. Elliott, Beam width and directivity of large scanning arrays, Parts I and II,
Microwave Journal, pp. 5360, Dec. 1963.
C H A P T E R

5 Linear Wire Antennas

INTRODUCTION

In previous chapters, we have paid attention on the fundamental parameters of antenna,


feeding techniques, impedance matching as well as the design of antenna and antenna arrays.
This chapter is going to be the first, which will deal with antenna directly, specially wire
antennas. As far as wire antenna, in general, is concerned, it is the simplest, cheapest and
most prevalent and versatile antenna, and is useful for many applications. Wire antennas can
be constructed from either solid wire or tubular conductors. They are resonant antennas, i.e.
input reactance is zero at resonance. Examples of wire antenna are: long wire antenna,
folded dipole antenna, V-dipole, rhombic, and YagiUda antennas. Loop antennas are special
form of wire antennas. In order to obtain complete and accurate solution for wire antennas,
current on it must be solved, subject to boundary condition, which results the tangential
component of E is zero along the wire. This approach gives rise to integral equation, whose
solution is complex. In addition, this approach restricted to few wire antennas only. However
the latest numerical methods, full wave analysis, finite difference time domain and finite
elements method are simple and suitable for all kinds of wire antennas. The moment method
is a rather simple and conceptual approach to solve and analyze the properties of small wire
antennas.

Small Dipole and Radiation Mechanism


As the name suggests, dipole means two opposite charges at a finite distance. So, before
considering the study of any particular dipole (i.e. l/4, l/2 or full wave dipole), let us first
understand the mechanism by which electric lines of force are generated and then detached
from a dipole antenna to form the free-space waves. In order to give better physical interpretation
of detachment of the field lines, we can assume a dipole carrying sinusoidal current distribution,
which is a good approximation and verified experimentally. If so the current must, of course,
be zero at the ends. We have been using effectively the current distribution, which found on
181
182 Antenna and Wave Propagation

an open-circuited parallel wire lines. If such transmission lines are bent out to form the wire
antennas, the current distribution essentially unchanged. But practically it is not strictly true;
it may be only good approximation for the thin wire antennas, whose diameter is 0.01l [1].
In order to give a better description of radiation from a dipole antenna, let us consider
a centre fed small dipole of two opposite charges having maximum separation between
charges l0 (Instantaneous separation l), oscillating up and down in harmonic motion which
focusing attention of electric field [2]. At the initial time t = 0, the charges are at distance
l0 and undergo maximum acceleration say (v) as they reverse their direction, therefore
instantaneous current I is zero. Later at a time T/8, the charges start moving toward each
other and, they pass the midpoint at T/4 period (Fig. 5.1(a)(c)). As soon this happens the
field lines detach and new field lines of opposite nature are generated, producing maximum
current I and zero charge acceleration. As time further progresses (i.e., 3T/8 period),
charges start moving opposite direction, creating additional (opposite) field lines (see
Fig. 5.1(d)), and finally at time-period T/2 charges arrived at their original position
(i.e., maximum separation l0, current I is again zero and acceleration is maximum) completing
one cycle. That is, two equal charges of opposite nature oscillating up and down in harmonic
motion generated electric field lines. If this process continues, several field lines move
radically outward, detached from the antenna and form electromagnetic free space waves,
which in turn called radiation. Electric field lines producing radiation from a l/2 dipole is
shown in Fig. 5.2.

FIG. 5.1 Electric field lines and its detachment from dipole antenna.
Linear Wire Antennas 183

FIG. 5.2 Electric field lines moving from half wave-dipole antenna.

The light is EM waves and both travel by the wave disturbance of the same speed.
Maxwell (1873)

HERTZIAN DIPOLE

In general, an infinitesimal current carrying element termed as Hertzian dipole. Although


practically it is not possible to have such a dipole, but it is interesting to examine the
properties of these dipoles. Hertzian dipole is very useful to calculate the field of a large wire
antenna. This can be done by considering a long wire antenna as a combination of a large
number of Hertzian dipoles connected in series. Let us consider a Hertzian dipole of length
dl(<<l) as shown in Fig. 5.3, is located at the origin of a 3-D co-ordinate system.

FIG. 5.3 Hertzian dipole in 3-D co-ordinate system.


184 Antenna and Wave Propagation

As the diameter of dipole is very small compared to its length, it is omitted in analysis.
If the dipole carries a uniform constant current I = I0 cos w t, the retarded magnetic vector
potential A at a far-field point P due to dipole is given by
N[I ] dl (5.1)
A= a z
4Q r
where a z is a unit vector as dipole is situated along the z-axis.
with [I] = retarded current and given by I = I0 cos w(t r/v)
I = I cos(wt br) = Re [Iej(wtbr)]
0 (5.2)

X 2Q 1
in which C = and v is velocity of waves = .
v M NF
[] is added to indicate that it is retarded current. (t r/v) is retarded time as the phase
of the wave at point P is retarded w.r.t. the phase of the current in the element by an angle
(wr/v). Equation (5.2) implies that the disturbance at time t at distant point P (at distant r
from original) from the element is caused by a retarded current [I] that occurred at an earlier
time (t r/v). The time-difference (r/c) is the time needed by the disturbance to travel the
distance (r) at the velocity of EM wave, i.e., velocity of light c. The corresponding retarded
current density [J] can be defined as
J = J e j(wtbr) A/m2
m

Since potential vector A is acting in z-direction, it will have only z-component, i.e., Az. Thus,
we may write A in the phasor form as follows:
N I 0 dl jCr
Az = e
4Qr
Transforming this vector from Cartesian to spherical co-ordinate using

Ar sin R cos G sin R sin G cos R Ax



AR = cos R cos G cos R sin G sin R Ay

AG sin R cos G 0 Az

and considering Ax = 0, Ay = 0 and Az = Az


gives Ar = Az cos q Aq = Az sin q and Af = 0
G
We know that B = NH = A (by definition)

We obtained components of magnetic field (H) as follows:


Hr = Hq = 0 (5.3a)
Linear Wire Antennas 185

I 0 dl jC 1
HG = sin R + 2 e jC r (5.3b)
4Q r r

E
Similarly by using Maxwells equation, H = F = jFX E .
t
We find electric field components and they are:

II 0 dl 1 j jC r
Er = cos R 2 e (5.4a)
2Q r Cr 3

II 0 dl jC 1 j jCr
ER = sin R + 2 e (5.4b)
2Q r r Cr3
and Ef = 0 (5.4c)

where I = N /F and defined as characteristic impedance of medium surrounding the dipole.


The close observation of expressions for magnetic and electric fields given in Eqs. (5.3) and
(5.4) reveals that there are terms varying as 1/r3, 1/r2 and 1/r and (1/r3). The terms vary with
(1/r3), known as electrostatic or simply electric field. Since it corresponds to the field of an
electric dipole and dominates over other terms in a region very close to Hertzian dipole/
conductor. Both equations have components varying as 1/r2 and they are known as near field
or induction field, and it is predictable from the BiotSavarts law. Induction field is predominant
at point near to dipole only and represents the energy stored in the magnetic field surrounding
the current element. This energy is alternatively stored in the field and returned to the source
current element during each half-cycle. As well as radiation is concerned this field is of little
importance and omitted in radiation field calculations.
The term varies as 1/r is known as radiation/distant or far-field, because it is the only
term that remains up to the far-zone. This field accounts for the radiation of EM waves from
the conductor/dipole. The radiation fields are of great significance at large distance from
conductor/dipole. Since the components of the magnetic field are produced by the alternating
electric fields and the electric field components arise from the alternating magnetic field and
vice versa; the flow of current establishes the local induction fields, whereas the radiation
fields exist as sequence of the changing induction field. Just close to the conductor the
magnetic field is in phase with the current; whereas the electric field varies in phase with
the change on either side of the conductor. In far-field region, the magnetic and electric
fields thus have a phase-difference of p/2 radians and are at the right angles to each other
in space, i.e., Eq and Hf are in phase in the far-field region. Here we are concerned mainly
with far-field varying as 1/r, i.e.,
I 0 dl
HG = sin R (j C e j Cr ) (5.5a)
4Q

II 0 dl
and ER = sin R (j C e j Cr ) (5.5b)
4Q
186 Antenna and Wave Propagation

That is, Eq /Hf = h, which is same as in the case of plane wave radiation.
The time-average power density, thus obtained
1 1 1
Pav = Re ( ER HG ) = Re ( ER HG* ar ) = I |HG |2 ar
2 2 2
Therefore, the average radiated power is

2Q Q (I 0 C dl sin R )2
Prad = Pav ds = 0 0 32 Q r 2 2
I r 2 sin R dR dG

2
I 02 C 2 dl 2 Q I 2Q 4 dl 4Q 2
=I 2Q sin R dR = I 0 as C 2 =
3

32 Q 2 0 3 M M2
If medium surrounding the dipole is air, h = 120p; then
2
I 02 Q 120 Q dl
= 40 Q [dlM ] I 0
2 2 2
Prad =
3 M

This power could be considered as the power dissipated in a fictitious resistance Rrad by
current I, which is equal to I0 cos w t. That is

2 1
Prad = I rms Rrad = I 02 Rrad
2

2
dl
2 40 Q I 02 2

M
2
2 dl
Rrad = = 80 Q (5.6)
I 02 M

Thus, the antenna requires large amount of radiation resistance to radiate sufficient amount
of power. Since, Hertzian dipole is very small, the radiation resistance Rrad is very small and
no feeding lines of such low impedance are available to match the dipole. Also, we have to
consider uniform current that current be non-zero at the end-points of the dipole, which is
practically impossible because the surrounding medium is not conducting. Hence these are
limitations with the Hertzian dipole.

HALF-WAVE DIPOLE ANTENNA

As name indicates, it is dipole antenna of length of half-wave length, i.e. l/2, where l is
operating wavelength. Half-wave dipole can be considered as the series combination of large
numbers of Hertzian dipoles and fields due to l/2 dipole antenna can be found easily by
integrating the field of infinitesimal dipole under specified limit, i.e. l/4. The basic half-
Linear Wire Antennas 187

wave dipole antenna fed with two-wire transmission line and its current distribution is shown
in Fig. 5.4(a), whereas Fig. 5.4(b) shows the geometry of field calculation due to dipole,
where an infinitesimal length dl = dz of the dipole is located at distance z from the
centre. The magnetic vector potential at observation point P due to dl = dz carrying current
I = I0 cos wt is given by
N I 0 cos C z dz jCr1
dAz = e (5.7)
4 Q r1
where r1 = distance of element from the point of observation P and r z cos q .

FIG. 5.4(a) Half-wave dipole and current distribution. FIG. 5.4(b) Geometry of field calculation.

As well as the distance is concerned, we can replace r1 by r, i.e. r1 r as they are very
jCr
large, but not the phasor terms e 1 and ejbr, as there is a significant difference between
terms br1 and br. So, let us replace r1 = r z cos q in Eq. (5.7), and find out the total
magnetic vector potential as follows:

N I0 M /4 N I 0 jCr M /4
Az =
4Qr M /4
e jC (r z cos R ) cos C z dz =
2Qr
e M /4
e j C z cos R cos C z dz

After simplification, this gives


Q
jC r
cos cos R
N I0 e 2
Az = for L = l/2 (5.8)
2 QC r sin R
2

Similar to Hertzian dipole case (Section 5.2)


Using B = mH = A and Maxwells equation H = jweE
The expressions for magnetic and electric fields come as follows:

Q
jCr
cos cos R
jI 0 e 2 (5.9a)
HG =
2Qr sin R
188 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Q
cos cos R
jC r
and jI I 0 e 2 (5.9b)
HR =
2Qr sin R

It is also seen that expressions of Eq and Hf indicate that they are in time phase and
orthogonal. Also, the ratio of Eq and Hf is constant and equal to h. In addition, both Eq and
Hf contains two terms: first term is constant for particular distance r, whereas second term
shows the variation of field with angle q, i.e., it determines the pattern of antenna. So it may
be termed as pattern factor and
Q
cos cos R
2
F (R ) = (5.10)
sin R
which is termed normalized electric field pattern of a half-wave dipole antenna. Radiation
patterns of a centre fed dipole antenna of different lengths along with half-power beam width
are shown in Fig. 5.5(a)(d), which indicates that HPBW decreases as length of dipole
increases. With the similar procedure to Hertzian dipole, the time-average power density are
found to be

Q
cos2 cos R
I I 02 2 G
Prad = ar (5.11)
8Q r 2 2
sin 2R
Hence the time-average radiated power can be determined as follows:

Prad = Pav ds

Q
I I 02 cos2 sin R
2Q Q 2
= 0 0 8 Q 2 r 2 sin 2R
r 2 sin 2 R dR dG

After simplification, which gives: Prad = 36.56 I 02


1 2 Prad
and since Prad = 2
I rms Rrad , therefore Rrad is defined as Prad = = 73 W
2 I 02
(Neglecting ohmic loss, that is Pdis and hence Rl = 0.)
In order to compare the radiation resistance of these two dipoles let us assume that the
length of Hertzian dipole is l/2, we found Rrad = 2 W, which is very much less than 73 W.
That is, there is significant increase in the radiation resistance of the half-wave dipole
antenna over a Hertzian dipole antenna. Therefore, l/2 dipole antenna is capable of delivering
greater amounts of power to space than the Hertzian dipole. As the total input impedance of
Linear Wire Antennas 189

FIG. 5.5 Radiation patterns of dipole antenna of different lengths (L = l/2 to 3/2 l).

an antenna is represented by Zin = Rin + jXin (where Rin is resistance and Xin reactance), the
input impedance of a l/2-dipole antenna can be expressed as Zin = Rin + jXin = Rrad + jXin,
where Rrad = Rin for a lossless dipole antenna and reactance Xin is to be 42.5 W for a dipole
of length l/2; however, Xin approaches zero if the length of dipole reduced slightly. Typically,
for l = 0.485l, Xin is zero and Zin = 73 W. That why, in practice, dipole antenna designed
maintaining its length lesser than the actual length. Approximate parameters (length to diameter
ratio, thickness and corresponding resonant length) of dipole (for Zin = 73 W and Xin = 0)
are listed in Table 5.1.

TABLE 5.1 Resonant length of dipole for different (L/D)

L/D % Shortening Dipole thickness class Resonant length


5000 2 Very thin 0.49 l
50 5 Thin 0.475 l
10 9 Thick 0.455 l
190 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Radiation Resistance and Input Resistance


In general, the input impedance Zin of a device is defined as the ratio of the voltage to
current at a pair of terminals or the ratio of approximate components of the electric to
magnetic fields at a point. The real part of Zin is referred as input resistance Rin and Zin
Rin for a lossless antenna (i.e. Xin is zero) and resulting into the radiation of real power. The
radiation resistance Rrad is referred to the maximum current for which some lengths (l =
l/4, 3l/4, ..., etc.) does not occur at the input terminals of the device. In order to refer
radiation resistance to the input terminal of the antenna, antenna must be lossless Rl = 0, and
then the power at the input terminals is equated to the power at the maximum current. There
are several formulas to relate/compare the input resistance of the dipoles (Table 5.2).

TABLE 5.2 Expressions of input resistance for different range of dipole length (l)

l = Length of Dipole Input resistance Rin(W)


2
M l
0 < l < 20 Q
2
4 M
2.4
M M Ql
< l < 24.7
4 2 M
4.17
M Ql
< l < l 11.14
2 M

Parameters of a Dipole Antenna

Bandwidth
As dipoles are resonant type radiating device, therefore, their bandwidth is low. The available
data shows that for standard VSWR less than 2.0:1, the bandwidths are 16% and 8% respectively
L L
for = 50 and = 2500 at design frequency 300 MHz [3]. In general, the bandwidth
2a 2a
is directly proportional to thickness of dipole; thicker the dipole wider its bandwidth. The
minimum VSWR for thicker dipole occurs at a lower frequency than for the thinner one.

Radiation intensity
We know that the radiation intensity U is the power per unit Sr, i.e., it can be expressed in
watt per unit solid angle (W Sr1). That is
P
U= (5.12)
4Q
Linear Wire Antennas 191

From the definition of Poynting vector, the power radiated per unit surface area can be given
as
P P
Sr = Sr r 2 = =U
4Q r 2
4Q
1 1
or r2 I | HG |2max = r 2 | ER |2max = U m (5.13)
2 2I

where Um is maximum radiation intensity, i.e. U = Um at q = p/2. Therefore substituting the


value of Eq from Eq. (5.9b) gives
I 2 I 02
ER (Q /2) =
4Q 2

I I 02 120 2
and hence Um = = I 0 = 4.8 I 02 (5.14)
8Q 2
8 Q

Directivity
4Q U m
The directivity of a l/2 dipole antenna is defined as D = .
P
4Q 120I 02 120
Hence from Eq. (5.14) D = = = 1.64
36.56 I 02 8Q 73.12

Hence Ddb = 2.15 dB (5.15)


Therefore the directivity of l/2-dipole, i.e. 1.64 is only slightly greater than the directivity
of an ideal dipole which is 1.5. That is, the directivity of short dipole (1.5) increases to 1.64,
as the length of dipole increases to a half-wavelength. Further increase in the length of
dipole increase the directivity of dipole and a full wavelength dipole has directivity of 2.41.
Increase in directivity continues till dipole length approaches 1.25l, and further increase in
the length of dipole deteriorates the value of directivity.

Maximum effective area


As usual maximum effective area of l/2 dipole antenna is defined

M2 M 2 1.64
Ae = D0 = = 0.13l2 (5.16)
4Q 12.56

Radiation efficiency
In the previous section, we have found that the power radiated by a l/2-dipole antenna is
Pr = 1/2 I 02 Rr , in which power dissipation was neglected. Therefore taking into account
ohmic resistance of dipole, we can define the power delivered to the dipole as follows:
192 Antenna and Wave Propagation

1
Pr = I02 ( Rr + Rl ) (5.17)
2
where Rl is ohmic resistance of the dipole corresponding to the maximum current. In general,
the radiation efficiency is the ratio of power radiated to the total power supplied to the
antenna at a given frequency [4], therefore

1 2
Pr I 0 Rr Rr
I= = 2 = (5.18)
Pd 1 2 (Rr + Rl )
I 0 (Rr + Rl )
2

The power dissipated by the dipole can be given as


1
Pdis = Rl I 02 (5.19)
2
If I(z) is assumed to symmetrical current distribution of dipole, Pdis may also be defined as [5],

M /4 Rs I 02 M /4
Pdis = M /4
I z2 Rs dz =
2 0
2 sin C z dz

I 02 M
= Rs (5.20)
2 4
Comparing Eqs. (5.19) and (5.20), we get
M
Rl = Rs
4

1 XN
where Rs is surface resistance [6] and equals (=) .
2Q a 2T
Therefore radiation efficiency h can be given as (see [7]).

1
I=
1 XN 1
1+
8Q a 2T 73.12

where a = radius of dipole conductor.


Since for l/2 dipole, Rr = 73.12 W, the radiation efficiency h reduces to

1
I=
M Nf 1 1
1+
a T 8 Q 73.12
Linear Wire Antennas 193

1
or I= (5.21)
M Nf 1/2
4
1+ 9.6 10
a T

The radiation efficiency for a half-wave dipole of circular cross-section has been computed
using above two efficiency Eqs. (5.18) and (5.21). The variation of radiation efficiency of
copper dipole (s = 5.8 107 mho/m) in free space as function of d/l as well as frequency
has been plotted. Calculations were repeated using the conductivity of silver instead of
copper and found that efficiency differs from those of copper. The same was done for
aluminium half-wave dipole too and concluded that the results are useful in determining the
radiation efficiency only when ohmic losses are neglected [7].

MONOPOLE ANTENNA

Monopole antenna is one of the most widely used antennas throughout the RF spectrum
ranging from VHF to UHF. The simple structure of monopole coupled with unique properties
such as a pure vertical polarization and horizontal omnidirectional coverage, hence attract its
extensive possible uses in a variety of applications. Therefore, monopole antenna is an
attractive option for broadband communications. The available literature indicates that the
impedance bandwidth of a simple thin-wire monopole can be increased by introducing specific
changes in geometry such as folding wire, loading and thickening. Compared to simple wire
monopole, modified monopoles, such as conical or rotationally symmetric monopoles are
bulkier. In fact, it is extremely wide bandwidth antenna but its radiation pattern deteriorates
at the higher operating frequency. Amman and Chen [8] have proposed an alternative wider-
band planar monopole with considerable volume reduction to replace the wire monopole for
broad impedance bandwidth purposes.
Monopole antenna is half in the length of half-wave dipole antenna and generally fed
by a co-axial cable connected to its base. The monopole antenna is perpendicular to the
plane, which is usually assumed to be infinite and perfect conducting. Using the image
theory we can replace monopole antenna as a half-wave dipole antenna as shown in Fig. 5.6.

FIG. 5.6 Monopole antenna above ground plane.


194 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Therefore the field produced by monopole antenna in the region above the ground
plane with its image is same as the field due to l/2 wave dipole, i.e.,

Q
jCr
cos cos R
jI 0 e 2
HG = (5.22a)
2Qr sin R

Q
jCr
cos cos R
I jI 0 e 2
ER = (5.22b)
2Q r sin R
However, monopole radiates only over the hemispherical surface above the ground plane,
i.e., 0 q p. That is, radiated power is half of power radiated from the dipole with the
same amount of current. Thus for l/4 monopole antenna the radiated power will be
Prad = 18.28 I 02 and therefore Rrad = 73/2 = 36.5 W and hence input impedance is given by

Zin = (36.5 + j21.25) W (5.23)


In fact, the radiation resistance is a function of height above the ground and it may vary
between 60 W and 90 W. The main difference is that l/4 monopole radiates only in hemisphere
surface whereas l/4 dipole radiates more or less in all directions. The l/2 dipole and l/4
monopole antenna also called Hertz antenna and Marconi antenna respectively.

FOLDED DIPOLE ANTENNA

A folded dipole antenna (see Fig. 5.7) is a modified l/2 dipole with an additional wire
connecting its two ends. Folded dipole antenna is an extremely practical wire antenna and
also called ultra closed spaced array. It consists of two parallel, closely spaced l/2 dipoles
join together at the outer ends forming a narrow wire loop (d << L and d << l). The antenna
is fed at centre of one dipole, i.e., the dipoles have the same voltage at their ends. As well
as radiation fields are concerned it is same as the l/2 dipole antenna, but input impedance
differs and equal to 300 W.
d

L = L + L

Feed Feed Feed

Tx mode Antenna mode

FIG. 5.7 folded dipole antenna and its current distribution.


Linear Wire Antennas 195

Folded dipole antenna differs from the conventional dipole mainly in two respects:
directivity and wider bandwidth. The directivity of folded dipole antenna is bi-directional but
because of the distribution of current in the parts of the folded dipole antenna the input
impedance becomes higher, however the radiation patterns of both are equal. The folded
dipole antenna does not accept power at any even harmonics (i.e., 2nd, 4th, , etc.) of the
fundamental frequency, however it works with low value of VSWR on odd harmonics
(i.e. 3rd, 5th, ). This is because current distribution of l/2 and 3l/2 antennas is almost
similar. That is, if any folded dipole antenna functions at 20 MHz, it will also function at
60, 100 MHz frequencies. Since a simple l/2-dipole antenna carries 73 W radiation resistance,
so it is inconvenient to match it with a feed line of characteristic impedance (Z 0 )
300 W or so. However a folded dipole antenna offers terminal resistance nearly 300 W and
found suitable for such impedance matching.

Theoretical Analysis
Folded dipole antenna is basically an unbalanced Tx line with unequal currents which radiates
because of its unbalanced condition. A folded dipole antenna operation may be analyzed by
considering its current to be composed of two distinct modes, namely Tx line mode and
antenna mode. A model composed of these modes has been referred as a transmission line
model [9]. This model accurately calculates the input impedance of folded dipole antenna
provided the parallel wires are electrically close so that the usual transmission line equations
apply. Using transmission line model the input impedance of folded dipole antenna can be
expressed as:


4 ZT Z D 1
Z in = = 4Z D (5.24)
Z T + 2Z D 1 ZD
1 + 2 Z
T

L
where ZT = jZ 0 tan C . So if the length of folded dipole antenna, i.e., L = l/2,
2

2Q M
then ZT = jZ 0 tan =
M 4

Hence Zin = 4ZD (5.25)


i.e. the half-wave folded dipole antenna offers a four-fold increase in input impedance
over its l/2 dipole version. Since input impedance of a resonant antenna l/2-dipole antenna
is 73 W, therefore, Zinf = 4 73 = 292 300 W (i.e. very close to impedance of common
twin lead transmission). Similar to half-wave dipole, l/2-folded dipole antenna also has real
input impedance at resonance. Equation (5.24) can be used to predict the input impedance
of folded dipole antenna of any length, provided the impedances of Tx line mode ZT and
196 Antenna and Wave Propagation

corresponding linear dipole are known. The equivalent radius for a folded dipole antenna is
given by (see [8]).

1 d
ln (ae ) = ln (a) + ln (5.26)
2 a
where d is spacing between dipoles. Equation (5.26) can be sampled as ae ae (ad)1/2. Therefore
the necessity of using the equivalent radius (ae) depends upon both the wire radius (a) as
well as spacing between them (d). The above method is limited to a spacing of 0.01l
between dipoles, but in practice many folded dipole antennas in the range of VHF, exceed
this separation limit substantially as result accuracy degraded. For example, a folded dipole
antenna manufactured using 19 mm aluminium tubing has a separation of 100 mm or 1/20th
wavelength at 150 MHz [10]. Therefore, in general, the method fails for separations
d > 0.01l, because general transmission line equations do not apply therein. The Tx line
equation depends on the characteristic impedance Z0 as follows:
Vs = VR cosh rl + IR Z0 sinh rl (5.27a)
VR
I s = I R cos H l + sin H l (5.27b)
Z0

where Z0 is the characteristic impedance and is given by

d
Z 0 = 276 log10 : (5.28)
a
i.e., Z0 is function of the separation d and the radius a of the two-wire line.
A.R. Clark has proposed the extension of the use of this method to a folded dipole
antenna with spacing even greater than or equal to one-sixth of a wavelength or so. The
physical length of the folded dipole antenna is increased by an extension factor 0.39 time
the inter-element spacing and the NEC2 method of moments program is used for this
purpose. Clarks extension method is based on extended length theory of wire antennas
proposed by Austin and Fourier [11]. They have shown that the resonant length of a bent
monopole is constant for bending up to 90 for various configurations. Experimentally it is
found that the wire with a bend less than 90 behaves electrically like longer straight wires.
Bends such as ones at the tips of a folded dipoles, can hence be treated by extending the
physical length of the antenna by a factor dependent on the inter-element spacing (d).
Therefore the accuracy of Thiele Tx line mode can improve if the overall length (l) is
increased by an amount dependent on the additional wire-length at the tips of folded dipole.
The extended length relates the original lengths, separation between them and extended
factor as follows:
lext = Iorig + ad (5.29)
a = Unknown factor to be determined for different antennas
(Using NEC2 method of moments the common value of a for folded dipole antenna
is found to be 0.39.)
Linear Wire Antennas 197

The value of a was originally found for a folded dipole antenna of length 1 metre
manufactured using a 19 mm (a = 9.5 mm) aluminium tube. That is extension factor (a) can
provide consistently accurate results for wide range of wire thicknesses. Comparison of three
methods, NEC2, Thiele and Clarke methods is shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4 of [11] (for
d = 30 mm, 100 mm and 200 mm, length l = 1 metre and radius a = 1 mm). From these plots
it is concluded that the improved method is much closer to NEC2 than Thiele method as the
separation increases.

Input Impedance of Folded Dipole Antenna


In general the input impedance of a folded dipole antenna is given by Zin = n2 73 provided
all the wires carry equal currents. Where n is number of l/2 dipoles having radiation resistance
73 Q. However for folded dipole antenna of unequal radii of the two dipoles the input
impedance is modified to
2
a
Z in = 73 1 + 2 (5.30)
a1

Since input impedance depends not only on radius of wires, but also on the separation
between them, Uda and Mushiake proposed another formula for calculating the input impedance
in terms of d as:

2
d
log
a1
Z in = 73 1 + = 73 Zr (5.31)
d
log
a2

2
log d/a1
where Zr = 1 + is termed impedance transformation ratio/impedance set-up ratio.
log d/a2
Equation (5.31) is well suited when matching is done with low impedances, e.g. directive
arrays using parasitic elements because the radiation resistance of these arrays is quite low.

Applications of Folded Dipole Antenna


The folded dipole antenna is very useful as an FM broadcast band receiving antenna particular
as elements in Yagi-folded antenna, which is mostly used in television. In this Yagi antenna,
the driven element is folded dipole antenna and remaining elements simple l/2 dipole antennas.
It is constructed by cutting a piece of 300 W twin lead transmission line of length about
l/2. The ends are soldered together maintaining overall length slightly less than l/2 at the
desired operating frequency.
198 Antenna and Wave Propagation

HARMONICS ANTENNA

So far we have discussed wire antennas of finite length; less than or equal to l/2. We are
also aware that an antenna resonates as long as it length is integral multiple of l/2. Therefore
we can design an antenna of length even more than one half wavelengths long by combining
many l/2 elements in series. The antenna designed in this fashion is termed as harmonics
antenna and provides better directivity. The higher the number of l/2 elements, greater its
directivity. So harmonics antenna is a long wire antenna of improved directivity over other
single wire antennas. It radiates a horizontally polarized wave at low angles from 17 to 24
relative to the earth surface. The currents in adjacent half-wave section must be out of phase
and hence a feeding system cannot be used that disturb this condition. Examples of long wire
antenna (i.e. harmonics antennas) are V-antenna, rhombic and beverage antennas.
On the basis of terminating to its characteristic impedance, the long wire antenna is
classified as resonant (un-terminated) and non-resonant (terminated with Z0) LW antennas.
In resonant long wire antenna because of mismatching of impedances standing waves exist
along its length and the pattern becomes bidirectional corresponding to incident and reflected
waves. However in case of terminated antenna all the incident waves absorbed in terminating
impedance and there is no existence of reflected waves. Radiation pattern of antenna is
unidirectional and uniform current and voltage exist along the axis of antenna. The resonant
and non-resonant LW antennas and their directional radiation patterns are shown in Figs. 5.8
and 5.9 respectively.

FIG. 5.8 (a) Resonant long-wire antenna; (b) Bi-directional pattern.

FIG. 5.9 (a) Non-resonant long-wire antenna; (b) Unidirectional pattern.


Linear Wire Antennas 199

The angle of radiation with reference to antenna axis depends on number of half wave-
length (l/2), i.e., n. For example, direction of maximum radiation from a long-wire antenna
of 16 elements (i.e. 8l long) w.r.t. antenna axis is found to be 17.5. Large wire antennas
(resonant and non-resonant) are used for transmission and reception in many communicating
systems in frequency range from 30 kHz to 30 MHz. Irrespective of theoretical complexity
LW antenna is useful because of its simple structure and low cost. They provide a simple
and effective method of obtaining directional pattern as well as power gain. These properties
of LW antennas are utilized when they are used as a circuit element in wire array antennas,
V antennas and rhombic antennas.

Parametric Specifications
(i) Physical length: The total physical length of LW antennas are given in terms of
number of dipoles connected continuously in the antenna. That is for n-number of
half wave dipoles. The length of antenna is

492(n 0.05)
L= ft (5.32)
f MHz

(ii) Field strength: The field strength of the long-wire antenna made with odd and
even number of l/2-dipoles are given by

nQ nQ
sin 2 cos R sin 2 cos R
60 I rms 30 2 I 0
E (r , R , G ) = = for n even (5.33a)
r sin R r sin R

nQ nQ
cos 2 cos R cos 2 cos R
60 I rms 30 2 I 0
E (r , R , G ) = = for n odd (5.33b)
r sin R r sin R

where Irms = rms current at maximum current point (in A)


I0 = peak amplitude of current
E = electric field strength (V/m)
r = distance between observation point and antenna
In case a long wire antenna is terminated to its characteristic impedance (i.e. non-
resonant), the number of l/2 dipoles (i.e. n = odd or even) do not affect the pattern
of the antenna.
200 Antenna and Wave Propagation

And field strength at any point P(r, q, f) is given by

60 I rmssin R IQ
E (r, R , G ) = sin (1 cos R )
r (1 cos R ) 2

30 2 I 0 sin R QL
= sin (1 cos R ) (5.34)
r (1 cos R ) M

where L = hl/2 is the total length of antenna.


(iii) Radiation resistance: The radiation resistance Rr of an n-element LW antenna in
terms of radiation resistance and its number is given by
Rrw = Rrd + 69 log10(n) = 73.13 + 69 log10(n) (5.35)
where 73.13 W is radiation resistance of a l/2-dipole antenna.
(iv) Angle of maximum radiation and maximum electric field intensity: The angle of
maximum radiation, i.e., angle between maximum lobe and axis of antenna is given
by
n 1
cos R m = (5.36)
n
Therefore corresponding maximum electric fields (Eqs. 5.33a and b] are reduced to

30 2 I 0 n (n 1)Q
Emax = cos for n is odd (5.37a)
r 2n 1 2

30 2 I 0 n (n 1)Q
Emax = sin for n is even (5.37b)
r 2n 1 2

Similarly, the maximum field for a terminated antenna (Eq. 5.34) is modified to

30 2(2n 1) I o Q 30 2(2 n 1) I 0
Emax = sin = (5.38)
r 2 r

30 2(2n 1) I 0 QL
or Emax = sin (5.39)
r nM

(v) Input impedance: Using transmission line model a wire antenna can be treated as
lossless parallel transmission line, i.e. a = 0 and hence g = jb. Therefore, impedance
at the input terminals of resonant wire antenna can be expressed as
Linear Wire Antennas 201

R + jZ 0 tan (C l)
Z in = Z 0 L (5.40)
Z 0 + jRL tan(C l)
where l = length of wire antenna
Z0 = characteristic impedance of wire antenna
b = phase constant = 2p/l
l = operating wavelength
RL = resonant terminal load resistance. (When a wire antenna with diameter d
is adjusted at height h above the earth surface, RL is given by

4h
RL = 138 log10 (5.41)
d
and its value lies between 200 W and 300 W to achieve proper impedance matching.)
(vi) Maximum directivity: The maximum directivity of a LW antenna in terms of its
radiation resistance is given by

120
Dm = (5.42)
Rrw sin 2R max

where qmax is direction of maximum radiation.


The voltage and current distributions along a LW antenna operating at various harmonics
frequency can be obtained using Eqs. (5.33) to (5.39). For example, the voltage and current
distributions of a LW antenna excited at its 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th harmonics are obtained as
shown in Fig. 5.9(c).

FIG. 5.9(c) Voltage and current distribution when operated at various harmonics.
202 Antenna and Wave Propagation

From Fig. 5.9(c) it is clear that a long-wire antenna can be used for harmonically
related frequencies (i.e. l/2, l, 3l/2, 2l, ) and therefore multi-band operation can be
achieved using long-wire antenna(s). In general, long-wire antennas are found very useful in
the MF (300 KHz3 MHz) and HF (3 MHz30 MHz) ranges. The performance characteristics
of LW antenna can still be enhanced by using them in arrays/specific configurations.

V-DIPOLE ANTENNA

As already mentioned, the main drawback of a conventional linear dipole is that its directivity
begins to diminish due to an increasing side lobe level, when dipole length goes much
beyond a wavelength. It has been reported that this undesirable performance characteristic
of a conventional linear dipole can be eliminated by tilting the lengthened arm in particular
shape in which V shape tilting is very common. The V shape tilted dipole antenna offers
enhanced directivity and gain. The resonant V antenna is one of the cheapest antennas for
providing a low angle beam for a fixed frequency operation in HF band. It is an extension
of long wire antennas in such a way that two LW antennas (generally l/2 or multiple) are
jointed together forming V shape and fed at apex.
The terminated and non-terminated V-antennas are shown in Fig. 5.10, where both the
wires are fed 180 out of phase with each other. The directivity and gain of these antennas
can be increased further by lengthening the arms. The ground V-antenna offers nearly twice
the gain of a single large wire antenna. The apex angle of V-antenna is also important and
it varies between 36 and 72 for arm length 8l to 2l long. If a V-antenna has to be operated
over a wider frequency range, the apex angle must be made the average between the optimum
values for the highest and lowest frequencies in terms of the number of l/2 dipoles in each
arm. In general, for a long-wire antenna, the main lobes of the pattern is observed at angle
b = 36 w.r.t. the antenna axis [Fig. 5.10(b)]. If inclined angle a of V-antenna is twice of
b, i.e. (2 36 = 72) a bi-directional pattern is obtained, which is sum of patterns of
individual arms. However bi-directional pattern of V-antenna can be converted into uni-
directional by terminating antenna arms in its characteristic impedance. As a result, wires do not

(a) (b)
FIG. 5.10 (a) Resonant V-antenna; (b) Terminated V-antenna.
Linear Wire Antennas 203

carry reflected waves, hence all the back radiations stand nearly cancelled and antenna
functions like travelling wave-antenna. In order to obtain alignment at elevation angles
greater than zero, the inclined angle a of antenna would be somewhat less than 2b. The
performance of V-antenna can be increased further by stacking them in array form in such
a way that another V-antenna is placed at an odd multiple of l/4 from back of the first. In
order to achieve end-fire action both the antenna is to be excited with a phase difference
of 90.
In this way, directional pattern of antenna narrowed in horizontal plane in broadside
direction and power gain increases approximately equal to number of section times used in
the array. That is power gain of two elements V-antenna array is doubled, similarly triplet
and so on for further increase in the number of elements in the array (see Fig. 5.11).
Alternative way to minimize the back radiation of V-antenna with termination is to use
V-element of considerable thickness, length and angle (b). The reflected waves on such
elements are very small compared to travelling waves (outgoing waves) as a result antenna
behaves as travelling wave antenna. A V-antenna of two elements, each of radius ( l/20) and
length 1.25 l/4, with an inclined angle b = 90 are found to provide highly uni-directional
pattern (see Fig. 5.12). Input impedance of a V-antenna is less than that of a linear dipole
of the same length l. The major drawbacks of V-antenna are its stronger side-lobes and
narrow BW. The inverted V-antenna is a modified form of V-antenna (see Fig. 5.13). If a
V-antenna is constructed above a perfectly conducting plane, the image of it would carry the
currents oppositely directed to those in antenna wire.

FIG. 5.11 V-element array antennas.

The main disadvantage of inverted V-antenna is that it has undesirable minor lobes
due to other portion of the radiating lobes. Therefore, these lobes emit horizontally
polarized waves in some other direction and hence inverted V-antenna may also receive
some horizontally polarized waves from these waves. The inverted V-antenna is one of the
travelling wave antennas used in HF band. It is effectively used for reception of waves up
to 60 GHz [12].
204 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 5.12 V-antenna of 1.25l long legs with radius of l/20.

FIG. 5.13 Inverted V-antenna.

Design Parameters
The close observation indicates that V-antenna may be visualized as an open-circuited flared
transmission line of length l and inclined angle a [Fig. 5.10(a)]. Therefore the directivity of
a V-antenna in the normal direction can be increased (i.e., side lobes reduced) over that of
corresponding linear dipole by choosing proper inclined angle a. In general, the larger the
value of arm length l the smaller the angle a must be. Using method of moments and
computer codes as well as concept of current distribution [13], the improved formulas for
the optimum angle a and corresponding directivity has been achieved. The inclined angle
(a) for which the directivity is greatest in the direction of the bi-sector of a is given by
(see [14])
3 2
h h h h
B = 149.3 + 603.4 809.5 + 443.6 for 0.5 1.5 (5.43a)
M M M M
2
h h h
and B = 13.39 78.27 + 169.77 for 1.5 3.0 (5.43b)
M M M
Linear Wire Antennas 205

where a is in degrees and the corresponding directivity is given by

h
D = 2.94 + 1.15 (5.44)
M
The variation of optimum values of a and arm length per unit wavelength is shown in
Fig. 5.14, and corresponding directivity variations are plotted in Fig. 5.15. In these
figures, the asterisks show some of the actual data compared and solid line that of either a
second or third order polynomial fit to the actual data [14, 15].

FIG. 5.14 Optimum angles a versus V-dipole arm length.

10
MM calculations
8 Polynomial fit
Weeks curve
7

6
Directivity

0
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

FIG. 5.15 Directivity versus V-dipole arm length.


206 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Therefore, for V-dipoles with 0.5 h/l 3.0, either Fig. 5.14 or Eq. (5.40) may be considered
to obtain the optimum value of a. Similarly for directivity, Fig. 5.15 or Eq. (5.44) may be
used for calculations. The radiation characteristics of asymmetrically fed wire antenna (off
centre), with overall length (l) less than a half wavelength (i.e., l < l/2) is almost independent
from feed point location along the wire. However, if overall length (l) of wire antenna is
greater than l/2 (i.e. l > l/2), the feed point and current distribution undergoes a phase
reversal maintaining almost sinusoidal current distribution, and this situation finally causes
influences on input impedance as well as radiation pattern of the antenna. The input impedances
of centre fed and off-centre fed dipoles are approximately related as (see [16])
Zcf = Zocf cos2(kDl) (5.45)
where Zcf = input impedance of symmetric centre driven dipole
Zocf = input impedance off-centre driven dipole
Dl = displacement from the centre through the arm
k = wave number

SLEEVE WIRE ANTENNA

Sleeve antenna is another form of wire antenna with advantages like mechanically simple,
broadband, purely vertically polarized and omnidirectional radiation in horizontal plane. The
sleeve antennas are widely used in mobile communication and broadcast systems [17]. The
basic geometrical configuration of a sleeve antenna is shown in Fig. 5.16. The sleeve antennas
are formed by adding sleeve(s) to a monopole or a dipole antenna. Accordingly, there are
two types of sleeve antennas: sleeve monopole antenna and sleeve dipole antenna. The
addition of sleeves increases the operating bandwidth of the antenna. The reason behind it
is that if short tubes (or sleeves) are added around a conventional monopole antenna,

Sleeve

Feed

FIG. 5.16 Sleeve antenna geometry.


Linear Wire Antennas 207

the resulting antenna shows satisfactory impedance matching with its feeding device, over
a wider frequency range than that of a single monopole antenna [18].

Sleeve Monopole
It is the addition of sleeves to a monopole antenna, and is fed by a co-axial line (see Fig. 5.17).
In 1947, Bock et al. designed an elementary sleeve antenna, useful for high frequency
applications.
2a

Sleeve dia 2b

H
L

Ground plane
Coaxial line

FIG. 5.17 More elementary sleeve monopole.

Later in 1966, as an attempt to improve bandwidth further, Poggio and Mayes proposed
a sleeve monopole, in which the feed has been elevated from the ground plane into the
sleeve itself as shown in Fig. 5.18. The radiating element of diameter 2a, protruding out of
the enclosing cylindrical sleeve of diameter 2b is an extension of the centre conductor of the
co-axial feed line, whose outer conductor is at a distance l from the ground plane. The
cylindrical sleeve having length L is also shorted to the ground plane. The total height (H)
of proposed new sleeve antenna is set to resonate at approximately one-quarter wave length
at the lowest frequency. In principle the length of sleeve may be any portion of the total
length of the monopole from greater than zero to the entire radiating portion of the antenna.
However, in practice the sleeve portion may be only from 33% to 50% of the height of
monopole, because the current at the virtual feed point changes only slightly as the overall
monopole height varies from l/4 to l/2 [19]. Poggio and Mayes results show that first sleeve
monopole resonance occurs at a frequency where monopole length H is approximately l/4.
In addition, a VSWR of less than 8 to 1 is achieved over 4:1 frequency band by suitably
adjusting the length l that is displacing the feed point within the sleeve. It was also observed
that significant improvement in VSWR is possible only at the cost of the bandwidth.
208 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 5.18 Sleeve monopole antenna.

The other optimum pattern design of a sleeve monopole is: (HL/L) = 2.25 and b/a = 3.0.
The reader interested in knowing about pattern optimization of sleeve monopole may see [19].
In order to overcome the problem of high VSWR of sleeve monopole (i.e. VSWR 8:1),
K.G. Thomas and his team proposed a new top loaded dual sleeve antenna having features
of broadband operation. It has been found the antenna features excellent radiation characteristics
within a broad impedance bandwidth of 4.2:1, covering 0.5 to 2.1 GHz for VSWR less than
2:1. This new antenna is found to be a suitable option for broadband mobile and vehicular
communication [20]. The proposed antenna is fed by a co-axial transmission line of charac-
teristic impedance 50 W. It is like gap-coupled two layer-stacked sleeve monopole antennas
(Sleeve A and Sleeve B) of length L1 and length L2 respectively (Fig. 5.19). The exterior of
sleeve A acts as the radiating element while interior B acts as the outer conductor of the feed.
A discontinuity (gap) is created in the outer conductor of the feed just above the ground

FIG. 5.19 Proposed dual sleeve antenna.


Linear Wire Antennas 209

plane, which is significantly responsible for the broadband impedance matching. Therefore,
wider impedance bandwidth can be obtained by optimizing the gap. Generally, a teflon
spacer of dielectric constant 1.8 is used to introduce gap between sleeves A and B. The inner
conductor of feed line is extended beyond the upper end of sleeve A and then it is surrounded
by sleeve B. The upper end of sleeve B is attached to a hollow cylindrical section of diameter
D and height h. The sleeve B is shorted at a point at a distance d down from the upper end
of the sleeve. The bottom faces of cylindrical top section (of diameter D) and height h acts
as the top loading. The diameter of the circular ground plane and the cylindrical top section
is maintained as the same; therefore the section comprising Sleeve A and Sleeve B acts as
a capacitor plate antenna in the lower frequency band and produces input resistance identical
to near quarter wave resonance. The position of the metallic short is optimized by using a
short circuit plunger, presenting a very high impedance at the lower end of upper sleeve
section B and thereby decouples it in the upper frequency band operation. The photograph
of proposed antenna is shown in Fig. 5.20.

FIG. 5.20 Photograph of experimental dual sleeve antenna.

Design Specifications and Experimental Results


The performance characteristics of the dual sleeve antenna have been measured and found
in good agreement with simulated ones [20]. The obtained results reveal that the first resonant
of antenna occurs at a frequency where monopole length (H) is approximately l/4. Total
length of antenna is 0.23l and the diameter of circular ground plane feed is 0.083l, where
l is wavelength in frequency range 0.5 to 2.1 GHz. A VSWR less than 2:1 is noticed over
the entire frequency band. The cylindrical top loading significantly reduces the lower edge
of the frequency band from 0.75 to 0.5 GHz with a resonance near 0.6 GHz. The line section
(L1 + L2) acts as the conventional sleeve monopole and also operates in frequency band
0.52.1 GHz. It is also observed that return-loss performance of antenna with larger ground
plans is degraded over the frequency band. The radiation pattern represents perfect omni-
directional patterns in the H plane and typically dipole pattern in E plane. The deviation from
typical monopole pattern in E plane is attributed to the small ground plane size of the
antenna.
210 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Sleeve Dipole Antenna


Sleeve dipole antenna is closely resembles an asymmetric dipole and hence can be analyzed
in a similar manner [see Fig. 5.21(a)]. It is essentially the same as that of a base-driven
monopole antenna above ground plane. By introducing the outer sleeve the excitation gap
voltage (maintained by the feeding line) is moved upward from the conducting plate z = 0
to z = zf. Therefore, image theory yields an equivalent structure in which two generators
carry equal voltage at z = zf.

FIG. 5.21 Sleeve dipole configuration and approximate equivalents.

As shown in Fig. 5.21(b), because of the linearity of Maxwells equations the total
current in the antenna system will be equal to the sum of the currents maintained independently
by each generator in each of the two asymmetric excited radiating elements [21]. Therefore
the total current at the input to sleeve IA (zf) is then approximately sum of currents at the
points z = zf, from the two configurations in Fig. 5.21(c) (upper and lower halves). Since
both the structures are identical at their feed, the input current is
IA = Ias(zf) + Ias(zf) (5.46)
Then the input admittance YA to the sleeve will be

I as (z f ) + I as ( z f )
YA =
VA

I as (z f )
or YA = Yas 1 + (5.47)
I as ( z f )

Linear Wire Antennas 211

1 2
where Yas = =
Z as Z1 + Z 2

which is useful for determining the impedance of asymmetric dipoles


where
IA = input current at the feed of the sleeve dipole [Fig. 5.21(a)]
Ias(h) = currents of asymmetric structures at z = h [Fig. 5.21(c)]
Zas = input impedance of centre-fed sleeve dipole
Z1 and Z2 = impedances due to symmetrical antennas of half lengths L1 and L2
Analysis shows that the frequency response of sleeve dipole antenna is much superior
to either that of a half wavelength or full wavelength dipoles.

Open-sleeve Dipole Antenna


The sleeve dipole antenna can also be approximated with an open-sleeve dipole by replacing
tubular sleeve with two conductors close to either side of the driven element. According to
Barkley [22], open sleeve antenna is a variation in the physical arrangement of the conventional
sleeve antenna. It consists of a dipole with two closely spaced parasitic elements of length
approximately one half of a centre-fed dipole. In fact, so many parameters arise which can
be varied to allow a wide range of choice between VSWR performance and operating
bandwidth. However, Barkley made a parametric study on impedance characteristics by
varying the length and spacing of open-sleeve monopole antenna. The gain and radiation
characteristics of open-sleeve antenna are found similar to a conventional cylindrical
sleeve antenna. Later, H.E. King and J.L. Wong [23] conducted study on a balun-fed open
sleeve dipole in front of a metallic reflector for operation in 225 MHz to 400 MHz frequency
range, especially for a satellite system application. They made parametric study on the
VSWR response as a function of dipole and sleeve diameters, sleeve length and sleeve to
dipole spacing. In addition, radiation patterns, gain and effects of mutual impedance were
also determined in order to derive suitable parameters for the proposed antenna system
operating over a 1.8:1 frequency band. Basic configuration of open-sleeve dipole antenna
is shown in Fig. 5.22, in which, proposed antenna structure has been incorporated with a
balloon, and dipole is fed by a co-axial line. The design parameters of the open-sleeve
dipole antenna for lowest VSWR for frequencies 225 MHz and 400 MHz are given in
Table 5.3.
Both the dipole and the sleeve were constructed in circular cylindrical elements with
a copper-clad 0.141 in. diameter, semi-rigid co-axial cable as the feed line. The balanced line
of the balloon is also a part of the semi-rigid cable (but without the centre conductor), and
the short-circuit of this line is coincident with the reflector surface. The dipoles are screwed
into the feed terminals while the sleeves were supported by Styrofoam. The angle a at the
feed point was made 90 for all dipoles, except for 1 18 dipole. However, for the 1 18 dipole,
a was inadvertently chosen as 45.
212 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Feed point details

(a) Front view

(b) Top view

Reflector
surface

Co-axial feed
(c) Side view

FIG. 5.22 The open-sleeve dipole antennas with a flat reflector.

TABLE 5.3 Design parameters of open-sleeve antenna at 225 MHz and 400 MHz

Parameters Value at 225 MHz Value at 400 MHz


D (diameter) 0.026l = 3.45 cm 0.047l = 3.53 cm
H (length) total 0.385l = 51.20 cm 0.684l = 51.34 cm
L (length) 0.216l = 28.73 cm 0.385l = 28.88 cm
S 0.0381l = 5.067 cm 0.0677l = 5.071cm
Sd 0.163l = 21.68 cm 0.29l = 21.75 cm
a 90 (for all dipoles) 90 (for all dipoles)
45 (dipole 1.125 in) 45 (dipole of 1.125 in)

Performance Characteristics
VSWR and coupling characteristics
Though VSWR tests were conducted taking both dipole and sleeve of the same diameter at
two values of dipole to reflector spacings 6 in. and 8.6 in. But it was noticed that the latter
Linear Wire Antennas 213

one showed significantly better VSWR performance than the first one. Therefore, 8.6 in.
spacing was considered a reasonably good choice for the antenna and it was considered for
the entire measurements. The reason behind choosing 8.6 in. spacing is that it is equal to
0.29l at f = 400 MHz and it is the position where radiation pattern beam bifurcation starts.
The VSWR characteristics of antenna as a function of frequency for different parameters are:
(a) dipole and sleeve diameters, (b) sleeve spacing, and (c) sleeve length are shown in
Figs. 5.23, 5.24 and 5.25 respectively. Figures 5.24 and 5.25 show the VSWR responses for
3/4 in. diameter open-sleeve dipole with sleeve spacing and length respectively [23].

D = 11/8
(Conventional
dipole without
sleeves)
0 = 3/8
VSWR

1/2
3/4
13/8
11/8

1
200 250 300 350 400
Frequency (MHz)

FIG. 5.23 VSWR response of open-sleeve dipole for various dipole and sleeve diameters.

5 Sleeve spacing
S = 1.05
S = 1.80 Sleeve length
S = 1.29 L = 11.88 in.
4
VSWR

Dipole length
3 H = 21.7 in.

All dimensions
2 are in inches.

1
200 250 300 350 400
Frequency (MHz)

FIG. 5.24 VSWR for 3/4 in. dia open-sleeve dipole with sleeve spacing as parameter.
214 Antenna and Wave Propagation

9
L = 14.5 in.
8
S = 1.29 in. L = 13.5 in.
7 H = 21.7 in.

6
VSWR

5
L = 12.75 in.
4

3
L = 11.88 in.
2 L = 11.00 in.

1
200 250 300 350 400
Frequency (MHz)

FIG. 5.25 VSWR for 3/4 in. dia open-sleeve dipole with sleeve length as parameter.

Group of plots shown above indicate that VSWR characteristics of an axially or a


transverse mound dipole in front of a 60 in. diameter cylinder is nearly same as those of a
dipole mounted in front of a flat reflector. The VSWR response becomes flatter and the
required dipole length shorter as the diameter increases. The wide band characteristic has
been confirmed by showing the VSWR response of conventional dipole of diameter 1 18 in.
From Fig. 5.24, it is clear that sleeve spacing has relatively little effect on VSWR response
for diameters less than 3/8 in. However both Figs. 5.24 and 5.25 illustrate how the VSWR
response can be modified at the upper end of the frequency band at the expense of the mid-
band region. The amount of coupling between two adjacent sleeves (terminated in one of
three conditions: open circuit, short-circuit and 50 W load) was found less than 20.6 dB in
the 225 MHz400 MHz frequency range.

Radiation pattern, directivity and gain


The radiation pattern and gain of proposed antenna in front of a reflector were measured on
a half-scale model, where dipole to reflector, sleeve to reflector and dipole to reflector
spacing were made up half size. The measurements conducted at three test frequencies: 450
MHz, 600 MHz and 800 MHz, indicate that both E plane and H plane patterns are similar
at these frequencies plotted. The E plane pattern shows minimum power of 32.5dB at
angle 100 for frequencies 450 MHz and 600 MHz; however, it is reduced to 40 dB for
800 MHz [23]. The directivity of antenna in each case is computed by the integration of the
E plane and H plane patterns, assuming the patterns were azimuthally symmetric, i.e.
Q Q
DE = 0
E -pattern and DH = 0
H -pattern (5.48)

and then final directivity D is taken as an average of both, i.e.


Linear Wire Antennas 215

DE + DH
D= (5.49)
2
The antenna gain is then calculated by subtracting ohmic losses from the directivity D, i.e.
G = D PL (5.50)
where PL is an ohmic loss. The gain of the open-sleeve dipole antenna for different frequencies
is tabulated in Table 5.4.

TABLE 5.4 Gain of the open-sleeve dipole antenna for different frequencies

Frequency Gain (dB)


(MHz) Theoretical Measured
450 8.62 9.1
600 9.03 9.1
800 7.24 7.0

Therefore construction of open-sleeve dipole antenna is a simple and effective approach


for achieving a 1:8:1 operating bandwidth and further bandwidth broadening is also possible
without cast of radiation pattern alteration.

BEVERAGE ANTENNA OR WAVE ANTENNA

The Beverage antenna is a long-wire antenna of length greater than one wavelength, however
some designer claimed that its length > 0.5l is sufficient enough. Unlike regular long-wire
antenna, the Beverage antenna is mounted close to the earths surface (typically < 0.1l) [24].
Beverage antenna was first used as directional antenna in 1992 however its technical
description by H.H. Beverage (after whom it is named) was published as The wave-antenna
for 200-metre Reception in QST Magazine in the same year. In general, the length of
Beverage antenna varies from 8 to 10 ft. Basic configuration of a Beverage antenna carries
a single travelling wave is shown in Figs. 5.26(a) whereas current and phase distributions
along antenna are shown in Figs. 5.26(b) and (c), where IR is relative current and DA is
distance along antenna. The current distribution is uniform while there is a linear variation

Wave

RL

Feed

(a) Basic configuration


FIG. 5.26 Contd.
216 Antenna and Wave Propagation

IR

DA

(b) Current distribution (c) Phase variation


FIG. 5.26 Beverage antenna.

in phase along the antenna. Beverage antennas are terminated at the far end with a resistance
RL equal to the antenna characteristic impedance and shows uni-directional pattern; however,
unterminated Beverage antennas offer bi-directional radiation.

Principle of Operation
In general, the electric field of a wave travelling along any perfect conducting surface is
normal to the surface, however they undergo forward tilt near the surface, in case the surface
is an imperfect conductor, such as earths surface/ground. If E is electric field intensity of
a wave travelling along imperfect conductor (tilted wave) in x-direction, then x-component
of electric field intensity (Ex) will enter the surface and dissipated resulting in to heat [25].
However, normal component (Ey) continues to travel along the surface and responsible for
propagation [Figs. 5.27(a) and (b)]. Horizontal components provide the means of generating
an RF current in the conducting wire. Therefore, Beverage antennas work on vertically
polarized waves arriving at low angles of incidence. Beverage antenna consists of a long
horizontal wire terminated in its characteristics impedance is shown in Fig. 5.27(c). In this
case of Beverage antenna as waves incident/travel toward the receiver, the horizontal component
of field (Ey), induced emfs along the antenna, and all these add up in the same phase at the
receiver. On the other hand, the waves arriving from the opposite directions are largely
absorbed in the termination. Therefore, the antenna exhibits a directional pattern in the
horizontal plane with maximum response in the direction of termination.

Direction of propagation
E
E
Y Y
Direction of propagation
Ey

Ex

X X
Perfect conductor Perfect conductor
(a) (b)
FIG. 5.27 (a) Electric field on ground; (b) Component of electric field E.
Linear Wire Antennas 217

E
Y
Ey

Tx
A Ex B

Terminated end Rx

X
Ground
(c)
FIG. 5.27 (c) Machanism of radiation.

The Beverage antenna is highly directional, responsive to low-angle signals, has little
noise pick-up, and produces excellent signal to noise ratios. Applications of Beverage antenna
range from 15 to 500 KHz and 3 to 30 MHz. Beverage receiving antenna requires a lot of
space, as it is several wavelengths long, mounted near the ground and oriented towards
desired reception. A ballon is required at the juncture of the wire (antenna) and coaxial feed
line. High resistance (nearly 600 W) is needed to terminate the end of antenna. Beverage
antenna provides good gain and directivity, but its efficiency is poor, that why it is not
suitable as a Tx antenna.
Theoretical length of Beverage antenna should be close to a factor known as the
maximum effective length (MEL), which is defined as
M
MEL = (m) (5.51)
100
4 1
K
where l = operating wavelength (m)
K = velocity factor and expressed in per cent
Beverage antennas work best over lossy ground, which does not make a very good ground
connection. The Beverage antenna should be installed at a height of 6 to 10 ft. off the ground
and it should be level with the ground over its entire length. In case the ground is not flat
enough, a height 6 to 10 ft. can also be considered above the average terrain elevation [26].

RHOMBIC ANTENNA
The rhombic antenna is a highest developed long-wire antenna [see Fig. 5.28(a)]. It is a non-
resonance antenna and consists of four similar conductors joined together in a rhombus form/
diamond shape. A rhombic antenna can also be made of two obtuse-angle V antennas that
are placed side by side, erected in a horizontal plane. The rhombic antenna is terminated
with load resistor RL of suitable such that to match the feeding Tx line. For a typical rhombic
antenna designs: a = 14.4, L = 6l and H = 1l load resistor RL are typically on the order
218 Antenna and Wave Propagation

of 700 to 800 W. The terminated resistor should be non-inductive and capacitance should be
negligible. In particular, terminating resistance of 800 W can be used if antenna is to be used
as a receiving antenna. The antenna carries outward travelling waves are absorbed in the
matched load. The reason behind its radiation is that the separation between the lines is
longer compared to wavelength. Rhombic antenna is also called diamond antenna, because
its principle of operation is based on travelling wave radiator. Its acute angles and leg length
determine completely the physical form and size of the antenna. In general, rhombic antenna
is fed by a balance line and terminated load resistance is adjusted to set up travelling waves
in the all four legs of the antenna. Rhombic antenna offers maximum gain along its axis, i.e.,
line joining feed and termination points and its polarization exists in the horizontal plane.
In practice only half of power is radiated rest half is dissipated in the terminating resistor.
The radiation pattern of antenna is unidirectional; however, it can be converted into
bidirectional by removing the terminated resistance. Antenna of this kind found suitable for
long distance shortwave reception of horizontally polarized waves. In case, we choose a =
0.08f, the beams of the rhombic antenna [see Fig. 5.28(a)] numbered 1, 2, 3, and 4 will be
aligned, where f is the angle of maximum radiation [27] and

0.371
G = cos1 1 (5.52)
LM

FIG. 5.28(a) Basic configuration of rhombic antenna.


Linear Wire Antennas 219

There are several designs of rhombic antenna:

Alignment design: The maximum of main lobe is considered with the desired elevation
angle a. The design parameters for an alignment design of rhombic antenna are
M
Height of antenna above ground H = 5.53(a)
4 sin B

0.5 M
Length of each leg L = 5.53(b)
sin 2 B
Tilt angle q = 90 a 5.53(c)

Maximum E-design: The maximum relative field intercity E is obtained at the desired
elevation angle a for constant antenna current. The design parameters are given as
M
H= 5.54(a)
4 sin B

0.371 M
L= 5.54(b)
sin 2 B
and q = 90 a 5.54(c)
0.371
That is, only the length is different in the alignment design method being = 0.74 of
0.5
the value for the maximum E-design. Assuming uniform current, in general, the electric field
intensity E in the vertical plane coincides with the rhombic axis is given by [28]

[cos R {sin( Hr sin B )} {sin (Z Lr )}2 ]


E= (5.55)
Z
in which a = elevation angle w.r.t. ground

2q = angle between legs


y = 1 sin q cos a
2Q H
Hr =
M
2Q L
Lr =
M
The length of legs (L) varies from 4l to 8l, due to which major lobes of radiation pattern
changes from 17 to 24 only [see Fig. 5.28(b)]. However, the typical value of power loss
is 35% to 50% in terminating resistor. The directivity varies from 13 dB to 20 dB and power
gain is of the order of 17 dB to 18 dB. As a result, a rhombic antenna operates satisfactorily
over a wide frequency range.
220 Antenna and Wave Propagation

105 90Y 75 Horizontal plane


120 60

135 45

150 30

165 15

180

195 345

210 330

315
225

240 300
255 270 285

FIG. 5.28(b) Radiation pattern of rhombic antenna.

Advantages
The rhombic antenna is much easier to construct and maintain than other wire
antennas of comparable gain and directivity.
The rhombic antenna is useful over a wide frequency range. Only small changes in
gain, directivity, and characteristic impedance occur with a change in operating
frequency.
The rhombic antenna also has the advantage of being non-critical as far as operation
and adjustment are concerned.
It is a highly directional broadband antenna with greatest radiated/received power
along the axis or longer diagonal.
The voltages present on the antenna are much lower than those produced by the
same input power on any resonant antenna. This is particularly important when high
transmitter powers are used or when high-altitude operation is required.
The vertical angle of radiation is low and hence these are suitable for long distance
F-layer ionosphere propagation.

Disadvantages
A fairly large antenna citation is required for its erection as legs are made at least
1l or 2l long at the lowest operating frequency. However, when larger gain and
directivity are required, legs of length 8l to 12l are also used. Therefore, they are
suitable only when a large area is available.
Linear Wire Antennas 221

Rhombic antennas are used for long-distance sky wave propagation at low vertical
angles of radiation (less than 20). Since horizontal and vertical patterns depend on
each other, if a rhombic antenna is designed to have a narrow horizontal beam, the
beam is also lower in the vertical direction. Therefore, obtaining high vertical-angle
radiation is impossible, except with a very broad horizontal pattern and low gain.
A considerable amount of the input power is dissipated in the terminating resistor
though it is necessary to make the antenna unidirectional.
The efficiency of rhombic antenna is decreased significantly because of matched
termination as it produces large numbers of lobes.

SOLVED EXAMPLES

Example 5.1 Obtain inclined angle and directivity of a V-dipole antenna of arm length
h = 0.75l. Show that directivity of V-dipole is greater than the directivity of 1.5l long linear
dipole (3.4 dB).
Solution: a = 149.3(0.75)3 + 603.4(0.75)2 809.5(0.75) + 443.6 = 112.87
D = 2.94 0.75 + 1.15 = 3.355 = 5.26 dB. Hence proved.

Example 5.2 Find the radiation resistance of a 0.25 l long dipole antenna.

2 2
dl 0.25 M
Solution: We know that Pr = 790 = 790 = 790 0.0625 = 49.4 :
M M

Example 5.3 Calculate the maximum radiation intensity and directivity of a l/2 dipole
antenna carrying current 2.5 rms value at f = 200 MHz. Also, find the maximum effective
area responsible for radiation.

I 02
Solution: 2
We know that I rms = I 02 = 2 2.5 2.5 = 12.50
2
Maximum radiation intensity,

U m = 4.8 I 02 = 4.8 12.50 = 60 WSr 1


And directivity is already defined as equal to 1.64 or 2.25 dB.
The operating wavelength: l = c/f = 150 cm.
The maximum effective area, Aem = 0.13 M 2 = 0.13 150 2 = 3.0 103 cm 2 .

Example 5.4 Calculate the radiation efficiency of above dipole, if it manufactured using
copper wire of radius 2.0 cm.
222 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Solution: The radiation efficiency of a l/2 is given by

1
I=
M fN
1+ 9.6 10 4
a T
Given: a = 20 mm = 0.02 mm, l = 150 cm = 1.5 m.
m = m0 = 4p 107 = 12.56 107 and s = 5.7 107
Therefore the value of factor

M fN 150 12.56 10 7 2 10 8
= = 157 103
a T 2 5.7 10 7

1
Hence I= 5
= 0.9998
1 + 1.57 10 9.6 10 4
h = 99.98%

Example 5.5 Find the change in impedance of folded dipole antenna, when it is designed
using l/2 dipoles of radii 1.5 and 2.0 cm. Also, find the input impedance when separation
between element 10 cm is considered.
Solution: In general, Zin of a folded dipole antenna is 300 W.
2 2
a 2.0
In the first case Z in = 73 1 + 2 i = 73 1 + i = 397.44 :
a1 1.5
Hence, the change in impedance; DZin = 97.44 W
2 2
log (s/a1 ) log (10/1.5)
i = 73 (1 + 1.1805)
2
Again Z in = 73 1 + = 73 1 +
log ( s/ a )
2 1 log(10/2.0) 1

Zin = 347.089 W
Hence, the change in impedance, DZin = 47.0879 W.

Example 5.6 In order to improve the performance of a transmitter, a wire antenna is


designed with 10 numbers of dipoles in series. Calculate the following, if it is to be operated
at 150 MHz:
(i) Angle of maximum radiation
(ii) Total length, and
(iii) Radiation resistance
Linear Wire Antennas 223

Solution: (i) Angle of maximum radiation


n 1 9
cos R m = = R m = cos1 (0.9) = 25.4
n 10

492(n 0.05) 492(10 0.05)


(ii) Total length L = = = 32.64 ft
f MHz 150
(iii) Radiation resistance
RR = [73.12 + 69 log10(n)] W
= [73.12 + 69 log10(10)] W
= 142.12 W

Example 5.7 Obtain the input impedance of a 0.45 l long wire antenna to be operated at
1.5 MHz. The antenna is fixed at a height of 1.85 m from the ground. Assume the resonant
resistance is 60 W. Also, find the directivity in the direction of 30 from the axis of antenna,
if Z0 = 50 W.
Solution: We know that the input impedance is given by

2Q
60 + j 50 tan M 0.45 M
R + jZ 0 tan (C l)
Z in = Z0 L = 50
Z 0 + jRL tan (C l) 2Q
50 + j 60 tan 0.45 M
M

60 + j 50 tan (162)
= 50 = 1.74[26.84 j19.9]
50 + j60 tan (162)
Hence Zi = (46.6 j34.6) W
120 120
Directivity D = = = 2.67 = 4.26 dB
Rrw sin R m
2
60 sin (90 30)
2

Example 5.8 A 0.4 l long wire antenna is made up of a conductor with cross-section area
of 36.0 cm2 and characteristic impedance of 55 W. The antenna is supposed to be operated
at 25 MHz at height 2.0 m from the ground. Calculate resonant load terminated resistance
(RL) and input impedance (Zin). Also, find the change in RL value if the height of antenna
increases by 20%.
Solution: The resonant load resistance at height h from the ground is given as

4h 36
and A = Q r = 36 r =
2
RL = 138 log10 = 3.38
d Q
224 Antenna and Wave Propagation

4 2 10 2
Hence RL = 138 log10 = 138 log10 (118.17) = 286 :
6.77

2Q
286 + j 50 tan 0.4 M
M
Input impedance, Zin = 50 = (7.38 j 67.04) :
2Q
50 + j 286 tan 0.4 M
M
In the second case, when height h increases, i.e., 2 1.2 = 2.4

4 2.4 10 2 960
RL = 138 log10

= 138 log10
= 297 :
6.77 6.77

Therefore, the change in value of RL, DRL = 11 W.

Example 5.9 Obtain the height for the load resistance of 250 W, if the diameter of the wire
is 2.6 cm. Also, find position of a point where antenna directivity is 2.5 dB.
Solution: The resonant load resistance at height h from the ground is given by

4h 250 4 h 10 2
RL = 138 log10 or = log10

d 138L 2.6
1.8L = log10(153.5 h) h = 0.4 m = 40 cm
120
Directivity, D =
RL sin 2R max

1/2
120
or R max = sin 1 = sin 1 (0.52)1/2 = 31.28
250 1.78

Example 5.10 Find the incident angle a and directivity of a V-dipole antenna of arm
length h = 1.6l.
Solution: The arm length h is equal to 1.6l h/l > 1.5. Therefore, the incident angle a
will be
2
h h
B = 13.39 78.27 + 169.77
M M
= 13.39(1.6)2 78.27(1.6) + 169.77 = 78.82
Linear Wire Antennas 225

Example 5.11 Design a V-dipole antenna to be operated at f = 20 MHz, with directivity


7.5 dB.
Solution: Directivity, D = 7.5 dB = 10 log (X) D = 5.62

h
Therefore, 5.62 = 2.94 + 1.15
M
1.52 l = 1.52 15 = 22.8 m
The inclined angle (a) = 13.39(1.52)2 78.27(1.52) + 169.77 = 81.74
or a = 81.74

Example 5.12 What will be maximum effective length of a Beverage antenna to be operated
at 100 MHz, if the velocity factor is considered to be 50%?
Solution: We know that maximum effective length is given by

M M 3
MEL = = = = 0.75 cm
100 100 4
4 1 4 1
K 50

Example 5.13 An electric dipole is formed with opposite charges of (+) and (), separated
at distance 2l. Show that the electric potential at a distance r from the centre of the dipole is
ql cos R
V =
2QF r 2
where q is an angle between the radius r and axis. Find the actual values if q = 15 pF, r = 500 m
and 2l = 6 cm at an angle of 60.
Solution: Let us consider the dipole, formed as shown in Fig. 5.29.

FIG. 5.29 Dipole formed by two opposite charges.


226 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Then the potential V at distance r will be

q 1 1
V =
4QF r1 r2

in which r1 = r l cos q and r2 = r + l cos q.


Hence
q r + l cos R r l cos R ql cos R
V = =
4 QF r 2 l 2 cos2R 2 Q Fr 2
In particular
15 10 14 3 10 2 cos 60 4.045
V = 12
= = 1.61 103 V
2 3.14 8.8574 10 500 2
25 10 4

Example 5.14 An antenna carrying current of 4 A produces a uniform field as follows:

2V/m for R = 30 80
E= and G = 0 90
0 elsewhere

at a distance of 100 m from its centre. Find solid beam angle, directivity, radiation resistance
and loss resistance for 90% efficiency.

90 80
Solution: Solid beam angle : A = 0 30
sin R dR dG

80
Q Q
cos R = [cos 80 cos 30] = 1.087 Sr
2 30 2

4Q 4 3.14
D= = = 11.55 = 10.63 dB
:A 1.087

1 E2 1 22
Rr = :A r2 = 1.087 100 2 = 7.208 :
I2 Z 4 2
377

Rr 1 Rl 1 Rl 1 Rl
I= =1+ = = = =
Rr + Rl I Rr 9 Rr 9 Rr

Rr 7.208r
or Rl = = = 0.78 :
9 9
Linear Wire Antennas 227

20 I
Example 5.15 An isotropic antenna is characterized by the field pattern E = Am 1 .
r
Find the efficiency of antenna if loss resistance is 20% of the radiation resistance. Also, find
their values.

20 I
Solution: Given E = Am 1
r

E2
Hence power density Pd =
I
400 I 2
or Pd = for free space
r 120 Q
If Pt is power over sphere, then it will be equal to pr2Pd and as per circuit theory it must
be equal to I2R. That is, I2R = 4pr2Pd, where R is radiation resistance and hence

4Q r 2 Pd 4Qr2 400 I 2 400


R= = = = 13.33 :
I 2
I 2
r 2
120 Q 30
Hence Rl = 13.33 0.02 = 0.267 W

Rr 13.33 1
Therefore, efficiency I = = = = 98%
Rr + Rl 13.33 + 0.02 1 + 0.02

Example 5.16 Find directivity, gain, effective aperture area and solid beam angle for a
centre-fed dipole of length l/10. Assume that the field distribution across the antenna is
E(q) = sin q and Rl = 0.4 W.

Q 8Q
Solution: (i) The solid beam angle : A = Q 4
sin 2R d : = 2Q 0
sin 3R =
3
= 8.38 Sr

4Q 4Q 3
(ii) The directivity D = = = 1.5 = 1.76 dB
:A 8Q

I av
2 2 2
1 1
2

(iii) The radiation resistance Rr = 790 LM = 790 = 1.975 :


I 2 10

Rr 1.975
(iv) The efficiency I = = = 83.34%
Rr + Rl 1.975 + 0.4
(v) Gain G = hD = 0.833 1.8 = 0.967 dBd
228 Antenna and Wave Propagation

M2 3M 2
(vi) Effective aperture Ae = I Am = 0.833 = 0.833 = 0.099 M 2
:A 8Q
in case l = 3.2 cm. Hence, Ae = 0.099 3.22 = 1.014 cm2

Example 5.17 (a) Design a maximum E-type Rhombic antenna for an elevation angle a =
17.5 to be operated at l = 3 cm.
(b) Design an alignment type rhombic antenna for an elevation angle a = 17.5 to be
operated at l = 3 cm.
Solution: (a) a = 17.5 and l = 3.0
M 3.0
H= = = 2.5 m
4 sin B 4 sin 17.5o
0.5 M 0.5 3.0 1.5
L= = = = 16.5 m
4 sin B 2 2
4 sin 17.5 o
0.0904
q = 90 17.5 = 72.5
Angle of maximum radiation

0.371 3.0
G = cos1 1 = 21.17
o

16.5

(b) a = 17.5 and l = 3.0


M 3.0
H= = = 2.5 m
4 sin B 4 sin 17.5o
0.371 M 0.371 3 1.113
L= = = = 12.3 m
4 sin B 2 2
4 sin 17.5 o
0.0904
q = 90 17.5 = 72.5
Angle of maximum radiation

0.371 3
G = cos1 1 = 24.37
o

12.3

Example 5.18 Calculate the relative electric field pattern in the axial direction for a rhombic
antenna of elevation angle a = 17.5 and to be operated at l = 3 cm.
Solution: We know that

cos G [sin (Hr sin B )][sin (Z )]2


E=
Z
Linear Wire Antennas 229

Given: a = 17.5, q = 72.5 and l = 3 cm


(a) Alignment method


L 16.5
Lr = 2Q = 2 3.14 = 34.54
M 3.0

H 2.5
Hr = 2Q = 2 3.14 = 5.23
M M

(1 sin 72.5 cos 17.5) (1 0.954 0.954)


Z = = = 0.545
2 2
Hence
cos 72.5 [sin (5.23 sin 17.5)] [sin (0.545 3.454)]2
E=
0.545

0.3007 0.02744 0.1079


E= = 16.225 Vm 1
0.545

(b) E-Max design


2Q L 2 3.14 12.3
Lr = = = 25.75
M 3.0

cos 72.5 [sin (5.23 sin 17.5)] [sin (0.545 25.75]2


E=
0.545

0.3007 0.02744 0.0589


= = 8.95 Vm 1
0.545

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

1. The resonance antenna has zero


(a) Input reactance (b) Input resistance
(c) Input impedance (d) None of these
2. One of the following combinations is true for Hertzian dipole:
(a) Hr = Hq = 0 and Ef = 0 (b) Hr = Hf = 0 and Eq = 0
(c) Er = Ef = 0 and Hf = 0 (d) None of these
3. The induction field surrounding dipole varies as
(a) 1/r3 (b) 1/r2
(c) 1/r (d) None of these
230 Antenna and Wave Propagation

4. Radiation resistance of Hertzian dipole is


(a) Equal to radiation resistance of half wave dipole
(b) Lesser than radiation resistance of half wave dipole
(c) Greater than radiation resistance of half wave dipole
(d) None of these
5. The directivity of an ideal dipole is found to be
(a) 1.0 (b) 1.5
(c) 1.64 (d) None of these
6. Folded dipole antenna function at
(a) Only at odd harmonics (b) Only at even harmonics
(c) Both of these (d) None of these
7. The apex angle of V-antenna varies between 36 and 72 for leg length
(a) l/2 to 3l/2 (b) 5l to 8l
(c) 8l to 2l (d) None of these
8. Beverage antenna was first used in the year
(a) 1992 (b) 1995
(c) 2002 (d) None of these
9. The length of a Beverage antenna is
(a) Greater than l (b) Lesser than l
(c) Lies between 0.55l and 5l (d) None of these
10. Rhombic antenna is
(a) Bidirectional (b) Unidirectional
(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these
M
11. The height of a Rhombic antenna is given by H = as per the
4 sin B
(a) Alignment method (b) Maximum E-method
(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these
12. The directivity of a Rhombic antenna varies
(a) 13 dB to 20 dB (b) 20 dB to 25 dB
(c) 25 dB to 30 dB (d) None of these
13. The radiation resistance of a folded dipole antenna found to be
(a) 350 W (b) 292 W
(c) 73 W (d) None of these
14. A half-wave is to be operated at 250 MHz. What will be its length if the velocity
factor of antenna element is 0.85?
(a) 0.3 m (b) 1.2 m
(c) 0.51 m (d) None of these
15. The following is/are wideband antenna(s):
(a) Folded dipole antenna (b) Marconi antenna
(c) Discone antenna (d) None of these
Linear Wire Antennas 231

16. A folded dipole antenna is conveniently fed by


(a) Co-axial cable (b) Tx line
(c) Flat ribbon type Tx line (d) None of these
17. Radiation resistance in a given direction is
(a) Power radiated per m2
(b) Field transmitted per m2
(c) Power radiated per unit solid angle
(d) None of these
18. For a dipole of length (l), the number of lobes in the radiation pattern will be
(a) 1 (b) 2
(c) 4 (d) None of these
19. A balun is virtually a/an
(a) Impedance transformer (b) Frequency supporter
(c) Attenuator (d) None of these
20. The inverted antenna can be used for reception of waves of frequency
(a) 10 GHz (b) 60 GHz
(c) 90 GHz (d) None of these

Answers
1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (c) 5. (b)
6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (b)
11. (c) 12. (a) 13. (b) 14. (c) 15. (a) & (c)
16. (c) 17. (c) 18. (d) 19. (a) 20. (b)

EXERCISES

1. What are the advantages and application of rhombic antenna? Design a rhombic
antenna of leg length 1.5l and elevation angle 35.
2. What is the suitable frequency range of applications of long wire antenna?
3. Write the expression for the maximum field for a terminated long wire antenna.
4. Describe the principle of operation of folded and V-dipole antennas. Explain the
various parameters of antennas.
5. Compare half-wave dipole, folded dipole antenna and V-dipole antennas in terms of
designs and radiation characteristics.
6. What are the Marconi and Hertz antennas? What are their radiation patterns and
impedances? List the differences between them.
232 Antenna and Wave Propagation

7. Describe the principle of operation of rhombic antenna. Explain the various parameters
of antenna.
8. Sketch the phase and current distributions of Beverage antennas.
9. Why is rhombic antenna used? Draw its neat diagram and explain its special features.
What happens to the main lobe of rhombic antenna if its frequency is doubled?
10. What are the advantages of dual sleeve antenna over a sleeve monopole antenna?
11. Show that the radiation resistance of a l/2 dipole antenna is 73 W.
12. Describe folded dipole antenna. Show that the input impedance of this antenna is
300 W. Mention its applications as a receiving antenna.
13. Describe sleeve dipole and open sleeve dipole antennas. Compare the l/2 dipole,
sleeve dipole and open sleeve antennas.
14. Describe a method to calculate the directivity and gain of open sleeve dipole antenna.
15. Describe working principle and applications of Beverage antenna.
16. Derive the expression for the radiation efficiency of a l/2 dipole antenna. (Hint: See
Eq. 5.22.)
17. Describe the characteristics of folded dipole antenna. Write the expression for its
input impedance in different cases.
18. What are the resonant and non-resonant antennas? Sketch their radiation patterns.
Write the expression for the field strength of these antennas.
19. Describe the characteristics of various V-dipole antennas. Highlight their applications
in various communication systems.
20. Find the direction of maximum radiation of a rhombic antenna of leg length 0.6l.
21. What is rhombic antenna? Explain its design procedure with reference to height.
22. A rhombic antenna above the ground is to be designed for a main beam maximum
at an elevation angle of b. Determine the rhombic configuration required for this
angle.
23. How does rhombic antenna differ from the Beverage antenna? Write the formulae
involved in the design of the rhombic antenna.
24. Find the radiation resistance of an antenna in a medium of er = 2.2, if its electric
10 I V
field pattern is E = , where I is current and r is distance.
r m
25. Show that average power radiated from a Hertzian dipole of length dl is equal to
40p2(dll)2 I 02 .
Linear Wire Antennas 233

REFERENCES

[1] Thiele, G.A. and W.L. Stutzman, Antenna Theory and Design, John Wiley & Sons,
New York, 2001.
[2] Kraus, J.D., Antennas, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988.
[3] Loo, Y.T. and S.W. Lee, Antenna Handbook, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York,
pp. 2721, 1988.
[4] IEEE Standards on Antennas, Methods of testing, 48, IRE, 2S2, 1948.
[5] Stratton, J.A., Electromagnetic Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 537, 1941.
[6] Schelkunoff, S.A. and H.T. Friis, Antennas: Theory and Practice, John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., p. 338, 1952, New York.
[7] King, R.W.P., The Theory of Linear Antennas, Harward University Press, Cambridge,
M.A., 1956.
[8] Amman, M.J. and Z.N. Chen, A wide band shorted planar monopole with bevel,
IEEE Trans Antennas Propagate., Vol. AP. 51. No. 4, pp. 901903, April 2003.
[9] Thiele, G.A., On the accuracy of the transmission line model of the folded dipole
antenna, IEEE Trans Antennas Propagate, Vol. AP-28, No. 5, pp. 700703,
May 1980.
[10] Austin, B.A. and A.P.C. Fourier, Numerical modelling and design of loaded broadband
wire antennas, Proc. IEEE 4th Int. Conf. on HF Communication systems and Techniques,
284, pp. 125128, 1988.
[11] Clark, A.P. and A.P.C. Flourier, An improvement to the transmission line model of
the folded dipole antenna, IEE, Proc-H, Vol. 138, No. 6, Dec. 1991.
[12] Prasad, K.P., Antenna and Wave Propagation, 2nd ed., Satya Prakashan, New Delhi,
1996.
[13] Richmond, J.H., Computer program for thin wire structures in a homogenous
conducting medium, NTIS, Springfield, VA., 22131, NASA, Contractor Rep., CR.
2399, July 1973.
[14] Thiele, G.A. and E.P. Ekelman, Design formulas for V-dipoles, IEEE Trans.,
Antennas and Propagate, Vol. AP. 28, No. 4, July 1980.
[15] Iizuku, K., The array of two travelling wave V-antenna as a space craft antenna,
IEE, Proc., Vol. 65, No. 7, pp. 6465, May 1976.
[16] Yagi, H., Beam transmission of ultra short waves, IEEE Proc., Vol. 72, No. 5,
pp. 634645, May 1984.
[17] Li, J.Y. and Y.B. Gan, The characteristic of sleeve antenna, Progress in
Electromagnetic Research, Symposium 2005, China, Hangzhou, pp. 2326, August
2005.
234 Antenna and Wave Propagation

[18] Bock, E.L., J.A. Nelson and A. Dorne, Sleeve Antennas in Very High Frequency
Techniques, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 119137, 1947.
[19] Poggio, A.J. and P.E. Mayes, Pattern bandwidth optimization of the sleeve monopole
antenna, IEEE Trans Antennas Propagate, Vol. AP. 14, No. 5, pp. 643645, Sep. 1966.
[20] Thomas, K.G., et al., Wide band dual sleeve antenna, IEEE Trans Antennas Propagate,
Vol. No. 3, March 2006.
[21] Weeks, W.L., Antenna Engineering, McGraw-Hill, NY, Sec. 2.6, pp. 161180, 1968.
[22] Barkley, H.B., The open-sleeve as a broadband, U.S. Novel Post Graduate School
Monterrey, CA, Teach Rep. 14, AD-82036, June 1955.
[23] King, H.E. and W.L. Wing, An experimental studies of balun fed open-sleeve
dipole in front of a metallic receiver, IEEE Trans Antennas Propagate, Vol. AP. 20,
No. 3, pp. 201204, March 1972.
[24] King, R.W.P., Asymmetric driven antennas and sleeve dipole, Proc., IRE, Vol. 38,
pp. 11541164, Oct. 1950.
[25] Kraus, J.D., AntennasFor all applications, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2005.
[26] Johnson, R.C. (Ed.), Antenna Engineering Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993.
[27] Wolf, E.A., Antenna Analysis, Chap. 8, John Wiley, New York, 1967.
[28] Beck, A.C. and L.R. Lowry, Horizontal rhombic antennas, Proc., IRE, 23, pp. 2446,
January 1953.
C H A P T E R

6 Loop Antennas

INTRODUCTION

The loop antennas are very simple, inexpensive and versatile antennas. They are just wire
antennas, but compulsorily not a straight wire; they may be of any shapecircular, square,
rectangular, hexagonal and triangular as well as many more configurations. However, the
circular/square loop antenna is very common, simplest in construction and easy in analysis.
Basically, loop antenna is a radiating coil of any convenient cross-section of one or more
than one turns carrying sinusoidal current. A loop of more than one turn is also called frame.
The overall directional performance of the antenna can be significantly enhanced by selecting
proper phasing between turns/coils. In general, there are two types of loop antennasmall
loop and large loop. It is assumed that the periphery of small loop antenna is less than the
one wavelength (i.e., C < l) however, a large loop antenna periphery is greater or equal to
one wavelength (i.e. C l). It is found that the radiation of a small loop antenna is equivalent
to radiation of an infinitesimal magnetic dipole whose axis is normal to the plane of the loop.
The field pattern of a small circular loop of radius a can be determined very easily by
equating its area with the area of a square loop of side d (see Fig. 6.1). That is, d2 = pa2.
The ordinary loop antenna is designed in such a way that its periphery is smaller than
wavelength. Because currents are found to be of same magnitude and phase throughout the
loop. The radiation resistance of loop antenna is smaller than the loss resistance; hence its
radiation efficiency is poor and this is the reason why loop antenna is mostly used as
receiver not as a transmitter. One of popular method of improving the radiation resistance
hence efficiency of loop antennas is increasing its perimeter and number of turns. In addition,
radiation resistance of loop antenna can also be increased by inserting ferrite core into loop,
which is termed ferrite loop antenna.

Historical View
During 19151930, the first loop antennas were used in receivers to minimize dependence
on long wire antennas. Later in 1938, they appeared again and used to fully eliminate the
235
236 Antenna and Wave Propagation

(i) Square loop (ii) Circular loop


(a) Basic configurations

(i) Square (ii) Rectangular (iii) Circular (iv) Triangular


(b) Geometries

FIG. 6.1 Basic configuration of loop antenna and the various geometries.

need of long wire antennas. The first high performance loop antenna termed box loop
antenna (as it was wound on a 40 square box frame) was designed by Ray Moore in the
mid-1940s; this later became popular as the Moore loop antenna. The next major advances
in loop antenna designs were brought in the 1960s by Nelson at M.I.T. The main advantages
with the new antenna were its free movement in the vertical and horizontal planes. This loop
was 35" on a side and wound on a wood frame. These antennas have the alt-azimuth feature
(available as a kit).
Joe Worchester (19701977) developed the Space Magnet, a small 12 ferrite rod
loop antenna using a bipolar junction transistor amplifier. This was probably the first loop
antenna commercially available to the hobbyist, at a cost of about $45.00 at that time. This
antenna also used a Faraday shield around the ferrite bar. However, Ralph Sanserino (1970
1985) designed a 2-ft air core box loop using a differential amplifier. The amplifier was also
used in the radio ferrite loop antenna. In the 1980s, Mackay Dymek and Palomar designed
small ferrite antennas primarily for the broadcast band applications. In subsequent years, the
following antennas were designed by antenna engineers; each utilized the Nelson alt-azimuth
feature:
(i) A 23, high performance, Space Magnet-like, ferrite rod loop was designed using
differential amplifier by Radio West during 19791985.
(ii) Quantum loop, a small ferrite rod antenna less than 1 in size (length), with a high
gain (40 dB) amplifier, was designed by Gerry Thomas in 1990.
(iii) The high performance, solidly built first air core loop antenna was designed by Kiwa
in 1992. He integrated IC amplifier opto-isolated regeneration and varactor diodes
with antenna for better performances.
(iv) A high performance transformer coupled non-amplified 35 spiral wound antenna
was designed by Moore in December 1994. Since then varieties of loop antennas
have been continuously designed and developed for various purposes.
Loop Antennas 237

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

In order to discuss the principle of operation of loop antenna, let us consider a single loop
rectangular antenna; it is such that its plane is vertical and free to rotate around the ZZ axis
(see Fig. 6.2). From Fig. 6.2 it is clear that out of four arms (AB, DC, AD, and BC) two arms
(AB and DC) act as horizontal antenna while the other two arms (i.e., AD and BC) act as
vertical antenna.

FIG. 6.2 Equivalence of a loop antenna to a rectangular antenna with rotation axis (where
E1 and E2 are the voltage induced in vertical arms AD and BC).

In terms of this construction, radiation from a loop antenna can be described in two ways:
(i) If the plane of the loop is right angle to the direction of arrival of vertically polarized
waves [see Fig. 6.3(a)] then the same voltage will be induced in both the arms.
These voltages will produce currents of equal magnitude and opposite phase in the
loop, hence they will be cancelled out. This happens because during normal position
of loop antenna, plane with respect to incoming waves, both sides (rather all the four
arms) are at equidistance from the radiator, therefore no emf is induced. If at all any
emf exists, that would be due to horizontally polarized downcoming waves and it
could be neglected as its magnitude is very small. That is in horizontal arms no emf
is produced whatever may be orientation, as result no radiation from the loop in this
plane.
(ii) If the loop is rotated by 90 such that plane of the loop is along the direction of
arriving waves [see Fig. 6.3(b)], the voltage induced in each vertical sides will not
be cancelled out. This is because of the involvement of distance between two vertical
sides (i.e. CD). And waves take some time to travel this distance, introducing a
definite phase difference (say, a) between induced fields E1 and E2. Therefore, rms
value of emf induced in two vertical sides will be the same in magnitude, but
different in phase by a.
Therefore resultant induced emf across the vertical ZZ axis would be (E1 E2) and it
will be produced around the loop. The value of induced emf will be maximum, when the
238 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 6.3 (a) Perspective view of loop antenna; (b) Plane view of loop antenna, when the
plane of loop is (^r) to direction of incoming waves.

plane of the loop is along the direction of incoming waves from the transmitter. In any other
position (except 90), E1 and E2 will not be in phase; hence the resultant is zero and therefore
no radiation (Figs. 6.4 and 6.5). The radiation pattern of a small loop antenna is free from
the exact size of the loop and it is similar to the radiation pattern of Hertzian dipole with
a minor difference that E and H are interchanged. Therefore a small loop is surrounded by
a magnetic field everywhere at right angle to the loop and hence referred to as a magnetic
dipole [1].

D C

AD BC

A B

(a) (b)

FIG. 6.4 (a) Side view of loop antenna; Plane view of loop antenna, when the plane of loop
is (||) to the direction of incoming waves.

FIG. 6.5 Vector difference of E1 and E2.


Loop Antennas 239

In general, the induced emf in any direction q from the loop antenna is given by
Eq = Erms cos q (6.1)
where q is the angle between the plane of the loop and direction of wave arrival and Erms
is rms value of electric field E. The value of Eq depends on the height of the vertical side
(h), width of the loop (d) and operating wavelength (l). Loop antenna is very suitable for
direction finding applications because when loop is rotated 360 around vertical axis ZZ, the
maximum radiation appears twice, first at q = 00, 180 and then at q = 90, 270.

Radiation Fields
In order to treat a small loop as a short magnetic dipole, let a small loop of area A carrying
uniform current I be replaced by an equivalent magnetic dipole of length l, which carries
fictitious magnetic current Im as shown in Fig. 6.6.

FIG. 6.6 Magnetic equivalence of small loop.

Here qm = pole strength at the end of dipole


p = qm l (p is magnetic dipole moment)
Im = Imoejwt
dqm
The magnetic current is related to pole strength by I m = N
dt
dqm
or
I mo e jX t dt = N dt
dt
which gives

Im
qm = (6.2)
jXN
240 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Equating magnetic moment of loop (I A) with the magnetic moment of dipole, i.e.

Im
qml = IA or l =I A
jXN

IA
I m = j 240 Q 2
Ml
which can be re-written in retarded form as follows:

[I ]
[I m ] = j 240 Q 2 A (6.3)
Ml
Equations (6.3) describes the relation between loop area A and current I to its equivalent
magnetic dipole of length l and fictitious current Im.

r
where [I m ] = I mo e jX t (6.4a)
c

r
or [I ] = I o e jX t (6.4b)
c

Therefore the retarded magnetic vector potential, F, of the magnetic current (Im) can be
given by
G N [J m ]
F=
4Q r
dv

N + l/2 [I m ]
or Fz = az
4Q l/2 r
dz (z-component of F) (6.5)

Solving Eq. (6.5) with the help of Eqs. (6.3) and (6.4) gives
r
N I mo jX t c
Fz = le (6.6)
4Q r

1
Therefore E= ( F ) (6.7)
N
Solving Eq. (6.7) in polar co-ordinate (r, q, f) system, the f-component of E is obtained as

[I m ] l sin R jX 1
EG = + 2 (6.8)
4Q cr r
Loop Antennas 241

Therefore, at large distance r >> l (i.e., far-field region).

jX [ I m ] l sin R j[I m ] l sin R


EG = =
4 Q cr 2r M

IA
Substituting I m = j 240Q 2
Ml

120 Q 2 [I ] sin R A
we get EG = (6.9)
r M2
EG Q [I ] sin R A
Therefore HR = = (6.10)
I (=120 Q ) rM 2

The electric and magnetic fields of loop and short dipole are given in Table 6.1.

TABLE 6.1 Comparison of far-fields of small loop and short dipole

Types of field Loop Dipole

120 Q 2 [I ] sin R A j 60 Q [I ] sin R L


Electric field EG = ER =
r M 2
r M2
Q [I ] sin R L j[I ] sin R L
Magnetic field HR = HG =
r M 2
r M2

Since Ef and Hq are the functions of q (the angle measured from the polar axis as
shown in Fig. 6.7) and independent from f, the radiation pattern of a small dipole is of
doughnut shape.

FIG. 6.7 Radiation pattern of small dipole antenna.


242 Antenna and Wave Propagation

INDUCED EMF OF LOOP ANTENNA

In previous section, we have seen that emf induces between vertical sides of loop, provided
fields in the sides are in phase of a. In order to derive expression for emf in any loop
antenna, the value of a must be known, particularly when the plane of loop is at an angle
q with respect to the direction of arrival of signals. Let us consider vertical sides AD and
BC to be represented by two-point source (similar to two-point source arrays) separated at
distance d, with the waves (1, 2) incident at any instant at angle q, as shown in Fig. 6.8.

FIG. 6.8 Loop antenna (as two-point source) and wave arrivals.

Therefore, similar to array analysis, the phase difference between rays 1 and 2 will be
2Q Q d cos R
B= = Path difference =
M M
If at any instant the electric field arrived at origin O is Em sin w t, then the fields arriving
at R will lead and at P lag by angles +a and a, respectively. Therefore, the resultant emf
across the loop will be the difference of emfs induced in arms AD and BC,
i.e. ef (q) = Em h sin(w t + a)|AD Em h sin(wt a)
= Em h [sin(w t + a) sin(w t a )
= 2Em h(sin a) cos w t
= 2Em h a cos w t (since a is very small compared to sin q)
2Q hd cos R
or e f (R ) Em cos X t (6.11)
M
If there are N number of turns in the loop and area A = hd, then instantaneous emf around
the loop can be given by
Loop Antennas 243

2Q AN cos R Q
e f (R ) = Em sin X t + (6.12a)
M 2

Q
e f (R ) = Vm sin X t + (6.12b)
2

2Q AN cos R
in which Vm = Em (6.12c)
M
2Q A N cos R
or Vrms = Erms (6.12d)
M
2Q AN
with all the parameters having their usual meaning. The term is known as effective
M
height of loop. When it multiplies by field strength in mV/m, gives the induced voltage in
mV provided it is taken in maximum response position, i.e. cos q = 1. Equation (6.12a) is
the general expression for the instantaneous value of emf at the centre of the loop and it is
clear that induced ef (q) is an alternating emf of frequency w/2p. Also, there is p/2 phase
difference between ef (q) at the centre of loop and EM field being received at the antenna.

RADIATION PATTERN OF LOOP ANTENNA

To describe the radiation pattern of a loop antenna, let us assume a circular loop of radius
r carrying current I is represented by a square loop of side d, such that the area of the square
loop is the same as the area of the circular loop, i.e., d2 = pa2 as shown in Fig. 6.9.
We know that the fields from sides AB and DC must be ignored as they are equal and
opposite in nature. Therefore, only two sides, AD and BC, will be responsible for radiation
and they may be considered to be two short dipoles. That is, individual dipoles AD and BC
act like two isotropic point sources in Y-plane (see Fig. 6.10). Now, the far-field radiation
pattern due to isotropic sources AD and BC with reference to centre point O will be (see [2])
Ef = Field component due to AD + Field component due to BC

= E0e+iy/2 + E0ejy/2 = 2jE0 sin


Z
2
C d sin R
EG = 2 jE0 sin (6.13)
2
j 60Q [I ] L
where y = bd sin q is phase difference and ER = , is electric field amplitude of
M
dipole.
Here, L of short dipole is equivalent to d, i.e., L d and q = 90, because the pattern
is measured from x-axis instead of z-axis.
244 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 6.9 (a) Equivalence of circular loop to square loop; (b) its orientation in (r, q, f)
coordinate system.

FIG. 6.10 AD and BC dipoles as two-point sources.

120 Q 2 [I ] sin R A
Therefore EG = provided d << l (6.14a)
r M2

Q [I ] sin R A
hence HR = (6.14b)
rM 2
where A = d2 is the area of square loop.
Comparison of Eqs. (6.9) and (6.14) reveals that the radiation fields of circular loop
and square loop are identical, provided they have equal area.
Loop Antennas 245

LARGE LOOP ANTENNA

As we have seen, the far-field radiation fields of circular loop and square loop antennas are
M2
the same, provided the loops are identical and their area is such that A < . So, in
100

general, the properties of loop antenna depend on area and the shape has no effect. The
radiation pattern of these antennas depend on the angle q not on f, i.e., the radiation
characteristics of electrically small loop antennas, which have a perimeter much less than l,
are insensitive to loop shape and depend only on the loop area. Also, the radiation from
the small loop is maximum in the plane of loop and is zero along the axis normal to the loop.
These facts are consequences of the current amplitude and phase being constant around
the loop, provided the loop perimeter length L is electrically small. However, for the
loops of considerable perimeter (greater than l) the current amplitude and phase vary
with positions around the loop and cause performance variation with changing the size.
Equivalently, a fixed size large loop antenna shows performance changes with varying
frequency, and acts like a resonant antenna. The radiation pattern of a large loop antenna
depends on both q and f. From the construction point of view, large loop antennas have
either a circular or square perimeter, and both are operated near the first resonant point, if
perimeters of circular loops are equivalent to square loops. A detailed explanation on a
square loop antenna is given here. A square loop of one wavelength l perimeter is considered,
as it can be analyzed using the same techniques that we generally use for other resonant wire
antennas.
Since the size of loop is 1l, it is reasonable to assume that current distribution around
the loop is sinusoidal. Then, the current distribution is continuous around the loop
( curves). Since the loop is fed at the centre of a side parallel to x-axis (see Fig. 6.11),
the sinusoidal current can be expressed as
M
0 cos(C x )
I1 = I 2 = xI where x (6.15)
8
M
I 3 = I 4 = y I 0 sin (C y ) where y (6.16)
8
Here (x, y) represent a point at the midle of the side.
The vector potential is

e j C r
A=N
4Q r loop
Ie j C (r r ) dl (6.17)

where l is length of side of square and r is unit radial vector and equals (xi + yj ), r
+ zk
is position vector of point (x, y, z) and r is distance of observation point. Using Eqs. (6.15)
and (6.16), the solution of Eq. (6.17) gives the simplified form of vector potential as
246 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Y
Sinusoidal current distribution
Current magnitude

I2

X
I4
I3
I1

FIG. 6.11 Square loop of one (l) perimeter and (l /4) side length.

Q cos :
cos
x 4 Q cos H Q cos H
cos H sin cos
e jCr 2 2 I 0 sin H
2
4 4
A= N
4Qr C Q cos :
sin
4 Q cos : Q cos :
y cos : cos cos
sin 2 : 4 4

= Ax x + Ay y (say) (6.18)
in which cos g = sin q cos f
cos W = sin q sin f
Therefore the far-zone electric field components will be
G
ER = jX AR = jX AR = jX (Ax x R + Ay y R)

= jX (Ax cos R cos G + Ay cos R sin G ) (6.19)


Similarly E y = jX AG = jX ( Ax sin G + Ay cos G ) (6.20)

Substituting the value of Ax and Ay from Eq. (6.18), we get the simplified values of Eq and
Ef as follows:
jI 0I e j C r sin G sin C cos G cos B
ER = cos R (B cos B sin B ) (C sin C cos C )
2Qr 1 B1 1 C12
2 1 1

(6.21)
Loop Antennas 247

jI 0I e j C r cos G sin C sin G cos B


EG = cos R (B1 cos B sin B ) + ( C1 sin C cos C )
2Q r 1 B1 1 C1
2 2

(6.22)
Q Q
where B = sin R sin G and C = sin R cos G
4 4
a1 = sin q sin f and b1 = sin q cos f
A close observation of Fig. 6.11 reveals that there are planes, xy, xz and yz, where far-
field radiation takes place effectively and therefore needs to be analyzed. Basically there are
three cases.
Case A: The far-fields in x-y plane, which is the plane of loop (an E-plane) known as
principal plane and is obtained by putting q = 90; hence

Q
ER R = = 0 (6.23)
2

Q cos G
sin

4 Q sin G Q sin G
sin G cos sin
Q cos G 4 4


Q jI Ie jC r Q 4
EG R = = 0
2 2Q r 4 Q sin G
cos
4
Q cos G Q cos G

+ cos G sin cos
Q sin G 4 4

4

(6.24)
For f = 0 and 180 along x-axis, Ef = 0, this is true also since both the sides 3 and 4 alone
have patterns that are zero in the broadside direction; this is because the current distributions
are in opposite phase around the mid-point. And along y-axis, i.e., q = f = p/2, Eq. (6.24)
reduces to

jI 0Ie j C r 1 jI 0 Ie j C r
EG = = = Ey (6.25)
2 Qr 2 R =G =
Q 2Q r
2
248 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Case B: The xy-plane, which is an E-plane


Ef(f = 0) = 0 (6.26)

Q Q
jCr sin R sin 4 sin R cos 4 sin R
jI 0Ie
and ER (G =0) = (6.27)
2 Qr cos R

i.e., Eq = 0, for q = 90, 270, i.e., along y-axis. Eq 0, for q = 0, 180, i.e., along x-axis.
Hence from Eq. (6.27), we get

jI 0I e C r
ER R =0
= = Ex (6.28)
2Q r
which is similar to far-field radiation along y-axis in case of xy-plane.
Case C: In yz-plane (H-plane)
Q
ER G = = 0 (6.29)
2
and
Q jI 0I e j C r Q
EG G = = cos sin R (6.30)
2 2Q r 4

Q
which indicates that EG G = 0 for any value of q.
2

Q jI 0I e j C r
Therefore, EG G = = , which is the same as the electric field along
2 R = 0 2Q r
the x-axis (Eq. 6.28). Comparison of field levels along x and y directions, indicates that the
field in the y-direction is 2 times that in the x-direction, i.e., ( 2 E y = E x ) . The radiation
patterns of the square loop antenna in these planes are plotted in Fig. 6.12.
So, it can be concluded that in case of 1l square loop, radiation is maximum normal
to the plane of the loop (i.e., along the z-axis) and it is polarized parallel to the loop side
containing the feed. However, in the plane of the loop, there is a null in the direction parallel
to the side containing the feed point (i.e., along the x-axis) and there is lobe in the direction
normal to the side containing the feed (i.e., along the y-axis). But in the case of a small loop,
there is a null on the axis and maximum (uniform) radiation in the plane of the loop. It has
also been found that the input impedance of 1l square loop antenna (wire radius 0.001l) is
about 100 W and resonance occurs for a 1.09l perimeter. The gain is 3.09 dB, which is lesser
than 3.82 dB, the gain of a straight wire 1l dipole antenna.
Loop Antennas 249

FIG. 6.12 Principal radiation pattern of a one-l square loop antenna.

LOOP ANTENNA PARAMETERS

The important parameters of a loop antenna are: radiation resistance, loss resistance, total
radiated power and directivity [3], and they are expressed as follows:

2 4
A C
1. Radiation resistance of a single turn loop Rr = 31200 2 = 197 (:)
M M
2
NA
2. Radiation resistance of N turns Rr = 31200 2
M
C a
3. Total radiated power P = 30 Q 2 I m2 = 60 Q 3 I m2
M M
Ll f N0
4. Loss resistance Rl = N (:)
d QT
1 Rr
5. Radiation efficiency (N turns) I = =
Rl Rl + Rr
+ 1
R
r

3430
where the ratio of Rl/Rr for copper conductor is
C 3 fMHz
3.5
Nd

2Q f 0 L f0
6. Quality factor (Q) = =
Rr + Rl + Rc 'f HP
250 Antenna and Wave Propagation

f0
7. Bandwidth (BW) 'f HP = (Hz)
Q
S Pr Pt Aet Aer
8. Signal-to-noise ratio = =
N N r M 2ITs 'fHP
2

Directivity: In general, the directivity of a circular loop antenna with uniform current
distribution is given by Fosters expression as follows [4]:

2C 2 C sin R
J1
M M max
D= 2C
(6.31)

0
M J 2 (y) dy

There are two particular cases:

C 1 3
(i) For small loop of
, the directivity Dmax = , which is the same as the
M 3 2
directivity of a small electric dipole. This is because the pattern of small loop is
equivalent to short electric dipole.
C C
(ii) For a large loop of 5, directivity D = 0.682 .
M M

Maximum Effective Area and Gain


As usual, the maximum effective area of a loop antenna is

M2 0.682
Aem = = C M = 5.42 10 2C M (6.32)
4Q D 4 3.14

4Q Aem I
and Gain = (6.33)
M2
In the above equations
A = area of loop
C = 2 pa
N = number of turns in loop
Im = peak or maximum current in loop of area A
Ll = circumference/perimeter of loop
Loop Antennas 251

For a small square loop of arm length l, C = 3.5 l and Ll = 4 l


d= diameter of loop wire
L= inductance (H)
Rc = conductor loss
Ts = Antenna temperature (K)
r= distance from the observation point (m)
h= radiation efficiency factor
The instantaneous expression for electric and magnetic fields at a large distance (r)
from a loop of radius a are
60QC [ I ] a QC[ I ] a
EG = J and HR = J (6.34)
r 2r
where J = J1(ba sin q) represents pattern of antenna and others are constant.

MULTI-TURN LOOP ANTENNA

In the previous section, we discussed all the parameters of loop antenna. The radiation
efficiency of the loop antenna is calculated in terms of ohmic resistance and radiation
resistance. In general, radiation resistance is very less than the ohmic resistance, therefore
h is low and heavily depends on the ohmic loss [5], i.e.
Rr Rr
I= as Rr << Rl
Rr + Rl Rl

In order to increase the radiation efficiency, a multi-turn loop antenna is chosen. In which
the ohmic resistance of a small loop antenna is taken to be same as that of a straight
conductor. The length of this conductor is equivalent to length of uncoiled loop, and calculation
is done under skin effect [6]. A multi-turn loop of close spacing can be treated as a system
of parallel wires, and the distribution of current over conductor cross-section is determined
by two effects skin effect and proximity. A multi-turn loop antenna of radius b with spacing
between turns 2c is shown in Fig. 6.13(a).
The loops have essentially N turns, and each carrying same current I, and the total
length of the loop is much lesser than the free-space wavelength. If the current is confined
to a thin layer near the wire surface, it is known as skin effect. If the effect causes a non-
uniform distribution of current in the layer, this is called proximity effect. If the skin depth
(d) in a conductor is very small compared to the wire radius, i.e. d << a, then the resistance
per unit length of a system of n equally spaced parallel conductors carrying equal currents
in the same direction is given by
n
Q
Rn = 2aRs R =0
K m2 (R ) dR :/m (6.35)
m =1
252 Antenna and Wave Propagation

2c

FIG. 6.13(a) Multi-turn loop antenna.

where Km = Surface current on mth perfect conducting wire carrying total current of 1 A

XN
1/2

Rs = Surface resistance equals 0


2T
The additional loss due to proximity effect is then

R
R p = R0 n 1 = ( Rn R0 ) (6.36)
R0
where R0 is the skin effect resistance alone and equals

nRs
: /m (6.37)
2Q a

For close spacing between the conductors, the loss due to proximity effect can be more than
double the ohmic resistance of the system of conductors. Hence, the ohmic resistance of the
loop antenna can be given as
Rl = Circumference Resistance per unit length
= 2pb Rn = 2pb (Rp + R0)
where Rn = Rp + R0
Rp Rp nRs
Rn = + 1 R0 = + 1
R0 R0 2Q a

Rp nRs nbRs R p
Therefore Rl = 2Q b + 1 = + 1 (6.38)
R0 2Q a 2Q a R0
Loop Antennas 253

and Rr = Radiation resistance [1]


= 20p2n2(bb)4 (6.39)
Therefore the radiation efficiency is obtained as

Rr 20Q 2 n2 (bC ) 4
IA = = (6.40)
Rr + Rl nbRs Rp
20Q n (bC ) +
2 2 4
+ 1
a R0

Rp
Under no proximity effect, =0.
R0
After simplification, Eq. (6.40) reduces to

1
IA = (6.41)
8.48 10 10 (f MHz T r )1/2
1+
n(b)3 a
where a = a/l and b = b/l.
sr = ratio of conductivities of wire and copper
The variation of radiation efficiency hA with domensionless quantity (K) and the number
of elements (N) is shown in Fig. 6.13(b).

100
N=8
N=6

N=4
Radiation efficiency (%)

N=3
10
without proximity effect
with proximity effect
N=8
N=6
N=4
N=3
1 N=2
N = number of turns
N=1

0 K
0.1 1.0 6 10

FIG. 6.13(b) The variation of radiation efficiency of the small loop antennas vs factor K for
different values of N.
254 Antenna and Wave Propagation

If the matching network is used along with antenna, it introduces losses as large as
ohmic loss; therefore overall efficiency of antenna is modified to [7]
E = h AE m (6.42)
where Em is the radiation efficiency of matching network.

IMPEDANCE OF A LOOP ANTENNA

In general, the radiation pattern of a loop antenna is calculated by integrating the Poynting
vector over a large sphere. This gives total radiated power P, which is then equated to the
square of the effective current on the loop times the radiation resistance. This radiation
resistance is the value that appears at the loop terminals connected to the transmission
line (and not the entire length of perimeter of the loop). Another formula is needed to
calculate the reactive part of impedance. This method is complex, as it involves Bessels
function and many approximations are also need to be considered. External devices
such as phase-shifter/multiple feeds are needed to obtain uniform current distribution and
proper phase condition over the loop [8]. In this section, approximate closed and simple
formulas are used to determine the input impedance of a regular loop configuration, where
the ratio of a/l is limited up to 0.8 for the reactive part and up to 0.5 for the resistive
part. The proposed method is based on an equivalent transmission model, where a loop of
fixed perimeter is equated with a shortened line of finite length of varying characteristic
impedance.
Let us assume that the length of Tx line is equal to half of C, whereas wire radius a
remains the same. The loop is considered to be extended in such a way that it forms a Tx
line (Fig. 6.14). The characteristic impedance of the line is taken as the average characteristic
impedance of the loop. Hence it is clear that input impedance determined in this way is
approximately equal to the reactive part of impedance of the loop.

FIG. 6.14 Circular loop and its equivalence to two-wire short-circuited Tx line.
Loop Antennas 255

We know that the input impedance of a finite lossless (i.e., a = 0) Tx line of length
l is

Z cos(C l) + jZ 0 sin (C l)
Z in = Z 0 L (6.43)
Z 0 cos(C l) + jZ L sin (C l)
If the line is short-circuited, ZL = 0, and hence
Zin = jZ0 tan bl = jXL (6.44)
2Q
where Z0 is the characteristic impedance of the line, C = (wave number), and l is length
M
of Tx line and equals the perimeter of loop 2.
If the area confined by the Tx line is taken to be equal to the area of the loop, the
characteristic impedance (Z0) of Tx line is equal to the average impedance of the loop wire

s
Z 0 = 276 log : (6.45)
a
where s is the spacing between coaxial wires/loop area.

Resistive Part of Impedance


Resistive part of input impedance (R) is related to the radiated power, and heavily depends
on the perimeter of loop and almost independent from the radius of wire. Actually, resistive
part of the input impedance (R) is computed using moment method, and investigations on
its variation against (C/l) deduced that it follows a formula of the form

CC
R = a tan b (6.46)
2
where a and b are new constants which have different values for different loop configurations
(see Table 6.2). The reactive part of input impedance for different loop configuration has
also been calculated using above approximation and found to be relatively in good agreement
with results computed using moment method for (C/l) 0.8 [8]. Good accuracy of the
results obtained from this method is restricted to (C/l) 0.5. Typically, for a small circular
loop, Eq. (6.46) reduces to

CC
R = 1.793 tan 3.928 (6.47)
2
or R = 20 b2A2 (6.48)
256 Antenna and Wave Propagation

TABLE 6.2 Constants a and b for different loop geometries for different values of (C/l)

(C/l) 0.2 0.2 (C/l) 0.5


S.No. Configurations of loop A b a b
1 Circular 1.793 3.928 1.722 3.676
2 Square (centre fed) 1.126 3.950 1.073 3.271
3 Square (corner fed) 1.140 3.958 1.065 3.452
4 Triangular (base fed) 0.694 3.998 0.755 2.632
5 Triangular (top fed) 0.688 3.995 0.667 3.280
6 Hexagonal 1.588 4.293 1.385 3.525

IMPEDANCE OF LOOP ANTENNA IN CONDUCTING MEDIUM

In the previous section, we have described the input impedance, and the resistive and reactive
parts of loop antenna, using equivalent Tx line model. But the properties such as the conductivity
of the medium have not been taken into consideration, which may effectively change the
impedance of the antenna. Galejs [9] in his paper reported that a thin layer of insulation
helps to maintain a uniform current flow around a loop antenna, in case it is immersed in
a conducting medium. Later, it was also suggested that the presence of the insulating material
could be neglected while computing the impedance of loop antenna; however, Kraichman
[10] first analyzed a loop antenna located in a conducting medium. Therefore, the present
section describes a method to calculate the impedance of a loop antenna located in a conducting
medium using tabulated functions.
Let a circular loop antenna having uniform current distribution across its wire is immersed
in a medium of conductivity (s) as shown in Fig. 6.15, where am, ai and a0 are the medium,
inner and outer radii of loop, and r is radius of conductor wire [11].

FIG. 6.15 Circular loop geometry.


Loop Antennas 257

Then, the impedance of loop is given by (see [8])

Q e jH R
Z = jXN am ai cos Z dZ = (Re + jX m ) (6.49)
0 R

(1 j ) T
where H = jXNT = is propagation constant for >> 1 and d is skin depth.
E XF

R 2 = am2 + ai2 2 ai am cos Z (6.50)

If y = R/d, the real and imaginary parts of impedance from Eq. (6.49) can be separated as
XN ai am Q f (y )
Re = cos Z dZ (6.51)
E 0 y

XN ai am Q g( y)
Xm = cos Z dZ (6.52)
E 0 y
where f(y) and g(y) are newly introduced functions and defined as follows:

nQ

(2) n/2 ( y) n sin
4
f (y) = e y sin y = n!
(6.53)
n =1

nQ

(2) n/2 ( y) n cos
4
g(y) = e y cos y = 1 + n!
(6.54)
n =1

If the ratio (ai/am) lies between (1 < ai/am 0.95), the value of y may be accurately approximated
as

R ai am 4(1 cos Z ) 2 ai am Z
y= = = sin (6.55)
E E 2 E 2

Therefore, from Eqs. (6.53) and (6.54), the value of Re [Eq. (6.51)] reduces to
n
(2)(3 n 2)/2 nQ ai am
Re = XN ai am sin K (6.56)
n =1 n! 4
E n 1

Q Z n 1

where K n 1 = sin cos Z dZ .


0
2
258 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Substituting the value of g(y) into Eq. (6.54), Eq. (6.52) gives

Q cos Z
X m = XN ai am dZ
0 R
nQ
( y)n 1 cos
XN ai am Q
4
(2) n / 2 cos Z dZ = X m1 + X m 2 (6.57)
E 0 n =1 n!

which consist of two terms. The first term is recognized as the external inductance of a direct
current loop, i.e.,
Xm1 = wL1 (6.58)

Q cos Z
where L1 = N ai am dZ
0 R
Equation (6.58) can be solved in terms of elliptic integrals and L1 is found equal to

1 q2
L1 = N ai 1 + 1 K E (6.59)
p 2

ai 2 p Q /2 dG Q /2
in which p =
am
, q=
(1 + p)
, K= 0 (1 q sin G )
2 2 1/2 and E = 0
(1 q 2 sin 2G )1/2 dG ,

and the second term

nQ
( y) n 1 cos
XN ai am Q Q
4
X m2 = (2) n/2 cos Z dZ (6.60)
E 0 n =1 n!

Substituting the value of y from Eq. (6.55) and after simplification yields
n
(2)(3n 2)/2 nQ ai am
X m 2 = X L2 = XN ai am cos I
n =1 n! 4
E n 1

n
(2)(3 n 2)/2 nQ ai am
or L2 = N ai am cos I (6.61)
n =1 n! 4 E n 1
where In1 is another constant function [11]. Therefore, the total external impedance of the
loop antenna can be expressed as
Z = Re + jX (L1 + L2 ) (6.62)
where Re, L1 and L2 are defined in the above equations.
Loop Antennas 259

FERRITE ROD ANTENNA

As already mentioned, the main disadvantage with a simple loop antenna is its low efficiency.
This is so because loss resistance of a small magnetic loop antenna is comparable to its
radiation resistance. Expression to calculate efficiency of a loop antenna indicates that antenna
efficiency can be increased by increasing the radiation resistance and in turn the circumference
of the loop. But this method makes antenna heavy. Fortunately, ferrite rod has the properties
of increasing magnetic flux, the magnetic field, the open-circuited voltage and hence the
radiation resistance. This is because of the high permeability m and high resistivity of the
ferrite material. The high resistivity reduces the core losses and raises the quality factor of
a coil. Therefore, by inserting a ferrite rod into the circumference of the loop, antenna
efficiency could be increased. The parameters of n-loop ferrite antenna are modified as
follows [12]:

2Q
The induced maximum emf V= EANF Ner (6.63)
M

N NA
2 4
NC 2
Radiation resistance Rr = 31200 er 2 = 20Q 2 N er (6.64)
M M
2Q
Effective length le = ANF Ner as V = Ele (6.65)
M
where mer = effective relative permeability of the ferrite and its value ranges from 100 to
10000. The mer depends upon the choice of material and the size and shape of the rod. Higher
length to diameter ratio of the ferrite rod offers a high permeability m, which is desirable for
better performance. The effective relative permeability of ferrite loop in terms of relative
intrinsic permeability of unbounded ferrite material mfr is given by
Ne Nfr
Ner = = (6.66)
N0 1 + D(Nfr 1)
where mfr is much larger than 1 (i.e., mfr >> 1) and D is demagnetization factor and found
to be different for different geometries. The value of D for an ellipsoid of length 2l and
radius a (l >> a) is given by
2
a 2l
D = ln 1 (6.67)
l a
However, for a sphere, D is equal to 1/3. The basic configuration and radiation mechanism
of ferrite rod antenna are shown in Figs. 6.16 and 6.17 respectively.
Ferrite rod antenna is a broadside radiator; maximum radiation is in direction perpendicular
to the antenna axis provided antenna lies at 90 w.r.t. incoming waves (see Fig. 6.18).
Because this particular orientation induces maximum voltage in the antenna coil, the performance
260 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 6.16 Basic configuration of ferrite rod antenna.

Magnetic field lines along rod antenna

Coils around rod

FIG. 6.17 Radiation mechanism of ferrite rod antenna.

Ferrite rod antenna

FIG. 6.18 Radiation pattern of ferrite rod antenna.

of the antenna is maximum when coil is positioned at the centre of the rod and degraded in
case coil moves toward the end of the rod. Therefore, coil is placed at the quarter point from
one end of the rod. Because of losses in ferrite, when we try to use ferrite loop antenna as
Tx antenna, the power dissipated heats up the material until it decomposes/melts. This is
because ferrite behaviour tends to vanish (me falls to unity), when we apply a large field or
try to transmit significant power levels. This is the reason why ferrite rod antenna makes
an excellent Rx antenna, not Tx antenna, except the power level to be transmitted is quite
low (typically less than a watt or so).
Loop Antennas 261

APPLICATIONS OF LOOP ANTENNA

Loop antennas are used in RF and aircraft receivers, direction finding and also as UHF
transmitters. Loop antennas are also used in pagers and handheld transceivers, which is
probably due to loops low efficiency, which is not as important as SNR. Most of the
applications of loop antennas are found in HF, VHF and UHF bands, and they are used even
in microwave frequency range as probes in field measurement and as directional antennas
for radio-propagation. Large loop antennas significantly used in directional arrays are helical
arrays, yagi-arrays and quad arrays. As far as ferrite rod antennas are concerned they are
mostly used in pocket transistor radios. Ferrite loop antenna is a form of RF antenna and
found suitable in portable transistor, broadcast receiver as well as in many hi-fi tuners for
LW, MW and SW frequency bands. As the antenna is tuned, it usually forms the RF tuning
circuit for the receiver, enabling both functions to be combined within the same components,
thereby reducing the number of components and hence the cost of set. Ferrite rod antenna
is directive and it best operates only when the magnetic force lines fall in line with the
antenna. That is the antenna has a null position where the signal level is at a minimum when
the antenna is in the direction of the transmitter. Though we can compare ferrite loop
antenna with RF antenna, its efficiency is much less than that of a large RF antenna. The
performance of the ferrite also limits the frequency response and it is only up to MHz levels.
Mostly it is used as Tx; however it can also be used as Tx antenna where efficiency is not
an issue and transmitted power level is low. As they are more compact than RF antennas,
this can be an advantage, and as a result they can be used in RFID applications.

SOLVED EXAMPLES

Example 6.1 Calculate the voltage induced by a plane wave of electric field E = 0.03 Vm1
at operating frequency 2.0 MHz for a (i) vertical antenna of height 8 m and (ii) loop antenna
of 1.5 m2 and 10 turns, if the plane of the loop is in the plane of propagation of the wave
and also, (iii) find total power radiated by the loop.
Solution: Given E = 0.03 V/m, l = 300/2 m, h = 8 m
N = 10, q = 0 and A = 1.5 m2
Therefore
(i) Magnitude of induced voltage in vertical antenna is given by
| Vrms | = | Erms h sin wt | = Erms h = 0.03 8 = 0.24 V

2 Q Erms AN
(ii) Vrms for the loop is Vrms = cos R V
M
2 3.14 0.24 1.5 10
= cos 0 = 0.151 V
150
262 Antenna and Wave Propagation

2 2
A 1.5
(iii) Radiation resistance Rr = 31200 2 = 31200 2
= 2.08 :
M 150
Therefore, the radiated power

1 V2 1 0.1512
PT = = = 2.74 mW
4 Rr 4 2.08

Example 6.2 A circular loop frame has 150 turns such that the periphery of each turn is
1.5 m. Determine maximum field strength so that receiver tuned at 10 MHz inducing a
voltage of 10 mV. Consider loop is oriented at 60 from the direction of the transmitter and
quality factor of the loop is 85.
Solution: Given: Q = 85, N = 150, 2pr = 1.5 p; therefore r = 0.75 m.
A = pr2 = 3.14 0.752 = 1.766 m2
f = 10 MHz l = 30 m, Vin = 10 mV and q = 60
Vin 10 2
We know that Vrms = = = 1.176 10 4 V
Q 85

Vrms M 1.176 10 4 30
and Erms = = Vm 1 = 4.232 Vm 1
2Q AN cos R 2 3.14 1.766 150 0.5

Em = 2 Erms = 2 4.232 = 5.985 Vm1

Em 5.985
Hence Hm = = = 1.587 10 2 Am 1
377 377

Example 6.3 A square loop of arm length 0.8 m has 20 turns. The winding wire is characterized
with resistance 105 W and inductance 0.5 mH. It is supposed to be turned by a capacitor at
resonance with a wave defined by E = 250 sin (8p 105) mVm1. Find the rms value of
voltage developed across the capacitor when the waves incident at 60 w.r.t the plane of
loop.
Solution: Area, A = 0.8 0.8 = 0.64 m2 N = 20
R = 10 W L = 0.5 mH
E = 250 sin (8p 105) t = Em sin wt (say)
Then Em = 250 10 6
Vm 1

Em 250 10 6
therefore Em = = = 176 10 6 Vm 1
2 2
w = 2p f = 8p 105 rad s1. Therefore, the voltage across the capacitor will be
Loop Antennas 263

2Q E rms AN cos R X L X 2 E rms AN cos R L


(Vrms )c = Vrms Q = =
M R c R
In which c is velocity of wave and 3 108 ms1. Therefore,

(8Q 10 5 )2 176 10 6 0.64 20 0.5 0.5 10 3 3.554 10 5


(Vrms )c = =
3 108 10.5 3.15 10 9
= 1.128 104 V = 0.1128 mV

Example 6.4 Design a loop antenna which induced a maximum emf of 0.55 mV across it
at a frequency of 1 MHz when it is placed in a field region, where the rate of flow of energy
is 5 mVm2.
Solution: The operating wavelength l = 300/1 = 300 m
2
V2 A
We know that Wmax = , where Rr = 31171 2 .
4 Rr M
Let us consider a circular loop antenna of area A is used in this case.

V2 (0.55)2 10 6
Rr = = = 15.125 :
4 Wmax 4 5 10 3

1/2
15.125 10 6 (300) 4
Hence, A= = 1.982 m 2
31171

1/2
1.982
A = Q a2 = 1.982 a = = 0.79 m
Q
i.e., radius of loop is 0.79 m.
Therefore, perimeter of loop = 2pa = 2 3.14 0.79 = 49.612 cm.

Example 6.5 A 3-turn circular loop antenna of radius is 12 cm made up of copper of radius
1.2 mm. The antenna carries a current of 10 mA when being operated at f = 2 MHz.
Calculate the radiated power, percentage radiation efficiency, effective area and gain of the
antenna.
Solution: N = 3, a = 0.12 m, d = 2.4 103 m, Im = 10 103 A, l = 300/2 = 150 m.
a
The total radiated power P = 60 Q 3 I m2 n
M
60 (3.14)3 (10 2 )2 0.12 3
= W = 0.4458 mW
150
264 Antenna and Wave Propagation

1
The radiation efficiency (I) =
Rl
+ 1
Rr
where for copper

Rl 3430 3430
= = = 1.99 10 6
Rr C 3 3.5
fMHz Nd 2 3.14 0.12
3

2
3
2 3 2.4 10 3
1
Therefore radiation efficiency
1 1
(I) = = 5.025 10 5 = 5.025 10 3 %
(1.99 10 + 1) 6
(1.99 10 6 )

C 2 3.14 0.12 1
= = 5.02 10 3 << .
M 150 3
Hence Dmax = 3/2.
Maximum effective aperture

M2 150 2
Ae = = = 1194.26 m 2
4Q D 4 3.14 1.5

4Q Ae I 4 3.14 1194.26 5.025 10 5


Gain G = = = 3.35 10 5
M 2
150 2

= 10 log 3.35 5 = 0.25 dB.

Example 6.6 A circular loop antenna with uniform in phase current has diameter D. Find
(i) radiation pattern for D = l/10; (ii) Rr and directivity of the antenna for D = l/3.
Solution: (i) The far-field pattern of a circular loop is given by

2Q M Q
J1 (C a sin R ) = J1 sin R = J1 sin R
M 6 3

3
Q 1Q 1 Q
J1 sin R is a Bessels function of first order and equals sin R sin R + ...
3 2 3 83
C 1 C 2Q M Q
For = = = 0.314
M 3 M M 20 10
Loop Antennas 265

Q 1 Q
J1 sin R sin R = 0.523 sin R
3 2 3
Therefore, far-field pattern can be found as
(E1)q=0 = 0 dB
(E)q=30 = 0.523 0.5 = 5.83 dB
Similarly
(E3)q=60 = 3.44 dB and (E4)q=90 = 0.523 sin 90 = 2.81 dB

The resultant pattern is shown in Fig. 6.9.

FIG. 6.19 Radiation pattern of circular loop antenna for Example 6.6.

(ii) We have
C 2Q M 1
= = 1.0472 >
M M 6 3

a 1 M
Therefore, Rr = 3720 = 3720 = 620 :
M M 6

2 3.14 M
D = 0.682 = 0.7141 = 1.462 dB
M 6

Example 6.7 Find skin-effect resistance of a 4-turn circular loop antenna of copper wire
to be operated at f = 2 MHz. The radius of loops wire is 1.2 mm. Also, find radiation
efficiency, if loop radius is 0.45 m and resistance per unit length is 0.207 W.

XN
2
nRs
Solution: We know that Rs = 0 and R0 =
2T 2Q a
266 Antenna and Wave Propagation

2
2 3.14 2 10 6 4 3.14 10 7
Rs = = 0.372 m:
2 5.7 10 7

4 0.372 10 3 1.488
Hence R0 = 3
= = 0.1975 :
2 3.14 1.2 10 7.536

1
8.48 10 10 (f MHzT r )1/2 R p
We know that IA = 1 + + 1
n (b)3 a R0

a 1.2 10 3
where a = = = 0.08 10 4
M 150
b 0.45
b = = = 3.0 10 3
M 150
T
T = =1 Rp = (Rn R0) = 0.207 0.1975 = 0.0095 W
T
Rp 0.0095
= = 0.048
R0 0.1975
1
8.48 10 10 (2 1)1/2 1.048
IA = 1 + = [1 + 1.45 10 +3 ] 1
4 27 10 9 0.08 10 4

= (1455.43)1 = 0.06878%.

Example 6.8 Find resistance, inductance and impedance of the loop antennas to be operated
at f = 1 MHz, if the shape of the loop is
(i) Small circular loop of radius 0.15 m
(ii) Square loop of sides 0.12 m
(iii) Triangular loop of arms 0.28 m
(iv) Hexagonal loop of arms 0.25 m
Assume that the radius of the wire is constant in all cases and is equal to 2.5 103 m.

C 2 3.14 0.15
Solution: We have = = 0.00314 , which is less than 0.2.
M 300
Therefore, XL = jwL = Z0 tan (bl), in which case

S
Z 0 = 276 log
r
where l = C/2, S = area of loop, r = radius of wire.
Loop Antennas 267

3.14 (0.15)2
(i) Z 0 = 276 log = 276 log (0.0283 10 3 ) = 400.69 :
2.5 10 3

2 3.14 2 3.14 0.15


X L = 400 tan = 400 tan 0.0098 = 0.06895
300

0.06895
Hence, L= = 10.97 nH
2 3.14 10 6
2
2Q 2 20 4 (3.14) {3.14 (0.15) }
2 2 2
R = 20 A =
M 300 2
788.768 0.05
= = 0.0044 :
90000

(ii) Side of square is 0.120 m long.

0.122
Z 0 = 276 log = 209.87 :
2.5 10 3

2Q 4l
Z in = jX L = jZ 0 tan
M 2

4Q l 4 3.14 0.12
= jZ 0 tan = jZ 0 tan
M 300
= 0.0184

0.0184
L= = 2.93 10 9 = 2.93 nH
2 3.14 10 6

and
CC
R = a tan b
2
where a = 1.126 and b = 3.950.

2 3.14 2 0.12
Therefore, R = 1.126 tan 3.950
300
log R = log 1.126 + 3.95 log tan (0.005024) = log 1.126 + 3.95 log (8.768 105)
log R = 0.052 16.0254 = 15.973
Hence R = 1.062 1016 W 0.
268 Antenna and Wave Propagation

(iii) Triangular loops arm length is a = 0.28 m

3 3
Area = a2 = (0.28)2 = 0.034 m2
4 4

S 0.034
Z 0 = 276 log = 276 log 3
= 312.856 :
r 2.5 10

2Q 3a 3.14 3 0.28
X L = Z 0 tan = 312.856 tan = 0.0494
M 2 300

0.0494
Hence L= = 7.86 10 9 = 7.86 nH
2 3.14 10 6

CC
and R = a tan b
2
where a = 0.694 and b = 3.998.
Therefore

2 3.14 3 0.28 3.998 3.14 0.28


R = 0.694 tan 3.998 = 0.694 tan
300 2 100

log R = log 0.64 + 3.998 log tan (3.14 0.0028)


log R = 0.1586 15.254 = 15.4086
Hence R = 3.9026 1016 W 0.
(iv) Length of hexagonal arm is a = 0.25 m.

6 3 6 3
Area = a2 = (0.25)2 = 0.162 m 2
4 4

S 0.162
Z 0 = 276 log = 276 log 3
= 500.27 :
r 2.5 10

2 3.14 6 0.25
X L = 500.27 tan = 0.13708
300 2

0.13708
Hence L= = 21.83 10 9 = 21.83 nH
2 3.14 10 6
Loop Antennas 269

2 3.14 3 0.25
Therefore, R = 1.588 tan 4.293
300
log R = log 1.588 + 4.293 log (0.000274) or log R = 0.2008 15.293 = 15.092
Hence, R = 8.088 10 16
W 0.

Example 6.9 Find the relative permeability of a single-turn ferrite spherical loop if the
relative permeability of the un-balanced ferrite material (mfr) is 85.76. Also, find the radiation
resistance if the circumference of loop is 3.55 l.
Solution: We know that the demagnetization factor for spherical rod is 0.333; therefore

Nfr 85.76
Ner = = = 2.94
1 + D(N fr 1) 1 + 0.333(85.76 1)

4
C
Hence, Rr = 20 Q N er2 = 20 (3.14)2 (3.55) 4 (2.94)2 = 27.07 10 4 :
2

Example 6.10 Find the radiation resistance and the efficiency of a 10-turn ellipsoidal
ferrite loop antenna of length 35 cm and radius 3.5 cm. The antenna is to be operated at
50 MHz and loss resistance is only 2.5% of the radiation resistance. Assume that mfr is 85.76.
Solution: The demagnetization factor
2 2
a 2l 3.5 2 35 3
D= ln 1 = ln 1 = 19.95 10
l a 35 3.5
Nfr 110
Ner = = = 34.64
1 + D(Nfr 1) 1 + 19.95 10 3 (110 1)

A = pa2 = 3.14 (3.5/100)2 = 3.85 103


2
N NA 34.64 10 3.85 10 3
2
Rr = 31200 er 2 = 31200 = 42.81 :
M 362

2.5
Therefore Rl = 42.81 = 1.070
100

Rr 42.81
I= = = 0.9756 = 97.56
Rr + Rl 42.81 + 1.070
270 Antenna and Wave Propagation

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

1. The radiation characteristics of a small loop antenna is equivalent to radiation of an


infinitesimal magnetic dipole, whose axis is
(a) Normal to the plane of loop (b) Parallel to the plane of loop
(c) Both (d) None of these
2. A loop antenna is preferred for use as receiving antenna rather than the transmitting
one because of its
(a) High efficiency (b) High gain
(c) Low efficiency (d) None of these
3. Moore loop antenna was designed on a square box frame, later which was famous
as
(a) Box loop antenna (b) Box square antenna
(c) X-ray antenna (d) None of these
4. Quantum loop antenna is integrated with a high gain 40 dB amplifier; it is an
example of
(a) Small loop antenna (b) Long wire antenna
(c) Ferrite rod antenna (d) None of these
5. When a loop antenna is freely rotated around its axis the maximum radiation appears
at
(a) (0, 180) and (90, 270) (b) (30, 180) and (60, 270)
(c) (90) and (180) (d) Only at 145
6. Fosters expression deal with the directivity of a
(a) Rectangular loop antenna (b) Square loop antenna
(c) Circular loop antenna (d) None of these
7. The radiation efficiency of a ferrite loop antenna is greater than a loop antenna by
the multiple factor
(a) F er2 (b) N er2
(c) mer (d) None of these
8. The value of relative effective permeability (mer) of ferrite material ranges from
(a) 100 to 10,000 (b) 10 to 1,000
(c) 50 to 500 (d) None of these
9. Loop antenna is a type of
(a) Directive antenna (b) Low efficiency antenna
(c) Both of these (d) None of these
10. What will be the directivity of a circular loop antenna of radius l?
(a) 5.7 (b) 1.5
(c) 0.745 (d) None of these
11. What will be the radiation resistance of a circular loop antenna of radius l?
(a) 4000 W (b) 17200 W
(c) 73.56 W (d) None of these
Loop Antennas 271

12. The directivity of small loop antenna is 1.5, because its radiation field is maximum
at angle q
(a) 90 (b) 60
(c) 100 (d) None of these
13. What will be the radiation efficiency of a 1 m dia loop of 10 mm dia copper wire
at 103 KHz
(a) 40.5 dB (b) 50 dB
(c) 82.75 dB (d) None of these
14. A 10-turn ferrite rod antenna operating at 2 MHz. The length of the rod is 15 cm,
radius of the rod is 1.5 cm and diameter of a wire wound on the rod is 1.5 mm, what
will be radiation efficiency if mer = 60?
(a) 5.7 104 (b) 15.7 102
(c) 2500 (d) None of these
15. The induced maximum emf across ferrite antenna terminal increases by a multiple
factor of
(a) mer (b) mer + 1
(c) 25 mer (d) None of these

Answers
1. (a) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (a)
6. (c) 7. (b) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (d)
11. (d) 12. (a) 13. (a) 14. (d) 15. (a)

EXERCISES

1. What are the advantages of loop antenna over monopole antenna?


2. Describe the applications of loop antenna in wireless communication. How does it
take the place of monopole antenna in wireless communication?
3. If a small loop of area A carries current I is radiating in free space, show that far-
120 Q 2 [ I ] sin R A
zone electric field is given by E = 2 . Draw its radiation pattern
r M
also.
4. Describe the array theory of loop antenna. Derive the expression for the induced
voltage for n-turn loop antenna operating at frequency fo.
5. What are the characteristic features of circular and square loop antennas? Write the
expressions for their far-fields.
6. Describe the large loop antenna. Write the expressions for far-fields in different
planes of the antenna.
272 Antenna and Wave Propagation

7. Show that for a square loop antenna, the radiation resistance is Rr = 31200(a/l)4,
where a is side of loop antenna, whereas for the elliptical loop antenna, it is Rr =
1950 (pab/l2)2, where a and b are the semi-major and semi-minor axes of the ellipse.
8. What are the advantages of multi-turn loop antenna? Show that the total ohmic
resistance for n-turn circular loop antenna with loop radius b, wire radius a and turn
nb Rp
separation 2c is RL = Rs + 1 .
a R0
9. Using suitable approximations, find the resistance, inductance and impedance of a
centre-fed loop antenna to be operated at f = 1.5 MHz, if the shapes of loop are
(a) equivalent triangle of side = 0.3 m. (b) Hexagonal loop of arm = 0.28 m.
10. Find the radiation efficiency of a 12-turn ferrite ellipsoidal antenna, operating at
f = 150 MHz, under the following specifications:
Rt = 1.5% of radiation resistance
Radius (a) = 0.5 m
Length (l) = 1.2 m
mfr = 90.
Also, find the directivity of the antenna, if gain of the antenna is 15 dB.
11. Define the loop antenna. Mention the disadvantages of the loop antenna.
12. Define the directivity of a circular loop antenna. Explain both small and large loop
antennas with suitable examples.
13. Derive the expression for the far-field components of a small loop antenna.
14. Find the voltage induced by a plane wave of field strength of 10 mVm1 and frequency
of 10 MHz in (i) vertical antenna of height 8 m; (ii) 10-turn loop antenna of area
2m2, if the loop is in the plane of travelling of the wave.
[Ans: (i) 80 mV; (ii) 4.18 mV]
15. Calculate the field strength induced in a 10-turn loop antenna operating at 300 MHz.
The loop antenna area is 2.5 m2 and it is found that maximum potential difference
across antenna is 3.5 mV. Assume antenna response is maximum along travelling
path of the wave.
[Ans: E = 0.2512 Vm1]
16. Find the change in induced voltage of 12-turn loop antenna operating at 20 MHz,
if orientation of antenna changes 45 off from original position. Assume area of loop
is 1.5 m2 and field across it is 0.02 Vm1.
[Ans: V1 = 0.15 V, and V2 = V1 cos 45 = 0.106, hence DV = 0.044]
17. Similarly find change in induced field strength if voltage across the antenna is 0.05 V.

E1 6.64
[Ans: E1 = 6.64 mVm1t1, E2 = o
= = 9.39 mVm 1t 1 ]
cos 45 0.707
Loop Antennas 273

18. A 15-turn loop antenna each with 1.5 m2 area operating at 15 MHz. Calculate the
peak value of the magnetic field intensity H of the radio wave, which induces an emf
of 20 mV (rms) in the antenna. Also find changes in the value of H, if 5 turns are
added to the loop.

2 Vrms 0.02828
[Ans: H1 = Am 1 = = 1.062 Am 1
2Q f N0 AN 2662.09

H1 N1 1.062 15
H2 = = = 0.7965 ]
N2 20
19. Find the radiation efficiency of a 4-turn circular loop antenna operating at f = 100 MHz.
The radius of loop is l/20 and radius of antenna wire is 104 l, and conductivity of
wire is 5.7 107 Sm1. Assume that the antenna is radiating into a medium having
dielectric constant er = 5.5 and spacing between turns is 5 times greater than the
radius of antenna wire.

[Hint: I =
Rr
, Rs = RL =
b XN0 S2
and Rr = 31200 N 2 4 ]
Rr + RL a 2T M

20. A 8-turn copper loop antenna operating at 50 MHz is connected to a 50 W Tx line.
The radii of loop and its wire are l/25 and l/250 respectively, and spacing between
turns is 0.01l. Determine directivity, radiation efficiency and gain of antenna, assuming
Rp/R0 = 1.7.
[Hint: D = 1.5 (1.761 dB), Rr(8) = 6.282 W, Rs = 18.609 104, RL = 4093 104 W,
hr = 93.88% and G = 1.408 = 1.46 dB]

REFERENCES

[1] Kraus, J.D., Antennas: For All Applications, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2005.
[2] Prasad, K.P., Antenna and Wave Propagation, 2nd ed., Satya Prakashan, New Delhi,
1996.
[3] Carr, Joseph J., Practical Antennas: Handbook, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill/TAB Electronics,
2001.
[4] Foster, D., Loop antennas with uniform current, Proc. IRE., Vol. 32, pp. 603607,
Oct. 1944.
[5] Thiele, G.A. and W.L. Stutsman, Antenna Theory and Design, John Willey & Sons,
New York, 2001.
[6] Smith, G.S., Radiation efficiency of electrical small multi-turn loop antenna, IEEE
Trans. Antenna Propagate, Vol. 20, No. 9, pp. 656657, Sept. 1972.
[7] Wheeler, H.A., Fundamental limitations of small antennas, Proc. IRE, Vol. 35,
pp. 14791484, Dec. 1947.
274 Antenna and Wave Propagation

[8] Awadallo, K.H., et al., A simple method to determine the impedance of a loop
antenna, IEEE Trans. Antenna Propagate, Vol. AP. 32, No. 11, pp. 12481251,
Nov. 1984.
[9] Galejs, J. , Admittance of insulated loop antennas in a dissipative medium, IEEE
Trans. Antenna Propagate, Vol. 13, pp. 229235, March 1965.
[10] Kraichman, M.B., Impedance of a circular loop antenna in an infinite conducting
medium, J. Res. NBS, Vol. 66D, pp. 499503, JulyAugust 1962.
[11] Benning, C.J., Impedance of a loop antenna in a conducting medium, IEEE Trans.
Antenna Propagate, Vol. 13, pp. 242243, March 1966.
[12] Rumsey, V.H. and W.L. Weeks, Electrically small ferrite loaded loop antenna,
IRE Convention Record, Vol. 4, Part I, pp. 165170, 1956.
C H A P T E R

Metal-Plate Lens
7 Antennas

INTRODUCTION

Lens antenna basically a radiator which basic principle of operation is based on the collimated
action of a simple optical lens. Like a parabolic reflector, a lens antenna is an antenna which
is applied at microwave frequency and its working manner is same as that of a reflector
antenna. That is, a lens antenna is also fed by horn/dipole antenna from its focal point and
produces collimated rays on another (right) side of lens. The basic operating principle of a
lens antenna is illustrated in Fig. 7.1.

Plane wave front

Spherical
wave front

Direction of plane
wave propagation

Source

Collimating metallic strip

FIG. 7.1 Basic operating principle of lens antenna.

From Fig. 7.1, it is clear that one can convert spherically radiated microwave energy
into a plane wave in a desired direction by using a point source and collimated lens antenna.
275
276 Antenna and Wave Propagation

The point source can be regarded as a gun that shoots the microwave energy toward the lens
and the collimating lens forces all radiated segments of the spherical wave front into parallel
paths. Usually a collimated lens is made of a dielectric material of finite dielectric constant
(er). However, collimated lens can also be constructed using materials having refractive
index less than unity at RF, so that the focusing properties can be achieved. Although
parabolic reflector and lens antennas have same applications yet the main uses of lens
antenna are only at higher frequencies, because at lower frequencies the lens antenna becomes
heavy. Actual frequency range of lens antenna starts at 1.0 GHz, but its greatest uses are at
and above 3 GHz. Lens antenna functions on the principle of equality of path lengths and
illustrates the principle of reciprocity theorem.

Metal-Plate Lens Antennas


A metal-plate lens antenna is an attractive alternative to dishes or large horns being used for
portable microwave operation. There are other similar types of microwave lenses, namely
dielectric lens and Fresnel lens; however, metal plate lens is the easiest to build, cheap, easy
to construct and integrate, and lightest to carry. The metal plate lens antenna is constructed
using series of thin metal plates with narrow air gap between them, such that the curvature
of the edges of the plates forms the lens and the space between the plates forms a series of
wave-guides. The input and output edges of these wave-guides are shaped simply to change
path lengths and hence form the lens surface.
The metal lenses were first originally described by KBIVC at the 1992 Eastern VHF/
UHF Conference for 10 GHz. Later, lens antennas were designed by Angel Vilaseca and
found suitable for VHF communications. After that, Kock [1] described the design process,
working principle and applications of metal-plate lens antenna using HDL_ANT computer
program, which provides adequate gain enhancement and doubles the range of Gunnplexer
system. The working principle of metal-plate lens is similar to ordinary lens, only refraction
in this case occurs at the interface of two plates in which light travels at different speed
changing the direction of travelling the beam of light. If the beam constitutes many rays of
light, each one may be bent. The rays at the edge of beam are bent more; they end up parallel
to the centre rays, which are hardly bent. This will happen only if each ray takes exactly the
same time to travel from its source (i.e., focal point of the lens) to its destination. Since light
travels more slowly in glass, a lens is made thicker at the middle to slow down the rays with
a shorter path and thinner at the edges to allow the rays with longer paths to catch up. The
simple arrangement of a lens along with travelling rays is shown in Fig. 7.1.
The curvature of the lens to form the beam exactly is an ellipse. However, for small
bending angles a circle is almost identical to an ellipse and nearly all optical lenses are
grounded with spherical curves. The metal-plate lens differs from an optical lens is that the
phase of the EM waves travel faster in a wave-guide than in free-space. Thus the curvature
of the metal lens is the opposite of an equivalent optical or dielectric lens. Therefore,
concave lens is same as convex lens in this case or vice versa. We can still avoid the use
of circular aperture instead of ellipse, as long as we dont require bending the rays too sharp;
that is the reason why the lens is fed with a small horn.
Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 277

Lens Antenna Design


First of all, the dimensions of feeding horn are calculated by using

56 67
Eplane = deg and H plane = deg
AM e AM h

and the gain of horn antenna is


G = 10 log (4.5 AleAlh) dB
where Ale and Alh are aperture dimensions in E and H planes per wavelength respectively.
The focal length of lens is given by

Lensdiameter
f =
W
2 tan E
2
where WE is the width of lens in E-plane. However, the spacing between the metal-plates is
related to index of refraction as follows:
1/2
M
N = 1 l
2 dS

M0
in which Ml = is wavelength in the lens
Fr
dS = spacing between plates
m = refractive index = l1/l0

and the focal length f of the two lens surfaces are calculated as follows:

1 1 1
= (N 1)
f R1 R2

where f is the focal length, and R1 and R2 are radii of curvature. For any single curved
surface, one radius approaches infinity [see Fig. 7.2(a)]. The single curved lens along with
symmetrical double curve is shown in Fig. 7.2(b).
The radius of curvature, as calculated above, is for the surface and thus the central plate
which has full curvature. The rest of the plates must be successively wider and have smaller
radii so that the edges of all the plates form a spherical lens surface. However, for very large
lenses the size may be reduced by stepping the width of the plates into zones which keep
transmission in phase.
In particular construction of metal plate lens antenna is simple. Metal-plates of aluminium
foil spaced by Styrofoam of thickness 0.75 in. are formed metal-plate lens antenna. Final
278 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 7.2 Basic geometry of E-plane metal-plate lens: (a) single curve; (b) double curve.

antenna is a block of foam-there is no need to shape the foam to the lens size. A metal lens
antenna works only in the E-plane. This is parallel to the elements of a dipole or Yagi
antenna but perpendicular to the wide dimension of a wave-guide. In order to achieve
maximum gain the metal-plate must be normal to the wide dimension. The horn should point
through the centre of the lens, but the focus is not as critical as a dish. The lens focuses the
beam more tightly but does not change the beam direction, because tilting the lens will not
steer the beam.
Pauls results for 10 GHz [2] reveal that the best gain was with the horn slightly closer
to the lens than calculated. It might be due to edge effects. This effect may be eliminated
if the size of the plates is chosen slightly larger than calculated and resulted the gain a bit
higher. All the lenses were designed to be fed with the standard Gunnplexer horn which has
small matched phase-centres. The gain measurements on an antenna range are shown in
Table 7.1. It was found that the lenses perform with about 50% efficiency, if we consider
them as having a round aperture. The corners do not contribute significantly, even though
they are made square for convenient fabrication and mounting. The metal-plate lens antennas
are also found useful at frequencies of 5.76 GHz and 24 GHz, with foam thicknesses of
around 35 mm and 8 mm respectively.

TABLE 7.1 Gain and efficiency for different lens antennas

Antennas Focal distance Gain Efficiency


Gunnplexer horn 17.5 dBi 57%
Horn + 150 mm 8 in. 20.9 dBi 45%
Horn + 300 mm 21 in. 27.4 dBi 50%
Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 279

TYPES OF LENS ANTENNA

Basically there are two types of lens antenna: E-plane and H-plane lens antennas. In addition,
there are two special lens antennas. Luneburg and Rotman lens antennas.
E-plane lens antenna: It is also known as fast lens antenna; here the electric path length
is decreased by the lens.
H-plane lens antenna: It is also known as dielectric or delay lens antenna, here electric
path length is increased by the lens. Dielectric lenses are further divided two types:
(a) Non-metallic type lenspolystyrene and lucite
(b) Metallic or artificial dielectric type lens.
All delay lens antennas may be regarded basically as end-fire antennas with the poly-rod and
monofilar axial mode helix as the rudimentary form.

E-plane Lens Antenna


The function of operation of E-plane lens antenna depends upon the acceleration of waves
by the lens. In this type of lens, the metal plates are parallel to E-plane or plane of the
electric fields. E-plane metal plate lens antenna makes use of wave-guide theory, where three
wavelengths lc, lg and l0 are related to each other (see Fig. 7.3). If v is the velocity of wave
propagation in the x-direction between two parallel conducting plates of large size, then it
can be given as
v0
v= 1/2
M
2
1 0
Mc

As lc = 2a, for the dominant mode TE10 wave, then


1/2
v0 v M
2
1
v= = 1 0 =
N
2 a
2 1/2 v0
M
1 0
2 a

m = [1 (l0/2a)2](1/2) (7.1)
where v0 = velocity of wave in free space.
a = spacing between plates
l0 = free space wavelength
m = equivalent index of refraction of a medium constructed by many such parallel
plates at constant spacing
280 Antenna and Wave Propagation

O
y
a
x

FIG. 7.3 Basic configuration of E-plate lens antenna.

Equation (7.1) indicates that m is always greater than unity and the spacing between
plates must not be less than a critical value, i.e.,

M
a= . This implies that a l/2.
2
Therefore, while designing an E-plane metal plate lens antenna, it is compulsory to
construct the antenna from parallel plates only. It is also found that the velocity of wave
propagation v between the plates is always greater than the free-space velocity v0.
The geometry of E-plane metal plate lens, shown in Fig. 7.2, contains r, which is found
from Fermats principle as follows:
L (1 N )
r= (7.2)
1 N cos R

That is, when (m < 1), Eq. (7.2) represents an equation of ellipse. If primary antennas
were a line source perpendicular to say, Fig. 7.2, all the plates would be identical and the
lens surface would be in the form of an elliptical cylinder. It must also be noted that waves
entering the lens at point P (L to R) obey Snells law of refraction; however, it is not
necessarily the case for wave entering at point P, where the metal plates constrain the wave
to travel between them. The major disadvantage of this antenna is that it is frequency-
sensitive (i.e., BW is relatively small), and the total BW is given by (see [3])
2NE
'f = (7.3)
(1 N 2 ) t
where t = thickness of concave portion of lens antenna
d = electrical path difference of OQQ and OPP; if d = 0.25l, then
50 N
'f = (7.4)
(1 N 2 ) t
Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 281

Hence, for m = 0.5 and t = 6l, the bandwidth Df is found to be 5.5%, which is very small.
The only possible way to decrease the frequency sensitiveness of E-plane metal plate lens
antenna is zoning. A zonal E-plane metal plate antenna is shown in Fig. 7.4.

FIG. 7.4 Zonal E-plate lens antenna.

Here the thickness (z) of a zone step is given by

M0
z= (7.5)
1 N

Therefore the focal length (L) for nth zone is equal to


Ln = L + (n 1)z (7.6)
where n = 1, 2, 3, .
Zoning of an antenna is important in two contexts: first, it saves weight and second,
it increases the bandwidth. The bandwidth of a zonal E-plane metal plate lens antenna is
given by

50 N
'f = (7.7)
(1 + K N )

where K is the number of zones, the zone on the axis of the lens being counted as the first
zone. Under the above condition, i.e., m = 0.5, and K ~ t/2 = 3, the bandwidth of this zoned
lens is found to be 10%, i.e., nearly double than the conventional lens antenna, i.e.,

50 0.5 25
'f = = = 10%
1 + 3 0.5 1 + 1.5
282 Antenna and Wave Propagation

H-plane Metal-Plate Lens Antenna

(a) Non-metallic dielectric lens antenna


Non-metallic dielectric lens antenna is similar to the optic lens, hence they may be described
by the ray analysis method of optics and Fermat principle. If this lens has to convert a
spherical wave from a source (at focus) into a plane wave front, then all the rays paths from
O to the plane surface of the lens should have equal electric length (see Fig. 7.5). A plano-
concave lens can solve the purpose, provided it is fed with an isotropic antenna.

FIG. 7.5 Non-metallic dielectric lens antenna.

Then from Fig. 7.5, the electric path length OPP must be equal to OOQQ or simply
OP = OQ. Therefore
r L r cos R L L (N 1)
= + r= (7.8)
M0 M0 Ml N cos R 1
where
M0 free space wavelength
N= =
Ml wavelength in line

Equation (7.8) is an expression of hyperbola with focal length (l) and radius (r) and represents
the curvature of the lens in polar co-ordinate and describes the required shape of the lens.
Polystyrene (er = 2.5 and m = 1.6) and polyethylene (er = 2.2 and m = 1.6) are important
materials for dielectric lens antenna deigns. If the wavelength is comparable to the lens
aperture at RF, the wave emanating from such lens antenna produces radiation pattern with
uniformity of illumination just like a parabolic reflector. If the lens antenna is circular and
of diameter D, the radiation of uniform illustration is like that of paraboliod and gain is
approximated by G = 6(D/l)2. A large focal length provides more uniform illustration rather
than a short focal length lens. However practically it is difficult to get uniform illumination
for a lens antenna.
Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 283

(b) Metallic or artificial dielectric type lens


The concept of artificial lens antenna was first proposed by Kock in 1948 in a paper entitled,
Metallic delay lens. The design procedures for artificial lens antenna are similar to ordinary
dielectric lens. The major difference between ordinary and artificial lens antennas is that
ordinary lens antenna consists of molecular particles of microscopic size, while artificial one
consists of discrete metal particles of macroscopic size. The metal particles may be of any
configuration: spheres, disks, strips or rods. But mostly spherical metal particles are considered
due to its simplicity and ease of analysis [4]. A plano-convex lens constructed with metal
spheres and arranged in a 3-dimensional array or lattice structure as shown in Fig. 7.6. This
arrangement simulates the crystalline lattice of an ordinary dielectric substrate but on a much
large scale. These spheres are analogous to oscillating molecular dipoles of an ordinary
dielectric lens antenna.

FIG. 7.6 3-D lattice of dielectric substrate used for lens.

There are two basic design requirements of an artificial lens antenna:


The size of metal particles should be small compared to the operating wavelength.
This is to avoid resonance effect. The maximum particle size (parallel to the electric
field) less than l/4 is found satisfactory.
The spacing between the particles should be less than l, this is to avoid diffraction
effect.

ANTENNA ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

In order to design an artificial lens antenna, it is necessary to know the effective index of
refraction in addition to the other parameters. The refractive index of a lens can be measured
experimentally with a slab of the material or calculated it theoretically. In the present section
a method to calculate the refractive index is described by considering a spherical metal
particle, because they are light in weight and can be more readily analyzed.
284 Antenna and Wave Propagation

In Fig. 7.7, an uncharged spherical particle is placed in an electric field E, which


induced two opposite charges: (+q) and (q). If these induced charges are separated at
distance l, the arrangement is an electric dipole of dipole moment (m), which is equal to ql,
i.e., m = ql.

FIG. 7.7 Spherically charged particle placed in an electric field.

Therefore, the potential due to this dipole at distance (r), where r >> l, will be (see [5])

ql cos R
V = (7.9)
4 QF 0 r 2
and the polarization of the artificial dielectric lens will be

P = Nql
where N = total number of spheres/cm3
l = unit vector of length (l) joining the charges
Since polarization P is related to electric displacement density (D) and electric field intensity
(E) as follows:
D = F E = F0 E + P

hence effective dielectric constant of lens (e) is

P ql
F = F0 + = F0 + N (7.10)
E E
where e0 is the free space permittivity.
The potential at a distance r from the point charge is defined as the work done per unit
charge by an external agent in transferring a test charge from infinity to that point and is
expressed as follows:
r
V =
E dl
Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 285

Therefore in the present case, i.e., in a uniform field the potential will be
r
V =
E cos R dr = Er cos R (7.11)

where q is the angle between radial vector and the field direction.
Then the potential V0 outside the sphere placed in an originally uniform field will be

ql cos R
V0 = Er cos R + (7.12)
4 Q F0r 2

Therefore as r a, i.e., at the circumference of the sphere, V 0, i.e.,

ql cos R ql
Er cos R = = 4 QF 0 a3 (7.13)
4 QF 0 r 2
E
Hence, from Eq. (7.10),
F
F = F 0 + 4QF 0 Na
3
= 1 + 4 Q Na3
F0

or er = 1 + 4pNa3 (7.14)
where er = e/e0 and defined as the effective relative permittivity of artificial dielectric lens.
Therefore, if the effective relative permeability of the artificial dielectric is unity, the
index of refraction is given by

N = Nr Fr = [1 + 4Q Na3 ]1/2 (7.15)

However, the magnetic field lines of a radio wave are deformed around the sphere, because high-
frequency fields penetrate to only a very small distance in good conductor. The effective relative
permeability of an artificial dielectric of conducting sphere is given by mr = (1 2pNa3); hence

N = [(1 + 4Q Na3 )(1 2Q Na3 ]1/2 (7.16)


Equation (7.16) reveals that m is smaller than the m0. Since in most of the cases the relative
permeability is unity, in general m can be taken as F r . The values of m for different
dielectric spheres are listed in Table 7.2.

TABLE 7.2 Different values of m for different dielectric spheres

Type of particle Relative permittivity Relative permeability Index of refraction


(er) (mr )
Sphere (1 + 4pNa3) (1 2pNa3) m = [(1 + 4pNa3)
(1 2pNa3)]1/2
Disk (1 + 5.33Na3) ~1 (1 + 5.33 Na3)1/2
Strip (1 + 7.85NW3) ~1 (1 + 7.85NW3)1/2
286 Antenna and Wave Propagation

All the values given in Table 7.2 are reliable only for er < 1.5; however for er > 1.5,
N becomes sufficiently large and particles start interacting because of their close spacing [6].

DISTRIBUTION OF ILLUSTRATION ON THE APERTURE OF THE LENS

In order to find the variation of field intensity in the aperture of spherical lens, let us
consider an annular section of strip width (dr) on the annular zone of radius (r) at angle (q),
as shown in Fig. 7.8. From the figure it is clear that for an isotropic point source (primary
antenna) and given focal length L, the field at the edge of the line (q = q1, say) is lesser than
at the centre (q = 0). The variation of field intensity in the aperture plane of the lens can
be determined by calculating the power per unit area passing through an annular section of
the aperture as a function of the radius (r). Referring to Fig. 7.8, the total power passes
through the considered annular section can be given by
W = 2pr dr Pr (7.17)
where Pr is power density/Poynting vector at radius (r).

FIG. 7.8 Annular section of strip width (dr) on annular zone of radius (r) at angle (q).

This power must be equal to the power radiated by the isotropic source over the solid
angle = 2p sin q dq. That is
W = 2p sin q dq U (7.18)
where U is radiation intensity of the isotropic source. Equations (7.17) and (7.18) yield

(N cos R 1)2
( p) S = U
((N 1)2 (N cos R ) L2

where r = r sin q as q 0.
Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 287

(N 1)2 U
PS = U= (7.19)
(N 1) (N 1)L
2 2
L2

Therefore, the ratio of (Pr) to (Pr)q=0 is given by

(PS )R (N cos R 1)2


=
(PS )R =0 (N 1)2 (N cos R )

Hence, in the aperture the field intensity is equal to


1/2
ER (PS )R (N cos R 1) 1
= = (7.20)
E0 (PS )R =0 (N 1) (N cos R )

where Eq/E0 is referred to as relative field intensity (Er) at a radius (r). For m = 1.5

(1.5 cos R 1) 1
ES = (7.21)
(1.5 1) (1.5 cos R )

Therefore, for q = 20, Er = 0.7 and for q = 40, Er = 1.4.


Therefore for nearly uniform aperture illumination, an angle (q1) to the edge of the lens
(even less than 20) is essential unless the pattern of the primary antenna is an inverted type,
i.e., one with less intensity in the axial direction (q = 0) than in direction of off-axis.
However uniform aperture illumination may be replaced by a tapered illumination in order
to suppress minor lobes. But the disadvantage of this method of producing a taper is that the
lens becomes bulk. However, the bulkiness can be reduced by choosing a lens of smaller (q1)
and large focal distance.

LUNEBURG LENS ANTENNA

Luneburg lens is a live example of artificial dielectric lens antenna. It is designed to provide
scanning performance that is free from the direction of radiated beam as well as its own
spherical geometry. Lenses of Luneburg type may be constructed on foamed dielectric containing
many small glass spheres whose spacing are varied to achieve the relation m(r). They may
also be made of spherical shells of graded dielectric constant fitted one within the other;
however, at least ten steps with equal increments of refractive index are desirable. Two-
dimensional lenses may be made using conducting plates with a variable spacing adjusted
to provide the required refractive index variation, assuming that propagation within the lens
takes place as in a TE10 wave-guide. If a Luneburg sphere is cut in half and a reflecting sheet
placed on the flat side, Luneburg reflector lens antenna results in an incoming wave at an
angle of incidence qi brought to a focus at the corresponding angle of reflection qr = qi.
Basically, two primary feeds are used for the Luneburg lens antenna: (a) open ended
wave-guide and (b) tapered slot antenna. Especially, tapered slot antenna makes the antenna
288 Antenna and Wave Propagation

integrated with an entire RF system. A rotationally symmetric parallel plate Luneburg lens
requires a specific refraction index in order to focus the wave of the primary feed at the lens
aperture [7]. Here, a periodic regular metal post structure, which acts as a metallic artificial
isotropic dielectric, is used. Y.J. Port used geometrical optics (GO) and aperture integration
method in order to predict the far-field pattern of Luneburg antenna.
It was found that the proposed antenna offers wide coverage with multiple primary
feeds at very low cost. Also, the complete antenna system is made of metal and hence can
be cheaply and massively produced using such a precise casting method. The Luneburg lens
antenna is a spherical symmetric delay type lens formed with a dielectric having index of
refraction (m), which depends on radius as follows [see Fig. 7.9(a)]:
1/2
r
2
N = 2 (7.22)
R

where R = radius of sphere


r = radial distance from centre of sphere
When r 0, N = 2 N max at centre of sphere.
When r 1, m = 1 = mr at principal axis.

FIG. 7.9(a) Basic geometry of Luneburg lens antenna.

Using Luneburg lens antenna signals can be received simultaneously from many directions
since space is available on the sphere to place feed horns or other receiving devices. For
steering a single beam, the receiver/transmitter can be switched to different feed horns, or
a single movable feed horn can also be used. The variable refractive index can be obtained
with an artificial dielectric material or with concentric shells of dielectric having different
indices of refraction. Full Luneburg lens provides beam steering in both polar co-ordinates
(i.e., q and f). However, for steering in only one co-ordinate (f), a plane (parallel sided)
section through the centre of sphere can be used. In general the beam is no longer the same
in both co-ordinates due to vignette in the q-direction.

Maxwells Fisheye Lens


A lens structure similar to Luneburg construction but different in index presented by Maxwell
is known as Maxwell fisheye lens. The lens structure is a sphere and it is assumed to be
Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 289

embedded in an optical material with the same index of refraction as appears at the outer
surface of the lens (e.g. water in the case of a fish with the idealized Maxwells lens). The
refractive index of the Maxwell fisheye sphere is given by (see [8])

2
N(r ) = 2
(7.23)
r
1+
R
which indicates that m(r) decreases from a value of 2 at the centre to 1 at the outer surface.
This lens has a property of creating an image of an object on the sphere at the diametrically
opposed point on the same sphere (i.e., a somewhat far-sighted fish).
The different index gradient of the Luneburg has an additional advantage, in that it allows
the lens to focus on an incident parallel beam onto a point, as illustrated in Fig. 7.9(b).

In/Out

In/Out

FIG. 7.9(b) Spherical Luneburg lens: Point to parallel beam or vice versa.

Applications
In view of the major applications of Luneburg lens antenna especially to automotive radar,
a multiple beam antenna is very important for the wide coverage of the vehicles. A new
Luneburg lens antenna composed of multiple primary feeds and a parallel plate Luneburg
lens with metallic artificial dielectric are found supporting wide scanning, hence suitable for
the automotive applications in MM and sub-MM wave frequencies [9].
The major applications of Luneburg antenna include:
A Luneburg lens antenna is commonly used in wide angle scanning applications
such as radar reflectors for targets and drones. It has also been used in military
applications as tracking radar antennas.
Luneburg lenses are useful in a variety of antenna, satellite-based communication
systems and scattering applications. Presently, most Luneburg lenses are used as
RCS augmenters. Luneburg type lenses also have ability to form a number of
290 Antenna and Wave Propagation

independent beams at different frequencies and powers. Low profile Luneburg lenses
fed by a horn antenna have been recently used for a variety of airborne applications.
In antenna applications, the main advantages are in their ability to form multiple
beams that may point in arbitrary directions and their broadband behaviour.
Recently, in 2005, NHK of Japan has developed a hemispherical lens antenna for
HDTV transmission via communication satellite. This antenna is also found suitable for a
small SNG van at breaking news sites. Konkur Ltd. has produced a line of Luneburg lens
antenna with dia = 8 m, which was found very suitable for satellite TV and commercial
applications. In particular, a hemispherical lens antenna upto 8 m diameter have also been
made, with the commercial product line extending to 4 m satellite uplink antennas. This is
termed Multsat 1 M Lens antenna.

ROTMAN LENS ANTENNA

As we know there are several applications of multiple beams, both in radar and communication
systems. In these systems it is often required to cover wide area which is achieved using an
antenna array. But a multiple beam forming network requires for controlling the amplitude
and phase at each element of the antenna array. Microwave lenses are found to be an
important alternative class of multiple beams forming network [1012].
First microwave lens for wide beam scanning was proposed by Ruze in 1950; later in
1963, it was modified by Rotman for better scanning capabilities. Suggested lens for improving
scanning capabilities by Rotman is termed Rotman lens antenna. They are very useful as
multiple beam forming networks for a linear array antenna. A Rotman lens has three focal
points, and the shape of focus for the position of exciting elements between those focal
points is given by a circular arc. Therefore, when exciting elements between focal points are
excited, phase errors on the aperture of the linear array antenna occur which need to be
minimized [13]. D. Archer in his study on Lens fed multiple beam arrays, suggested that
wide-angle scanning capabilities of these lenses are well-established. However, Rotman
himself suggested that the feed curve should be circular and he optimized the design parameters
accordingly. Shelton [14], proposed that it is not necessary to have circular focal arc, even
a Rotman lens can designed with front to back symmetry.
The Rotman approach to design a dielectric lens is well-suited for implementation in
strip line or microstrip circuitry. In general, the design of a particular strip-transmission line
lens is done in region between air and the dielectric then scaled by the inverse square root
of the substrate dielectric constant. Gagron derived a procedure for proper refocusing of the
dielectric filled Rotman lens with beam port locations, determined according to Snells law.
sin B
sin C =
Fr
where a = scan angle of antenna array
b = corresponding angle of focus inside lens
er = relative dielectric constant in parallel plate region of lens
Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 291

The proposed approach is an alternative lens configuration named refracting lens, which
may offer a wider field of scan at a given focal length for lenses fabricated in microstrip/
strip line. The theoretical performance of the refracting lens has also been compared with
that of conventional design at wider scan angle. It is found that the magnitude of the
coupling coefficient for the beam port/array port pairs is 1.36 times (2.7 dB) greater for
the refracting lens at a frequency of 10 GHz. P.K. Singhal [15] proposed elliptical
refocusing of Rotman type lens and analyzed it using the contour integral technique.
Comparison of results indicates that the lens is more compact with elliptical focal arc.
Recently at GIT, Georgia, a prototype Rotman lens that operates at mm waves was built. It
is first of its kind to operate at frequencies as high as 37 GHz. The device got its name
because it is able to focus milimeter (mm) wave energy coming from a particular direction
by passing the EM wave energy through a pair of parallel plats that are shaped like a lens.
Beam forming is carried out on one side of the plates, fed by a switch array. Energy fed into
a specific focal part emerges from the antenna elements and produces a beam along a
particular direction.
Beside the low cost, compact size and ruggedness, Rotman lens antenna also offers
very low throughput loss and side lobe emissions. In the prototype Rotman, side lobe power
can be suppressed by a factor of one thousand below the energy of the main beam. The
power loss through the lens itself is less than 2 dB.

Applications
Applications of Rotman lens antenna include:

1. Autonomous aircraft landing systems


Poor visibility caused by heavy fog can keep pilots from seeing enough of the runway to
allow a safe landing. A synthetic vision system based on millimetre wave radar could produce
images through fog, allowing aircraft to land even when runways are obscured. Such a
system would require a reliable, compact and inexpensive antenna (such as Rotman) to be
affordable.

2. Synthetic vision for ground vehicles


Operators of ground vehicles such as tanks also need to see through fog and smoke, but the
vibration and harsh operating conditions limit use of conventional antennas. A Rotman lens
antenna could be integrated into the tanks structure, eliminating the need for an external
dish and providing necessary reliability and ruggedness.

3. Automobile collision avoidance systems


Collision avoidance systems built into automobiles could provide drivers with warning of
approaching vehicles. If implemented in plastic, the Rotman antenna could lower the cost of
such systems enough to make them practical.
292 Antenna and Wave Propagation

4. Commercial communications
Rotman lens antennas could be used in short-range building to building wireless communications.
Implementation in plastic could help lower the capital costs for such systems.

5. Missile seekers
Low cost, reliability and compactness of Rotman lens antenna could find applications in
airborne systems such as missile seekers.

Tolerances in Lens Antenna


As dielectric lens is an optical device the differences in the path length may be caused by
deviations in thickness from the ideal contour as well as the variations in the refractive
index. Assigning an allowable variation of (l/32) rms to the refractive index, we can define
the thickness tolerance as follows:

't 't 1
=
Md M0 32

't M0 1 't 1
1 = [N 1] =
Md Md 32 M0 32

M0
't =
32(N 1)

0.03 M0
If m0 = 1 is the free space refractive index, then 't =
'N
Therefore, the tolerance on m will be

0.03 M0 'N 0.03 M0


'N = and NU = =
't N N 't

'N
In a particular case, for m = 1.5, Dt = 4l0, it is found that = 0.5% .
N
Tolerances for different types of lens antenna are listed in Table 7.3.
All tolerances in Table 7.3 assume l/32 rms for the individual lens variations and
l/64 rms for the reflector variations, where m is the refractive index, t is the thickness of the
lens, and tl is the lens thickness in terms of free space wavelength.
Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 293

TABLE 7.3 Tolerances for different types of antennas

Type of antenna Type of tolerance Amount of tolerance (rms)


Parabolic reflector Surface contour 0.016 l0

0.03 M0
Dielectric lens (unzoned) Thickness
N 1

3 M0
Refractive index %
Nt A

Dielectric lens (zoned) Thickness 3%


3(N 1)
Refractive index %
N

E-plane metal plate lens (zoned) Thickness 3%


3N
Plate spacing %
N +1

3 M0
E-plane metal plate lens (unzoned) Thickness %
1 N
3N
Plate spacing %
(1 N 2 )tM

SOLVED EXAMPLES

Example 7.1 Design a plano-convex dielectric lens antenna using a material of dielectric
constant er = 8.5 and mr 1 with diameter 10 l. The antenna is to be operated at a frequency
of 5 GHz and F is to be 1. Also find the relative power density at the edge of the lens.
Solution: We know that
N = Nr F r = 8.5 = 2.9

3 108
M= = 0.06 m = 60 mm
5 10 9
Since F = 1, so from geometry L = d = 10l = 600 mm.
294 Antenna and Wave Propagation

where d is the diameter of the lens. Hence from Eq. (7.8), we have

L (N 1) 600 (2.9 1) 1140


r= = r=
N cos R 1 2.9 cos R 1 2.9 cos R 1

which gives the relation between q and r of the lens antenna. Basic geometry of the lens
antenna is shown in Fig. 7.10.

FIG. 7.10 Lens antenna for Example 7.1.

The corresponding relative power density will be

PR (2.9 cos 25.5 1)2 1.633 4.25


= = =
P0 (2.9 1) (2.9 cos 25.5)
2
3.61 1.997 7.209

= 2.29 dB.
Any value of (q) giving satisfactory value of d, i.e. d = 2r sin q, will optimize the design angle.
That is

q (deg) r (mm) r sin q (mm)


0 600 0
10 614 106
20 660 225
22 674 252
25 699 300
26 709 311
27 720 326
30 754 377

Example 7.2 Design an artificial dielectric lens antenna, with a dielectric constant of 1.4,
to be used at 3.0 GHz, when the artificial dielectric consists of (i) copper sphere or (ii) copper
strip. Consider the radius of the sphere to be 5% of the operating wavelength and the width
to be 0.45% of the wavelength.
Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 295

Solution: (i) We know that for a sphere


er = 1 + 4pNa3

Fr 1
Hence N=
4 Q a3
At 3 GHz, l = 0.1 m = 100 mm; therefore a = 5 mm

1.4 1
N= = 2.55 10 5 m 3
4 3.14 (5 10) 3 )3
Therefore, the dielectric volume per sphere is

1
= 4 10 6 m 3
2.55 10 5 m 2
The volume of the each sphere is given by

4 4
(a)3 = 3.14 (5 10 3 )3 = 5.2 10 7 m 3
3 3
Therefore
Volume of dielectric per sphere 4 10 6
= = 7.7
Volume of sphere 5.2 10 7
That is, the volume of dielectric per sphere is greater than the volume of the sphere. (There
is space between two adjacent spheres.) Side of dielectric volumetric shapes (4.6 (10)6)1/2 =
15.9 mm. Therefore, the artificial lens will be as shown in Fig. 7.11.

Cube
2.45 mm
2.45 mm

Sphere
10 mm

FIG. 7.11 Artificial lens for Example 7.2.


296 Antenna and Wave Propagation

(ii) For copper strips,


er = 1 + 7.85 NW2

Fr 1 1.4 1
N= = 2 2
= 2500 m 2
7.85 W 2
7.85 (0.45 10 )
as W = 4.5 mm = 0.45 102 m. Then the area covered per strip is

1
= 4 10 4 m 2
2500

Square 20
So, if the covered area is a square, its sides will be 0.02 m. The ratio of = = 4.44.
Strip 4.5
Therefore four strips can be adjusted in a particular area (see Fig. 7.12).

20 mm

Strip width (4.5 mm)

FIG. 7.12 Four strips in Example 7.2.

Example 7.3 Design an unzoned plano-concave E-plane metal plate lens of the unconstrained
type with aperture 10 l squares for use with a 3.5 GHz line square 10 l long. If the source
is to be 20 l away from the lens, then (i) find the spacing between the plates, (ii) draw the
shape of the lens and find its dimensions and (iii) find the bandwidth of the lens, if the
maximum tolerable path difference is l/4. Assume F = 2 and m = 0.6.
Solution: (i) As F = 3.5 GHz, l = 0.085 m = 85 mm.
From Eq. (7.1), if a is the spacing between the plates, then

M 1 85 1
a= = = 53.13 mm
2 (1 N ) 2 1/2
2 (1 0.36)1/2

(ii) From Eq. (7.2)

L (1 N ) LM (1 N ) 20 (1 0.6) 8
r= rM = = =
1 N cos R 1 N cos R 1 0.6 cos R 1 0.6 cos R
Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 297

Since F = 2, D = L/2 = 5l.

q (deg) rl (D/2) = rl sin q


0 20 0
10 19.6 3.4
12 19.3 4.026
15.25 19.0 5.0
20 18.34 6.27

From Fig. 7.13

FIG. 7.13 Unzoned plano-concave E-plane metal plate lens for Example 7.3.

tl = Ll + rl cos 15.25 = 20 19 cos 15.25 = 1.67


(iii) Hence the frequency bandwidth will be

2Nf 2 0.6 0.25


'f = = = 0.28 = 28%
(1 N ) tM
2
(1 0.36) 1.67

where d = l/4 is the maximum tolerable path difference.

Example 7.4 A five-zoned E-plane metal plate dielectric lens is made of material of mr =
0.66 and is to be used at f = 40 GHz. Find zone thickness, extension focal length and
percentage operating bandwidth. Also find the percentage of plate spacing tolerance.
Solution: K = 5, er = 3.2. Hence m = 0.66 = 0.81, l0 = 7.5 10 m
3

M0 0.075
Zone thickness (z) = = = 0.395 m
1 N 1 0.81
Lex = (n 1)z = (5 1) 3.95 = 1.578 m
298 Antenna and Wave Propagation

50 0.81
'f = = 8%
1 + 5 0.81

3N 3 0.81
%tolerance = = = 1.34%
1+N 1 + 0.81

Example 7.5 (i) Estimate the tolerance of zoned and unzoned dielectric lens of refractive
index 1.5 and thickness t = 0.25l to be used at 5 GHz. (ii) Repeat the same for the E-plane
metal plate lens antenna if m = 0.75.
Solution: (i) From the table for zoned dielectric lens, the tolerance is

3(N 1) 3(1.5 1)
% = 1.0%
N 1.5

For unzoned dielectric lens, the tolerance (thickness) is

0.03M0 0.03 6
%= = 0.36%
N 1 1.5 1

Tolerance (refractive) is
3 3
= = 0.5%
N , tM 1.5 0.25

(ii) Zoned (E-plane) tolerance is

3N 3 0.75
= = 1.3%
1+N 1 + 0.75

Unzoned (E-plane) tolerance (thickness) is

0.03 M0 0.03 6
= = 3.6%
1 1.5 0.5
The tolerance (plate spacing) is

3N 3 0.75
%= = 2.11%
(1 N ) tM
2
(1 0.752 ) 25

Example 7.6 Find the index of refraction of lens material at radial distance r = 10 cm for
the following types of lens: (i) Luneburg lens; (ii) Maxwells fisheye, assuming spherical
shape of radius 1.0 m.
Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 299

Solution: (i) Luneburg lens: index of refraction

1/ 2
r
2
N = 2 = [2 (0.1)2 ] 1/2 = 1.411
R

(ii) Maxwells fisheye: index of refraction

2 2
N= =
2 2
= 1.98
1 + r 1 + 0.01

That is, the index of refraction changes as construction of lens changes.

Example 7.7 The wavelength of a wave (f = 400 MHz) increases by 50% if it passes
through a metal-plate lens antenna. Find the separation of plates.
Solution: We know that
Ml
N= and ll = 1.5 l0 = 1.5 0.75 = 1.125 m.
M0
Therefore

Ml 1.125
N= = = 1.5
M0 0.75

1/2
M Ml 1.125
N = 1 l = ds = = = 45 cm
2d s 2 (N 1)
2
2 (2.25 1)

Example 7.8 Find the focal length of the metal-plate lens antenna of diameter 40 cm.
Assume that the E-plane width of lens is 25% lesser than the diameter.
Solution: D = 40; WE = 40 75% = 40 0.75 = 30 cm.
We know
DL
f =
W
2 tan E
2

0.4 0.4
= = = 1.33 m
0.15 180 2 tan (8.6)
2 tan
2 3.14
300 Antenna and Wave Propagation

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

1. The first Rotman lens was designed in


(a) 1963 (b) 1950
(c) 1960 (d) 2002
2. The focal length of metal plate lens antenna is _________ of to its diameter.
(a) Inversely proportional (b) Directly proportional
(c) The inverse square root (d) None of these
3. Lens antennas are mostly used in the frequency range of
(a) 5080 MHz (b) Above 80 MHz
(c) 100150 MHz (d) Above 3.0 GHz
4. A metal plate lens antenna function only in
(a) E-H plane (b) E-plane
(c) H-plane (d) None of these
5. Lens antenna function on the principle of
(a) Equality of phase (b) Phase difference
(c) Equality of path lengths (d) None of these
6. Operating bandwidth of the zonal lens antenna is found to be
(a) 5% (b) 8%
(c) 10% (d) 15%
7. Maxwell fisheye lens antenna is similar to
(a) Luneburg lens antenna (b) Rotman lens antenna
(c) Both of these (d) None of these
8. Multsat 1 M lens antenna is an example of
(a) Metal-plate lens antenna (b) Rotman lens antenna
(c) Luneburg lens antenna (d) None of these

Answers
1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (b) 5. (c)
6. (c) 7. (a) 8. (c)

EXERCISES

1. Find the spacing between plates of an unzoned plano-concave E-plane metal lens
antenna made of material having er = 1.57 and to be operated at f = 3.75 GHz.
2. Estimate the optimum thickness of concave portion of E-plane metal-plate lens antenna
operating with 6.2% bandwidth, if refractive index is 0.57. Also, find the percentage
change in operating B/W if the thickness increases by 15%.
Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 301

3. Design a plano-convex dielectric lens antenna for 6 GHz with diameter 20l. The
lens material is to be polystyrene and F is unity. Draw the cross-section of lens and
also find relative power at the edge of lens.
4. Design an artificial dielectric lens antenna for 3.2 GHz, with a material of refractive
index 1.2 where the dielectric consists of (i) copper discs; (ii) copper strips.
5. Design an unzoned plano-concave E-plane metal-plate lens antenna of the unconstrained
type with an aperture, of 16l square for use with a 3 GHz line source and 20l
length. The source is 30l away from the lens, whose F number is 2. If the refractive
index is 0.8: (i) What should be the spacing between the plates? (ii) Draw the shape
and find the dimensions, and (iii) What is the BW of the antenna if maximum
tolerable path difference is 0.25l?
6. Repeat Example 7.6 with the following specifications:
(i) m = 1.75, tl = 0.35 and f = 3 GHz; (ii) m = 0.65 and f = 3.5 GHz.
7. An EM wave of frequency 500 MHz passes through a metal plate lens antenna of
m = 1.68. Find the wavelength in the antenna if the spacing between plates is half
of the free-space wavelength.
[Ans: 109.344 cm]
8. Find the focal length of the metal plate lens antenna of E-plane width 20 cm.
Assume the diameter of the antenna is 20% greater than the E-plane width.
[Ans: 1.2 m]
9. Describe the advantages of Rotman lens antenna.
10. Describe the similarities and differences of lens antenna with reflector antenna.
11. What are applications of Rotman lens antenna in communication systems?

REFERENCES

[1] Kock, W.E., Metal-lens antennas, Proc., I.E.R., pp. 828836, Nov. 1946.
[2] Wade Paul, Metal plate lens antenna, www.w1ghz.org/antbook, Chapter 3, 1998.
[3] Kraus, J.D., Antennas: For All Applications, 3rd ed., Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi,
2003.
[4] Prasad, K.D., Antennas and Wave Propagation, Satya Prakashan, New Delhi, 1996.
[5] Bandhopadhyay, T.K., Antennas, Radio Wave Propagation and Noise, Khanna Pub.,
4th ed., New Delhi, 2003.
[6] Kock, W.E., Metallic delay lens, Bell System Tech., J., 27, pp. 5882, January 1948.
[7] Part, Y.J., et al., Applications of Luneburg lens antenna to automotive radar in sub-
MM and MM wave frequency, IFHE, University of Karlsruhe, Germany, 2002.
[8] Lawrena, G.N. and S.H. Hwang, Beam propagation in gradient refractive-index
media, Applied Opt., Vol. 31, pp. 52015210, Sep. 1992.
302 Antenna and Wave Propagation

[9] www.ecs.umas.edu/Allerton
[10] Maybell, M.J., Ray structure method for coupling coefficient analysis of the two-
dimensional Rotman lenses, IEEE Antennas Propagate, Symposium Dig., June 1981.
[11] Smith, M.S., et al., A microstrip multiple beam forming lens, Radio Electron.
Engg., Vol. 54, No. 7/8, pp. 318320, 1984.
[12] Hilton, J., et al., Lens antenna with amplitude shaping or sine condition, IEEE
Proc., Vol. 136, Pt. H, No. 3, June 1989.
[13] Katagi, T., et al., An improved design method of Rotman lens antennas, IEEE
Trans. Antennas Propagate, Vol. AP. 32, No. 5, May 1984.
[14] Shelton, J.P., Focusing characteristic of symmetrically configured bootlace lenses,
IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagate, Vol. AP. 26, pp. 518, July 1978.
[15] Singhal, P.K., et al., Theoretical investigation on elliptical refocusing of Rotman
type lens multiple beams forming, Journal of Microwaves and Optoelectronics,
Vol. 3, No. 4, April 2004.
C H A P T E R

Parabolic Reflector
8 Antennas

INTRODUCTION

According to the applications of antenna particularly in radar systems, antennas are classified
into two categories: optical antenna and array antenna. Optical antenna category comprises
antennas that function on principle of optics, and examples are lens antennas and reflector
antennas. We have already discussed lens antennas in Chapter 7. Reflector antennas, which
are found suitable for radar applications are considered in this chapter. Reflector antennas
are modified plane sheet antennas where the backward radiation from the antenna is eliminated
using a plane sheet reflector. In general, beams of predetermined characteristics may be
produced by means of large, suitably shaped and illuminated reflector surfaces. Reflectors
are high gain antennas and routinely achieve gains for in excess of 30 dB in the microwave
spectrum. That is why reflectors are very much required for long-distance communication
and high resolution radar applications. Depending on feed techniques there is a variety of
reflector antennas and each one is suited for particular applications. The most common types
of reflector antenna are illustrated in Fig. 8.1(a)(f). Despite these reflectors, there are many
more configurations of reflector antennascircular reflector, hyperbolic reflector, parabolic
cylindrical reflector and Cassegrain reflector, etc., which are suitable for various purposes [1].
Figure 8.1(a) shows a basic parabolic reflector antenna, which collimates radiation
from a feed (at the focus) into a pencil beam, proving high gain and minimum beam width.
They are built with apertures of many wavelengths to provide high directive radiation. The
parabolic reflector functions on the principle of radiation; it reflects the waves originating
from a source at the focus into parallel beams. That is, the parabolic reflector transfers the
curves wave front from the feed antenna into a plane wave front. Feed antenna is known as
primary antenna, while reflector is known as secondary antenna. Figure 8.1(c) represents
the active corner reflector antenna. It is nothing but a modified form of flat sheet reflector
(a = 180). Here, two flat sheets intersect at an angle a < 180 and produce sharp radiation
beams parallel to the axis.

303
304 Antenna and Wave Propagation

F
Z

FIG. 8.1(a) Basic parabolic reflector. FIG. 8.1(b) Reference co-ordinate system.

FIG. 8.1(c) Active corner reflector. FIG. 8.1(d) Parabolic reflector antenna.

The active reflector is found most practical where apertures are of 1 or 2 wavelengths.
A corner reflector without an exciting antenna can be used as a passive reflector or target
for radar waves, but in this application the aperture may be of many wavelengths with a 90
constant corner angle [2]. Reflectors of this specification (a = 90) have the property that
an incident wave is reflected back towards its source and itself acts as a retro-reflector
[Fig. 8.1(e)]. Figure 8.1(f) shows an elliptical reflector antenna and produces a diverging
beam with all reflected waves passing through the second focus of the ellipse. Elliptical
reflector has two focuses: the driven element is fixed at the first focus, F1, however, reflected
beams are collimated at focus F2.
A hyperbolic reflector also has two focuses, but the first one is a virtual focus. As
usual, the reflector is fed at second focus and produces forward radiation. Another similar
reflector is circular reflector where the incident waves follow reverse path through the feed
point. In this case, all the reflected waves pass through the focal point. A multiple reflector
system, also known as Cassegrain antenna, offers one more degree of freedom by shaping
Parabolic Reflector Antennas 305

Driven element

F2
Aperture
90 F1

Driven element

FIG. 8.1(e) Retro-reflector antenna. FIG. 8.1(f) Elliptical reflector antenna.

the primary beam and allowing the feed system to be conveniently located behind the main
reflector. Parabolic cylindrical reflector performs beam collimation in one plane but allows
the use of a linear array in the other plane, thereby adding flexibility in the shaping or
steering of the beam in that plane.
In addition to the above reflectors, there are some special geometry reflector antennas
that are used as high-gain antennas with different beam widths in the principal planes.
Reflectors shown in Fig. 8.2(a) produce a narrow main beam in the horizontal plane
and are found very suitable for VSAT (very small aperture terminal) satellite communication
applications. This is because a geostationary satellite avoids interference between adjacent

Parabola

Parabola

Circle

(a) (b) (c)

FIG. 8.2 (a) Non-circular aperture parabolic reflector; (b) parabolic torus; (c) horn reflector.
306 Antenna and Wave Propagation

satellites. The essential condition for this reflector is that the feed antenna must have a
broader pattern in the horizontal plane for proper dish illumination. The parabolic torus,
shown in Fig. 8.2(b), is curved version of the parabolic cylinder and it is a combination of
parabolic and circular cross-section in the principal planes. A popular application for this
reflector antenna (employs multiple feeds located along the feed arc) is to produce separate
beams for receiving different satellite signals with a single earth terminal. Aperture efficiency
of this reflector is too low, but there is a cost saving over using several antennas. The horn
reflector antenna, shown in Fig. 8.2(c), is formed by joining a horn with an offset parabolic
reflector and it is very useful for terrestrial microwave communication links due to its low
side and back lobes.

FEEDING SYSTEMS

As is known, the reflector antenna is fed indirectly through another antenna (primary antenna)
located at the centre of the reflector. Therefore, it is necessary that the primary antenna be
fed properly in order to realize maximum performance, particularly high aperture efficiency
and high gain. Because most communication systems operate at microwave frequency, feeds
for reflector antennas should be typically some form of flared wave-guide. Only at lower
frequencies can dipole be used, particularly in the form of a linear array of dipoles, to feed
a parabolic cylinder reflector. But, in general, common feed includes wave-guide slots and
open wave-guides; however, the flared wave-guide horns are most widely used in reflector
feeding. Various feed techniques of reflector antennas are shown in Fig. 8.3.

Basic Requirements of Reflector Feeding Systems


As we know in receiving mode most of the reflectors convert incoming waves into spherical
phase fronts centred at the focus. In view of this, the feeds must be point source radiators.
In addition, if high aperture efficiency is desired reflector feeds must have the following
characteristics:
The feed pattern should be rotationally symmetrical over the desired operating
frequencies.
The feed should have a point phase centre and the phase centre should be positioned
at the focal point of the reflector.
The feed should be small in order to reduce blockage; usually on the order of wave-
length in diameter.
The feed must provide proper edge illumination (@ 11 dB), minimum spill over and
correct polarization with minimum cross-polarization (< 30 dB).
The feed must be capable of handling the required peak and average power levels
without breakdown under all operational environments.
Additional considerations include operating frequency band and types of antennas
used, such as whether the antenna is a single-beam, multi-beam or mono-pulse antenna.
Parabolic Reflector Antennas 307

Wave-guide horn Cutler (dual) Dipole disc


Front feed
Vertex (rear) feeds

Offset feed Cassegrain feed Gregorian feed

Simply flared Simply flared Corrugated


pyramidal horn conical horn conical horn

Compound flared Finned Segmented


multimode horn horn aperture horn

FIG. 8.3 Various types of feed for reflector antennas.

A simple form of reflector feed is a dipole antenna, but low efficiency and high cross-
polarization are its limitations. This is because they often integrated with some type of metallic
backing to reduce direct feed radiation in the direction of the reflector main beam. Dipole-
fed reflector functions satisfactorily in the UHF range with an aperture efficiency of about
24%. However, for operating frequencies above GHz levels wave-guide and small horn
antennas are preferred as they offer minimum losses. Rectangular/pyramidal wave-guides and
horn antennas operating in dominant mode TE10 mode are widely used as feed for reflectors.
308 Antenna and Wave Propagation

This is because they meet high power requirements. Circular wave-guides and conical horns
operating in the dominant TE11 mode are also used as feed and provide more symmetric
principal plane patterns. Both the feeds discussed above have unbalanced principal plane
patterns, this is due to the markedly different amplitude distributions that are uniform in the
E-plane and taper to zero in the H-plane. The open-ended wave-guide provides a good match
to a reflector with q = 59 or F/D = 0.44; however, conical horn antennas provide optimum
gain with 52 to 56% efficiency range [3]. In case of special antenna performance requirements
polarization diversity, multiple beams, high beam efficiency, or ultra-low sidesthe feed
becomes more complex. Reflector antennas are fed by segmented finned, multimode and/or
corrugated horns. The most popular multimode feeds are Potter horns and they operate on
the principle of Huygens source. Both the modes (TE11 and TM11) are generated in these
feeds. A bandwidth of 10% is achieved with diameter > 1.3l and half-power is calculated
using 1/26l/df, where df is the larger aperture of the corrugated horn.
The narrow bandwidth constraint of the dual mode feed can be overcome by hybrid
mode (HE11) feed. In this case, a mixture of TE11 and TM11 modes occur in a natural way
and propagates with a common phase velocity. The most popular hybrid mode feed is the
corrugated (conical) horn. This feed is very useful for most of todays microwave reflector
antennas [4] (see Fig. 8.4).

FIG. 8.4 Corrugated feed horn antenna.

The corrugated horn has the desirable features for feed antennas of a phase centre, i.e.,
it is independent (stable) with frequency. The phase-centre of the feed is positioned at the
focal point of a reflector system for maximum gain. The phase-centre of the corrugated horn
is at the horn aperture centre for small D and moves along the axis towards the throat as D
increases, approaching a fixed value at the horn apex for D > 0.7l.
The corrugated horn also called a scalar horn, because of its field direction dependence.
This name is usually reserved for the large flare angle cases. From Fig. 8.4.
Parabolic Reflector Antennas 309

df B
'= tan (8.1)
2 2
The 12 dB beam width of a corrugated horn feed is calculated by

(BW)12 dB 0.8(B ) (8.2)

PARABOLIC REFLECTOR

The parabolic reflector antenna is a simplest and popular form of reflector antenna. It is
inherently a very wideband antenna. At low frequency the bandwidth of a reflector is obtained
by choosing the size of the reflector and therefore it should be at least of several wavelengths.
However at high frequencies, performances are limited by the smoothness of the reflecting
surface. Surface distortions necessarily must be less than a wavelength to avoid phase errors
in the aperture. After all, the bandwidth of a reflector antenna is limited by the bandwidth
of the feed antenna rather than the reflector. Reflectors still serve as a basis for many radar
antennas in todays applications, because they offer the maximum available gain and minimum
beam widths with the smallest and simplest feeds [5].
The basic geometry of a parabolic reflector antenna is shown in Fig. 8.5, where a
parabolic conducting reflector surface, of focal length F, has the feed at the focus F. From
the geometrical optic, it is clear that spherical wave emerging from F is transformed into a
plane wave travelling in the positive (+z) direction after reflection from the inner surface of
parabola (see Fig. 8.6).

FIG. 8.5 Cross-sectional view of a reflector.


310 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Axis

Beam
Vertex F

Plane

Parabolic reflector

FIG. 8.6 Ray representation of a parabolic reflector.

The equation describing the parabolic reflector surfaces shape in the rectangular form
with reference to point (r, z) can be written as
2
S 2
+ F + Fz = 0 , r a

2
or r2 = 4F(F z) (8.3)
The points (r = 0, z = F) and (r = a) z = (F2 a2/4F) represent the apex and edges of the
reflector respectively. For a given displacement r from the axis of the reflector, r is the
distance of the point R on the surface of the parabolic reflector from the focal point (F). With
reference to a point R(r, qf) in the polar co-ordinates, the parabolic reflector can be expressed
as

2F
r= (8.4)
1 + cos R f

This is because any two rays generated from the focus takes two paths; path 1, FVF (2F)
and path 2 (FRA) = r + r cos qf. Therefore, the distance travelled by these rays must be the
same, i.e.,
FVF = FRA
2F = r(1 + cos q f)
2F R f
r= = F sec2
1 + cosR f 2
Parabolic Reflector Antennas 311

Hence, the projection of this distance r onto the aperture plane is

2F sin R f Rf
S = r sin R f = = 2 F tan (8.5)
1 + cosR f 2

From DFRA, AF = FR sin qf


At apex (qf = 0), r = F and r = 0
At edge of reflector (qf = q)
2F
r= and r = a (8.6)
1 + cos R
Therefore, from Eq. (8.5), we get
R D R
a = 2F tan or = 2F tan
2 2 2

F 1 R
= = 0.25 cot
D 4 tan R /2 2

F R 1 D
= 0.25 cot or R = 2 tan 1 (8.7)
D 2 4 F

The referred axis symmetric parabolic reflector is specified completely in terms of two
parametersthe diameter D and the ratio of focal to diameter length (F/D). The ratio (F/D)
gives the shape (curvature rate) of the antenna and is known as aperture number. When
(F/D) approaches infinity the reflector becomes planar, i.e., the normally incident waves are
reflected back as plane waves. In contrast, if (F/D) is 0.25, the focal point lies in the plane
passing through the rim. The ratio of (F/D) will also have an impact on the cross-polarization
level. The cross-polarization decreases as (F/D) increases and in case of flat reflectors it
reduces to zero. The main objective in designing the reflector antenna is to match the feed
antenna pattern to the reflector and have the feed pattern about 10 dB down in the direction
of rim, i.e., F(qf = q) = 10 dB. Feed antennas for this purpose can be designed for an (F/D)
ratio between 0.3 and 1.0. The focal distance (F) of a reflector antenna can be expressed
easily in terms of D and height H. Therefore, from Eq. (8.3), for r = D/2 and z = F H0.
Therefore, from Fig. 8.5 the focal length (F) is
2
D
= 4F ( F F + H 0 )
2

D2
F= (8.8)
16 H
312 Antenna and Wave Propagation

That is, when F/D = 1/4, Eq. (8.5) gives H0 = D/4, i.e., H = F. The variation of angle q with
aperture number (F/D) is given in Table 8.1.

TABLE 8.1 Values of angle q for different aperture numbers

S. No. F/D q
1 0.25 90
2 0.30 79.6
3 0.33 73.7
4 0.40 64.0
5 0.50 53.4
6 1.0 28.1

The following two properties of a reflector antenna make it very useful:


(i) All rays leaving the feed point F are collimated after reflection from the inner
surface and travel parallel to the reflector axis (i.e., z-axis).
(ii) All the path lengths from the focal point (F) to the reflecting surface are the same
and equal to 2F. Since the total path length is constant (2F), the phase of waves
arriving in the aperture plane from a point source at the focus will also be constant.
Hence, the parabolic reflector with a feed that has a point phase centre at the focal
point will produce uniform phase across the aperture plane. The aperture amplitude
distribution, however, will not be uniform.

FIELD DISTRIBUTION ON AN APERTURE OF PARABOLIC REFLECTOR

In order to derive the expression for far-field distribution on the aperture of reflector, let us
consider a narrow strip of width dy and dr, located along the radial line of the reflector, in
Cartesian and Polar co-ordinates respectively (see Figs. 8.7 and 8.8). Both cases have isotropic
sources; a line source and a point source at their respective focuses.
So, if Py is the power density at y, then the power P in the strip of width dy will be
P = dy, Py = dq . P
when P = the power per unit angle per unit length in the z-direction.
Therefore, from the above equation

Py dR dR 1 1
= = = =
P dy d (R sin R ) d d 2F sin R
(R sin R )
dR dR 1 + cos R
Parabolic Reflector Antennas 313

FIG. 8.7 Cross-section of cylindrical FIG. 8.8 Cross-section of paraboloidal of


paraboloidal reflector. revolution.

which, after simplification, yields

Py 1 + cos R
=
P R 2F

Py 1
Therefore =
P R =0 2F

Hence, the ratio of power density at q to power density at q = 0 can be expressed as


PR 1 + cos R
= (8.9)
P0 2
Since the field intensity of a radiator is proportional to the square root of power density,
Eq. (8.9) is reduced to
1/2
ER 1 + cos R (8.10)
=
E0 2
where Eq /E0 is the relative field intensity at a distance y from the axis and y = R sin q.
Similarly in the case of paraboloidal of revolution the total power P through the annular
section of radius r and width r is given by
Pr = 2pr dr = 2p sin q dq U (8.11)
This is because the total power (P) must be equal to the power radiated by the isotropic
source over the solid beam angle 2p sin q dq. Here Pr is the power density at a distance r
from the axis in W-m2 and U is radiation intensity in W-m2. Therefore, from Eq. (8.11)
314 Antenna and Wave Propagation

2
PS sin R (1 + cos R )
= = U as r = R sin q (8.12)
U dS 2L
S
dR
Hence, the ratio of power density at q to the power density at q = 0 can be given as
2
PR (1 + cos R )
= (8.13)
P0 2
Since the field-intensity of a radiator is proportional to the square root of power density,
Eq. (8.13) reduced to

ER 1 + cos R
= (8.14)
E0 2
where Eq /E0 is the relative field intensity at a distance r from the axis and r = R sin q.

PARABOLIC REFLECTOR ANTENNA PARAMETERS

The radiation from a large paraboloid with uniformly illuminated aperture is essentially
similar to the radiation from a circular aperture. This is true if both of them have same
diameter D in an infinite metal plate and a uniform plane wave is incident on its surface. The
radiation field pattern for such a uniformly illuminated aperture can be calculated in terms
of the normalized field pattern Ef as follows [1]:

Q D
J1 sin R
2M M
EG = (8.15)
QD sin R
where D = diameter of reflector antenna (m)
f = angle w.r.t. normal to aperture
J1 = first-order Bessels function and J1(x) = 0, when x = 3.83
Therefore, the angle q0 (say) to the first nulls of the radiation pattern can be calculated as
follows:

QD 3.83 M
sin R 0 = 3.83 R 0 = sin 1
M QD
If q0 is very small, the above equation yields

1.22M 70 M
R0 = (rad) or R0 = (deg) (8.16)
D D
Parabolic Reflector Antennas 315

Therefore, for a large circular aperture, the first null beam width will be

140 M
BWFN = (deg) (8.17)
D
The beam width between half-power points is defined as

58 M
HPBW = (deg) (8.18)
D
The directivity Dr of a large uniformly illuminated aperture is defined as
Area
Dr = 4Q (8.19)
M2
Hence for a circular aperture,
2
Q 1 D
Dr = 4Q . D . 2
= 9.87 (8.20)
4 M2 M

Similarly, for rectangular/square apertures


115 M
First null beam width (BWFN) = deg (8.21)
L
2
L2 L
Directivity (Dr) = 4Q = 12.6 (8.22)
M M
2

Power gain (G) over l/2 dipole = 7.7(L/l)2 (8.23)


The maximum achievable gain for an aperture antenna is given by Gmax = 4p/l Ap, where 2

Ap is the aperture area. This is possible only under ideal circumstances; however, in practice,
these conditions are rarely met, and the modified expression of gain is

4Q
Gmax = F a Ap (8.24)
M2
where ea is aperture efficiency and its values lie between 0 and 1.
The spherical spreading loss at the aperture edge (dB) is given by



1 1 + cosR
20 log 1 + 2
= 20 log (8.25)
F 2
16
D

The above expression shows that (F/D) influences the amount of spherical spreading loss.
And it varies from 0.5 to 6.0 dB for (F/D) ranging from 1.0 down to 0.25.
316 Antenna and Wave Propagation

In the case of flat reflector (i.e., aperture number ), the angle of the beam scan (q1)
equals the feed tilt angle (q 2); however, for curved reflectors the beam scan angle will be
less than the feed tilt angle.
In general, scanning is quantified with a factor known as beam derivation factor (BDF)
which is expressed as

R1 Beam scan angle


BDF = = (8.26)
R2 Tilt angle
i.e. BDF is maximum at unity for a flat reflector and decreases with decreasing (F/D) for
axis-symmetric and offset reflectors. However, for small displacement d (as shown in Fig. 8.9)
another approximate expression can be used [6].

4F
1 + 0.36
D
BDF = 2
F (8.27)
1 + 4
D

FIG. 8.9 Beam scanning of a reflector antenna by feed displacement.

Lateral feed displacement introduces a planar phase front tilted with respect to the aperture
plane responsible for beam scanning in a direction opposite to the displacement.

Polarization Loss Efficiency


The definition of polarization loss efficiency is based on the integration of Poynting vector
with the antenna aperture. The power flow across the antenna aperture is assumed to be
equal to the radiated power. Polarization loss efficiency is defined as the ratio of the
co-polarized power flow across the antenna aperture to the total power, i.e.
Parabolic Reflector Antennas 317

2Q R

I=
0 0
| Emp (R G ) |2 S 2 sin 2R dR dG
(8.28)
2Q R
0 0
| Emp (R , G ) |2 + | Ecp (R , G ) |2 S 2 sin R dR dG

wh