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Diunggah oleh V-Brake

A very good and straight to the point book about antennas

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Wave Propagation

R.L. YADAVA

Professor

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

Galgotias College of Engineering and Technology

Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh

New Delhi-110001

2011

ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION

R.L. Yadava

2011 by PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi. All rights reserved. No part of this book

may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in

writing from the publisher.

ISBN-978-81-203-4291-0

The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher.

Published by Asoke K. Ghosh, PHI Learning Private Limited, M-97, Connaught Circus,

New Delhi-110001 and Printed by Mohan Makhijani at Rekha Printers Private Limited,

New Delhi-110020.

To

My Parents

and

Children

Contents

Preface ....................................................................................................................................... xv

Definition of Antenna 1

Radiation from an Antenna 2

Historical View 3

Antenna Polarization 4

Typical Applications 5

Impedance Matching 6

VSWR and Reflected Power 6

Antenna Resonance 6

Bandwidth 7

Directivity, Gain and Beam Width 7

Radiation Patterns 8

Pattern Terminology 8

Types of Propagation 9

Surface Wave Propagation 9

Space Propagation 9

Troposphere Propagation 9

Ionospheric Propagation 10

Objective Type Questions 10

Exercises 11

References 12

Introduction 13

EM Wave Spectrum and Its Applications 14

EM Fields and Maxwells Equations 16

Poynting Vector and Velocity of EM Waves 17

v

vi Contents

Wave Polarization 17

Mathematical Interpretation of Polarization 18

Velocity of Propagation 19

Plane Wave and Uniform Plane Wave 20

Propagation of EM Waves in Different Mediums 20

Power Flow of a Uniform Plane Wave 26

Incidence of Uniform Plane Wave 27

Oblique Incidence 29

Snells Law 30

Total Transmission 32

Total Reflection 33

Solved Examples 35

Objective Type Questions 50

Exercises 55

References 55

Introduction 56

Types of Antenna 56

Applications of Antenna 58

Isotropic Radiator and Radiation Field 58

Far-field Region 59

Antenna Parameters 61

Input Impedance and VSWR 61

Equivalent Circuits of Tx Antenna 63

Equivalent Circuit of Rx Antenna 65

Bandwidth 66

Impedance Bandwidth 66

Pattern Bandwidth 67

Radiation Bandwidth 68

FBR 68

Radiation Resistance 69

Directivity 69

Antenna Gain and Efficiency 73

Radiation Pattern 74

HPBW, FNBW, Side Lobe Level and Antenna Resolution 75

Radiation Intensity, Beam Efficiency and Solid Angle 78

Effective Aperture and Effective Height 80

Effective Aperture 80

Antenna Noise Temperature, Noise Figure and SNR 84

Antenna Noise Temperature 84

Effective Noise Temperature and Noise Figure 86

Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) 86

Antenna Coupling 87

Antenna Polarization and Parameters 90

Antenna Polarization 90

Field Polarization in Terms of Two Circularly Polarized Components 91

Contents vii

Polarization Loss Factor and Polarization Efficiency 92

Reciprocity Theorem 93

Solved Examples 95

Objective Type Questions 109

Exercises 111

References 113

Introduction 114

Design Considerations and Design Approach 115

Array Configurations 115

Broadside Array 116

End-fire Array 116

Collinear Array 117

Parasitic Arrays 117

Principle of Pattern Multiplication 123

Array with n-isotropic Point Sources of Equal Amplitude

and Linear Spacing 124

Broadside Array 125

End-fire Array 128

Electronic Phased Array 129

Effect of Earth on Vertical Patterns 130

Comparison of Methods 131

DolphTchebyscheff or Chebyshev Array 132

Tchebyscheff Polynomial 132

Dolph Pattern Method of Obtaining Optimum Pattern Using

Tchebyscheff Polynomial 134

Calculation of DolphTchebyscheff Amplitude Distribution 135

Advantages of DolphTchebyscheff Distribution 136

Beam Width between First Nulls of Chebyshev Polynomial Patterns 136

Stacked/Rectangular Area Broadband Array 137

Directivity 138

Super Directive Receiving Array 140

SNR and Directive Gain 140

Sensitivity Factor 141

Radiation Efficiency of Super Directive Array 142

Adaptive Array 142

Weighting of Signals 143

Adaptive Antenna in Cellular Systems 145

Binomial Array 147

Disadvantages of Binomial Array 148

Mutual Coupling between Arrays 149

Solved Examples 150

Objective Type Questions 175

Exercises 177

References 180

viii Contents

Introduction 181

Small Dipole and Radiation Mechanism 181

Hertzian Dipole 183

Half-wave Dipole Antenna 186

Radiation Resistance and Input Resistance 190

Parameters of a Dipole Antenna 190

Monopole Antenna 193

Folded Dipole Antenna 194

Theoretical Analysis 195

Input Impedance of Folded Dipole Antenna 197

Applications of Folded Dipole Antenna 197

Harmonics Antenna 198

Parametric Specifications 199

V-dipole Antenna 202

Design Parameters 204

Sleeve Wire Antenna 206

Sleeve Monopole 207

Design Specifications and Experimental Results 209

Sleeve Dipole Antenna 210

Open-sleeve Dipole Antenna 211

Performance Characteristics 212

Beverage Antenna or Wave Antenna 215

Principle of Operation 216

Rhombic Antenna 217

Advantages 220

Disadvantages 220

Solved Examples 221

Objective Type Questions 229

Exercises 231

References 233

Introduction 235

Historical View 235

Principle of Operation 237

Radiation Fields 239

Induced EMF of Loop Antenna 242

Radiation Pattern of Loop Antenna 243

Large Loop Antenna 245

Loop Antenna Parameters 249

Maximum Effective Area and Gain 250

Multi-turn Loop Antenna 251

Impedance of a Loop Antenna 254

Resistive Part of Impedance 255

Impedance of Loop Antenna in Conducting Medium 256

Contents ix

Applications of Loop Antenna 261

Solved Examples 261

Objective Type Questions 270

Exercises 271

References 273

Introduction 275

Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 276

Lens Antenna Design 277

Types of Lens Antenna 279

E-plane Lens Antenna 279

H-plane Metal-Plate Lens Antenna 282

Antenna Analysis and Design 283

Distribution of Illustration on the Aperture of the Lens 286

Luneburg Lens Antenna 287

Maxwells Fisheye Lens 288

Applications 289

Rotman Lens Antenna 290

Applications 291

Tolerances in Lens Antenna 292

Solved Examples 293

Objective Type Questions 300

Exercises 300

References 301

Introduction 303

Feeding Systems 306

Basic Requirements of Reflector Feeding Systems 306

Parabolic Reflector 309

Field Distribution on an Aperture of Parabolic Reflector 312

Parabolic Reflector Antenna Parameters 314

Polarization Loss Efficiency 316

Parabolic Cylindrical Antenna 317

Multiple-reflector Antenna 318

Advantages of Dual Reflector 320

Solved Examples 320

Objective Type Questions 323

Exercises 325

References 325

Introduction 327

Principle of Operation 328

x Contents

Length of Elements 328

Design of YagiUda Antenna 332

HansenWoodyard End Fire Array 335

Analysis of Yagi Antenna 338

System of Linear Equation 340

Far-field Pattern 341

Circular Polarization from the YagiUda Array 342

YagiUda Loop Antennas 343

Effects of Array Parameters 346

Effect of the Reflector 346

Effect of the Directors 346

Effect of Exciter and Wire Cross-section 346

Advantages and Applications 347

Solved Examples 351

Objective Type Questions 350

Exercises 351

References 352

Introduction 354

Mathematical Analysis and Design Parameters 355

Feed Techniques 358

Effect of Truncation on Efficiency and Radiation Pattern 359

Performance Characteristics and Design of LPDA 362

Power Gain 362

Input Impedance and VSWR 363

Design of LPDA 364

E-plane Pattern 365

Types of Log-periodic Antennas 367

Log-periodic Toothed Planar Antenna 367

Log-periodic Toothed Wedge Antenna 369

Log-periodic Toothed Trapezoid Antenna 370

Log-periodic YagiUda Array Antenna 371

Log-periodic YagiUda Array Design and Performance Characteristics 374

Applications of Log-periodic Antenna 374

Solved Examples 376

Objective Type Questions 379

Exercises 381

References 382

Introduction 383

Waveguide and Horn Antennas 383

Various Configurations of Horn Antennas 384

Horn Antenna Parameters 387

Contents xi

E-plane Sectoral Horn Antenna 392

Pyramidal Horn Antenna 394

Polarization of Pyramidal Horn 396

Bi-conical Antennas 399

Radiation Pattern of Bi-conical Antennas 400

Broadband Slotted Cone Antenna 405

VSWR, HPBW and Polarization 407

Advantages and Applications of Horn Antenna 408

Solved Examples 409

Objective Type Questions 415

Exercises 418

References 419

Introduction 420

Reflector Model of Helix 421

Parameters of Helix Antenna 423

Types of Helix Antenna 423

Axial Mode Helical Antenna 423

Normal Mode Helical Antenna 428

Helical Antenna with Different Finite Ground Size 430

Hemispherical Helix 432

Applications of Helical Antenna 434

Helical Antenna for G.P.S. Applications 435

Solved Examples 439

Objective Type Questions 440

Exercises 441

References 442

Introduction 444

Basic Configurations of Microstrip Antenna 445

Fringing Fields and Mechanism of Radiation 446

Advantages of Microstrip Antenna 447

Disadvantages of Microstrip Antenna 447

Applications of Microstrip Antenna 447

Feeding Techniques of Microstrip Antenna 447

Probe Feed 448

Microstrip Line Feed 448

Aperture Coupled Feed 449

Proximity Coupled Feed 450

Bandwidth Enhancement and Higher Order Modes 452

Rectangular Patch Antenna 454

Radiated Fields 454

Design Parameters 455

xii Contents

Radiation Conductance 456

Directivity 457

Circular Patch Antenna 457

Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna 461

Other Parameters 463

Double Tuning 463

Coupling 463

Selection of Substrate Material 464

Laminate Composite for MSA 464

Photonic Band Gap Antennas 464

Mobile Antennas 465

Integrated Antennas 465

Solved Examples 466

Objective Type Questions 472

Exercises 474

References 475

Introduction 477

Historical View 478

Characteristics of EM Waves 479

Applications of EM Waves 480

Fundamental Equation of Wave Propagation 481

Electric Field Intensity at Finite Distance from Tx Antenna 483

Modes of Wave Propagation 484

Surface Wave Propagation 485

Surface Wave Tilt 486

Plane Earth Reflection 487

Reflection Coefficient for Vertical and Horizontal Polarizations 488

Refraction and Reflection of Waves 489

Refraction 490

Reflection 490

Phase Difference between the Direct and the Ground Reflected Waves 492

Field Strength at Finite Distance due to Ground Wave 493

Field Strength due to Vertically Polarized Wave 494

Field Strength due to Horizontally Polarized Waves 496

Relation between A, p and b 496

Multi-hop Transmission 498

Effect of Ground 499

Effects of Polarization 499

Solved Examples 500

Objective Type Questions 507

Exercises 509

References 511

Contents xiii

Introduction 512

Troposphere 514

Troposphere Wave Propagation 514

Relation between the Radius of Curvature and Change of Dielectric

Constant 518

Troposphere Scattering and Troposcattering Propagation 522

Transmission Loss 523

M-Curves and Duct Propagation 524

Duct Propagation Loss 526

Diffraction 527

Space Wave Propagation 529

Space Wave Propagation Parameters 531

Line of Sight (LOS distance) 531

Field Strength 533

Solved Examples 535

Objective Type Questions 542

Exercises 545

References 547

Introduction 548

Historical Views 549

Structure of Ionosphere 549

Propagation Effect as a Function of Frequency 554

Measures of Ionosphere Propagation 555

The Critical Frequency 555

The Angle of Incidence 555

Maximum Useable Frequency 557

Calculation of MUF 558

Lowest Useable Frequency 561

Optimum Working Frequency 561

Skip Distance 562

Relation between Angle of Incidence and Skip Distance 562

Virtual Height 563

Refractive Index of the Ionosphere 566

Effect of the Earth Magnetic Field 568

Gyrofrequency 569

Gyromagnetic Field (GMF) 570

Regular and Irregular Variations in the Ionosphere 570

Eleven-year Sunspot Cycle and 27-day Sunspot Cycle 570

Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SID) 571

Ionospheric Storms 571

Fading 572

Attenuation Factor for Ionospheric Wave Propagation 574

xiv Contents

Solved Examples 576

Objective Type Questions 583

Exercises 584

References 586

Introduction 587

Anechoic Chamber 591

Radiation Pattern Measurement 596

Concept of Near- and Far-fields 598

Far-field Measurements 599

Near-field Measurements 599

Measurement of Reflectivity 600

Beam Width and Directivity Measurements 601

Measurement of Radiation Efficiency 601

Wheeler Method 602

Q-Method 603

Polarization Pattern Measurement 604

Polarization Pattern Method 605

General Method of Polarization Measurement 608

Gain Measurement 611

Absolute Gain Method 612

Gain Transfer (Gain Comparison) Method 617

Gain Measurement of CP Antenna 618

Impedance Measurement 618

Mutual Impedance between Dipole Antennas 620

Current Measurement 621

Measurement of Current Distribution for Antenna on a Finite

Conducting Earth 622

Design Specification 622

Phase Measurement 623

Measurements of Noise Figure and Noise Temperature 625

Solved Examples 629

Objective Type Questions 633

Exercises 636

References 637

Appendices ....................................................................................................................... 639675

Glossary ........................................................................................................................... 677785

Question Bank with Solutions ...................................................................................... 699726

Index ................................................................................................................................ 727732

Preface

The present book is organized into two parts. The first part of the book is devoted to the

study of various types of antennas and the second part to the phenomenon of wave propagations.

Each chapter provides an in-depth understanding of all the important aspects of the particular

topic. In addition, each chapter contains sufficient number of solved examples, exercises and

many related references. The division of the book into seventeen chapters is as follows.

Chapter 1 provides a historical introduction to the subject and enumerates its applications.

Chapter 2 deals with the concept of electromagnetic (EM) wave radiation and wave propagation

in different mediums. Chapter 3 is devoted to the fundamental properties and parameters of

antennas. Chapter 4 focuses on the antenna array and its synthesis, whereas linear wire

antennas and loop antennas are covered in Chapters 5 and 6 respectively. Each type of

antenna has been described in detail, particularly the adaptive array, and the beverage and

ferrite-rod antennas. Loop and metal-plate lens antennas have been described in Chapter 7,

and Chapter 8 describes the reflector antenna in full length. YagiUda and log-periodic

antennas have been described in Chapters 9 and 10 respectively. Horn/Cone and helical antennas

along with concepts of design and applications are explained in Chapters 11 and 12. Microstrip

antennas and their various types and applications have been covered in Chapter 13.

Chapters 14, 15 and 16 deal with surface, space and ionospheric wave propagations and

the related parameters. Chapter 17 is fully devoted to the measurement of antenna properties,

such as gain, efficiency, radiation pattern, noise-figure and noise-temperature, etc. Just after

Chapter 17, there is a question bank which contains numerical problems and review questions

pertaining to the entire text.

So far as the appendices are concerned, Appendix A discusses the scalar and vector

potentials. Appendix B provides a list of antennas expressions. Appendix C discusses the

relative permittivity (er) and relative permeability (mr) of materials. Appendix D deals with

the requirement of antennas for different applications. Appendix E throws light on frequency

spectrum for various communications systems. Poincares sphere and Stokes parameters

have also found place in Appendix F. Appendix G discusses the dB, dBm and dBi technology

and their relations. The important terms are listed in the Glossary.

xv

xvi Preface

I thank the Almighty for providing me such a wonderful opportunity to be the author

of such a standard book. I feel immense pleasure in offering my heartiest and humble thanks

to honourable Prof. B.R. Vishwakarma, Banaras Hindu University, for his sagacious guidance

and motivation, without which the book could not have seen the light of day. I express my

grateful thanks to all the professors, senior faculty and scientists of the department of ECE,

IT, BHU for their motivation and encouragement during the writing of the book. The support

and environment provided by the Management of Galgoitas Educational Institutions (GEI)

is very much appreciated. Also, the pleasant support of senior professors, HODs and Registrar

of Galgotias College of Engineering and Technology deserves special thanks. The constant

motivation and help of colleagues and technical staff of the Department of Electronics and

Communication Engineering are sincerely acknowledged. Also, it is a great pleasure and

honour for me to be associated with PHI Learning. I express my sincere gratitude to the

entire team, including the production department for maintaining a high degree of precision

and accuracy in the production of the book.

I am indebted to all the reviewers for their valuable suggestions and comments, which

have helped me in adding more student-friendly material in the book. My sincere thanks go

to Prof. R.K. Yadava, Er. Surendra Prasad and Mr. Rakesh Kumar for their encouragement

and silence support. Their untiring efforts in searching the materials and ardent exercises

towards word processing are deeply appreciated. I also express my deep sense of gratitude

to my colleagues and well wishers: Prof. Vikram Singh, Prof. Krishnraj and Prof. Yashpal

Singh, Prof. B.K. Kanoujiya, Prof. V.K. Pandey and Prof. Neetha Awasthi for their unstinted

cooperation in early completion of the book. My thanks are also due to Prof. R.P. Yadava,

Prof. S.K. Koul, Prof. Ashok De, Prof. D.R. Bhasker, Dr. Sushrut Das and Prof. D.C. Dhubkariya

for their comments and suggestions on some topics of the book.

I am grateful to my parents who have inculcated in me good values and culture. My

wife, Om Lalitha, expressed her solidarity with me by allowing me to work for long hours.

My sincere thanks go to my children Om Vikash, Saichethana and Om Prakash as without

their wholehearted cooperation and sacrifices, this book would not have come in the present

shape. Last but not the least, I wish to avail myself of this opportunity to express a sense

of gratitude and love to my beloved research scholars and students for their helpful support

during the preparation of this book.

Though every effort has been made to produce an error-free text. However, I shall feel

much obliged to readers who can provide valuable suggestions/feedback to enhance the

quality of the book.

R.L. YADAVA

C H A P T E R

1 Introduction

DEFINITION OF ANTENNA

An antenna is defined as a transitional device between free space and wave-guiding structures.

An antenna may also be considered a transducer used in matching the guiding device to the

surrounding medium or vice versa. The antennas used to transmit and receive radio energy

are called transmitting and receiving antennas respectively. There are many structures that

can radiate and receive the electromagnetic (EM) energy, but not all can serve the purpose

efficiently. Most antennas are resonant devices, which operate efficiently over a relatively

narrow frequency band. Antennas forward voltage and current from the transmission line and

EM fields from the wave guide to launch the EM waves (radiation) into the space/medium.

A complete description of radiation of EM waves through an antenna is shown in Fig. 1.1.

Transmitter

E-lines

Receiver

EM waves

P0 P1

Source Tx line Tx line

An antenna must be tuned (matched) to the same frequency band as the radio system

to which it is connected. If not so, reception and/or transmission of energy will be less

effective. Though there are varieties of antenna such as dipoles, folded dipoles, helix, reflectors

1

2 Antenna and Wave Propagation

and patch antennas, all of them function according to the same principlethe principle of

electromagnetism. Besides radiating and transmitting signals, antenna optimizes the radiation

in some direction and suppresses it in the other directions, that is, antenna also acts as a

directional device in addition to a probing device. In communication systems, antennas are

needed for two purposesefficient radiation and matching wave impedance in order to

minimize reflections [1]. As far as their importance is concern, antennas are used at many

placeshomes, vehicles, radars, ships, satellites and in mobile phones as well; this is because

of their compact structure at microwave frequencies. Antennas are employed in different

systems in different ways. In some cases, the operational performance of the system is

defined around the directional properties of the antenna. Antennas link us with the entire

world. It can be said that they are the backbone of communication technology.

In order to describe the radiation of waves from an antenna, let us refer to Fig. 1.1, where

a two-conductor transmission line is connected with voltage source at one end and an antenna

at second end at Tx side and vice versa at Rx side. Applying the voltage across transmission

line creates electric force lines which are tangential to the electric field at each point and

their strength varies with the electric field intensity. The force lines have a tendency to act

on the free electrons associated with each conductor and force them to move. By this

tendency, the movements of charges generate current, that in turn creates magnetic field

intensity. Associated with magnetic field intensity are magnetic lines of force, which are

tangential to the magnetic fields.

Since electric field lines start at positive charge and end at negative charge, they can

also start at positive end and end at infinity or vice versa. In other words, they form closed

loops neither starting nor ending at any charge. Magnetic field lines always form closed

loops encircling current-carrying conductors. Therefore, it is convenient to introduce magnetic

charges and magnetic currents to a region involving electric and magnetic sources. Since the

existence of electric field lines between two conductors represents distribution of charges,

so if the source voltage is sinusoidal the electric fields between the conductors need also to

be sinusoidal with period equal to that of the applied source. The relative magnitude of the

electric field intensity will be indicated by bunching of the force lines, with the arrows

showing the relative directions (positive or negative). This continuous creation of time-

varying electric and magnetic fields between conductors forms EM waves, which travel along

the transmission line and finally enter the antenna. Now, suppose that the antenna is not

there; then free space waves can be formed by connecting the open ends of the electric lines

(dashed lines). The waves are also periodic, but a constant phase point P0 moves outwardly

with the speed of light c and travels a distance of l/2 to point P1 in the time duration of one-

half of a period. It is observed that near the antenna the constant phase point P1 moves with

a speed greater than c and approaches c at point far away from the antenna. These waves

are detached from the antenna and transformed into the free space waves by forming

closed loops [1]. Once EM waves are created by an electric disturbance, they travel inside

Introduction 3

the transmission line and then into the antenna, and are finally radiated as free space waves

even if the disturbance is ceased. If the disturbance is continued, EM waves will exist

continuously and follow in their travel behind the others. This phenomenon is termed radiation.

At the receiving end the electric field lines of radiating waves strike as plane waves and are

finally transformed into guided waves and received at the receiver.

HISTORICAL VIEW

In general, an antenna means a metallic device (a rod or wire) used to radiate or receive

radio energy. However, scientifically speaking, antennas are a group of conductors that

transmit an electromagnetic field in response to EMF signals. In olden days, antennas were

called aerials; in Japan it is still known as middle sky wire. The history of antennas began

with the design of a loop antenna in the year 1887 by Hertz [1]. He proposed a complete

radio system integrated with an end-loaded dipole transmitting antenna and a resonant square

loop antenna as receiver. In addition, he also exercised testing with a parabolic reflector

antenna. It was not until 1901 that Marconi managed to design an array of 50 copper wires

in the form of a fan connected to the ground through a spark transmitter. Since then several

antennas have been designed; patch antennas and fractal antennas are also among them. The

big difference in todays antennas is that decades ago they were mostly huge and heavy,

while modern antennas are usually of small size, low profile and light weight.

The greatest advancement of antenna was accomplished during the Second World War

with the invention of high frequency antenna in the form of reflection apertures and arrays.

Apart from designing and experimentation, numerical methods were also introduced to analyze

complex antenna systems in the 1960s. The first mathematical formulation for radiation

mechanism for many antennas was given by the scientists of Bell Laboratories. Their achievement

bridged the gap between theory and experiments, and provided better understanding of the

antenna to the people of the world. In subsequent years, various models such as moment

methods, finite difference and finite element models for low frequencies, and geometrical

and physical theories of diffraction for high frequencies, were also introduced to analyze

various antennas. The antenna as a boundary value problem was treated long back by Abraham.

However, the earliest treatments of the cylindrical centre-driven antenna as a boundary value

problem are the Hallen and L.V. King models. The Hallen method leads to integral equations

and approximate solutions of which give the current distribution. Using Hallen method the

input impedance of the antenna can be determined as the ratio of voltage to current at the

terminals, if the terminal is connected with a voltage source [2]. With the advent of high

frequency antennas, the concept of radio wave and wireless communications were developed

around 1920.

In 1924, Professor Hidetsugu Yagi and Shintaro Uda designed and constructed a sensitive

and highly-directional antenna, very important for radar, television, and amateur radio. The

antenna was named YagiUda antenna based on their names. A United States patent was

issued to Yagi in 1932 and assigned to RCA. Such antennas were available for television by

the late 1930s, but were more widespread for receiving purposes in the 1940s and 1950s. The

4 Antenna and Wave Propagation

theory and design of linear wire antenna was introduced by R.W.P. King and his colleagues

at Harvard University. A new antenna known as helical antenna was introduced by

J.D. Kraus through a research paper entitled The helical beam antenna, which was published

in the April 1947 issue of Journal of Electronics. The design and working principle of slot

antenna and array was described by Babinet and extended by Henry Brooker. The widespread

interest in antennas is reflected by the large number of books written and research papers

being published on the subject [3, 4]. In recent years, antennas such as patch antenna, fractal

antenna, PIFA antenna and many more have played a vital role in modern communication

and related technologies.

ANTENNA POLARIZATION

The polarization of an antenna is defined as the orientation of the wave (electric field) being

transmitted or received during propagation with negligible loss. So all the characteristics of

wave polarization can directly be correlated to antenna polarization. The polarization

characteristics of an antenna are usually found to be constant over its main beam, and the

polarization on the main beam peak is preferably used to describe the polarization of the

antenna. However, the radiation from side lobes differs in polarization greatly from the main

beam polarization. In case the direction of polarization is not specified, it is taken to be the

direction of maximum gain of the antenna. However, in general, polarization of radiation

varies with the direction from the centre of the radiator. A transmitting antenna is matched

to a receiving antenna if its polarization, axial ratio, sense and major axis rotation are

identical.

Polarizations are classified as linear, elliptical and circular polarizations. An antenna is

said to be vertically polarized (linear) if its electric field is perpendicular to the earths

surface. The vertical polarization is mostly dominant in surface wave propagation, where

wave propagation takes place along the earths curvature. On the other hand, antennas

having their electric field lines along the earths surface are termed horizontally polarized

antennas. Most communication systems use vertical and circular polarizations. A circularly

polarized antenna radiates energy in both the horizontal and vertical planes and all planes

in between. Circular polarization of an antenna is characterized by a factor known as axial

ratio (AR)which is the ratio of fields in the vertical and horizontal planes. The values of

axial ratio are found to be 1 AR . If the values of axial ratio lie between 0 and 2 dB,

the antenna is said to be circularly polarized. If the axial ratio is greater than 2 dB, the

polarization is often referred to as elliptical, whereas AR is infinite for linear polarizations.

Polarization may also be classified as co-polarization and cross-polarization. The

polarization in the plane of radiation is termed co-polarization; however cross-polarization

is observed orthogonal to the co-polarization plane. With reference to directions of rotation

of the field vector, polarization may also be classified as clockwise polarization (RHP) and

counterclockwise polarization (LHP). In a linearly polarized system, a misalignment of

polarization of 45 will degrade the signal by up to 3 dB and if misaligned by 90 the

attenuation can be 20 dB or more. Likewise, in a circular polarized system, the antennas

must have the same sense. For example, in the line-of-sight (LOS) propagation, it is very

Introduction 5

important that the antennas (Tx and Rx) should have identical polarizations. If not, an

additional loss of 20 dB or more may be incurred. The main advantage of polarization

matching between antennas (Tx and Rx) is the maximum transfer of energy with minimum

loss.

TYPICAL APPLICATIONS

sensing, policing, medical, etc. It is important to have the right antennas for each device.

Circular polarization is most often used on satellite communications. This is particularly

desired since the polarization of a linear polarized radio wave may be rotated as the signal

passes through any anomalies (such as Faraday rotation) in the ionosphere. Furthermore, due

to the position of the Earth with respect to the satellite, geometric differences may vary,

especially if the satellite appears to move with respect to the fixed Earth-bound station.

Circular polarization maintains signal strength which remains constant despite these anomalies.

Circularly polarized antennas are normally more costly than linear polarized types, since true

circular polarization is difficult to achieve. An example of true circularly polarized antenna

is the helix. They are mainly used in mobile stations. The performances of these antennas

greatly affect the performance of the mobile station. Helical antennas are also used in

portable communication devices, such as cellular phones, because of their wideband

characteristics and having the advantage of requiring small space. However, the most common

circularly polarized antenna uses crossed Yagis for near-circular or elliptical polarization

[3]. Applications of Yagis would include any system usually less than 1000 MHzin the

HF and SHF portions of the spectrum, where antenna gain and directivity are factors. Avionic

systems and VHF radars were very suitable technical areas for YagiUda antenna applications.

Vertically polarized antenna is often preferred whenever there is a need to transmit

radio waves in all directions, such as in widely distributed mobile units. It also works well

in the hill areas. As a result, nowadays most two-way wave communications in the frequency

of greater than 30 MHz use vertical polarization. Horizontal polarization was originally

chosen because there is an advantage in not having TV reception interfered with by vertically

polarized stations, and hence it is used mainly to broadcast television in the USA.

Since man-made radio noise is predominantly vertically polarized, the use of horizontal

polarization would provide some discrimination against interference from noise. In the early

days of FM radio in the 88108 MHz frequency range, the radio stations broadcasted horizontal

polarization. However, in the 1960s FM radios became popular in automobiles which used

vertical polarized receiving whip antennas. That why the FCC has modified its standard and

permits FM stations to broadcast elliptical or right hand polarization to improve reception

to vertical receiving antennas as long as the horizontal component was dominating. There are

various types of whip antenna; l/4 whip antenna, l/8 whip antenna and l/16 whip antenna;

each has its own importance and applications. Naturally, mobile communication needs antennas.

The right antenna improves quality of Tx and Rx, reduces power consumption, lasts longer

and improves marketability of the device. In particular, stubby helical antennas are used in

the frequency range of 800 MHz to 2 GHz and patch antennas for GPS devices.

6 Antenna and Wave Propagation

IMPEDANCE MATCHING

There is a term called impedance matching which we come across in various areas of

electronics, particularly EM wave and antennas. In the field of antennas it is a sort of

impedance adjustment between the source, connector (Tx) and antenna to avoid loss of

energy. The source always has its own internal resistance; so wherever a load is connected

to its output terminal, some of the output power is dissipated as heat, unless we maintain the

source temperature close to absolute zero (273C). A survey on how the power varies as

the load resistance is varied shows that the amount of power reaches maximum when the

load resistance is the same as the source resistance and it is altered in all other cases (higher

or lower). The idea of adjusting the load and source resistances/impedances is termed impedance

matching.

For efficient transfer of energy, the impedance of the source, the antenna and the

transmission line must be the same. Sources typically are designed for 50 W impedance, and

the coaxial cables (transmission lines) used with them should also have a 50 W impedance.

However even efficient antenna configurations often have impedance other than 50 W. Therefore

some sort of impedance matching circuit is then required to transform the antenna impedance

to 50 W. Radial/Larsen antennas come with the necessary impedance matching circuitry as

part of the antenna. We must use low-loss components in the matching circuits to provide

the maximum transfer of energy between the transmission line and the antenna. The most

common matching network is a l/4 transformer matching, which is nothing but a l/4 wave-

length long transmission line of characteristic impedance Z 0 R A , where Z0 is characteristic

impedance of transmission line and RA is antenna input resistance. The other matching

network/devices are lumped elements, stub turners and baluns.

The VSWR stands for voltage standing wave ratio and indicates the quality of the impedance

matching. The values of VSWR lie between 1 and ; the values 1 and correspond to

proper and improper matchings respectively. A high VSWR indicates that the signal is

reflected prior to being radiated by the antenna. Another disadvantage of high VSWR is that

very high voltages will be generated at certain points along a transmission line, which are

called hot spots and may cause arcing. A VSWR of 2.0:1 is often considered good and leads

to 89% power transmission. Most commercial antennas, however, are specified to be 1.5:1 or

less over some bandwidth. Based on a 100 W radio, a 1.5:1 VSWR equates to a forward

power of 96 W and a reflected power of 4 W, i.e. the reflected power is 4.2% of the forward

power.

Antenna Resonance

By definition an antenna is a form of tuned circuit consisting of resistance, capacitance, and

inductance; as a result, an antenna has a resonant frequency, that is, the frequency at which

the inductive and capacitive reactances cancel each other out; therefore at this frequency,

Introduction 7

an antenna is purely resistive and a combination of the loss resistance and the radiation

resistance. The capacitance and inductance of an antenna are determined by the physical

properties, dimensions and the surrounding environment.

Bandwidth

The bandwidth (BW) of an antenna is usually defined as the frequency range within the

performance of the antenna with respect to certain characteristics. It is expressed as the

percentage of the difference between upper and lower frequency to the centre frequency and

f fO

BW = u 100% . The bandwidth of an antenna can also be defined in terms of

f0

VSWR 1

radiation patterns or VSWR/reflected power as follows: BW = , where Q is a

Q VSWR

quality factor of the antenna.

Directivity is the ability of an antenna to focus energy in a particular direction when transmitting

or to receive energy better from a particular direction when receiving. Gain is the practical

value of the directivity. The relation between gain and directivity includes a new parameter,

which describes the efficiency of the antenna; G = hDmax. The simplest method of measuring

gain is to compare the antenna under test with a known standard antenna. This method is

known as gain transfer technique. At lower frequencies, it is convenient to use a l/2-dipole

as the standard. At higher frequencies, it is common to use a calibrated gain horn as a gain

standard with gain typically expressed in dBi. Beam width describes the angular aperture

where the most important part of the power is radiated. In general, we referred

3 dB beam width which represents the aperture (in deg) on radiation pattern, in which about

92% of the energy is radiated in major lobe. Beam width of an antenna is measured in terms

of two parameters: HPBW and FNBW. Decibels (dB) are the accepted parameter to describe

the parameters of an antenna. The beauty of dB is that they may be added and subtracted.

A decibel relationship (for power) is calculated using the following formula dB = 10 log

Power. Table 1.1 tabulates various such relationships.

3 dB = 2 Power 3 dB = 1/2 Power

6 dB = 4 Power 6 dB = 1/4 Power

10 dB = 10 Power 10 dB = 1/10 Power

20 dB = 100 Power 20 dB = 1/100 Power

8 Antenna and Wave Propagation

RADIATION PATTERNS

Radiation or antenna pattern describes the relative strength of the radiated field at various

orientations from the antenna at a constant distance. The radiation pattern is a reception

pattern as well, since it also describes the receiving properties of the antenna. Based on

radiated fields from the antenna, there are two types of radiation pattern: near-field and far-

field patterns.

The term near-field refers to the field pattern existing close to the antenna, and far-field

to the field pattern at large distances. The far-field is also called the radiation field and

varies as per (1/r). The near-field is also called the induction field (although it also has a

radiation component) and varies as (1/r2), where r is distance away from the antennas. For

pattern measurement it is important to choose a distance sufficiently large to be in the far-

field, well out of the near-field. The lowest permissible distance varies as per the dimensions

2D 2

of the antenna in relation to the wavelength, as r . The intensities of near- and far-

M0

fields are found to be equal at a distance almost equal to l /2p from the transmitting antenna.

Where D is larger aperture of an antenna and l0 is operating wavelength.

PATTERN TERMINOLOGY

The various terms related to antenna pattern which describe radiation characteristics are:

(a) Directional antenna: It is highly directive antenna, which radiates/ receives power

very efficiently and effectively in the particular directions than in the rest directions.

It is usually applied to the antennas whose maximum directivity is greater than that

of a half-wave dipole.

(b) Omni-directional antenna: Antenna which has a non-directional pattern in a given

plane, and a directional pattern in any orthogonal plane. That is, omni-directional

pattern is a special kind of directional pattern.

(c) Isotropic pattern: It is a pattern of antenna having equal radiation in all directions.

This is an ideal concept generally it is achievable only in light sources. It is usually

referred for expressing the directive properties of practical antennas. Isotropic pattern

is represented by a sphere whose centre coincides with the location of the isotropic

radiator. Other patterns of the antenna pattern are pencil beam pattern, fan beam

pattern and shaped beam pattern.

(d) Principal pattern: These are the radiation patterns of lineally polarized antennas.

They are measured particularly in E-plane and H-plane of radiation area. E- and

H-plane patterns contain electric and magnetic field vectors as well as the corresponding

direction of maximum radiation respectively.

(e) Lobes: Lobes are portion of radiation pattern carrying definite amount of energy.

Lobes are classified as a major lobes, minor/side lobes and back lobes. Except major

lobes, all represent radiation in undesired directions. However in radar systems, side

lobes are also important to minimize false target indications.

Introduction 9

(i) Major lobe/main lobe: The radiation lobe contains maximum radiation. In some

cases, there may be more than one main lobe.

(ii) Minor lobes: All lobes, other than major lobes in a plane are termed minor lobes.

(iii) Back lobes: It appears in the plane opposite to main lobe, i.e., 180 w.r.t. main

beam.

(f) Pattern beam width: It is the angular width on the major lobe of radiation. There

are two types of beam width: HPBW and FNBW. HPBW is the angle between two

points at 3 dB down from the top on main lobes, whereas FNBW is the angle

between two vectors drawn at the origin and tangent to the main beam. It is very

often found that FNBW 2 HPBW.

TYPES OF PROPAGATION

In this propagation waves travel along curvature of the earth and modified by the ground or

terrain over they travel. Signals heard on the medium wave band (upto 2 MHz) during the

day. The surface wave suffers ground attenuation to the same factor as the free space. These

ground losses are caused by the ohmic resistive losses in the conductive earth. Surface wave

attenuation increases as frequency increases. Surface wave propagation is also affected by

the heights as well as the distance of/between Tx and Rx antennas and the terrain, and the

weather conditions along the transmission paths.

Space Propagation

In this case the radio waves travel in free space or away from the object which influenced

the way they travel. This type of radio wave propagation is encountered with signals travelling

to and from satellites. Waves reach at Rx either directly or after reflection from the ground.

Space propagation is of practical importance in the frequency band > 30 MHz. This is

because at such frequencies both ionosphere and surface wave propagations are failed. The

reason behind that at 30 MHz, ionosphere wave length becomes too short to be reflected, and

groundwaves propagate close to the antenna and hence lost the energy before reaching to the

destination. At VHF, UHF and microwave frequencies, the space wave propagation are

limited to the so-called LOS (line-of-sight) distance.

Troposphere Propagation

The signals are influenced by the variation of refractive index in the troposphere (approximately

15 km above the earth). This mode of propagation is often the means by which signals at

VHF, UHF and microwave frequencies (in the range of GHz) are heard over extended

10 Antenna and Wave Propagation

distances. The normal refraction is the main mechanism for the troposphere propagation

phenomenon. Duct propagation is a special type of propagation that occurs due to temperature

inversion in the troposphere. M-curves show the variation of modified index of refraction

with height, and they are useful to predict, at least roughly, the transmission path that is

usually expected.

Ionospheric Propagation

In this mode of propagation, signals reach the destination after reflection from the ionized

region in the upper atmosphere called ionosphere between 110 and 400 km from the ground

under suitable conditions. There are various parameters that characterize the ionospheric

propagation: the critical frequency, MUF, skip-distance as well as virtual height. Ionospheric

propagation is also affected by the earths magnetic fields. Fading is the main factor that

degrades the propagation and severe fading reduces the field strength of radio waves from

10 dB to 20 dB. Ionospheric propagation is of practical importance at medium and high

frequencies (2 to 30 MHz) and useful for very long distance communication. Extremely long

distance, i.e., round-the-globe communication is also possible with multiple reflections of

waves by Ionospheric propagation [6].

Further details about the above topics will be provided in subsequent chapters.

(a) Provides matching between guiding devices and the surrounding medium

(b) Provides matching between guiding devices and other antennas

(c) Provides matching between guiding devices and waveguide

(d) None of these

2. The basic principle behind the functioning of antennas is the

(a) Principle of energy conversion

(b) Poynting theorem

(c) Babinets theorem

(d) Principle of electromagnetism

3. Which of these is not the purpose of use of an antenna?

(a) Efficient radiation

(b) Impedance matching

(c) Increasing the velocity of radiation

(d) Both (b) and (c)

4. History of antenna begun with

(a) Maxwell (b) Hertz

(c) Marconi (d) YagiUda

Introduction 11

(a) Patch antenna (b) Dipole antenna

(c) Square loop antenna (d) Parabolic antenna

6. The polarization of an antenna is defined as

(a) The orientation of the electric field

(b) The orientation of the magnetic field

(c) The orientation of both the fields

(d) None of these

7. Which of these is incorrect?

(a) Polarization characteristics of the antenna remain constant over its main beam.

(b) Polarization characteristics of the antenna remain constant over its minor beam

(c) Polarization on main beam peak describes the polarization of the antenna.

(d) None of these

8. A transmitting antenna is matched to a receiving antenna if

(a) Polarization, axial ratio and sense are identical.

(b) Polarization, axial ratio, sense and minor axis rotation are identical.

(c) Polarization, axial ratio, sense and major axis rotation are identical.

(d) None of these

9. Which of the following is a whip antenna?

(a) l/4 whip antenna (b) l/8 whip antenna

(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these

10. Which of the following takes place up to 2 MHz and is affected by the height and

distance between Tx and Rx?

(a) Ionosphere propagation (b) Surface wave propagation

(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these

Answers

6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (c) 9. (c) 10. (b)

EXERCISES

device and transducer. Explain each term with a suitable example.

2. Why does an antenna need a communication system?

3. With the help of a neat diagram, describe the radiation mechanism of an antenna.

4. What is the general classification of antenna based on frequency of operation?

5. What is axial ratio? Describe its advantages for different types of polarization.

12 Antenna and Wave Propagation

7. What are the physical meanings of dB, dBi, dBd, and dBm?

8. What do you mean by impedance matching in an antenna system? What should be

the range of VSWR for good impedance matching?

9. Define bandwidth and write its different expressions. Also define one radian and one

steradian with regard to beam width of an antenna.

10. Define radiation pattern, HPBW, gain and directivity of an antenna.

11. What is the basis of classification of different types of wave propagation?

12. Define MUF and skip-distance for ionospheric wave propagation.

13. Microwave communication is limited to around 50 km. Justify this statement.

14. What are the advantages of LOS communication?

REFERENCES

[1] Kraus, J.D., Antennas since Hertz and Marconi, IEEE Trans., Antennas and Propagate,

Vol. AP-33, No. 2, pp. 131137, Feb. 1985.

[2] Elliot, R.S., Antenna Theory and Design, Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 1981.

[3] Stutzman, S., Bibliography for antennas, IEEE Trans., Antennas and Propagate

Magazine, Vol. 32, pp. 5457, August 1990.

[4] Lo, Y.T. and S.W. Lee, Antenna Handbook: Theory, Applications and Design,

Van Nostrand Rein, New York, 1988.

[5] www.rfip.eu/propagation

[6] JPLs Wireless Communication Reference, websites.

C H A P T E R

Electromagnetic Waves

2 and Radiation

INTRODUCTION

The existence of electromagnetic (EM) waves started with Maxwells equations, which he

presented to the British Royal Society in 1864, in his paper entitled A Dynamic Theory of

the Electromagnetic Fields. He had predicted theoretically the existence of electric and

magnetic Fields associated with electromagnetic wave propagation. This was confirmed by

Heinrich Hertz in 1893 when he conducted an experiment on a dipole fed parabolic antenna

and found that it sends a signal by wave motion to a similar receiving antenna kept at a finite

distance. It was the first strong support to the theoretical conclusion drawn by Maxwell for

electromagnetic fields. In the same year, William Thomson proposed the waveguide theory

for propagation of EM waves. Later, in 1897, Lodge described the mode properties of wave

propagation first in free space and then in a hollow metallic tube named as waveguide. In

1898, J.C. Bose developed the horn antenna, which is still useful for high frequency EM

wave propagation [1,2].

The properties of EM waves in a medium are characterized by electrical parameters;

namely permittivity (e), permeability (m), conductivity (s) and characteristic impedance (h),

and also the presence of boundary between media. The values of these parameters for free

space are: e0 = 8.854e12, m0 = 4pe7, s = e14 and h0 = 120p. The properties of EM waves

are associated with oscillating electric and magnetic fields. These fields are perpendicular to

each other as well as perpendicular to the direction of propagation. The direction of propagation

is generally taken to be along the z axis. The vector in this direction is known as Poynting

vector or propagation vector. There are various modes of propagation of EM waves such as

TE mode (Ez = 0), TM (H z = 0) and TEM mode (Ez = 0, H z = 0). In free space, at sufficient

distance from source, the wave propagates in TEM mode, where both E and H fields are

perpendicular to the direction of propagation [3,4]. The field configuration of TEM wave

propagation is shown in Fig. 2.1.

The region close to radiating sources is most likely to carry high intensity of fields

having both longitudinal and transverse components with respect to direction of propagation.

13

14 Antenna and Wave Propagation

x E

H

O z

Direction of propagation

y

In general, these locations are characterized by complicated field structure, including reactive

(stored) and real (propagated) energies, irregular phase structures and undefined polarizations.

The electromagnetic or EM wave spectrum (see Fig. 2.2) is a continuum of all electromagnetic

waves arranged according to frequency/wavelength. This spectrum includes visible, ultraviolet

and infrared, microwave, radio and gamma waves. The sun, earth and other bodies radiate

electromagnetic energy of varying wavelengths. All electromagnetic energy passes through

space at the speed of light i.e., 3 108 ms1 in the form of sinusoidal waves.

The spectrum of waves is divided into sections based on wavelength. The shortest

waves are gamma rays, which have wavelengths of 106 microns or less. The longest waves

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 15

are radio waves, which have wavelengths of many kilometres. Visible light has a particular

band of electromagnetic radiation that can be seen and sensed by the human eye. This energy

consists of the narrow portion of the spectrum, from 0.4 micron (blue) to 0.7 micron (red). The

infrared range starts at the end of the red spectrum with wavelengths greater than 0.7 micron.

1. Radio waves: Radio waves have wavelengths that range from less than a centimetre to

tens or even hundreds of metres. FM radio waves are shorter than AM radio waves. For

example, an FM radio station at 100 on the radio dials (100 MHz), would have a wavelength

of about three metres. An AM station at 750 on the dials (750 kHz) uses a wavelength of

about 400 metres. They are used to transmit radio and television signals. Radio waves can

also be used to create images. Radio waves with wavelengths of a few centimetres can be

transmitted from a satellite or airplane antenna. The reflected waves can be used to form an

image of the ground in complete darkness or through clouds.

2. Microwaves: Microwaves wavelengths range from approximately 1 mm to 30 cm. In a

microwave oven, the radio waves generated are tuned to frequencies that can be absorbed

by the food. The food absorbs the energy and gets warmer. The dish holding the food does

not absorb a significant amount of energy and stays much cooler. Microwaves are emitted

from the Earth, from objects such as cars and planes, and also from the atmosphere. These

microwaves can be detected to give information, such as the temperature of the object that

emitted the microwaves. They are used in various communications, media and medical

laboratories for testing.

3. Infrared: Infrared is the region of the electromagnetic spectrum that extends from the

visible region to about one millimetre (in wavelength). Infrared waves include thermal radiation.

Infrared radiation can be measured using electronic detectors and has applications in medicine

and in finding heat leaks from houses. Infrared images obtained by sensors in satellites and

airplanes can yield important information on the health of crops and can help us see forest

fires even when they are enveloped in an opaque curtain of smoke. The rainbow of colours

we know as visible light is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths

between 400 and 700 nanometres. It is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that we see,

and coincides with the wavelength of greatest intensity of sunlight. Visible waves have great

utility for the remote sensing of vegetation as well as for the identification of various objects

by their different visible colours.

4. Ultraviolet: Ultraviolet radiation has a range of wavelengths from 400 107 of a metre

to about 108 of a metre. Sunlight contains ultraviolet waves which can burn your skin. Most

of these are blocked by ozone in the Earths upper atmosphere. A small dose of ultraviolet

radiation is beneficial to human beings, but larger doses cause skin cancer and cataracts.

Ultraviolet wavelengths are used extensively in astronomical observatories. Some remote

sensing observations of the Earth are also concerned with the measurement of ozone.

5. X-rays: X-rays wavelength ranges from 1010 to 1012 of a metre. They are high energy

waves which have great penetrating power and used extensively in medical applications as

well as in inspecting welds. X-ray images of the sun can yield important clues to solar flares

and other changes on our sun that can affect space weather.

16 Antenna and Wave Propagation

6. Gamma rays: Gamma rays have wavelengths of less than about 1012 of a metre. They

are more penetrating than X-rays. Gamma rays are generated by radioactive atoms and in

nuclear explosions, and are used in many medical applications. Images of our universe taken

in gamma rays have yielded important information on the life and death of stars, and other

violent processes in the universe.

Let us consider a medium in which waves travel without loss of energy, i.e. wave amplitude

is constant with distance. The electric and magnetic fields for such waves are defined as

E = E0 cos(w t kz) x (2.1a)

H = H0 cos(w t kz) y (2.1b)

where E0 and H 0 are field amplitudes, w = 2p, angular frequency, t is time, k is wave

number, z is distance along z-axis and x and y are the unit vectors along positive x and

y directions. The wave number represents the rate of change of phase of field with distance

that is phase of the wave changes by kr radians over distance r metres. The existence of EM

waves can be predicted as the direct consequence of Maxwells equations. Maxwells equations

specify the relationship between the variations of electric and magnetic fields (E, H) in time

and space within medium. The electric field is generated either by time varying magnetic

field (B/t) or by the free space. The H field is generated either by a time varying electric

field (E/t) or by current distribution and measured in A/m. Mathematical forms as well as

physical significance of Maxwells equations are summarized as follows:

E

H = J + Jc = T E + F (2.2a)

t

A magnetic field is produced by a time varying electric field or by a current.

B H

E= = N (2.2b)

t t

An electric field is produced by time varying magnetic field.

.D = r (2.2c)

Electric field lines may either start or end on charges or continuous.

.B = 0 (2.2d)

Magnetic field lines are continuous, and

S

.J = (2.2e)

t

where e, m, s and r are the electrical parameters of the medium. The permittivity e and

permeability m are normally expressed relative to the values in free space; m = m0mr, e = e0er.

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 17

Here er and mr are known as relative permittivity and relative permeability respectively and

each have value 1 for free space. Any EM wave consisting of E and H fields satisfy Maxwells

equations, provided the ratio of the field amplitudes is constant for a given medium.

Ex E E0 N

= = = =I (2.3)

Hy H H0 F

where h is known as wave/characteristic/intrinsic impedance of medium and measured in W.

Since for the free space er = 1, mr = 1, the intrinsic impedance h becomes

Nr N0 N0 4Q e 7

I = I0 = = = = 377 : (2.4)

Fr F 0 F0 8.854 e 12

Poynting vector is also known as power density of EM waves; it represents the magnitude

and direction of the power flow carried by the waves per unit square metre of area parallel

to the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation. It is vector quantity and measured

in W/m2. The instantaneous value of Poynting vector

P = E H* (2.5)

where H* is complex conjugate of H. Usually, only the time average of the power flow over

one period is of concern, that is, P = 1/2 EH z . Since the ratio of E and H is constant and

equal to h

1 1

P= IH 2 = E2 (2.6)

2 2I

For the wave propagating in particular plane (plane wave), the direction of energy flow is

in the direction of propagation. Thus, the Poynting vector offers a useful, easy and coordinate-

free way to specify the direction of propagation as well as determining the direction of the

fields if the direction of propagation in known. This can be particularly valuable where

incident, reflected and transmitted waves are being examined [1].

WAVE POLARIZATION

The orientations of the electric field vector of a plane wave relative to the direction of

propagation define the polarization of wave. If an electric field vector of an EM wave is

parallel to x-axis, wave is said to be linearly x-polarized. This wave could be generated by

a straight wire antenna parallel to x-axis. Similarly y-polarized waves can also be defined

and generated. If two plane waves of equal amplitude and orthogonally polarized are combined

with 90 phase difference, the resulting wave is circularly polarized and the electric field

18 Antenna and Wave Propagation

vector describes a circle centred on propagation vector. The field vector will rotate by 360

for every wavelength travelled. Circular polarization is generated as either RHCP or LHCP.

The right hand circularly polarized wave describes a wave with E field vector rotating

clockwise when looking in the direction of propagation. In most cases, the components of

EM waves are not equal in amplitude or are at a phase angle other than 90 (see Fig. 2.3).

y y y

E1

E0 E0

E0

E02 E02

E E

E

O O x

x E01 x

E01 O

E0 E0 E0

z z z

(a) Linear polarization (b) Circular polarization (c) Elliptical polarization

The resultant polarization is elliptical polarization. Here the electric field vector still

rotates at same rate but varies in amplitude with time. In case of elliptical polarization, the

waves are characterized by the ratio between the maximum and minimum values of the

instantaneous electric fields, called axial ratio (AR), given by

Emax

AR = (2.7)

Emin

Assume that a TEM wave is propagating in the z-direction; in general an E-field vector can

be decomposed in two orthogonal components at any time on the z-constant plane.

Ex = E01 sin wt

Ey = E02 sin(w t + q)

Hence the resultant field is

E = (E x2 + E y2 )1/2

or E 2 = E01

2

sin X t + E02

2

sin (X t + R )

2

E01 sin X t 2

E02 sin (Xt + R )

+ =1 (2.8)

E2 E2

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 19

which represents an ellipse with its semi-major and minor axes inclined to the x and y axes.

That is electric field vector E constantly changes both its magnitudes and direction describing

an ellipse. Such waves are known as elliptically polarized plane wave. There are different cases;

Case I When q = 0 with Ex = E01 sin w t, and Ey = E02 sin w t, at any point on the z-constant

plane, wave is said to be linearly polarized with sinusoidal time variation.

Case II When q = p/2 with E01 = E02 = E0, the above equation reduces to a circle

E x2 + E y2 = E02 (2.9b)

Here tip of E describes a circle of radius E0. These waves are called circularly polarized

plane wave. If d = 90 and E1 = E2 = 2 E , the wave is linearly polarized but in a plane

at an angle of 45 w.r.t. the x-axis.

VELOCITY OF PROPAGATION

Phase velocity

This is a measure of how fast a signal travels along a line/in a medium. A radio signal

(all EM waves) travels in free space at the speed of light (c) 2.998 108 ms1. A signal

in a Tx line travels at much lesser than this speed and however in twisted pair cable the

velocity of propagation may be between 40% and 75% of velocity in free space. The velocity

of a point of constant phase on the EM waves in any medium is known as phase velocity

(vp) and equal to

X 1 (2.10)

vp = =

k NF

It is frequency dependent and often stated either as a percentage of c or as time to distance;

when time to distance figure is used, it may also be called propagation delay and will be

expressed as ms/km. The velocity of propagation is also known as velocity factor and it is

used in communication media such as data cablescategory 5 cables, plenum data and

ethernet/fast ethernet. Plenum data cables typically have vp ranging from 42% to 72% of

speed of light [2].

Group velocity

The group velocity of a wave is the velocity with which the variation in the shape of the

waves amplitude (known as the modulation or envelope of the wave) propagates through

space. The group velocity is of special importance in the propagation of modulated waves,

20 Antenna and Wave Propagation

pulses and transmission through wave-guides. The phase and group velocity are related by

vpvg = c2.

When EM waves propagate with phase remains constant over a set of planes, are called

plane waves. The magnitude of waves fields are constant in the xy-plane, and surface of

constant phase (a wave front) forms a plane parallel to the xy-plane, hence the term plane

wave. The oscillating electric field produces a magnetic field, which itself oscillates to

recreates an electric filed and so on, accordance with Maxwells curl equations. This interplay

between the two fields stores energy and hence carries power. Variation/modulation of the

properties of the wave (amplitude, frequency or phase) then allows information to be carried

in the wave between its source and destination, which is the central aim of a wireless

communication system.

In particular, the EM waves which electric field is independent of y and z axes and

function of x and t (time), known as uniform plane wave, and have special importance in

propagation. A uniform plane wave has the following properties:

(i) These waves are TEM waves.

(ii) E and H fields are always in time phase.

(iii) The magnitude of the two fields is always constant.

(iv) The stored energies are equally divided between E and H fields.

(v) The power transmitted by the two fields is in the direction of propagation.

Before discuss wave propagation in various media, let us consider the criteria of these

mediums in terms of electric parameters (m, e and s). In electromagnetic, the materials are

classified as conductor, dielectric and lossy dielectric. We can explain this classification

using Maxells equation for time varying fields.

H = sE + j w E = Jc + JD

or H = jwe (1 + s /jwe)E (2.11)

The term s/we is therefore just the ratio of conduction to displacement current densities;

it may be considered a mark line to divide the different materials/media. For good conductor,

(s/jwe) is much greater than unity over entire radio frequency, whereas it is much lesser than

unity for a good dielectric. For a lossy dielectric, e = e je and s << we.

The study of EM wave propagation began with the investigation of uniform plane

wave, which perhaps represent the simplex form of wave propagation. The propagation of

waves is described by the standard equation, called wave equation, which can be derived

from Maxwells equations. Let us consider a linear, isotopic, and homogeneous medium. The

net free charge in the region is zero (r = 0) and the existing currents in the region are

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 21

conduction currents, i.e. (j = sE). Maxwells equations, in this particular case, are reduced

to (see [3]).

E

H = TE + F (2.12a)

t

H

E=N (2.12b)

t

H = 0 (2.12c)

E = 0 (2.12d)

Taking the curl of (2.12b) and substituting it into (2.12a) yields

E 2 E

E = NT NF (2.13)

t t 2

Similarly, taking the curl of (2.12a) and substituting it into (2.12b) yields

H 2 H

H = NT NF (2.14)

t t 2

We know the vector identity

A = ( . A) 2A (2.15)

Solving (2.13) using (2.12d) and (2.15) yields

E 2 E

2 E = NT + NF (2.16)

t t 2

This is known as electric wave equation for a medium.

If electric field is in phasor form, i.e. E = Eeiwt, then the electric wave Eq. (2.16) is

reduced to

2E = jwm(s + jwe)E = g 2E (2.17)

Similarly, we get the magnetic wave equation

2H = jwm(s + jwe)H = g 2H (2.18)

where g is equal to [jwm(s + jwe)] and known as propagation constant. Since

1/2

g2 is a

complex quantity, its square root will also be a complex quantity.

Hence, let g = [jwm(s + jwe)]1/2 = a + jb (2.19)

Separating real and imaginary parts from Eq. (2.19), we get

1/2

NF T

2

B = X 1+ 1 (2.20a)

2 XF

22 Antenna and Wave Propagation

1/2

NF T

2

C =X 1+ + 1

2 XF (2.20b)

where a is attenuation constant, measures the rate of decrease of amplitude of wave per unit

length. It is measured in Np/m. b is known as phase constant and is a measure of phase shift

in radians per unit length.

T

Again H = jXF 1 + E = jXF *E (say)

jXF

finite conductivity. The intrinsic impedance is hence defined as

N N jXN

I= = = (2.21)

F* F (1 + T /jXF ) jXN + T

(a) Wave propagation in good conductor

As, for a good conductor s/jwe >> 1, Hence, the propagation constant g reduces to

jXF

H jXN (jXF + T ) = jXNT 1 + = (jXNT ) = (XNT ) 45

T

=

XNT

B =C = (2.22)

2

The phase velocity

X 2X

vp = (2.23)

C NT

The characteristic impedance

jXN /T jXN XN

I= = = 45

1 + jXN /T T T

XN

= (1 + j )

T

(2.24)

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 23

XN

Rs = X s =

2T

where Rs and Xs are respectively known as surface conductor resistance and reactance.

For a good conductor, the depth of penetration

1 2

E= =

B XNT

and hence

1

Rs = X s = (2.25)

TE

For a good dielectric, s/jwe << 1. In this condition, the propagation constant

T 1/2

H = B + jC = jX NF 1 j

XF

where

T 1/2

T 1 T

2

1 j =1 j +j + ...

XF 2XF 8 XF

Hence

1/2

T 1 T

2 T N 1 T

2

H = X NF 1 j +j = + jX NF 1 + (2.26a)

2XF 8 XF 2 F 8 XF

T N 1 T

2

B= and C = X NF 1 +

(2.26b)

2 F

8 XF

The phase velocity

X 1 1 1 T

1

2

vp = = (2.26c)

C 1 T

2 NF 8 XF

NF 1 +

8 XF

24 Antenna and Wave Propagation

N N T

I= = 1 + j (2.26d)

F (1 + T /jXF ) F 2XF

that the main effect of a small amount of loss is to add a small reactive component to the

intrinsic impedance.

(c) Wave propagation in lossy dielectric

In a lossy dielectric, we know that e = e je and s << we, that is, s 0 [3]. Hence the

propagation constant g is equal to

T 1/2

T

H = jX NF 1 j = jX NF 1 j =B + j C (say) (2.27a)

XF 2XF

therefore,

T

B= N /F and C = X NF (2.27b)

2

The intrinsic impedance of the dielectric is given by

jXN N T N T

1/2

I= 1 j (2.27c)

XF 1 + j

= =

jXF + T F F 2 XF

X X 1

(2.27d)

vp = = =

C X NF NF

(d) Wave propagation in lossless dielectric

In case of a lossless dielectric medium, e = e, e = 0 and s = 0. Hence the attenuation

constant a = 0 and the intrinsic impedance, phase velocity and propagation constant are

given by

N 1

I= , vp = and H = j C (2.28)

F NF

where, b = X NF .

Here s, m and e are together known as constitutive parameters of the medium. Due to

attenuation of waves, the field strength of both E and H diminishes exponentially as the

wave travels through the medium, as shown in Fig. 2.4. The distance to which the wave

travels, before its field strength reduces to e1 = 36.8% of its original value, is its skin-depth

(d) and the phenomenon is known as skin-effect. Skin-depth (d) and attenuation constant (a)

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 25

0.9

0.8

0.7

E(x)

Value of E-field

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

x

Distance along propagation vector (skin-depth, m)

is related as follows: d = 1/a. Thus the amplitude of the electric field strength at a point z,

compared with its value at z = 0, is given by E(z) = E(0)ez/d.

If we deal with wave propagation in the dielectric medium, there is wave-attenuation

if the conductivity of the medium is not zero. A quantity known a loss-tangent (tan d), which

is the phase of the complex dielectric constant, is normally used as measure of the medium

attenuation. It is equal to s/we, i.e., smaller the loss-tangent, lesser is the attenuation and

better is dielectric.

We know that the first Maxwells equation for any material yields

H = jwe (1 js /we)E

The loss properties of the materials may be treated in a similar fashion as conductive loss,

by replacing s we and e e, i.e. the loss-tangent reduces to tan d = e/e. Skin-effect

occurs, generally at very high frequencies (in range of GHz), but we can include the effect

in similar fashion as for conductive material even if a dielectric material has non-zero

conductivity.

H = (s + jwe*)E (2.29a)

where e * is complex permittivity and equal to e je.

H = (s + we)E + jwe E (2.29b)

26 Antenna and Wave Propagation

T + XF

tan E = (2.29c)

XF

where (s + we ) is considered to be effective conductivity and e to be the effective permittivity

of the material having conductivity (s) and permittivity (e).

If both the fields E and H of a wave are time varying, i.e. E = E0ejw t and H = H0ejw t

E0 jXt

H = e , then the average power density of the wave is

I

1 1 E

Pav = Re ( E H *) = Re E0 e jXt 0 e jXt x y

2 2 I

1 E02 1 1

= Re z = E02 Re (2.30a)

2 I* 2 I*

Similarly

1

Pav = H 02 Re (I*) (2.30b)

2

These are the expressions for average power densities in terms of E and H fields for any

medium. Next let us consider the Pav for particular mediums.

(a) Good conductor

In the case of good conductor

XQ

I = (1 + j)

2T

1 Re (I) XN /2T T

Re = = =

I* |I | 2XN /2T 2XN

2

1 T

Pav = | E0 |2 (2.31a)

2 2XN

Similarly

1 | H 0 |2 1 2XN

Pav = = | H 0 |2 (2.31b)

2 Re (I) 2 T

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 27

We know that

N

I=

F

Hence

1 E02 1

Pav = = H 02I (2.32a)

2 I 2

We know that

N T

I= 1 + j

F 2XF

which is a complex number; however E and H are not in time phase; consequently Pav has

to be determined using

| E0 |2 1 | H 0 |2

Pav = Re Re (I) (2.32b)

2 I 2

Basically there are two types of incidence of wave: normal incidence and oblique incidence.

1. Normal incidence of uniform plane waves on plane boundaries: Let us consider a

uniform plane wave incident normally from left to right on a boundary between two media

(Fig. 2.5). Electrical parameters of medium (1) are e1, h1, m1 and s1 and those of medium (2)

are e2, h2, m2 and s2. If (Ei, Hi), (Er, Hr) and (Et , Ht) are the electric and magnetic field

intensities of incident, reflected and transmitted waves, then they can be written in their

phasor forms as follows:

Ei

H i = Ei e H 1z a y = e (B1 + j C1 )z a y (2.33b)

I1

2. Reflected wave

Er = Er eH 1z a x = Er e(B1 + jC1 )z a x (2.34a)

Er

Hr = H r eH 1z a y = e (B1 + jC1 )z a y (2.34b)

I1

28 Antenna and Wave Propagation

where g1 is propagation constant for medium 1 and equal to a1 + jb1 with a1 and b1 as

attenuation and phase constants and

jXN1

I1 = I < R i/r = (2.34c)

jXF1 + T1

3. Transmitted waves

Et = Et eH 2 z a x = Et e (B 2 + j C2 )z a x (2.35a)

Et

H t = H t eH 2 z a y = e (B 2 + j C2 )z a y (2.35b)

I2

where g2 is propagation constant for medium 2 and equal to a2 + jb2 with a2 and b2 are

attenuation and phase constants and

jXN2

I2 = I < Rt = (2.35c)

jXF 2 + T 2

As the second medium is infinite in extent there will not be backward travelling component

of transmitted wave, thus there will be no reflection at its right most surface. At the boundary

z = 0, the boundary condition reveals that the tangential components of the total electric and

magnetic fields be continuous. Since Ei, Er and Et are defined in the x direction

Ei + Er = Et at z = 0 (2.36a)

Similarly, if Hi, H r and H t are defined in the y direction

Hi + Hr = Ht at z = 0 (2.36b)

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 29

Ei Er Et Et + Er

= =

Ii I1 I2 I2

Ei + Er I2 Er I I1

= or = 2 (2.37a)

Ei Er I1 Ei I2 + I1

is known as reflection coefficient and represented by G.

Also

Er I2 I1

+1= +1

Ei I2 + I1

Er + Ei 2I2 Et 2I2

= = (2.37b)

Ei I2 + I1 Ei I2 + I1

is known as transmission coefficient and represented by T.

Again, from (2.37b) it is clear that

Er Ei

+ =T 1+*=T (2.38)

Ei Ei

The coefficients G and T will be real only if both the mediums are lossless, that is,

s1 = 0 and s2 = 0. Otherwise, they will be, in general, complex quantities i.e., G = G < qr

and T = T < qt. From (2.37) it is also clear that the magnitude of T may exceed unity, but

the magnitude of G will always be 1. If region 2 is perfect conductor, then h2 = 0 and we

get G = 1 and T = 0; so there is no signal transmitted in region 2. Just as in transmission,

we can define wave impedance, which describes the ratio of electric field to magnetic field

at any point in space. This gives the familiar impedance transformation formula

I2 + jI1 tan kl

Z in ( l) = I1

I1 + jI2 tan kl

where, k = wave-vector (bn).

We can then treat the situation just as in a quarter wave transformer and multiple

dielectric boundaries just as we do for transmission lines.

Oblique Incidence

When a uniform wave incidence at any angle from the normal (say qi) then as resultant, i.e.,

reflected as well as transmitted waves also makes certain angles (say, qr and qt). This case

is referred to as oblique incidence. Basically there two cases of oblique incidence:

(a) parallel polarization and (b) perpendicular polarization. To define these types of polarization,

first we have to specify the plane of incidence. If the electric field (E) is polarized in the

30 Antenna and Wave Propagation

plane of the page, with H is perpendicular to page pointing outward. Then plane of page may

be referred as plane of incidence and uniform plane is said to have parallel polarization

(P-polarized). As the magnetic field H is perpendicular to plane of incidence (transverse

magnetic or TM), it is also called TM polarization. In another case, H is parallel to the plane

of incidence (or H lies in plane of incidence) and E is perpendicular to the plane of incidence.

This is perpendicular polarization (S-polarized). Due to similar region, it is also called TE

polarization. Reflection and transmission coefficients differ for these two polarizations. But

reflection and transmission angles are independent of polarization.

Snells Law

Consider any two rays of an incident wave (as shown in Fig. 2.6), say, rays 1 and 2 travel

from medium 1 to medium 2. One part of wave is transmitted at an angle qt in the second

medium, whereas another part is reflected in medium 1 itself at an angle qr.

From the diagram, it is clear that the incident ray 2 travels the distance CB, whereas

the reflected ray 1 travels the distance AE and the transmitted ray 1 travels the distance A to

D. If v1 and v2 are the velocities of the waves in corresponding mediums, then (see [2])

CB v1

= (2.39a)

AD v2

Now from geometry, CB = AB sin qi and AD = AB sin qt. Hence

sin Ri v1

= (2.39b)

sin Rt v2

1

As the velocity of uniform plane wave is

NF

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 31

sin Ri F2

= (2.39c)

sin R t F1

From the properties of uniform plane wave, the ratio of electric and magnetic field vectors

are constant and known as intrinsic impedance of the medium, i.e.,

E N

= =I

H F

Hence

sin R i I1

= (2.40)

sin R t I2

In view of optics, if n1 and n2 are refractive indexes of medium 1 and medium 2, then

sin R i n1

=

sin R t n2

The final expression shows that

sin Ri F 2 I2 v n

= = = 1 = 1 (2.41)

sin R t F1 I1 v2 n2

Further, AE = CB, then sin qi = sin qt which is known as Snells Law. For parallel polarized

wave, the reflection and transmission coefficients are given as

*P = = (2.42a)

I2 cos Rt + I1 cos Ri F1 cos Rt + F2 cos Ri

and

2I2 cos Rt F1 cos Rt

2

TP = = (2.42b)

I2 cos R t + I1 cos Ri F1 cos Rt + F 2 cos Ri

The corresponding wave impedance in mediums 1 and 2 is given by

E1 (x )

I1P = = I1 cos Ri (2.43a)

H 1 (y) z =0

E1 ( x ) I1

I2P = = I2 cos Ri = cos Rt (2.43b)

1

H (y) z =0

I2

For the perpendicularly polarized incident waves, the reflection and transmission coefficients

are given by

32 Antenna and Wave Propagation

*S = = (2.44a)

I2 sec Rt + I1 sec Ri F1 sec Rt + F 2 sec Rii

and

2I2 sec Rt 2 F1 sec Rt

TS = = (2.44b)

I2 sec Rt + I1 sec Ri F1 sec Rt + F 2 sec Ri

The corresponding wave impedance in mediums 1 and 2 is given by

E1 (x )

I1S = = I1 sec Ri (2.45a)

E1 (y) z =0

E1 (x ) I1

I2S = = I2 sec Ri = cos Rt (2.45b)

1

E (y) z =0

I2

Reflection coefficients for both the polarizations could be defined in term of wave impedance

as

I2P I1P I I1S

*P = and * S = 2S (2.45c)

I2P + I1P I2S + I1S

Total Transmission

If the angle of incident is varied, there will be an angle where | G | = 0, i.e. there will be no

reflection, and total transmission of parallel polarized wave occurs at the interface. For this

case, Eq. (2.42a) can be written as

F1 cos R t F 2 (1 sin 2R i )

*P = (2.46a)

F 2 (1 sin R i )

2

F1 cos R t +

F1

sin 2R t = sin 2R i

F2

F2 F2

cos Ri sin 2Ri

F2 F1

*P = (2.46b)

F2 F2

cos R i + sin 2Ri

F1 F1

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 33

1/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 2

1 F2 F2 F2

R i = Rb = sin = cos1 = tan 1 (2.46c)

F 2 + F1 F 2 + F1 F1

where qb is called Brewster angle. Any arbitrary wave incident at qb will be reflected back

with E-polarization parallel to the interface, and the other component of E is totally transmitted.

The angle qb is 45, provided e1 = e2. We could also find a similar angle for perpendicular

polarization such that T = 0, but this would require mediums of different permeability and

identical permittivity, something which does not often occur in nature qi = qb. However, if

the incident wave is not arbitrarily polarized, there will be some reflection, but the reflected

rays will be entirely of perpendicular polarization. Reflection coefficient G S never becomes

zero, as long as the two media are different (h1 h2). Hence, we can say that Brewster angle

does not exist for perpendicular polarization.

Total Reflection

The incident wave is reflected back in same medium for | G P | = 1. If both media are

lossless non-magnetic dielectrics, the quantity under square root (2.46b) will be positive and

GP will be real provided (e2 > e1), i.e., the wave is incident from rare medium to dense

medium. If, however, the wave is incident from more dense medium onto less dense medium

(e2 >> e1) and if

F1

sin 2R i

F2

then GP becomes complex and | GP | = 1. In this particular case, incident wave is totally

reflected back into denser medium. Therefore, there exist an incident angle qc (say), for

which | GP | = 1 < 0, called critical angle and given by (see [4])

1

F2

R c = sin (2.47)

F1

For the entire incident angle greater than qc, | G P | = 1. Then qc = 90 when e2 = e1.

Physically there is still some field penetration into region 2, but the field strength decays

exponentially away from the boundary. This is called evanescent field and propagates along

the boundary. Additional parameters, P-polarized and S-polarized power reflectivity, are

expressed as

P-polarized power reflectivity

tan 2 (R1 R 2 )

RP =

tan 2 (R1 + R 2 )

34 Antenna and Wave Propagation

sin 2 (R1 R 2 )

RS =

sin 2 (R1 + R2 )

The above critical angles field reflectivity are in the form of pure phase shifts. The power

reflectivity is 100%. The P- and S-polarized phase shifts differ, and functions of incidence

n

angle and the relative refractive index n = 2 . The formula for relative phase shift is

n1

cos R sin 2 R n2

E = GS GP = 2 tan 1 1 1

(2.48a)

sin 2 R1

For the total transmission, GP = 0 implies that h2P = h1P h2 cos qt = h1 cos qi:

Using Snells Law of refraction

sin R i n2

=

sin R t n1

1/2

n

I2 1 1 sin 2Ri = I1 [1 sin 2Ri ]1/2

n2

I0 I0

1/2

n1

1 sin Ri [1 sin 2Ri ]1/2

2

= from (2.41)

n2 n2 n1

n1 2

21 n sin R i

n2 2

=

n

1 [1 sin 2

R i ]

which gives

n2

sin R1 = = sin R B (2.48b)

n12 + n22

where qB is called the Brewster angle of total transmission. From Snells Law

n1

sin R2 = (2.48c)

n12 + n22

or transmitted angle = 90 q1.

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 35

SOLVED EXAMPLES

Example 2.1 An uniform plane wave of frequency 2 GHz travelling in a large block of Teflon

(er = 2.1, mr = 1 and s = 0). Determine the values of vp and h.

c 3 108

Solution: We know that vp = = = 2.07 108 m/s

Nr F r 2.1

Example 2.2 A wave of frequency 1 MHz travels in a large block of copper (s = 5.7

107, er = 1 and mr = 1). Determine the values of vp, h, l, a and b. Also find the phase shift

between the electric and magnetic fields and the distance that the wave must travel to be

attenuated by a factor 100 (40 dB).

Solution: We know

g = [jwm(jwe + s)1/2

= [j2p 106 4p 107 (5.7 107 + j2p 106 8.854 1012)]1/2

= 2.14 104 < 45 = 1.513 104 + j1.513 104

Hence a = 1.513 104 Np/m and b = 1.513 104 rad/m

The wave velocity

X 2 Q 10 6

vp = = = 415.3 m/s

C 1.513 10 4

The wavelength in copper at the given frequency is

2Q 2Q

M= = = 415.3 10 4 m/s

C 1.513 10 4

jXN j 2Q 10 6 4Q 10 7

1/2

= = 12

= 3.689 10 4 < 45

jXF + T (5.7 10 + j 2Q 10 8.854 10

7 6

So, it is confirmed that the intrinsic impedance of a conductor should be very small.

The angle of intrinsic impedance is 45. As the field attenuated by a factor 100, i.e., ead =

1/100, where d is distance travelled for the given attenuation

4.605

B d = ln 100 or d = 4

= 3.0437 10 4 m

1.513 10

36 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Example 2.3 A copper conductor of finite length supports a uniform wave to propagate at

kHz. Determine the values of a, b, g and vp. Also find the value of ratio of s/we.

Solution: We know that for a good conductor

B = C = NXT /2 = 2Q 50 10 3 4Q 10 7 5.8 10 7

= 11.437 10 6

= 3.38 103

XN 10 7

I= = 2Q 50 103 4Q 10 7

T 5.8

= 67 10 5 < 45

= 8.245 10 5 < 45

2Q 3.14

M= =2 = 1.85 mm

C 3.38

= 92 m/s

The ratio of

T 5.8 10 7

= = 2.08 10 3

XF 2Q 50 103 8.854 10 12

in a medium specified with er = 3.0, m = 1.0 and s = 0.02 S/m. If the electric field magnitude

at z = 0 is 2 V/m, determine (a) the wave impedance, (b) |H| at z = 0, (c) average power

available in an 0.6 m2 area perpendicular to direction of propagation at z = 0, (d) time taken

to travel 20 cm, and (e) distance travelled at which field strength drops to 1/20.

Solution: The ratio of

T 0.02

= = 0.06 << 1

XF 2Q 1 10 3 8.854 10 12

9

(a) Wave impedance

N

= 218 :

377

Z= = z0 1/Fr =

F 3

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 37

(b) As

E E 2

=Z H = = = 9.2 mA/m 1

H Z 377

(c) Total available power

A 0.6

P = SA = EH = 2 9.2 103 = 5.5 mW

2 2

(d) The time taken is ratio of distance to phase velocity

d d 0.2 3

t= = Fr = = 1.2 ns

v c 3 108

(e) As E z = E0 e z/E

E 1 2 F 1

z = E ln z = E ln = ln

E0 20 T N 20

2 1 2

= ln = 2.99 = 2.743 m

T Z 20 0.01 218

Example 2.5 A dielectric material has er = 18 and tan d = 103 at a frequency of 200 MHz.

Find the conductivity of material and distance over which the field strength drops to

(1/c) of its value at the surface.

Solution: We know that

T

tan E = T = XF 0F r tan E

XF

= 2p 200 106 8.854 1012 18 103 = 2 104 S/m

Since the loss tangent of given material is very small, the material may be regarded as a

lossless dielectric, and the corresponding attenuation constant (a) can be used.

T N T 1 2 10 4 1

B= = I = 377 = 8.885 10 3 Np/m

2 F 2 Fr 2 18

Hence the distance travelled at which the field strength goes down to the (1/e), i.e.,

1 103

Skin-depth (d) = = = 1.125 10 2 m

B 8.885

38 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Example 2.6 At point inside a lossy medium electric field intensity of a wave is 10 V/m

at frequency 300 MHz. Find the power density of the wave at this point and at distance

1 cm in the direction of propagation, if

er = 8 and s = 100 S/m.

jXN

1/2

I =

jXN + T

1/2

j 2 Q 3 108 4Q 10 7

=

100 + j 2 Q 3 108 8.854 10 12

= (3.44 + j 3.44) :

|E0 |2 1

Pav = Re

2 I*

1 3.44 + j 3.44

=

I* (3.44)2 + 3.44 2

1

Re = 0.145

I*

Hence

(10)2 0.145

Pav = = 7.25 W/m 2

2

Now since the conductivity of the medium is not zero, there will be attenuation and can be

calculated from the propagation constant

H = B + jC = jXN (jXF 0 F r + T )

= j 2Q 3 4Q 10 7 (100 + j 2Q 3 8 8.854 10 12 )

= 3.43 + j 344.36

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 39

Power at a distance of 2 cm is

Pave2 d a = Pave2 10

2 343.9

= Pave6.878

= 7.25 e6.878 = 7.47 mW/m2

Example 2.7 Polystyrene has dielectric constant of 2.7. If a uniform plane wave is incident

at angle of 35 onto it, calculate the angle of transmission and the Brewster angle.

Solution: From Snells law

sin Ri F2

=

sin R t F1

1

or sin R t = sin 35

2.7

qt = 20.02

Example 2.8 A linearly polarized plane wave incident from water onto the waterair interface

at an angle 45. Show that wave is totally reflected back. (Hint: er = 81; mr = 1 and s = 0.)

Solution: We know that

1 F1 1

R c = sin = sin 1 = 6.38

F2 81

which is less than the incident angle; thus the incident wave is totally reflected back.

Example 2.9 A parallel polarized wave is incident from air onto (a) distilled water (er = 81),

(b) flint glass (er = 10.5) and (c) paraffin (er = 2.05). Determine the Brewster angle for each

case.

Solution: We know that

1

F2

R B = tan

F1

Hence,

R B = tan 1 ( 81) = 83.7

40 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Example 2.10 A uniform plane wave incident from air onto a glass at an angle of 30 from

normal. Determine the percentage of incident power that is reflected and transmitted for

(a) P-polarized and (b) S-polarized wave if glass has refractive index 1.45.

Solution:

sin 30

sin Rt = sin 1 Rt = 20.02

1.45

(a) For parallel polarization

I1

cos 20.2 = 244 :

377

I2P = I2 cos R t = cos 20.2 =

I2 1.45

*P = = = 0.144

I2P + I1P 244 + 326

Pr

% = | * P |2 = 0.021 = 2.1%

Pinc

(b) For perpendicular polarization

I1

= 435 :

377

I1S = =

cos R i cos 30

I2

= 277 :

377

I2S = =

I2 cos R t 1.45 cos 20.2

*S = = = 2.22

I2S + I1S 277 + 435

Pr

% = | * S |2 = 0.049 = 4.9%

Pinc

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 41

(a) Parallel polarization

tan (R1 R 2 )

tan (R1 + R 2 )

(b) Perpendicular polarization

sin (R 2 R1 )

sin (R 2 + R1 )

F1 sin R1 = F 2 sin R 2

(a) *P = =

F 2 cos R1 + F 1 cos R2 sin R1 cos R1 + sin R2 cos R2

= = =

sin 2R1 + sin 2R 2 sin (R1 R 2 ) cos (R1 R 2 ) tan (R1 + R 2 )

(b) *S = = =

F 1 cos R1 + F 2 cos R 2 sin R 2 cos R1 + sin R1 cos R2 sin (R 2 + R1 )

Example 2.12 A light ray is incident from air on to glass at the Brewster angle. Determine

the incident and transmitted angles, and also the reflection coefficient for S-polarized waves.

Solution: Since the glass has refractive index = 1.45, the incident angle is

n2 1.45

R i = R B = sin 1 = sin 1 = 55.4

n12 + n22 1 + 1.452

n1 1.45

R t = sin 1 = sin 1 = 34.6

n12 + n22 1 + 1.452

i.e. the sum of the incident and transmitted angles at the Brewster condition is always 90,

i.e., sin q2 = cos qB.

I1

= 664 :

377

I1S = =

cos R i cos 55.4

I1 I1

= 315.75 :

377

I1S = = =

cos R i I2 cos R t 1.45 cos 34.6

42 Antenna and Wave Propagation

*S = = = 0.355

I2S + I1S 316 + 665

Example 2.13 Find the rate of energy flow per unit area of a uniform plane wave travelling

with a velocity (v) = 1/NF .

Solution: Total energy of an EM wave, due to its electric and magnetic fields is given by

1

(F E 2 + N H 2 )

2

For a wave travelling with velocity (v) the rate of flow of energy per unit area would be

1

P = (F E 2 + N H 2 ) v

2

Property of plane wave says that

E N

=

H F

Hence the above equation can be written as

1 N F

P = F EH + N eH v

2 F N

( )

1

NF EH + NF EH v

2

EH G G

v = E H

v

G G

So, P= E H

E = 25 sin (2p 106t 6x) az V/m

(a) Determine the direction of wave propagation.

(b) Compute the period T, the wavelength l and velocity u.

Solution: Given E = 25 sin (2p 106t 6x) az V/m

(a) Direction is along az.

(b) w = 2p 106, b = 6

2Q 2Q

Time period T = = = 10 6 s.

X 2Q 10 6

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 43

If u is the velocity of EM wave, the phase of a point is constant on the wave, i.e.

X

dt

C

dx

(X t C x) = k =0

dt dt

X 2 Q 106

which gives X Cu = 0 u= = = 1.047 10 6 m/s

C 6

Wavelength l = Velocity Time period = 1.047 106 (2p/w)

= 1.047 106 (1 106) = 1.047 m

Example 2.15 Given that propagation constant g 2 = jwm(s + jwe) and g = a + jb, derive

the equation for a and b.

Solution: Re(g 2) = b 2 a 2 = w2me (i)

and Im (H 2 ) = C 2 + B 2 = XN T 2 + X 2 F 2 (ii)

Adding (i) and (ii)

2C 2 = X 2 NF + XN T 2 + X 2F 2

X 2 NF XN T 2 + X 2F 2 X2 N 2 2 2

C2 = + = NF + T +X F

2

2

2 X

X2 NXF 2

T

C 2

= NF + 1+

2 X XF

1/2

NF T

2

C =X 1+ + 1

2

XF

1/2

NF T

2

B =X 1+ 1

2 XF

Example 2.16 A lossy material has m = 5m0 and e0 = 2e0. If at 5 MHz the phase constant

is 10 rad/m, calculate (a) the loss-tangent, (b) the conductivity of the material, (c) the complex

permittivity and (d) the intrinsic impedance.

44 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Solution:

(a) Loss-tangent

F T 2F 0

tan R = = =2

F0 XF F0

(b) Conductivity

T = XF tan R = 2 2Q f F =4 3.14 5 10 6 8.854 10 12

= 1.11 103 S/m

(c) Complex permittivity

T

Fc = F jF Fc = F j

X

1.11 10 3

F c = 2F 0 j

2 3.14 5 10 6

1.11 10 3

= 2 8.854 10 12 j

2 3.14 5 10 6

= (17.7) j(35.4) 10 12

1/2

NF T

2

B =X 1+ 1

2 XF

5 N0 2 F 0

1/2

B =X 1 + (2)2 1

2

X

B=

1/2

5 5 1

c

2 3.14 5 106

= 3.2 = 33.5 10 2 B = 0.335

3 108

(d) Intrinsic impedance

I= 1/4

= =

2 1/4 1/4

T 1 + (2) 1 + (2)2

2

1 +

XF

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 45

5/2 N0 /F 0

377 = 398.7 :

1.5811

= =

( 5)1/2 1.495

G

Example 2.17 In free space (z 0), a plane wave with Hi = 10 cos(108t b z) ax (in mA/

m) is incident normally on a lossless medium (e = 2e0, m = 8m0) in region z 0. Determine

the Hr and Er components of the reflected wave as well as Ht and Et of the transmitted wave.

Solution: For free space, b1 = w/c = 108/(3 108) = 1/3 and h1 = h0 = 120p.

For the lossless dielectric medium,

C2 = X NF = X N0 F 0 2 8 = 4X /c = 4/3

I2 = N /F = N0 /F 0 8/2 = 2I0

G

Since H i = 10 cos(108t C z) ax

We expect that

G

Ei = Ei 0 cos (10 8 t C z ) aEi

G G G G

where aEi = aHi aHj = a x a z = ay

Ei 0 = I1 H i 0 = 10 I0

Er 0 I2 I1 1 E

Now =*= = Er 0 = i 0

Ei 0 I2 + I1 3 3

10

Since E = hH Hr = cos(108 t + 0.333 z) a x mA/m

3

Et 0 4Ei 0

Similarly = U = 1 + * = 4/3 or Et 0 =

Ei 0 3

Thus Et = Et 0 cos(108 t C2 z ) a Et

where a Et = a E1 = a y

Hence

40 4z

Et = I0 cos 108t a y mV/m

3 3

46 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Et Et

I= and H t =

Ht 2I0

20 4z

Ht = cos 108 a x mA/m

3 3

one medium (s1, e1, m1, h1) to second medium (s2, e2, m2, h2).

Solution: We have considered uniform plane waves travelling in unbounded, homogeneous,

isotropic media. When a plane wave from one medium meets a different medium, it is partly

reflected and partially transmitted. The portion of the incident wave that is reflected or

transmitted depends on the constitutive parameters (e, m, s) of the two media involved.

Incident wave

Ei, Hi is travelling (+) az in the medium. If we suppress the time factor e jwt and assume

that

Eis (z) = Ei 0 eH 1z a z (i)

His (z) = Hi 0 eH 1z a y

E

His (z) = i 0 e H 1z a y (ii)

I1

H is(z), Eis(z) = Incident wave in medium 1

Reflected wave

G G

Ers (z) = Er 0 eH 2 z az (iii)

G G

Hrs (z) = Hr 0 eH 2 z ay

G

G E H 2z

or Hrs (z ) = r 0 e ay (iv)

I1

Transmitted wave

Ets (z) = Et 0 eH 2 z a x (v)

Hts (z ) = Ht 0 e H 2 z a y

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 47

E

Hts (z ) = t 0 eH 2 z a y (vi)

I2

where g1 and g2 are propagation constants.

Boundary condition

Since waves are transverse at z = 0, the tangential components of E and H fields must be

continuous, i.e.,

Ei(0) + Er(0) = Et (0) (vii)

Hi(0) + H r(0) = Ht(0)

1 Et 0

or ( Ei 0 Er 0 ) = (viii)

I1 I2

From Eqs. (vii) and (viii), we get

I

Et 0 1 = Ei 0 Er 0

I2

I I2

Et 0 = 2 Ei 0 Er 0

I1 I1

I2 I

Et 0 1 + = 2 2

I1 I1

Ei 0

2I2

Et 0 = Ei 0 (ix)

I1 + I2

(I2 I1 )

and Er 0 = Ei 0 (x)

(I2 + I1 )

Reflection coefficient

E I I1

* = r0 = 2 (xi)

Ei 0 I2 + I1

Transmission coefficient

Et 0 2I2

U = = (xii)

Ei 0 I1 + I2

From Eq. (xi)

(I2 I1 + I1 + I2 ) 2I2

1+* = = =U

I1 + I2 I1 + I2

48 Antenna and Wave Propagation

or 1+ G = t

Hence, proved.

Example 2.19 Derive the wave equation for infinite, isotropic and homogeneous media.

Solution: The Maxwell equations for the given medium are

G

G G E

H = TE + F (i)

t

G

G H

E = N (ii)

t

G

.H =0 (iii)

.E = 0 (iv)

Taking the curl of Eq. (ii) yields

G

( H )

G

E = N (v)

t

G G G

G G G

G E E 2 E

E = N T E + F = NT NF (vi)

t t t t 2

G G

H 2 H

H = NT NF (vii)

t t 2

Using vector identity A = (A) 2 A

Since (A) is zero, the Eqs. (vi) and (vii) reduces to

G G G G

G E 2 E G H 2 H

E = NT

2

+ NF and H = NT

2

+ NF

t t 2 t t 2

which are known as electric and magnetic wave equations respectively.

Example 2.20 For the given two mediums a linearly polarized wave is incident from

medium 1 (s = 0, e1, m1) to medium 2 (s = 0, e2, m2). Prove that for total reflection of wave,

N2 F 2 u1

the incident angle must be R i = , where u1 and u2 are the velocities of wave

N1F1 u2

in mediums 1 and 2 respectively.

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 49

which gives

n

sin Ri = 2 sin Rt

n1

n

sin Ri = 2 sin 90

n1

n

or sin R i = 2

n1

From reflection

c

n2 = c N2 F 2 =

u2

c

n1 = c N1F1 =

u1

c N2F 2

sin Ri =

c N1F1

N2 F 2 u1

sin R i = =

N1F1 u2

N2 F 2 u1

if qi is small sin R i = R i = =

N1F1 u2

N2 F 2 u1

or Ri > =

N1F1 u2

Hence, proved.

50 Antenna and Wave Propagation

1. Electromagnetic wave can be characterized by

(a) Permittivity (e) and conductivity (s)

(b) Permeability (m) and characteristic impedance (h)

(c) Presence of boundary between media

(d) All the above is correct.

2. Assuming the Poynting vector along z-axis, choose the correct option.

(a) In TE mode of propagation, Ez 0

(b) In TM mode of propagation, Hz = 0

(c) TEM mode of propagation, Ez 0, H z = 0

(d) Only (a) and (c) are correct.

3. The shortest wave is

(a) Gamma rays (b) Radio waves

(c) Visible light (d) Infrared light

4. The wavelengths of microwave lies between

(a) 0.1 mm and 30 cm (b) 1 mm and 30 cm

(c) 1 cm and 300 cm (d) 1 m and 100 m

5. Choose the incorrect statement:

(a) X-rays can be produced by excitation and ejection of core atomic electron.

(b) Lien-energy gamma ray is produced by creation of particleantiparticle pairs.

(c) Gamma ray is produced by energetic ejection of core electron in heavy metals.

(d) Ultraviolet light can be produced by excitation of molecule and atomic valence

proton as well as neutron.

6. Given waves and their cause of production

Statement 1: Radio collective oscillation of charge carrier in bulk material-plasma

oscillation

Statement 2: Microwave: Plasma oscillation, molecular production.

Statement 3: Near Infrared: Molecular vibration, plasma oscillation.

Choose the correct option:

(a) Statement 1 is correct but 2 and 3 are wrong

(b) Statement 2 is correct but 1 and 3 are wrong

(c) All the statements are correct

(d) None of the above is a correct statement

7. Choose the correct option (More than one may be correct.)

(a) Microwave is absorbed by molecules that have a dipole moment in liquids.

(b) In microwave oven, H2O, HCl as well as BF3 will heat up.

(c) Microwave is super high frequency (SHF) and extremely high frequency (EHF)

wave.

(d) Microwave is produced with klystron and magnetron tubes and with solid state

diodes such as Gunn and IMPATT devices.

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 51

(a) Low intensity microwave radiation is used in Wi-Fi.

(b) High intensity microwave radiation is used in Wi-Fi.

(c) Both (a) and (b) are correct.

(d) None of these.

9. MaxwellFaradays equation is

G

G B

(a) E =

t

(b) B . ds = 0

(c) Both (a) and (b) are correct (d) None of these.

10. Choose the incorrect option:

S

(a) Gauss law is . E =

F0

G K v

(b) Gauss law is

w

E . dA =

F0

, where v is the total enclosed charge

v

v

(d) (a) and (b) are correct but c is incorrect.

11. Amperes circuit law states that

G G

G K G D G G D

(a) H = J +

t

(b) H . dl = J +

ds

t

S L

G

G G D

(c) H . dl = J +

ds

t

(d) None of these

S L

(a) Poynting vector represents electron flux of an electromagnetic field.

(b) Energy flux of an electromagnetic field.

(c) Both (a) and (b) are correct.

(d) None of these

13. Choose the correct one:

G G G G G G

(a) p = E H (b) p=H E

G G G G G G

(c) p = H x Ex (d) p = H y Ey

14. The time-averaged magnitude of the Poynting vector is (more than one option may

be correct).

1 G

(a) <S> = E02 , S = Poynting vector

2 N0 c

52 Antenna and Wave Propagation

2

F0 c G

(b) <S > = E02 , S = Poynting vector

2

(c) (a) is correct but (b) is wrong

(d) None of these.

15. Choose the correct option:

G <S > G

(a) Linear momentum of electromagnetic field is given by p = 2 , S = Poynting

C

vector.

<S >

(b) Radiation pressure is given by Prad =

(c) Both (a) and (b) are correct C

(d) None of these.

16. The concept of displacement current was a major contribution attributed to

(a) Faraday (b) Lenz

(c) Maxwell (d) Hertz

(e) Your Professor

17. Identify which of the following expressions are not Maxwells equations for a time-

varying field:

S

(a) . J + =0 (b) . D = Sv

F

G

B

(c) . E =

t

(d) v Hdl = (T E + F E/t ) ds

(e) v B ds = 0

(a) Plane wave is a constant frequency wave.

(b) Wave front is surface of constant phase.

(c) Wave fronts are infinite parallel planes of constant amplitude normal to the

phase velocity vector.

(d) Wave fronts are infinite parallel phases of constant amplitude parallel to the phase

velocity vector.

19. Choose the incorrect option about uniform plane wave:

(a) Phone waves are TEM waves

(b) E and H fields are always in time phase

(c) The magnitude of the two fields is always variable.

(d) The stored energy is equally divided between the E and H fields.

20. Choose the correct option.

G

(Multiple

G

options may be correct.)

(a) In static EM field E and B are independent.

(b) In dynamic EM field, the two s fields are interdependent.

(c) Both (a) and (b) are incorrect.

(d) None of these.

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 53

1. Which of these is not a correct form of the wave Ex = cos (w t b z)?

(a) cos (b z w t) (b) sin (b z w t + p /2)

2Q 2Q

(c) cos t (d) Re(e j(w tb z))

M

z

T

(e) cos b (z w t)

2. Which of the following statement is not true for the waves in general?

(a) The phenomenon may be a function of time only.

(b) The phenomenon may be sinusoidal or co-sinusoidal.

(c) The phenomenon must be a function of time and space

(d) For practical reasons it must be finite in extent.

3. If the electric field component of a wave in free space is given by E = 10 cos

(107t + kz) a y V/m, which of the following is incorrect?

(a) The wave is transverse along x-axis

(b) The wavelength, l = 188.5 m

(c) The wave amplitude = 10 V/m

(d) The wave number, k = 0.33 rad/m

(e) The wave attenuates as it travels.

4. Select the correct option:

(a) Electromagnetic wave travels faster in conductors than in dielectrics

(b) In a good conductor E and H are in time phase

(c) The Poynting vector physically denotes the power density leaving or entering a

given volume in a time-varying field.

(d) None of these.

5. Choose the incorrect option:

(a) 1 + G = t, t = Transmission, G = Reflection coefficient.

(b) Both G and t are dimensionless and may be complex.

(c) 0 G .

2I2

(d) U = where h1 and h2 are intrinsic impedances of the medium.

I1 + I2

G G

G 2 E E

6. In the wave equation E = NF

2

+ NT , which term is responsible for attenuation

2 t t

of the wave?

G

G 2 E

(a) E

2 (b) NF

2t

G

E

(c) NT (d) All of the three.

t

54 Antenna and Wave Propagation

7. Two statements are given below. Read the statement and give the correct option.

Statement 1: The Poynting vector represents the particular case of an energy flux

vector for electromagnetic energy.

Statement 2: The Poynting vector represents any type of movement in space as

well as its density, and so the energy flux vector can be defined for other types of

energy as well, for example, mechanical energy.

(a) Statement (1) is correct but (2) is wrong.

(b) Statement (1) is wrong but (2) is correct.

(c) Statement (1) and Statement (2) both are correct.

(d) Both are wrong statements.

Answers

Group A

1. (d) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (d)

6. (c) 7. (a, c, d) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (d)

11. (a) 12. (b) 13. (a) 14. (a, c) 15. (c)

16. (c) 17. (a, c) 18. (d) 19. (c) 20. (a, b)

Group B

1. (b)

Explanation:

Q

E x = sin C z X t = cos R

2

Q Q Q

sin C z X t = sin v = sin v +

2 2 2

cos C (z ut ) = cos(C z C ut ) C =X /u

2. (c) must be a function of both time and space.

3. (a) Given E = 10 cos(107t + kz) a y

E = A cos(107t + kz) a y

(b) Transverse in z direction ( Ez)

(c) Amplitude, A = 10 V/m

X 10 7

(d) w = 107, C = =k or k = = 0.033 rad/m

c 3 108

c is free space velocity.

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation 55

l = Velocity Time period

2Q 2

=c = 3 10 3.14

8

= 188.5 m

X 10 7

4. (c)

Explanation:

(a) Velocity of dielectric > velocity of conductor

(b) E and H not in time phase

(c) Correct

5. (c) 0 | G | 1

6. (c)

EXERCISES

1. A uniform plane wave incident from air onto glass at an angle of 60 from the

horizon. Determine the amount of power reflected and transmitted for (i) P-polarization

(ii) S-polarization. Refractive index of glass is 1.52 and total incident power is 60 mW.

2. A material has a relative permittivity of 2.8. If a wave is incident at an angle of 30

onto it from air, determine the angle of transmission and Brewster angle.

3. A plane wave of frequency 4 GHz is incident normally air onto a half-space of

dielectric having s = 0, mr = 1 and er = j3. Find the dB value of reflected power.

4. Light is incident from air onto metal plate of refractive index 1.52 at Brewster angle.

Determine incident and transmitted angles and also find the reflection coefficient for

the perpendicular polarization.

REFERENCES

[1] Maxwell, James, C., A Dynamic Theory of the Electromagnetic Fields, Scientific

papers reprinted by Devers, NY, 1952.

[2] Jordan, E.C. and K.G. Balmin, Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Structures,

2nd ed., Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 1995.

[3] Das, A. and S.K. Das, Microwave Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2000.

[4] Paul, C.R., et al., Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields, McGraw-Hill, USA.

C H A P T E R

Antenna Fundamentals

3 and Parameters

INTRODUCTION

Communications between human beings began first by sound through voice using devices

such as drums. The visual methods such as signal flags and smoke signals were also used

for this purpose. Later, for all the long distance communication, the electromagnetic waves,

outside the visible region, have been employed, through the use of radio. The antenna used

in this communication is termed radio antenna, which is an essential component in the radio

communication system [1]. By the definition of an antenna, information can be transferred

between different locations without any intervening structures. Antennas are popular in

broadcast situations where one transmit terminal can serve unlimited number of receivers,

which can be mobile phones (or car radio sets). The group of frequencies of the electromagnetic

(EM) waves carrying this information form EM spectrum which is one of humankinds

greatest natural sources and the antenna has been instrumental in harnessing this source.

Most antennas are reciprocal devices and show identical behaviour on transmit/receive signals.

Antennas have directional characteristics; EM power density is radiated from a transmitting

antenna with intensity that varies with the angle around the antenna.

Types of Antenna

There are various configurations of antennas (Fig. 3.1); broadly they can be classified as

given in Table 3.1. In other words, based on their performance and function of frequency,

the commonly used antennas (across the radio spectrum) are divided into four groups:

Electrically small antennas

Resonant antennas

Broadband antennas

Aperture antennas

56

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 57

Wire antennasdipole, High gainDish Omnidirectional Widebandlog, spiral

loop, helix antennas antennas Dipole antennas and helix antennas

Aperture antennas Medium gainHorn Pencil beam Widebandlog, spiral

Horn, slot antennas antennas dish, array antennas and helix antennas

Printed antennas Low gainDipole, loop, Fan beamone- Narrow bandPatch

patch, spiral antennas slot and patch antennas dimensional array and slot antennas.

Electrically small antennas are much less than operating wavelength. They are simple

in structure and their properties are not sensitive to construction specifications. These antennas

are used for VHF frequencies applications. The vertical monopole used for AM reception on

cars is a best example. It is about 0.002l long and has nearly omnidirectional pattern in

horizontal plane. Resonant antennas are often used where simple structure with good input

impedance over a narrow band of frequencies is needed. It has a broad main beam and low

or moderate gain. The l/2 dipole, Yagi antenna and patch antenna are the popular examples.

There are many applications that require antenna which could operates over a wide

frequency range, such antenna is known as broadband antenna. They have acceptable

performance over a 2:1 bandwidth ratio of upper to lower operating frequency. Examples are

log-periodic dipole, Yagi and spiral antennas. Since only portion of a broadband antenna is

responsible for radiation at a given frequency, the gain is low. But it may be an advantage

to have gain that is nearly constant, although low [2, 3].

58 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Aperture antenna is usually several wavelengths long in one or more dimensions. The

pattern usually has a narrow main beam leading to high gain. Bandwidth is moderate as large

as 2:1. Most useful aperture antenna is a horn antenna; it acts as a funnel directing waves

into the connected wave-guide.

Applications of Antenna

Non-communication applications of antenna include remote sensing and industrial applications.

Remote sensing systems are either active (radar) or passive (radiometry). They receive scattered

energy or inherent emission from the object respectively. The received signals are proposed

to infer information about the object or scenes. Industrial applications are mainly cooking

and drying using high frequency waves. There are several other applications of antenna. For

example, mobile communication involving aircraft, spacecraft, ships or land vehicle requires

antennas. Non-broadcast radio applications such as municipal radio and amateur radio also

require antennas. Personal communications devices such as pagers and cellular phones are

common places where antennas are being used.

radiates energy equally well in all directions, as shown in Fig. 3.2(a). The radiated energy

will have a spherical wave front with its power spread uniformly over the surface of a

sphere.

If the source transmitting power is Pt, the power density Pd at a distance R from the

source can be calculated using

Pt

Pd = W/m 2 (3.1)

4Q R 2

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 59

Although the isotropic antenna is not practical, it is commonly used as a reference with

which to compare other antennas. For a large value of R, the transmitted wave can be

G

approximated by uniform plane. The electric field ( E ) is ^r to direction of propagation and

G G G G

H is normal to E and n is unit rector along the direction of propagation. Both E and H

lie in the constant-phase-plane and the wave is a TEM wave [see Fig. 3.2(b)].

1 E2

As time-average power density is Pd = , one can find the electric field at a

2 I0

distance R from isotropic antennas as follows [4]:

60 Pd

E= = 2 Erms (3.2)

R

where E is peak magnitude of electric field and Erms is its rms value.

Far-field Region

Generally, it is assumed that the antenna operated properly in the far-field region and radiation

pattern are measured in this region only. In the far-field region, the transmitted wave of the

transmitting antenna resembles a spherical wave from the point source that only locally

resembles a uniform plane wave. To derive the far-field criterion for the distance R, consider

the maximum antenna dimension to be D as shown in Fig. 3.3. We have

2

D

R 2 = ( R 'l)2 +

2

2

D

= R2 + ('l)2 2R'l + (3.3)

2

60 Antenna and Wave Propagation

D2

R= (3.4)

8'l

If we let, Dl = l0/16, which is equivalent to 22.5 phase error, be the criterion for far-field

operation, we have

2D 2

Rfar-field = (3.5)

M0

Thus, the condition for far-field operation could be given by

2D 2

R (3.6)

M0

where l0 is the free space wavelength and D is the maximum aperture/dimension of the antenna.

The far-field conditions are summarized as follows:

2D 2

R> (3.7a)

M0

R >> D (3.7b)

r >> l (3.7c)

The condition R >> D is associated with the approximation R = r for use in the magnitude

2Q r

dependence. The condition r >> l follows from br = >> 1. Equation (3.5) is a

M

sufficient condition for the antenna operating in the UHF region and above. However, at

lower frequencies, where antenna is small compared to the wavelength, the condition of far-

field region is given by Eq. (3.6), provided that all conditions in Eq. (3.7) are satisfied. In

far-field region, the radiation pattern of an antenna is independent from the distance [5].

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 61

ANTENNA PARAMETERS

The input impedance is the one port impedance appearing into the antenna. It is impedance

presented by the antenna to the receiver or transmitter connected to it. If the input impedance

of an antenna (Zin) is not equal to the characteristic impedance (Z0) of Tx, line used to feed

the antenna, impedance mismatching occurs. In this situation, total voltage and current

present across the Tx line are expressed as the sum of two travelling waves moving opposite

directions as on infinite Tx line. The waves travelling from left to right are regarded as

incident waves having voltage and current V0 and I0, and waves travelling opposite to these

as reflected waves, having voltage and current V1 and I1 (say) (Fig. 3.4). As a result of these,

two travelling waves along the Tx line, third wave, are generated known as standing wave

and described by voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR). The voltage V at any point on the

line is equal to the sum of the voltages V1 and V0, i.e., V = V0 + V1. The ratio of reflected

to incident voltages is constant, and termed as reflection coefficient (r), i.e.

V1

Sv = (3.8)

V0

Z A Z0

Sv = (3.9)

Z A + Z0

Hence, the input impendence of an antenna (ZA) can be expressed in terms of rv as follows:

1 + Sv

Z A = Z0 (3.10)

1 Sv

For maximum power transfer or perfect matching the input impedance of the antenna should

be equal to Z0. However, VSWR is given by

Vmax I max

VSWR = = (3.11)

Vmin I miin

where (Vmax, Imax) and (Vmin, Imin) are the maximum and minimum values of voltage and

current respectively.

Hence, equation (3.11) becomes,

V1

1+

V0 + V1 V0 1 + Sv

VSWR = = = (3.12)

V0 V1 V 1 Sv

1 1

V0

62 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Total wave

Vmax

Vmin

I

Z0

Source Zi Antenna

V

Incident wave

Reflected wave

RL = 20 log |r| dB (3.13)

That is optimum VSWR appears when |r| = 0 and corresponding value of VSWR = 1. This

means all the power is being transmitted to the antenna and there is no reflection (no power

loss). On the other hand, maximum VSWR occurs, when |r| = 1 and VSWR = . This is case

when all the power reflected back and there is no power transmission to the antenna. Typically,

VSWR less than 2 is acceptable for most of the applications. The power reflected from the

antenna is |r|2 times the power available from the source. The power coupled to the antenna

is (1 |r|2) times the power available from the source.

Transmission coefficient for voltage

2Z A

*v = = 1 + Sv (3.14a)

Z 0 + Zi

Z 0 Z in

Si = = Sv (3.14b)

Z 0 + Z in

2 Z0

*i = = 1 + Si (3.14c)

Z 0 + Zi

The equivalent circuit models of Tx and Rx antennas are shown in Figs. 3.5 and 3.6 respectively.

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 63

Source Antenna

Guide

A

XS RA

RS Rr

B

VS XA

IS GS BS BA Gl Gr

FIG. 3.5

In general, antenna impedance is expressed by

ZA = RA + jXA

where RA is the antenna resistance and XA is the antenna reactance. Antenna resistance RA

is sum of the two resistances; radiation resistance (Rr) and loss resistance (Rl), i.e. RA = Rr

+ Rl. The radiation resistance (Rr) relates the radiated power to the current (or voltage) at

the antenna terminals by Rr = 2Pr /|I|2 W.

In this model it is considered that the source is connected directly to the antenna. If not

so, i.e. if there is guiding structure (Tx line) between the source and the antenna, the

Zs = Rs + jXs represent the equivalent impedance of the source/generator, transferred to the

input terminals of the antenna. Existence of Tx line may cause significant loss of power. The

maximum power transformation from source to antenna happens only when conjugate matching

of impedance is occurred, i.e.

RA = R r + Rl = R s and XA = Xs

64 Antenna and Wave Propagation

ZL load Antenna

A

RA

XL Rr

RL VA

XA

GL BL BA Gl Gr IA

FIG. 3.6

Using circuits theory, the following expressions are derived in the condition of matched

impedances:

(i) The power delivered to the antenna

2

Vs

PA = (3.15a)

8(Rr + Rl )

(ii) Radiated power

2

Rr Vs

Pr = (3.15b)

(Rr + Rl )2 8

2

Rl Vs (3.15c)

Pl =

(Rr + Rl )2 8

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 65

2

Vs

Ps = PA = (3.15d)

8(Rr + Rl )2

The incident space wave induces voltage VA (say) at the antenna terminals, when antenna is

open circuited. Similar to transmitting antenna, the following expressions for delivered power

are found in condition of conjugate matched impedances:

(i) The power delivered to the load is

2 2

VA VA

Pl = = (3.16a)

8 RL 8 RA

(ii) The power dissipated as heat in the antenna is

2

VA Rl

Pa = (3.16b)

8 R A2

(iii) The re-radiated power is

VA Rr (3.16c)

Pr =

8 R A2

(iv) Total received power captured is

VA2 VA

2

Pc = = (3.16d)

4(Rr + Rl ) 4 RA

Conjugate impedance matching is compulsory between the antenna and the load (receiver)

to achieve maximum power delivery; RL = RA = Rl + Rr and XL = XA. When conjugate

matched impendence is achieved, only half of the captured power Pc is delivered to the load

(receiver) and another half is still dissipated by the antenna as antenna losses. Antenna losses

take place in terms of heat dissipation Pl and scattered power Pr. Even in case of lossless

antenna, only half of the power is delivered to the load (though there is conjugate impedance

matching), the other half being scattered back into space.

The antenna impedance (ZA) is related to the radiated power (Pr), the dissipated power

(Pl) and stored reactive energies as follows [4]:

Pr + Pd + 2jX (Wm We )

ZA = (3.17)

0.5 I 0 I 0*

66 Antenna and Wave Propagation

where I0 is the current at the antenna terminals, We and Wm are the average electric and

magnetic energies stored in the near-field region. When these energies are equal, a condition

of matching occurs, where the reactive of antenna impedance (XA) vanishes. The antenna

impedance is frequency dependent thus it is matched to its source and load in a certain

frequency band. The input impedance of the antenna also depends on many other factors

including its geometry, feed techniques and its proximity to surrounding objects.

Bandwidth

It is found that most of the antennas operate around there resonant point (frequency), i.e.

there is only a limited frequency range over which they can operate efficiently. This is

because outside particular frequency range (BW), the levels of reactance rise high and

deteriorate satisfactory operation of the antenna. The bandwidth of antenna is usually defined

as the frequency range within the performance of the antenna, with respect to a certain

characteristic, conforms to a specified standard; particularly the antenna gain and (FBR)

ratio hold up. The standards may be higher gain than some acceptable value or atleast FBR

or the value of SWR closer to unity. It is expressed as the percentage of the difference

between upper and lower frequencies to the centre frequency. As we have seen in case of

impedance of the antenna, antenna characteristics are affected in different ways as frequency

changes, there is unique definition of the bandwidth. For the antenna of relatively small

dimensions (< half wavelength) and low frequency, the bandwidth is generally measured by

impedance variation, because pattern performance is less sensitive to the frequency, i.e. the

pattern changes less rapidly with the frequency. The most commonly used bandwidths are

pattern bandwidth and impedance bandwidth. In addition, there is another bandwidth known

as radiation bandwidth.

Impedance Bandwidth

It is the range of frequencies over which the input impedance conforms to a perfect matching

and hence maximum power deliberation. This standard is commonly to be VSWR 2

(or |r 0.5|) and translate to a power reflection of about 11%. Certain applications may

require a more stringent specification, such as a VSWR of 1.5 (Fig. 3.7(a)). The operating

bandwidth of the antenna could be smaller than the impedance bandwidth, since other parameters;

Gain, FBR, VSWR, beam width, radiation patterns and polarization are also functions of

frequency and may deteriorate over the impedance bandwidth. Impedance bandwidth also

termed the fractional bandwidth of an antenna and it is a measure of how wideband the

antenna is. For the narrow band antennas [5], fractional bandwidth is defined as

fu f l

FBW = 100% (3.18)

f0

f + fl

f0 = Design/centre frequency u or fu . f l .

2

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 67

Frequency

fl fu

VSWR = 2

Return loss

The fractional bandwidth varies between 0 and 2, and is often quoted as a percentage

(between 0% and 200%). The higher the percentage the wider the bandwidth. Wideband

antennas typically have a fractional bandwidth of 20% or more. Antennas with a FBW of

greater than 50% are referred to as ultra-wideband antennas. From Eq. (3.18) it is clear that,

higher the difference between fu and fl, wider the bandwidth. However, the development of

frequency-independent antenna led to unlimited bandwidth where upper and lower frequencies

limits are specified independently and, in this case, FBW = fu/f0. In terms of quality factor

Q and VSWR, the bandwidth of an antenna is also defined as

fc VSWR 1

BW = and BW = (3.19)

Q Q VSWR

where Q = 2Q

Energy dissipated per cycle

i.e. the lower value of Q of the antenna leads to higher BW and vice versa.

Pattern Bandwidth

Pattern bandwidth is the frequency range over which the pattern characteristics vary within

the acceptable limits. A broadband antenna generally has a relatively low level of pattern

variation over the bandwidth. However, design techniques used to optimize impedance bandwidth

can degrade pattern bandwidth.

The major factors associated with antennas are their resonance (centre frequencies) and

BW over which they operate. Naturally, they are very important features for the operation

of antenna and as such they are specifications of an antenna. Whether the antenna is used

for broadcasting, Wide Local Area Netowrk (WLAN), cellular and mobile communications,

satellites/radars or any other applications, the performance of the antenna is paramount, and

the resonant frequency and bandwidth are of great importance.

68 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Radiation Bandwidth

This is another feature of antenna that changes with its operating frequency. In the case of

antenna beam, it is particularly noticeable. In particular the front-to-back ratio (FBR) will

fall off rapidly outside a given bandwidth, and so will the gain. In an antenna such as Yagi,

this is caused by a reduction in the currents in the parasitic elements as the frequency of

operation is moved away from the resonance. In such a case, the radiation pattern B/W is

defined as the frequency range over which the gain of the main lobes is within 1 dB of its

maximum values. In general, for many beam antennas, especially high gain it is found that

the impedance BW is wider than the radiation BW, although both the bandwidths are inter-

related in many respects. Similarly polarization bandwidth can also be defined as frequency

range in which polarization of antenna is under acceptable limits (0 dB < AR < 3 dB).

FBR

FBR stands for forward to backward radiation ratio and defined as the ratio of power radiated

in desired direction to the power radiated in opposite direction (Fig. 3.7(b)). That is

Power radiated in forward direction

FBR =

Power radiated in backward direction

FBR is mostly observed in array/Yagi antenna. The FBR changes with frequency of

operation and its value decreases with increasing the spacing between elements. The values

of FBR also depend upon tuning condition as well as electrical length of parasitic elements.

The gain of a directional antenna is inversely coupled to the front-to-back ratioas one goes

up, the other goes down. Therefore higher value of FBR is obtained at the cost of gain of

antenna; because diverting more radiation in opposite direction reduces the gain of antenna.

Backward Forward

radiation radiation

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 69

Radiation Resistance

Radiation resistance describes the relation between the total radiated energy from a transmitting

antenna and the current flowing in it. It is fictitious parameter and represented by Rr. Radiation

resistance acts as a load for the transmitter or for the radio-frequency Tx line connecting the

transmitter and antenna. Antenna is a radiating device which emits radiation in the form of

EM waves in the free-space, provided it is excited with proper input power. Since there is

physical contact as well as impedance differences between feed and antenna, there is power

dissipation. As a result, not all power supplied to the antenna is transformed into EM

radiation, but some of it is lost in the heating of antenna wire. That is the total energy

supplied to antenna is used in radiation as well as heating the antenna. Hence associated with

each one, there are resistancesradiation resistance (Rr) and ohmic resistance (Rl). Therefore

the total energy given to the antenna is sum of radiation energy and power dissipation, i.e.,

P = Pr + Pl = I2Rr + I2Rl = I2[(R)r + Rl] = I2R

where R = Rr + Rl. The radiation resistance of a radiator and depends upon

(i) Geometry of the antenna and hence point of measurement of resistance

(ii) Orientation of antenna as well as number of objects present around

(iii) Length and width of antenna conductor

(iv) A luminous discharge round the surface of antenna due to ionosphere of air

Presence of ground significantly affects the radiation resistance, because the EM waves

radiated from it are reflected from ground which induced current in the antenna while

flowing through it. The magnitude of induced current as well as its phase depends upon the

height of antenna from ground. If the height is such that the induced current is in phase with

antenna current, then the total current is larger and this results in a series of variation in the

free space value of radiation resistance. In general since reflected waves are weaker than

incident waves, fluctuation in radiation resistance decreases as height increases. Radiation

resistance of wire antenna and rod-tubing antenna are found between 55 and 65 W; however

for half-wave dipole its value is 72 W.

Directivity

Directivity of an antenna in a given direction is the ratio of the radiation intensity in that

direction and the radiation intensity averaged over all directions. The radiation intensity

averaged over all directions is equal to the total power radiated by the antenna divided by

4p. If direction is not specified, then the direction of maximum radiation is implied. The

directivity Dmax is defined as the value of the directive gain in the direction of its maximum

values. The directive gain D(q, f) over power density radiated by an isotropic radiator fed

by the same account of power is given by

P (R , G )

D(R , G ) = (3.20)

PT /4Q

70 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Pmax (R , G ) Pmax (R , G )

and Dmax = D0 = = 4Q (3.21)

PT /4Q PT

1 G G

where P(R , G ) = Re [ E H ]

2

PT = Total radiated power.

Directivity is a dimensionless quantity. The maximum directivity is always 1.

This is given by

P(q, f) = P0 = constant

PT = 4 p P 0

P (R , G ) 4Q P0

D(R , G ) = 4Q = =1

PT 4Q P0

D0 = 1

Thus by definition, the directivity of an isotropic radiator is one, and that of other antenna

will always be greater than one. Thus, directivity serves as a figure of merit relating the

directional properties of an antenna w.r.t. those of an isotropic radiator.

Partial directivity

The partial directivity of an antenna is specified for a given polarization of the wave. It is

defined as that part of the radiation intensity, which corresponds to given polarization,

divided by the total radiation intensity averaged over all directions. The total directivity is

the vector sum of partial directivities for any two orthogonal polarizations.

D0 = Dq + D f (3.22)

PR

where DR = 4Q

(PT )R + (PT )G

PG

DG = 4Q (3.23)

(PT )R + (PT )G

in which Pq and Pf are the radiation intensities in desired directions containing q and f field

components respectively. (PT)q and (PT)f are total radiated power in all directions of q and

f field components respectively.

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 71

As per definition, directivity can also be expressed by

[P (R , G )]max

D0 = (3.24)

[ P(R , G )]av

where power density average over a sphere is given by

1 2Q Q

[P(R , G )]av =

4Q

0 0

[P(R , G )] sin R dR dG (3.25)

P(R , G )max 1

D0 = = 4Q Q 2Q

(3.26)

1 Q 2Q

4Q 0 0

P((R , G )sin R dR dG ) 0 0

P ((R , G )sin R dR dG )

P ((R , G )

where P (R , G ) = .

P (R , G ) max

Q 2Q

The integration 0 0

P (R , G ) sin R dR dG = : A is termed beam solid angle of an

antenna. The beam solid angle of an antenna is the solid angle through which all the power

of radiation would flow provided its radiation intensity is constant and equal to the maximum

radiation intensity Pmax for all angles with WA. Hence, the relation between the maximum

directivity and the solid beam angle is found to be D = 4p/WA. The complexity of the

determination of the directivity D0 depends upon the power pattern P (R , G ) to be integrated

over a spherical surface. But in most practical antenna cases it is not available in closed

analytical form. Hence, in practice, simpler formulas, based on the two orthogonal plane half

power beam widths (HPBW) of the pattern, are often used for fast and approximate calculation

of D0.

Kraus formula

For antennas with narrow major lobes and with negligible minor lobes, the beam solid angle

WA is approximately equal to the product of the HPBWs in two orthogonal E- and H-planes,

i.e., WA = qE qH, where qE and qH are in radians. Hence

4Q

Dk = when qE and qH are in radians (3.27a)

RE RH

4Q 56.94 4.1 10 4

Dk = = when qE and qH are in degrees (3.27b)

R E R H R E R H

72 Antenna and Wave Propagation

power density. There is another approach to calculate the directivity of antenna with the help

of E-plane and H-plane patterns. In experimental work, we measure power pattern in two

principal planes, E-plane and H-plane. These patterns correspond to [Eq (q, 0)]2 in the

E-plane pattern and [Ef (0, p/2)]2 in the H-plane pattern. In terms of these two patterns, the

directivity of antenna can be expressed as

1 1 1 1

= + (3.28)

D 2 D1 D2

2

ER max

where D1 = which corresponds to directivity of antenna with a

1 Q

2

ER (R , 0) sin R dR

2 0

2

rotationally rationally symmetrical pattern ER max

.

2

EG

max

D2 = which corresponds to directivity of antenna with a

1 Q

2

EG (0, Q /2) sin R dR

2 0

2

rotationally symmetrical pattern EG (0, Q /2) .

The arithmetic mean directivity formula (3.28) is quite accurate for the arrays made of

half-wave-dipoles, however for uniform arrays of short dipoles operated in broadside and

end fire configurations, the formula is found to be exact. However, for narrow beam antennas,

D1 and D2 can be estimated in terms of HPBW of E-plane and H-plane patterns as follows:

ln 2 ln 2

D1 16 and D2 16

R E2 R H2

Hence, resultant directivity of antenna will be

32 ln 2

DT = (3.29)

R E2 + R H2

Equation (3.29) is known as Tai and Pereira formula for antenna directivity [6]. For qE =

qH, Eq. (3.29) gives D = 4.62 whereas Eq. (3.27) gives D = 5.09. All the equations involved

in getting DT and DK are obtained by considering the asymptotic expression for the directivity

of an antenna with a rotationally symmetrical power pattern of the form U(q) = cosmq for

(p/2 q 0) and U(q) = 0, for (q > p > p/2) with very large value of m. However the

U max M2

maximum directivity is Dmax = and the maximum effective area is Aem = .

U av 4Q

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 73

Similar to directivity, antenna gain is also dimensionless quantity. The gain of an antenna

is the directivity multiplied by the aperture or illumination efficiency of the antenna to

radiate the energy presented at its terminal, i.e.

G = hDmax (3.30)

where h is the illumination efficiency.

The gain of an antenna also defined as the ratio of the radiation intensity P in a given

direction and radiation intensity that would be obtained if the power fed to the antenna is

radiated isotropically (in all directions). That is

P (R , G )

G(R , G ) = 4Q (3.31)

Pin

Gain is calculated via the input power Pin, which is measurable quantity unlike directivity,

which is calculated via the radiated power Pr. Since power radiated by the antenna is always

less than the power fed to the antenna system, i.e., Pr Pin, D G, unless the antenna has

integrated active devices. When antenna has no losses, i.e. Pin Pr, G(q, f) = D(q, f).

However, as per IEEE standards, the gain does not include losses arising due to impedance

and polarization mismatching. Therefore gain takes into account only the direct and conduction

losses of the antenna system itself. Partial gains with respect to given-field polarizations are

determined in the similar way as the partial directivities of antenna. In general, the narrower

the beam width, the higher the gain of antenna.

In experimentation, the gain of antenna, also called forward gain, is defined as the

ratio of the signal transmitted by an antenna in the maximum direction to that of a standard

or reference antenna. Basically there are two types of reference antenna used. One is dipole

antenna, which is easily available and considered as basis antenna for many other antennas.

In this case gain often expressed in dBd, i.e. gain expressed in decibels over a dipole. The

second one is isotropic radiator. In this case gain specified in dBi, i.e. gain in decibels over

an isotropic source. It is possible to relate two gains as dipole has a gain of 2.1 dB over an

isotropic source, i.e. 2.1 dBi. In other words, the gain over an isotropic source will be 2.1 dB

higher than those relative to a dipole. So, when choosing and looking for gain specifications,

be sure to check whether the gain is relative to a dipole or an isotropic source.

The directive gain (Gg) is a measure of the extent to which the total radiated power is

concentrated in one direction. It defined as the ratio of the power density in particular

direction, at a given distance by antenna under test (AUT), to the power density of an

isotropic antenna, provided both are radiating the same total power. That is, it is a quantity

that varies with the change in directions and solely depends on the distribution of radiated

power in space. It is free from input power as well as antenna losses. However, power gain

(Gp) is defined as the ratio of the radiated power density by actual antenna, to that of an

isotropic antenna at same distance provided both are given same input power. That is, both

define gain of an antenna; directive gain after radiation and power gain before radiation of

waves. The basic difference is that the directive gain considers radiated power whereas

74 Antenna and Wave Propagation

power gain involves input power to the antenna, i.e. power gain also takes into account the

losses occurs in the antenna. They may be related as

Gp = h G g

where h is termed efficiency of antenna and its value lies between 1 and 0. In case there are

no losses in the antenna, Gp = Gg.

The efficiency of antenna represents the fraction of total energy supplied to it, which

is converted into free space EM waves. In general, it is defined as the power radiated from

antenna to total power supplied to the antenna, i.e.

Antenna efficiency (h ) = = = (3.32a)

Total input power Pin Prad + Ploss

where Prad = actual power radiated

Pin = power coupled to the antenna

Ploss = power lost in the antenna (conductor dielectric losses)

As power is proportional to resistance (i.e. P0 = I2R), antenna efficiency can also be

expressed as

Rr

I= (3.32b)

Rr + Rl

where Rr and Rl are the radiation and loss resistances respectively.

The total efficiency of the antenna (hT) represents the total loss of energy at the input

terminals of the antenna and within the antenna structure. It includes all mismatch losses as

well as the dielectric and conduction losses; hence it can be expressed as follows:

h T = h p h r h c h d = h ph r h (3.33)

In which, h = h c hd and called radiation antenna efficiency, which is used to relate gain and

directivity. The conduction and dielectric efficiencies hc and hd are measured experimentally.

Here the subscripts p, r, c and d represent reflection, polarization, conduction and

dielectric respectively. The reflection efficiency can be calculated in terms of reflection

coefficient at the input terminal as follows:

h r = 1 | r| 2 (3.34)

If polarization losses are negligible or zero, the total efficiency (h t) relates to the radiation

efficiency (h) by

hT = h(1 |r|2) (3.35)

where r is the volatage reflection coefficient at the input terminals of the antenna.

Radiation Pattern

Radiation pattern generally describes the normalized field/power values with respect to the

maximum values. The radiation pattern of antenna is the representation (or trace) of the

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 75

radiation properties of the antenna as a function of space coordinates (angles and distances).

The radiation pattern is measured at electrically large distance where spatial (angular) distribution

of the radiated power does not depend on the distance. At the large distances, the power

density drops off as (r2) in any direction [7]. The variation of power density with angular

position can be plotted by the radiation pattern. Generally, the field intensities (E and H) or

received/transmitted powers are measured at a constant distance from the antenna and plotted,

and they are referred as field pattern and power pattern. The power pattern and field pattern

are the same when they are computed and plotted in dB. However, both the patterns are

related to each other field pattern is square root of power pattern, i.e.

E (R , G )

I H (R , G ) P(R , G ) (3.36)

I

In the view of properties of EM waves, the antenna has E plane and H plane patterns

each with co- and cross-polarizations. The E plane pattern refers to the plane containing the

electric field vector (Eq) and the direction of maximum radiation with Ef as cross-polarization

components. Similarly, the H plane pattern contains the magnetic field vector (Hq) and the

direction of maximum radiation with Hf as cross-polarization components. The radiation

pattern of antenna is a 3-D plot and hence the co-ordinate system used for the same is the

spherical co-ordinate (r, q, f), with antenna to be located at the origin [see Fig. 3.8(a)].

In direction of the maximum beam, the angle between the two directions in which the

radiation intensity is half of that of maximum value is termed the half power BW (HPBW).

In other words, the half power BW is the range in degrees in which the radiation falls to

76 Antenna and Wave Propagation

one half of its maximum values (or 3 dB down). Usually it referred to as 3 dB beam width

and it increases as side lobes decrease and vice versa. It is a very important figure of merit,

used to describe the resolution capabilities of an antenna. The half-power beam width is

approximately equal to FNBW. Two- and three-dimensional antenna radiation patterns along

with HPBW, FNBW and all lobe levels are shown in Figs. 3.8(b) and (c) respectively. In

particular, the radiation pattern of a half-wave dipole antenna is shown in Fig. 3.8(d). The

side lobes are power radiation peaks in addition to the main lobe. They are given as the

number of decibels below the main lobe peak. FNBW refers to first null beam width. In

practice the test antenna is used as receiver and Tx antenna is placed in the far-field region

of the test antenna and vice versa; this is because radiated fields are plane waves in the

vicinity of the Tx antenna.

Major lobe

Side lobe

Minor lobes

y

Back lobe

Minor lobes

x

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 77

0 dB

10

20

30

Antenna

A convenient equation for predicting the HPBW of an antenna is also given by [5].

M0

HPBW = K (3.37)

DA

where DA is the aperture dimension in the plane of pattern. K is constant; one can use

K = 70. So, if the length of antenna is 5 cm, the beam width at 20 GHz, in the plane of

length, will be 70.

Side lobe level (SLL) is defined as the ratio of the pattern value of a side lobe peak

to the pattern value of the main lobe. The largest side lobe level for the whole pattern is the

maximum (relative) side lobe level. Mathematically, it is given by

F (SLL)

(SLL)dB = 20 log (3.38)

F (max)

where |F(max)| is the maximum value of the pattern magnitude and |F(SLL)| is the pattern

value of the maximum of the highest side lobe magnitude. For a normalized pattern, F(max)

is 1.

Resolution of an antenna is equal to half of the first null beam width, i.e. FNBW/2.

That is, if any antenna has FNBW = 3, so it has resolution of 1.5. We also know that half

power beam width is approximately equal to half of FNBW, i.e. HPBW = FNBW/2 and

product of HPBW in two orthogonal planes of the antenna pattern is referred as solid beam

angle or antenna beam area, i.e.

FNBW FNBW

: A = (R E , R H ) HPBW =

2 E 2 H

which reveals that the total number of transmitters (N, say) of radiation distributed uniformly

over sky, which an antenna could resolve, is approximately proportional to 4p/WA. Hence

D = N = 4p/WA. That is ideally the number of transmitter/point sources that an antenna can

resolve is numerically equal to the directivity of the antenna.

78 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Radiation intensity in a given direction is defined as the power per unit solid angle radiated

by the antenna in that direction, i.e.

dPr

U= W/Sr (3.39)

d:

However, the radiation power density P is the Poynting vector magnitude of the far-field, i.e.

dPr

P= W/m 2 (3.40)

ds

There is radiation between radiation intensity and radiation power density

U = r2 P (3.41)

Radiation intensity is useful in calculating gain and directivity of an antenna. It is measured

in W/Sr. The far-field magnitude depends on r as r1 and hence the power density of the far-

field depends on r (distance from the source) as r2. Thus the radiation intensity U is

independent from the distance (r) and depends only on the direction (q, f), i.e., angular

positions. In the far-field region, the radial field component vanishes, and the remaining

transverse component of the electric and magnetic fields are in phase and have magnitude

related by |E| = h |H|. That is why the far-field Poynting vector has only a radial component

and it is a real number corresponding to the radiation density

2

1 E 1

IH

2

Prad = P = = (3.42)

2 I 2

r2 2 1 2

U (R , G ) = E = r 2I H (3.43)

2I 2

2

If Eq and Ef are the field components of E along q and f directions E = ER2 (r, R , G ) + EG2 (r, R , G ) .

Then, Eq. (3.43) reduces to

r2

U (R , G ) = ER2 (r, R , G ) + EG2 (r , R , G ) (3.44a)

2I

1

or U (R , G ) = ER2p (R , G ) + EG2p (R , G ) (3.44b)

2I

Equations (3.44a and b) lead to a useful relation between the field pattern and power

pattern.

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 79

These are given by

Pr

P(r , R , G ) =

4Q r 2

Pr

U (R , G ) = r 2 P = = constant

4Q

U (R , G ) = 1 (3.45)

where U (R , G ) is normalized radiation intensity. From Eq. (3.45), it is clear that the normalized

radiation pattern of an isotropic radiator is simply a sphere of unit radius.

Beam efficiency is defined as the ratio of the power radiated in a cone of angle 2q1

(say) and the total radiated power. The angle 2q1 can be generally any angle, but usually

this is the first null beam width, i.e.

2Q R1

Beam efficiency =

PR 1

=

U (R , G ) sin R dR dG

0 0

(3.46)

Q Q

PT 2

U (R , G) sin R dR dG

0 0

Equation (3.46) defines beam efficiency, provided the antenna has its major lobe directed

along the z-axis (q = 0). If q1 is the angle where the FNBWs minima occurs in two

orthogonal planes, then the beam efficiency will represent only the part of the total radiated

power channeled through the main beam. Antennas of very high beam efficiency are needed

in radar, radiometry and astronomy.

One steradian is the solid angle with its vertex at the centre of a sphere of radius r,

which is subtended by a spherical surface of area equal to that of a square with each side

of length r. It is defined as

S:

Solid angle (W) = Sr (3.47)

r2

where SW is angular area. As infinitesimal area ds on a surface of a sphere of radius r in a

spherical co-ordinate is given by ds = r2 sin q dq df (in m2).

ds

Therefore, d: = = sin R dR dG (Sr) (3.48)

r2

and ds = r2 dW

80 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Effective Aperture

It is the ratio of the available power at the terminals of the antenna to the power flux density

of a plane wave incident upon the antenna which is polarization matched to the antenna, i.e.

PA

Ae = (3.49)

Wi

where PA = power delivered to the load from the antenna

Wi = power flux density of the incident wave

In case a specific direction is chosen, the direction of maximum radiation intensity is implied.

For aperture types of antenna, the effective area is smaller than the physical aperture area.

Aperture antennas (i.e., parabolic reflector and dish) with constant amplitude and phase

distribution across the aperture have the maximum effective area, which is practically equal

to the geometrical area. The effective aperture of the wire antenna is much larger than the

surface area of the wire itself. Using the Thevenin equivalent of a receiving antenna, the

effective aperture can be expressed in terms of the antenna impedance as

2 2

I A RL /2 VA RL

Ae = = (3.50)

Wi 2Wi (Rr + Rl + RL )2 + ( X A + X L )2

Equation (3.50) reduces to

2

VA

Ae =

8Wi (RA = Rl + Rr )

i.e.

2

VA

Ae = if Rl = 0 (3.51)

8Wi Rr

The effective area, beam solid angle and gain of an antenna is linked by the expressions

4Q Ae

AeW A = l 2 and G= (3.52)

M2

Hence, maximum effective area (Aem) can be given by

DM 2 M2

Aem = = = 0.077 M 2

4Q 4Q

i.e., all the lossless antenna must have Ae 0.0077l2.

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 81

The aperture efficiency of an antenna is defined as ratio of the effective aperture area

Ae

and its physical area, i.e., I p = , where Ae effective area and Ap physical area of antenna.

Ap

We also know that even in case of lossless antenna only half of power delivered to the

load (received), although there is conjugate matched impedance. Another half power dissipated

back or scattered into space. Power delivered to the load is product of antenna effective area

and incident power density. Therefore to account for another half power density, scattered

and dissipated power, we must define scattered loss and capture areas, such as effective area.

It is an area which produces scattered/re-radiated power when multiplied with the incident

power density, i.e.

2

Ps I A Rr

Ps = As Wi As = = m2 (3.53)

Wi 2Wi

In case of conjugate matched impedance

2 2

VA Rr VA Rr

As = 2

= m2 (3.54)

8Wi (Rr + Rl ) 8Wi RA2

where Rr + Rl = RA

Hence, scattered power

2

VA Rr

Ps = AsWi = W (3.55)

8 RA2

Loss area

The loss area is defined as the equivalent area which leads to power dissipated from the

antenna under multification with incident power density. Therefore, similar to Eq. (3.54), we get

2

VA Rl

Al = m2 (3.56)

8Wi RA2

2

VA Rl

and power loss Pl = W (3.57)

8 RA2

Capture area

The area which when multiply with the incident wave power density produces the total

power intercepted by the antenna.

82 Antenna and Wave Propagation

2

PT I A ( Rr + Rl + RL )

Ac = = (3.58)

Wi 2Wi

2 2

VA (Rr + Rl + RL ) VA (RA + RL )

Ac = =

8 Wi (Rr + Rl )2 8 Wi (RA )2

2

VA

= when RA = RL (3.59)

4Wi RA2

On multiplication by the incident power density, Eq. (3.59) leads to total power captured by

the antenna. In general, capture area is the sum of effective area, loss area and scattered area.

A c = Ae + Al + As (3.60)

Under conjugate matching for the antennas

1

Ae = Al + As = Ac (3.61a)

2

1

Ae = Al = Ac (3.61b)

2

The effective aperture has more general application to all types of antenna.

Effective height

The effective height of an antenna is another parameter, useful for transmitting tower type

of antennas. It may be defined as the ratio of induced voltage to the incident field across the

antenna,

V

i.e. he = m (3.62)

E

In other words, the effective height of a transmitting antenna is the physical height (length)

multiplied by the ratio of the average current to the peak current, i.e. [8]

1 h I av

he =

I 0

I (z ) dz =

I0

h m (3.63)

h = physical height (m)

Iav = average current (A)

I0 = peak current (A)

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 83

V = he E = he E cos R (3.64)

he = effective height (m)

E = field intensity of incident wave (V/m)

The effective height of an antenna is also linked with radiation resistance (Rr), efficiency (h )

and effective aperture (Ae). We know that the power delivered to the load is

1 V2 he2 E

P= = (3.65)

4 Rr 4 Rr

E2

which is also equal to P = SAe = Ae (3.66)

I0

Comparing Eqs. (3.65) and (3.66) yields

Rr Ae

he = 2 m (3.67)

I

There are some additional parameters related to scattered loss and captured areas, namely

effectiveness ratio, scattered ratio and absorption ratio. They are defined as follows:

A Effective area

Effectiveness ratio (a) = =

(Ae ) max Maximum effective area

efficiency.

Scattered ratio (b )

The ratio of scattered area to effective area is known as scattered ratio (b); b = As/Ae and

its value lies between 0 and .

(Ae ) max

The ratio of maximum effective aperture to the physical aperture, H = , and its

Ap

2

VA

values lie between 0 and ; (Ae ) max = .

8Wi Rr

84 Antenna and Wave Propagation

In addition to collecting signals from the space, antenna also collects external noise from

source such as ground, sky and other obstacles present. Every object with a physical temperature

above absolute zero (0 K = 272C) radiates the energy and amount of radiated energy is

represented by an equivalent temperature (TB), which is also known as brightness temperature

and expressed as (see [8]).

TB(q, f) = xmTp = (1 |r|2)Tp (3.68)

where xm = emissivity and 0 xm 1

Tp = physical temperature (0 K)

r = reflection coefficient of surface wave for the polarization of wave

Antenna noise is generally not a major component field of total system noise unless

very low noise converters (LNCs) are being used. But, if 1 dB (say) noise figure is being

used, we must attention to the antenna noise. For a lossless antenna, antenna temperature is

strong related to the temperature of distant region of space coupled to the antenna through

its radiation resistance. In this regard, the receiving antenna may be considered a remote

sensing temperature measuring device. Actually the equivalent temperature caused by the

surrounding sources is intercepted by the antenna and appears at the antenna terminals as an

antenna temperature (TA). As far as temperature of antenna, receiver and surrounding (in a

measurement set-up) is concerned there are three cases.

(i) If there is no loss

If in case there is neither mismatch nor guiding structure (Tx line) losses between antenna

and the receiver, then the total noise power transferred to the receiver is given by

Pr = kTADf (3.69)

where Pr = total antenna noise power (W)

k = Boltzmanns constant = 1.38 1023 J/K

TA = antenna temperature (0 K)

Df = bandwidth (Hz)

Therefore the noise power transfer per unit available bandwidth will be

Pr = kTA W/Hz (3.70)

In particular, if an antenna has effective area (Ae) and its beam is directed as a source of

radiation, which produces a flux density (S) at the antenna, then total power received from

the source will be

Pr = S Ae Df (3.71)

Equating (3.69) and (3.71), the power density per unit bandwidth/flux density from the

source at the antenna is

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 85

2

kTA SAe 1 E Ae

S= or TA = = (3.72)

Ae k 2I0 k

h0 = 377 W (intrinsic impedance of free space)

In view of received power from any source at antenna (50% power only received at antenna),

then the total actual flux density/Poynting vector is twice of present flux density (S). Hence

2 SAe 1 Et Ae

2

I0 Ht 2 Ae

TA = = = (3.73)

k I0 k k

Once the antenna temperature is known, the source temperature (Ts) can also be determined

in terms of TA and solid beam angle as follows:

: S TA

Ts = when (Ws < WA) (3.74)

:A

WA = antenna solid beam angle (deg)

(ii) If there is transmission loss

If Tx line used between antenna and receiver is lossy, then the antenna temperature seen at

the receiver must have significant modification to include the lines losses. As a result, we

need to modify the antenna noise power at the receiver input. If l is length of Tx line, T0

is constant physical temperature and a is uniform attenuation, then the effective temperature

at the receiver terminals is given by

Te = TAe2a l + T0(1 e2a l) (3.75)

and total effective power received

(Pr)e = kTeDf (3.76)

If the receiver has its own centre temperature Tr (due to thermal noise), the system noise

power at the receiver terminals is given by

Ps = k(Te + Tr)Df = kTs Df (3.77)

where Ts = system noise temperature = (Tr + Te)

Te = effective antenna noise temperature

Tr = receiver noise temperature

Ps = system noise power (W)

86 Antenna and Wave Propagation

The noise introduced by a network may also be expressed as effective noise temperature (Te).

Effective noise temperature defined as that fictional temperature at the input of the network,

which would account for additional noise introduced by the network itself at the output.

Effective noise temperature (Te) is related to noise figure (F) as follows (see [9]):

Te + T0

F=

T0

T

or Te = (F 1)T0 and F = 1 + e (3.78)

T0

A complete set-up of receiver arrangement for system noise power measurement, along

with TA, TB, Te, and Tr, is shown in Fig. 3.9.

Te TA TB

Ts = Te + Tr

Tx line

Receiver Length, l

Antenna

The devices with no gain (i.e., attenuators) have a noise figure equal to their attenuation,

L (absolute value, not in dB), provided their physical temperature equals T0. Thus, for an

attenuator at a physical temperature Tphy, the effective noise temperature is Te = (L 1)Tphy.

Thus giving a noise figure

(L 1)Tphy

F =1+

T0

The SNR is defined as the ratio of power received to system noise power, i.e.

Pr

SNR =

PN

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 87

in which the system noise power PN (in watts) is related with the system noise temperature

Ts as follows:

PN = kTsDf

Pr

i.e. SNR = (3.79)

kTs 'f

In general, both signal and noise powers must be measured at the same/equivalent point in

a system and within the same bandwidth. However, if the signal and the noise are measured

across the same impedances, then the SNR can also be calculated in terms of amplitudes.

2

Pr A

SNR = = S

PN AN

P A

SNR(dB) = 10 log r = 20 log S

PN AN

where AS and AN are the rms values of amplitudes. From Friis equation, the received power

by an antenna is

2

M

Pr = Pt Gt Gr

4Q R

Therefore

2

PG G M

SNR = t t r

kTs 'f 4 Q R

We also know that maximum directive gain and effective area of an antenna are related as

4Q Aet 4 Q Aer

Gt = and Gr =

M 2

M2

Hence the value of SNR reduces to

Pt Aet Aer

SNR = (3.80)

(M R)2 kTs 'f

ANTENNA COUPLING

Like other parameters, it also important to discuss the interaction (coupling) between two

antennas paced at finite distance in space for the purposes of Tx and Rx of EM waves. In

order to describe the coupling between two antennas let us consider Fig. 3.10(a). Using the

relations of voltages and currents at the terminals of each antenna as a pair of coupled equations

88 Antenna and Wave Propagation

V2 = Z21I1 + Z22I2 (3.81b)

If the medium of transmission between antennas is merely free space (which is linear

and isotropic), then Z12 = Z21, representing the general form of the reciprocity theorem,

which states that: If I1 is a current applied to the terminals of Antenna (1) and the terminal

of Antenna (2) is opened (i.e. I2 = 0), then a voltage V2 will appear at the terminals of

Antenna (2) or vice versa at terminals (2) and (1), i.e. I1 = 0 and V1 appears at Antenna (1).

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 89

Then

V2 V1

= (3.82)

I1 I 2 =0

I2 I1 = 0

i.e. the ratio of each driving currents to its resulting open circuit voltages are the same.

Again from Eq. (3.81a), we have

V1

Z12 = (3.83a)

I2 I1 = 0

V2

Z 21 = (3.83b)

I1 I2 = 0

Thus, Eq. (3.81a and 3.81b) becomes

V1 = Z11I1 + ZmI2 (3.84a)

V2 = ZmI1 + Z22I2 (3.84b)

These equations may be represented as a lumped two-port equivalent circuit [Fig. 3.10(b)].

Equation (3.84) and [Fig. 3.10(b)] are an exact representation of coupling between two

antennas. If Antenna 1 is driven by source with phase source voltage Vs of impedance Zs and

Antenna 2 is terminated in a load impedance ZL, then input impedance (Z1) to Antenna 1,

[see Fig. 3.10(c)], becomes

Z 2 = (Z 22 Z m ) + Z m {(Z11 Z m ) + Z s } (3.85b)

Voc21 = I1Zm

The power delivered by the source to Antenna 1 becomes

1 2

PT = I1 R1 (3.86a)

2

and similarly, power delivered to the matched load will be

2

I1 Z m

PR = (3.86b)

8R2

90 Antenna and Wave Propagation

provided the load is matched to the receiving antenna, i.e., ZL = ZB (impedance across BB),

where R1 and R2 are resistive parts of impedances Z1 and Z2. Therefore, from Eq. (3.86), we

get

2

PR Zm

= (3.87)

PT 4R1 R2

where Zm is known as mutual impedance between the antennas.

Suppose we modify the arrangement of elements shown in Fig. 3.10(c), and place the

voltage source Vs in the terminated circuit of Antenna 2, retaining impedances Zs and ZL at

their original positions [as shown in Fig. 3.10(d)]. The open-circuited voltage source Voc12

is given by

Voc12 = I2 . Zm (3.88)

In this situation, it is found that Z 1 = Zs and Z 2 = ZL, where Z 1 and Z 2 are impedances at

Antenna 1 and Antenna 2 in case of re-arrangement of elements [see Fig. 3.10(d)]. So, we

can conclude that the input impedance of an antenna when it is used for transmission is

equal to the equivalent source impedance when it is used for reception, provided the terminal

impedances for each antenna remain unchanged.

If the distance between antennas is large, Zm will be small compared to Z11 and Z22,

and Z1 = Z 1 = Z11 and Z2 = Z 2 = Z22 will be independent from the source and load impedances,

Zs and ZL. Equation (3.87) indicates that the amount of power coupled inversely depends on

R1 and R2 and directly on Zm. The coupling impedance (Zm) is related to angular position

(q, f) in the same manner, whether antenna is used as transmitter or receiver. Hence, by

interchanging R1 and R2, when the roles of the antennas are reversed, we can measure the Tx

and Rx patterns of the antennas and obtain the desire results.

Antenna Polarization

In general, polarization of EM waves is a time-harmonic field characteristic. In the case of

antennas, we are concerned with polarization of fields in a plane normal to the direction of

propagation. This is because in the far-field zone, the longitudinal field components are

negligible, i.e., the field is a quasi-TEM field. The type of polarization, where the field

vector at a given point traces an ellipse (termed polarization ellipse) as a function of time,

is known as elliptical polarization. This is the most general type of polarization obtained for

any phase difference dL between the fields and the field ratio (Ey/Ex). Linear and circular

polarizations are the special cases of elliptical polarization. The circular polarization may be

classified as RHCP and LHCP. Like the circular polarization, elliptical polarization can be

RHEP and LHEP, depending on the relation between the direction of propagation and the

direction of rotation. With reference to Fig. 3.11, the parameters of the polarization ellipse

are given by

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 91

( )

1/2

1

Major axis OA = E x2 + E y2 + E x4 + E y4 + 2 E x2 E y2 cos(2E L ) (3.89a)

2

( )

1/2

1 2

Minor axis OB = E x + E y E x4 + E y4 + 2 E x2 E y2 cos(2E L )

2

(3.89b)

2

1 2E x E y

and tilt angle U = arc tan 2 2

cos E L (3.90)

2 E x + E y

The representation of a complex vector in terms of CP components is comparatively less

easy, but more useful in calculation of the polarization parameters. Here the total field is

represented as the superposition of two CP waves: left and right handed CP.

E = EL(x iy) + ER(x + iy)

or = x(ER + EL) + iy(ER EL) (3.91a)

Equation (3.91a) represents the relation between the linear components and circular

components of the field polarization with x and y as the unit vectors. If dL is the relative

phase difference between ER and EL, then dL = fL fR, where fL and fR are phase angles

of LHCP and RHCP waves. Then (Eq. 3.91a) can be re-written as

E = ER(x + iy) + ELejdL(x iy) (3.91b)

92 Antenna and Wave Propagation

The polarization vector S L is a normalized phasor of the electric field vector and it is a

complex-number vector of unit magnitude, i.e., S L S L = 1. Mathematically it is given by

E Ex Ey

S L = =x +y e jE L with ET = E x2 + E y2 (3.92)

ET ET ET

Ex Ey

S LL = x +y (linear polarization) (3.93a)

ET ET

Ex 1

S LC = ( x jy) = ( x jy) (circular polarization) (3.93b)

Ex 2 2

as E x = E x and ET = 2 E x = 2 E y

The polarization ratio is the ratio of the phasors of the two orthogonal polarization components.

It is a complex number and mathematically it is given by

Ey E y e jE L EV

rL = rL eE L = = or rL = (3.94)

Ex Ex EH

However, in the case of circular components, the polarization ratio is defined as rc = rcejdc

= ER/EL. It is also known as circular polarization ratio, where t = dc/2 is termed the tilt

angle. The circular polarization ratio rc is of particular interest, since the axial ratio (AR) of

rc + 1

the polarization ellipse can be expressed as AR = .

rc 1

In general, the polarization of the receiving antenna differs from the polarization of the

incident wave; the condition is termed polarization mismatch. A parameter representing the

loss of EM power due to polarization mismatch is known as polarization loss factor (PLF)

and given by (see [10]).

PLF = |ri ra|2 (3.95)

where ri and ra are the polarization vectors of incident wave and receiving antenna respectively.

The polarization efficiency has the same physical sense as the PLF. The value of polarization

loss factor lies between 0 and 1 (i.e. 0 PLF 1). If PLF = 1, then antenna is polarization-

matched and there is no polarization power loss. If PLF = 0, then the antenna is incapable

of receiving the signal.

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 93

RECIPROCITY THEOREM

There are several forms of the reciprocity theorem; however, the most common one is: If

an emf is applied to the terminals of Antenna 1 (Tx) and current is measured at the terminals

of Antenna 2 (Rx), then an equal current (in both amplitude and phase) would be observed

at the terminals of Antenna 1 (Tx) in case the same emf is applied to the terminals of antenna

2 (Rx). This theorem was originally proposed by Rayleigh in 1929. There are some considerations

involved in the reciprocity theorem:

(i) The values of emf should have the same frequency, and the media between Tx and

Rx need to be linear, passive and isotropic.

(ii) Generator and ammeter need to have either zero or equal impedance. Reciprocity

theorem will be more powerful if impedances of generator and ammeter are large

(Zs = Zm = ); in such cases, the generator becomes constant source and ammeter

becomes an infinite-impedance voltmeter.

(iii) There should be polarization matching between Tx and Rx; it is necessary because

antennas (Tx/Rx) need to transmit and receive the same field components; hence

there is total power radiation. In case an antenna is used as a probe to measure the

radiation fields of AUT of different polarization, even though radiation patterns are

the same. For example, if Tx antenna is circularly polarized and probe antenna is

linearly polarized and used to measure q and f-components of radiation field one by

one, then the sum of two components can be a circularly polarized pattern in either

case of Tx/Rx mode.

In order to prove reciprocity theorem, let us refer to Figs. 3.12 and 3.13, where an

antenna is used as transmitter and receiver respectively. Since any 4-terminal network can

be reduced to an equivalent T-section, in both the cases antennas (Tx and Rx) are represented

by T-networks.

I01 Z1 Z2

I2 Zm I2

V1 V1

Mesh 1 Mesh 2

V1 V2

= Z12 = Z 21 =

I2 I1

94 Antenna and Wave Propagation

V1 V1 (Z 2 + Z m )

I 01 = = (3.96)

Z2 Zm Z1 Z m + Z1 Z 2 + Z 2 Z m

Z1 +

Z2 + Zm

(Z 2 + Z m )I 2 Z m I 01 = 0

Therefore current across the ammeter will be

I Z

I 2 = 01 m

(Z 2 + Z m )

Substituting the value of I01 from Eq. (3.96) yields

Zm V1 (Z 2 + Z m ) V1 Z m

I2 = = (3.97)

(Z 2 + Z m ) Z1 Z m + Z1 Z 2 + Z 2 Z m Z1 Z m + Z1 Z 2 + Z 2 Z m

In case Antenna 2 is used as transmitter (i.e., the location of source and ammeter is interchanged

as in Fig. 3.13), then from Mesh 1, the current I02 is

V2 V2 (Z1 + Z m )

I 02 = =

Z1 Z m Z1 Z m + Z1 Z 2 + Z 2 Z m

Z2 +

Z1 + Z m

I02 Z2 Z1

I1 Zm I1

V2 V2

Mesh 1 Mesh 2

(Z1 + Z m )I1 Z m I 01 = 0

Therefore the current across the ammeter

I Z

I1 = 02 m

(Z 2 + Z m )

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 95

V2 Z m

I1 =

Z1 Z m + Z1 Z 2 + Z 2 Z m

I1 = I2

Provided V1 = V2.

Thus the radiation pattern of Tx and Rx are the same in the two cases. Using reciprocity

theorem, it can also be proved that the effective lengths, antenna impedances and directivities

of Tx and Rx are also equal. Power flow in antennas will also be the same, provided there

is proper impedance matching in the set-up. However, there are certain limitations in the

theorem; it is true only for separate antennas and not for two points on the antennas. It is

valid for radiation pattern and not for current distribution in Tx and Rx. Reciprocity theorem

fails when wave propagation between antennas is affected by the earths magnetic fields and

also when communication takes place through the ionosphere.

SOLVED EXAMPLES

Example 3.1 The distance between two horn antennas situated in free space is 200 m. The

antennas are identical. The dimensions are 12 6 cm2 and have directive gains of 15 dB in

the direction of transmission. Determine (a) whether the receiving antenna is in the far-field

of the transmitter, (b) the received power, and (c) the electric field intensity at the receiving

antenna. Assume that the transmitting power is 5 W at a frequency of 2 GHz.

Solution: The far-field distance will be

2d 2 2 12 2

df = = = 28.8 cm

M 10

which is less than 100 m; hence both the antennas are in the far-field region of each other.

The received power is

(PR)dB = (PT)dB + (GT)dB + (GR)dB 20 log fHz 20 log Dm + 148

= 6.98 + 15 + 15 20 log (2 109) 20 log (200) + 148

= 26.98 + 148 20 (log 2 + 9 + log 2 + 2)

= 184.98 20 (9 + 0.477 + 0.2010 + 2)

= 50.58 dB = 8.75 mW

The magnitude of the electric field near the receiving antenna is obtained as

60 PT GT 60 5 31.62

E = = = 0.487 V/m

d 200

96 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Example 3.2 Calculate the maximum effective aperture of the Hertzian dipole for an incident

linearly polarized uniform wave.

Solution: Let a dipole of input impedance Zin = Rrad + jX be terminated along its length

in an impedance ZL, such that Zin = Rrad jX, i.e., the dipole is supposed to be lossless. For

maximum response, let us suppose that incident wave is striking in broadside (q = 90) to

the antenna, i.e., the axis of dipole is parallel to the electric field of the incident wave E, then

the average power density in the incident wave is

2

1 E

Sav =

2 I0

and open-circuit voltage |Voc| = |E| dl

Since there is perfect load match, maximum power transfer occurs and the power

received is

2 2

Voc E (dl)2

PR = =

8 Rrad 8 Rrad

2

E (M 0 ) 2

2

dl

Therefore, for a half-wave dipole Rrad 80 ; hence we obtained PR = , and

M 640 Q 2

PR M02

thus the maximum effective aperture is Aem = = 1.5 , as h0 = 120p, which shows that

Sav 4Q

the effective aperture does not necessarily depend on the physical aperture of antenna. We

M02

know that for Hertzian dipoles, Aem depends on frequency through l0 as Aem = Dmax . Thus

4Q

M02

maximum effective aperture of antenna reflects its directivity through , and Dmax = 1.5 in

4Q

this case, when incident angle q is 90. In general, if wave is incident at an angle q, then

induced open-circuit voltage in the antenna will be |Voc| = |E| dl sin q, as (Et = E sin q), where

Et is component of E along the dipole axis. Thus, the maximum effective aperture in this

direction is

M02 M02

em

A = 1.5 sin R = D (R , G )

4Q 4Q

where D(q, f) = 1.5 sin q.

Example 3.3 A 1 m long dipole antenna is fed by a 150 MHz source having resistance of

50 W and an open-circuited voltage of 100 V. If the radius of antenna wire is 4.06 104 m

and the wire is made up of copper, determine the total time average power radiated and the

power dissipated in the antenna.

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 97

FIG. 3.14(a) Half-dipole fed by source VA. FIG. 3.14(b) Equivalent l/2 fed by source Vs.

Solution: We know that radiation resistance and reactance of dipole antenna are Rr = 73 W,

Xin = 42.5 W and skin-depth is defined as

2 1

d = =

XNT Q f NT

1

= = 5.4 10 6 m

7

3.14 150 10 4 3.14 10

6

5.8 10 7

That is, the radius of wire is larger than the skin-depth at the given frequency. Hence, high

frequency approximation for wire resistance can be used for calculation.

Rs 1

Rw = = = 01.25 :/m

2Q rw 2 3.14 4.06 10 6

5.8 10 7 5.4 10 6

The ohmic power loss of the wires is given by

Rw l/2

2

Pl = I ( z) dz

2 l/2

2

l Im

( Pl )dipole = Rw

2 2

Therefore, the net ohmic resistance of the dipole is

Rw l

Rl = = 0.63 :

2

So, the total input impedance to the antenna as seen by the source is

98 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Vs 100 < 0 o

IA = = = 0.765 < 18.97o A

(Rs + Z A ) (50 + 73.63 + j 42.5)

1 2 1 2

Prad = I A Rrad = 0.765 73 = 21.36 W

2 2

1 2 1 2

Ploss = IA Rloss = 0.765 0.63 = 184 mW

2 2

Rrad 73

and efficiency I% = = = 99.10%

Rrad + Rloss 73 + 0.63

This efficiency can be improved further by cancelling reactance Xin at the antenna terminal

(i.e., by Xin), a capacitor whose reactance is equal to Xin at 150 MHz, i.e.,

1

= X in = 42.5 : C = 25 pF

XC

Under this condition, antenna current becomes

VS 100 < 0 o

IA = = = 0.809 < 0 o

Rl + Rr 123.63

1 2 1 2

Prad = IA Rrad = 0.809 73 = 23.89 W

2 2

1 2 1 2

Ploss = IA Rloss = 0.809 0.63 = 206.8 mW

2 2

Example 3.4 Find the maximum effective aperture and directivity of the Hertizian dipole

at the frequency of 20 MHz, if an uniform linearly polarized wave incident at an angle 45,

and also find Voc if E = 10 V/m and length is 5 cm.

Solution: (i) We know that for a dipole antenna

D(q, f) = 1.5 sin q

1

= 1.5 sin 45o = 1.5 = 1.061

2

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 99

M02

(ii) Hence Aem = Dmax

4Q

300 300

where M0 = = = 10 m

f MHz 30

10 2

Aem = 1.061 = 8.45 m

4 3.14

(iii) Voc = Edl sinR

1

= 10 5 10 2 sin 45o = 10 5 10 2 = 0.25 V

2

Example 3.5 Determine the maximum effective aperture and directivity of a short dipole,

supposed to be operated at f = 450 GHz.

Solution:

300 300

M0 = = = 67 cm

f MHz 450

Maximum effective aperture can be found only when antenna losses are zero, i.e., RL =

Rr + R l

RL = Rr is radiation resistance.

2

VA

We also know that =

8 Wi Rr

where VA is induced voltage in the dipole and equals |E|dl.

2 2

1 E dl

Also Wi = and Rr = 80 Q 2

2 I0 M

Therefore Aem = = =

E2 2

320 Q 2 8Q

2 dl

8 80 Q

2 I0 M0

Example 3.6 In a 20 km microwave communication link, two identical antennas are operating

at frequency 20 GHz with a power gain of 40 dB. The transmitted power is 1.5 W. Find the

received power if there are no losses.

100 Antenna and Wave Propagation

40

Therefore, G = antilog = 10 4

10

300

M= = 1.5 10 2 m , Wt = 1.5 W and r = 3 104 m

20 10 3

2

Wr M

We know that = Gt Gr

Wt 4Q r

2

1.5 10 2

2

Wr 2 M 4 2

= G Wt = (10 ) 1.5

4

Wt 4Q r 4 3.14 3 10

= = = 2.377 10 7 = 23.77 W

(37.68 10) 1419.78

Example 3.7 An antenna with effective temperature 25 K is fed into a microwave amplifier

that has an effective noise temperature of 30 K. Find the available noise power for a noise

bandwidth of 5 MHz.

Solution: Te = 25 K, Tr = 30 K and Df = 5 106 MHz

Hence, Ps = k(Te + Tr) Df = 1.38 1023 (25 + 30) 5 106

= 3.795 1015 W

and therefore the power per unit bandwidth = 7.59 1022 W/Hz.

Example 3.8 The radial component of the radiated power density of an infinitesimal linear

dipole of length l << l is given by

ar Pm sin 2R

Pav = 2

W/m 2

r

where Pm = peak value of power density

q = spherical co-ordinate

ar = radial unit

Find directivity and then effective aperture of the antenna at l = 1.5 m.

Pm sin 2R

Solution: Given that Pr = , as Pav = ar Pr

r2

Therefore the radiation density U = r2Pr = Pm sin2q.

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 101

The total power radiated can be obtained by

2Q Q

UT = U d : = 0 0

Pm sin 2 R sin R dR dG

Q 2 8Q

= Pm [2Q ] 0

sin 3 R dR = 4Q Pm

3

=

3

Pm

4QU max 4 Q Pm 3

D= = = 1.5

Prad 8Q

Ae = D= = 0.27 m 2

4Q 4 3.14

Example 3.9 Calculate the effective height of a half-wave dipole antenna operating at

l = 1.55 m if maximum effective area Aem = 0.15 l2.

Solution: We know that

Rr Aem 73 0.15 M 2

he = 2 =2

I 377

= 0.3174 M = 0.3174 1.55 = 0.5 m

Example 3.10 The electric field intensity of wave radiated by an antenna is defined by

Em = sin q sin f, where q is the angle measured from the z-axis and f is the angle measured

from the x-axis. E has value only for 0 q p and 0 f p and zero elsewhere (i.e., the

pattern is unidirectional with maxima in y-direction). Find the exact and approximate directivities

and decibel difference. Also, find the average power density and radiation resistance if the

antenna current is 4.5 A.

Solution: We know that

2Q Q P(R , G ) sin R

Pav =

0 0 4Q

dR dG

E (R , G )

EN = in which Emax = (q, f) = sin 90 sin 90 = 1

Emax (R , G )

102 Antenna and Wave Propagation

E2 E2

P(R , G ) = =

I0 377

2Q Q sin 3R sin G 2Q /3

Pav =

0 0 4Q 120 Q

dR dG =

4 3.14 120Q

= 1.38 10 3 W/Sr

Pmax (R , G ) = =

120 Q 120 Q

Normalized power densities

4Q 4Q

D1 = 2Q Q

= =6

2Q /3

0 0

sin 3R sin G dR dG

41000 41000

D2 = = = 5.1

R ER H 90 90

6.0

D = D1 D2 = 10 log = 0.7 dB

5.1

Q 2Q

R=

P:

=

0

sin 3 R 0

sin G dR dG

=

2Q /3

I 2

120Q (4.5) 2

120 Q (4.5)2

= 2.743 :

Example 3.11 If an antenna radiates over a half space above a perfect conducting ground

plane such that E = 60 102 V/m at a distance of 2 km from the antenna. Calculate the

radiated power and the radiation resistance if the antenna terminal current is 60 mA.

Solution: We know that the power density is given by

E2 (60 10 2 )2

S= = = 9.54 10 4 W/m 2

I0 377

Pr = 2Q r 2 S = 2 3.14 (2 10 3 )2 9.54 10 4

= 2.39 10 4 :

1 2 Pr

Pt = I 02 Rr Rr =

2 I 02

2 2.39 10 4

Rr = = 97.55 10 2 k:

(70 10 3 )2

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 103

G

E i = x Em (x, y)e j C z

G

Ea = (x + y ) E (r, R , K )

Find the PLF.

relative permittivity 4.5. Find the average power per unit area covered by the waves

Ex = 3 sin(w t bx) and Ey = 7 sin(w t bx 60)

2

1 1

Solution: (a) PLF = x (x + y ) =

2 2

Hence, PLF (dB) = 10 log 0.5 = 3.

(b) We know that average power per unit area is equal to the average Poynting vector.

1 E2 1 E2 F r

Sav = =

2 I 2 I0

E 2 = E12 + E22 = 9 + 49 = 58

1 58 4.5

Sav = = 16.32 10 3 W/m 2

2 377

Solution: In practice the AUT is used as receiver and Tx antenna is placed in the far-field

region of the test antenna and vice versa. This is because radiated fields are plane waves in

the vicinity of test antenna.

Example 3.14 Show that the SNR for a communication link at 1 W transmitter and isotropic

antenna is given by

M2

SNR =

kTS 'f (4Q R)2

Solution: We know that

2

t t Gr M

PG

SNR =

kTS 'f 4Q R

104 Antenna and Wave Propagation

2

1 1 1 M

SNR =

kTS 'f 4Q R

M2

SNR =

(4Q R)2 kTS 'f

Example 3.15 Find SNR of a communication link operating with 50 MHz bandwidth over

a distance of 1500 km if the parabolic dish antennas of 1 m diameter operating at 3 GHz.

The transmitter power is 10 W and the receiver system temperature is 200 K.

Solution: The power gain of parabolic circular antenna is

2 2

D 1

Gt = Gr = 6.289 = 6.289 = 628.9

M 0.1

2

t t Gr M

PG

SNR =

kTS 'f 4Q R

2

10 628.9 628.9 0.1

= 2

1.38 10 23 200 50 10 6 4 3.14 1500 10

earth station of 35 dB over 1 W isotropic. Determine SNR under the following specifications:

(i) Rx antenna effective area = 3.53 m2, temperature = 25 K

(ii) Receiver temperature = 75 K and bandwidth = 20 MHz

(iii) Distance between earth and satellite is 26000 km

Solution:

We know that ERP = PtGt

Since

2

Pt Gt Gr M

SNR =

kTS 'f 4 Q R

ERP M 2 Gr

=

4 Q R 2 kTS ' 4 Q

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 105

ERP Aer

or SNR =

4Q R kTS 'f

2

M 2Gr

where Aer =

4Q

Since the receiver system consists of an antenna and a receiver, hence Tsys = 75 + 25

= 100 K.

ERP = 35 dB = 3163

3162 3.53

SNR = 22 6

4 3.14 1.38 10 100 26 10 20 10

2 12

11161.86

SNR = = 16.6 = 12.2 dB

672.899

Example 3.17 An ideal omni-directional antenna has constant radiation in the horizontal plane

(q), and would fall rapidly to zero outside that plane, in such a way that the pattern follows:

F(0) = 1 for 60 q 120

= 0 elsewhere

Find its directivity.

Solution: The solid beam angle

2Q 120

:A = (F (R , G )2 ) d : = 0 60

12 sin R dR dG

= 2Q { cos (R )}120

60 = 2Q (0.5 + 0.5) = 2Q

Therefore, directivity

4Q

D= = 2 or 3.010 dB

2Q

Example 3.18 Describe the difference between directivity and gain. Are they the same in

any case?

Solution: Directivity of an antenna would be the same as gain, provided all the input

power given appeared as radiated power, i.e. Pin = Pr. However, gain reflects the fact that

practical antenna cannot function as ideal antenna. Some of the power always lost in the

antenna and surroundings. This fact introduces a new parameter called efficiency, those

values lie between 0 and 1.

Pr

I=

Pin

106 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Example 3.19 What are the different units for gain measurement?

Solution: There are three units for gain measurement: dB, dBi and dBd. Of these, dB is

absolute gain, dBi is gain relative to isotropic reference antennas, and dBd is gain relative

to half-wave reference antennas. The dBi and dBd gains are related as follows: dBd = dBi 2.15.

For example, 6.1 dB of any antenna can also be expressed as 6.1 dB = 6.1 dBi = 3.95 dBd.

Solution: There are the following differences and similarities between these antennas:

(i) The physical length (Dz) of both the dipoles are the same (Dz << l).

(ii) Both the dipoles have equal directivity (= 1.5), because pattern shape completely

determines directivity.

(iii) The ideal dipole has uniform current distribution (rectangular in shape); the current

on the wire smoothly goes zero at the ends, whereas in short dipole current distribution

is approximately triangular in shape and then goes to zero at the ends (see Fig. 3.15).

(iv) Since the length of both the dipoles satisfies (Dz << l), the pattern of short dipole

will also be sin q, the same as the radiation pattern of ideal dipole.

(v) The radiation resistance of short dipole is one-fourth of that of ideal dipole, because

area is one-half of that of ideal dipole.

(vi) The ohmic resistance of short dipole is one-third of that of ideal dipole.

(vii) Since the radiation resistance decreases more relatively to the ohmic resistance, the

efficiency is lower for the short dipole than it is for an ideal dipole for the same length.

FIG. 3.15 Current distribution along (a) ideal dipole and (b) short dipole.

Example 3.21 Radiation resistance of a short dipole is one-fourth of that of an ideal dipole. Why?

Solution: In short dipole, its triangular current distribution leads to an equivalent length, that

is, one-half of its physical length. This is because the equivalent length is proportional to the area

under the current versus distance curves (see Fig. 3.15). In turn, radiated fields are proportional

to this equivalent length. Since the radiation resistance is proportional to the far-field squared,

the radiation resistance will also be proportional to the equivalent length squared. Since the area

of triangular shape current distribution is one-half of that uniform current distribution on the ideal

dipole, so the radiation resistance is one-fourth of that of the ideal dipole and it is equal to

2

'z

R = 20Q

2

M

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 107

Example 3.22 Find the radiation resistance of a 1.575-m long short dipole operating at

10 6 S

1 MHz, if the diameter of the wire T = 2 is 1.59 cm.

m

Solution:

2

1.575 2

Rr = 20Q 2 = 5.45 10 :

200

2

NX 4Q 10 7 2Q 10 6 2

RS = = = 1.40 10 :

2T 2.2 10 6

RL = = 2

= 7.26 10 2 :

2.2 Q a 2 2 3.14 1.59 10

Rr 5.45 10 2

I= = = 6.7%

Rr + RL 5.45 10 2 + 7.26 10 2

Example 3.23 Derive the expression for an antenna following the pattern:

Q Q

1, for B R + B

F= 2 2

0, elsewhere

2Q Q /2+B

:A = [F (R , G )2 ] d : = 0 Q /2 B

12 sin R dR dG

Q Q

= 2Q { cos (R )}QQ /2+ B

/2 B = 2Q cos + B cos + B

2 2

= 2p (2 sin a) = 4p sin a

Therefore, directivity

4Q

D= = cosec B

4 Q sin B

108 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Example 3.24 Describe the importance of impedance matching in the antenna system.

Solution: Antenna impedance is important for the transfer of power, whether from a transmitter

to an antenna or from an antenna to a receiver. In order to maximize the power at the Rx

antenna, the receiver impedance should be conjugate to the antenna impedance (equal resistance,

equal magnitude and opposite sign). In general, receivers have real value impedance, typically

50 W, so it is necessary to turn out the antenna reactance using a matching network.

Solution: There are two disadvantages of impedance matching in antenna systems:

(i) Ohmic losses in the network components, such as tuning, reduces antenna efficiency;

(ii) Matching network provides a matching only over a narrow band of frequencies, which

reduces the functional bandwidth of the antenna.

Example 3.26 (a) Define plane waves; (b) Sketch linear and circular polarizations.

Solution: (a) The phase-front (surface of constant phase) of wave radiated by a finite-

sized antenna becomes nearly planar over small observation regions. This wave is referred

as a plane wave and its E and H lie in a plane.

(b) If the electric field vector of a wave moves back and forth along a line, the wave

is said to be linearly polarized, whereas if the E-vector remains constant in length and rotate

around the axis, the wave is said to be circularly polarized. Rotation at radian frequency w,

in one of two directions, is termed sense of rotation (Fig. 3.16).

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 109

(a) J.C. Bose (1900, India) (b) Maxwell (1800, USA)

(c) J.D. Kraus (1789, UK) (d) None of these

2. Directivity of antenna is determined by

(a) Gain (b) Impedance pattern

(c) Radiation pattern (d) Efficiency

3. Which is not a modern antenna?

(a) Dipole antenna (b) Slot antenna

(c) Reflector antenna (d) Lens antenna

4. Power loss during power transformation through antenna at distance R is proportional

to (R2), whereas power loss during power transformation through a Tx line at

distance R is proportional to

(a) (R2) (b) (R2)

a R

(c) e (d) (eaR)2

5. Directive antennas are useful in point to point communication, whereas omni-directional

antennas are useful in

(a) Broadside situation (b) Microwave ovens

(c) As a feed in reflector (d) None of these

6. Double polarized antennas enable the doubling of communication capacity by carrying

separate information on orthogonal polarizations over the same physical link and at

(a) Different frequency (b) Same frequency

(c) Both of these (d) None of these

7. A type of antenna acts as a funnel and directs the waves into the connecting wave-

guide. This is the

(a) Horn antenna (b) Slot antenna

(c) Reflector (d) Lens antenna

Select the properties which are not possessed by the given antennas in Questions 810:

8. Electrically small antennas

(a) High directivity (b) Low input impedance

(c) High input reactance (d) Low radiation efficiency

9. Resonant antennas

(a) Moderate gain (b) Real input impedance

(c) Narrow bandwidth (d) Finite reactance

10. Broadband antennas

(a) Wide BW (b) Real input impedance

(c) Constant gain (d) High reactance

110 Antenna and Wave Propagation

(a) 1/r (b) 1/r2

(c) r2 (d) None of these

12. The distance at which far- and near-fields are equal is (l/2p) is termed

(a) Radian sphere (b) Radian distance

(c) Equi-distance (d) None of these

13. Ohmic losses on an antenna are due to

(a) Antenna temperature (b) Noise figure

(c) Noise temperature (d) Noise sources

14. The external noise picked up by antenna is proportional to the antenna radiation

resistance and it is larger than the noise arising from internal ohmic losses.

(a) True (b) False

(c) Not known (d) None of these

15. The reactive part of input impedance (XA) of an antenna represents power stored in the

(a) Near-field (b) Far-field

(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) Quasi-field

16. The short dipole has a capacitive reactance, whereas an electrically small dipole has

(a) Inductive reactance (b) Capacitive reactance

(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these

17. Helix antenna provides complete

(a) Linear polarization (b) Circular polarization

(c) Elliptical polarization (d) Parallel polarization

18. In general, the value of AR is +ve for RHCP and ve for LHCP. It is measured in

dB, which is converted by using

(a) 10 log AR (b) 10 loge AR

(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) 20 log AR

19. An antenna has directivity of 20 and a radiation efficiency of 90%. What is its gain

(dB)?

(a) 2.55 dB (b) 12 dB

(c) 12.55 dB (d) 90 dB

20. A horn antenna has half-power beam width of 29 in both the principal planes. What

is the directivity in dB?

(a) 22 dB (b) 45 dB

(c) 24 dB (d) 17 dB

Answers

1. (a) 2. (c) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (a)

6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (a) 9. (d) 10. (a)

11. (b) 12. (a) 13. (d) 14. (a) 15. (a)

16. (a) 17. (b) 18. (d) 19. (a) 20. (d)

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 111

EXERCISES

1. Determine the same parameters, taking d = 100 m, and dimensions of antennas are

14 cm 7 cm and operating frequency is 4 GHz.

2. Determine the same parameters and gain of receiving antenna (GR) if D = 100 m,

f = 2 GHz, PT = 5 W, PR = 21.7 mW, GR = 15 dB and the antenna dimensions are

12 cm 6 cm.

3. Determine the electric field intensity at a distance of 10 km from a dipole antenna

of directive gain of 6 dB and radiating power of 20 kW.

4. A certain antenna with an efficiency of 90% has maximum radiation intensity of

0.5 W Sr1. Determine its directivity assuming input power of 0.5 W and radiated

power of 0.4 W.

5. Determine the directivity, if the radiation intensity of an antenna is defined by

U=

0 elsewhere

2 sin 2R sin 2G

P (R , G ) =

Q

within 0 (q) p and 0 (f) p and zero elsewhere. Determine the directivity and

radiation resistance if the antenna terminal current is 2.5 A.

7. In a communication links the Tx and Rx antennas are separated by a distance of 200l

and have directive gains of 25 and 20 dB respectively. Calculate the amount of

power received, if Tx power is 1.582 W.

8. An antenna radiates in such a way that maximum radiated field strength measured

at 25 km from the antenna is 14 mW. Find, it directivity and gain in dB if efficiency

is 95%.

9. A radar operating at 2.5 GHz transmits power of 200 kW. Determine the signal

power density at ranges 200 km and 450 km, if the effective area of the radar

antenna is 9 m2 with a 20 m2 target at 200 km. Calculate the power of the reflected

signal at the radar.

10. The field pattern of an antenna is defined as

E(q) = 2 cos q . cos 2q for 0 (f) p/2

Determine HPBW and FNBW.

11. Estimate the directivity of an antenna with qE = 3 and qH = 1.5. Also calculate the

gain of the antenna if the efficiency of antenna is 60%.

112 Antenna and Wave Propagation

12. Two spacecrafts (A and B) are at a distance of 3 103 km. Each has directivity 200

at 2 GHz. If craft As receiver requires 20 dB over 1 pW, what transmitter power

is required on craft B to achieve this signal level?

13. A wave travelling normally out of the page is the result of two linearly polarized

components, Ex = 4 cos w t and Ey = 5 cos (w t + 90). For the resultant wave, find

(a) axial ratio, (b) tilt angle (t) and (c) nature of rotation (left or right).

14. What do you understand by effective area of an antenna? Show that it can be

expressed as

V2

Ae = M 2 (m2)

4 PRr

15. In a satellite communication, Tx transmits 107 W, 10 s pulse of right-hand circular

radiation at 5 GHz. The antennas at Tx and Rx have the same diameter of 100 m.

What will be the maximum distance at which the signal can be received with

SNR = 2.5 dB? Assume antennas have efficiency of 50% and the earth station has

a system temperature of 20 K and bandwidth of 0.2 Hz.

16. In a mobile communication system, a 5-m diameter antenna radiates at 800 MHz.

How much power is required to establish the link with a mobile user at 10 km with

SNR = 2 dB? The bandwidth is 2 Hz, Tsys = 20 K and effective area of Rx is 20%

of that of Tx antenna.

17. A 2-m long dipole made up of 10.5 mm diameter aluminium is operated at 500 kHz.

Compute its radiation efficiency, assuming:

(i) The uniform current distribution

(ii) The triangular current distribution

18. Compute the gain of an antenna which has radiation efficiency of 90% and follow

the radiation pattern

1 R R 20

F (R ) = 0.707 20 R 120

0 120 R 180

19. (a) Show that there is 4p (Sr) in all space by integrating dW over a sphere;

(b) Describe the difference between power gain and directive gain.

20. Using far-field criterion for a linear antenna with length L, find the far-field region

for two antennas L = 5l and L = 8l.

Antenna Fundamentals and Parameters 113

REFERENCES

[1] Ramsay, Jack, Highlights of antenn history, IEEE, Ant. and Prop., Soc., Newsletter,

pp. 820, Dec. 1982.

[2] Collin, R.E. and F.J. Zucker, Antenna Theory, Part I, Mc-Graw Hill, New York, 1969.

[3] Van Bladel, J., Lorentz, IEEE, Ant. and Prop., Magazine, Vol. 22, p. 67, April 1991.

[4] Navarro, J.A. and K. Chang, Integrated Active Antenna and Spatial Power Combining,

John Wiley, New York, 1996.

[5] Johnson, R.C., Antenna Engineering Handbook, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York,

1992.

[6] Tai, C. and C. Pereira, An approximate formula for calculating the directivity of an

antenna, IEEE, Trans., Antenna Propagate, AP, Vol. 24, No. 2, March 1976,

pp. 225226.

[7] Kraus, J.D., Antennas: For All Applications, 2nd ed., Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi,

2007.

[8] Balanis, C.A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 2nd ed., John Wiley, India,

2007.

[9] Prasad, K.D., Antenna and Propagation, Satya Prakashan, India, 2006.

[10] Mott, Harold, Polarization in Antennas and Radars, John Wiley & Sons, NY, 1986.

C H A P T E R

4 Antenna Array

INTRODUCTION

The study of a single small antenna indicates that the radiation fields are uniformly distributed

and antenna provides wide beam width, but low directivity and gain. For example, the

maximum radiation of dipole antenna takes place in the direction normal to its axis and

decreases slowly as one moves toward the axis of the antenna. The antennas of such radiation

characteristic may be preferred in broadcast services where wide coverage is required, but

not in point to point communication. Thus, to meet the demands of point to point communication,

it is necessary to design the narrow beam and high directive antennas, so that the radiation

can be released in the preferred direction. The simplest way to achieve this requirement is

to increase the size of the antenna, because a larger-size antenna leads to more directive

characteristics. But from the practical aspect, the method is inconvenient as antenna becomes

bulky and it is difficult to change the size later. Another way to improve the performance

of the antenna without increasing the size of the antenna is to arrange the antenna in a

specific configuration, so spaced and phased that their individual contributions are maximum

in desired direction and negligible in other directions. This way particularly, we get greater

directive gain. This new arrangement of multi-element is referred to as an array of the

antenna. The antenna involved in an array is known as element. The individual element of

array may be of any form (wire, dipole, slot, aperture, etc.). Having identical element in an

array is often simpler, convenient and practical, but it is not compulsory. The antenna array

makes use of wave interference phenomenon, that occurs between the radiations from the

different elements of the array [1]. Thus, the antenna array is one of the methods of combining

the radiation from a group of radiators in such a way that the interference is constructive in

the preferred direction and destructive in the remaining directions. The main function of an

array is to produce highly directional radiation.

The field is a vector quantity with both magnitude and phase. The total field (not

power) of the array system at any point away from its centre is the vector sum of the field

produced by the individual antennas. The relative phases of individual field components

114

Antenna Array 115

depend on the relative distance of the individual element and in turn depend on the direction.

The main types are:

Linear array: An array in which individual elements are equally spaced along a straight line.

Uniform linear array: Elements of array are fed with a current of equal magnitude and

uniform progressive phase shift along the line.

The geometrical configuration of the array may be of many types: straight line, rectangular,

circular, etc., but there are strict limitations. The simplest and most practical array configuration

is a straight line array. In multi-element array antenna, elements are generally l/2 long

dipoles. The length of element not strictly limited to l/2; it can vary by upto 5%, provided

the radiating property of the element remains unaffected.

The designs of antenna array is based on the proper selection of design parameters such as

the number of elements, elements spacing, excitation techniques, directivity, gain, efficiency

and beam width. In design procedure, some of the parameters are specified and others are

determined using certain design expressions. The specified as well as calculated parameters

vary design to design. For most of the uniform arrays, the side lobe is always around

13.5 dB, and spacing as well as length of array element is usually taken as l/2. Practically,

phase array design (where maximum array radiation can be directed in desired direction) is

primarily based on control of the phase excitation of the elements. In this array

(i) Beam width and side lobe level can also be controlled by proper amplitude excitation

and tapering of the elements.

(ii) The level of the minor lobes can be controlled using binomial techniques.

With reference to directivity, there are four types of array configuration: edge, uniform,

optimum and binomial array. From the radiation pattern of these arrays it is found that lower

the side lobe level, larger the half power beam width, and vice versa. However, it is desired

to have both simultaneously; a very low side lobe level and a considerable half-power beam

width. In order to optimize the side lobe and HPBW, someone must look for a compromise

design which could meet both the requirements. The DolphTschebyscheff array design is

used effectively to achieve a good compromise between side lobe level and beam width.

ARRAY CONFIGURATIONS

(a) Broadside array

(b) End-fire array

(c) Collinear array

(d) Parasitic array

116 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Broadside Array

This is a type of array in which the number of identical elements is placed on a supporting

line drawn perpendicular to their respective axes.

Elements are equally spaced and fed with a current of equal magnitude and all in same

phase. The advantage of this feed technique is that array fires in broad side direction (i.e.

perpendicular to the line of array axis, where there are maximum radiation and small radiation

in other direction). Hence the radiation pattern of broadside array is bidirectional and the

array radiates equally well in either direction of maximum radiation. In Fig. 4.1 the elements

are arranged in horizontal plane with spacing between elements and radiation is perpendicular

to the plane of array (i.e., normal to plane of paper.) They may also be arranged in vertical

and in this case radiation will be horizontal. Thus, it can be said that broadside array is a

geometrical arrangement of elements in which the direction of maximum radiation is

perpendicular to the array axis and to the plane containing the array element. Radiation

pattern of a broad side array is shown in Fig. 4.2. The bidirectional pattern of broadside array

can be converted into unidirectional by placing an identical array behind this array at distance

of l/4 fed by current leading in phase by 90.

maximum radiation

Minor lobe

Axis of

array

FIG. 4.1 Geometry of broadside array. FIG. 4.2 Radiation pattern of broadside array.

End-fire Array

This is an arrangement of elements with the principal direction of radiation along axis of

array. The basic concept of array is similar to broad side array. The elements are fed by a

current of equal magnitude but their phases vary progressively usually 180 along the line

in such way as to make the entire array sustain unidirectional. In other words, we can say

that individual elements are excited in such a way that a progressive phase different between

adjacent elements becomes equal to the spacing (in l) between the elements. End-fire array

may be bidirectional also, if a two elements array is fed with the currents of equal magnitude

and 180 out of phase. Since phase shift between the adjacent elements is 0 or 180, the

field amplitude now adds in phase in the plane of array. The direction of maximum radiation

can be changed at will by introducing the appropriate phase-shift between successive elements

of the array. In fact it is possible to produce a radar beam which sweeps around the horizon,

without any mechanical motion of array, by varying the phase difference between successive

elements of the array electronically.

Antenna Array 117

Collinear Array

In collinear array the elements are arranged co-axially, i.e., antennas are either mounted end

to end in a single line or stacked over one another. The collinear array is also a broadside

array and elements are fed equally in phase currents. But the radiation pattern of a collinear

array has circular symmetry with its main lobe everywhere normal to the principal axis. This

is reason why this array is called broadcast or amni-directional arrays.

Simple collinear array consists of two elements; however, this array can also have more

than two elements (Fig. 4.3). The performance characteristic of array does not depend directly

on the number of elements in the array. For example, the power gain for collinear array of

2, 3, and 4 elements are respectively 2 dB, 3.2 dB and 4.4 dB respectively. The power gain

of 4.4 dB obtained by this array is comparatively lower than the gain obtained by other

arrays or devices. The collinear array provides maximum gain when spacing between elements

is of the order of 0.3l to 0.5l; but this much spacing results in constructional and feeding

difficulties. The elements are operated with their ends are much close to each other and

joined simply by insulator.

Direction of

maximum radiation

Direction of L

maximum radiation

L

Array axis

Array axis

(a) (b)

FIG. 4.3 (a) Vertical collinear antenna array; (b) Horizontal collinear antenna array.

Increase in the length of collinear arrays increases the directivity; however, if the

number of elements in an array are more (3 or 4), in order to keep current in phase in all

the elements, it is essential to connect phasing stubs between adjacent elements. A collinear

array is usually mounted vertically in order to increase overall gain and directivity in the

horizontal direction. Stacking of dipole antennas in the fashion of doubling their number

with proper phasing produces a 3 dB increase in directive gain.

Parasitic Arrays

In some way it is similar to broad side array, but only one element is fed directly from

source, other element are electromagnetically coupled because of its proximity to the feed

118 Antenna and Wave Propagation

element. Feed element is called driven element, while other elements are called parasitic

elements. A parasitic element lengthened by 5% to driven element act as reflector and

another element shorted by 5% acts as director. Reflector makes the radiation maximum in

perpendicular direction toward driven element and direction helps in making maximum

radiation perpendicular to next parasitic element. The simplest parasitic array has three

elements: reflector, driven element and director, and is used, for example in YagiUda array

antenna. The phase and amplitude of the current induced in a parasitic element depends upon

its tuning and the spacing between elements and driven element to which it is coupled.

Variation in spacing between driven element and parasitic elements changes the relative

phases and this proves to be very convenient. It helps in making the radiation pattern

unidirectional. A distance of l/4 and phase difference of p/2 radian provides a unidirectional

pattern. A properly designed parasitic array with spacing 0.1l to 0.15l provides a frequency

bandwidth of the order of 2%, gain of the order of 8 dB and FBR of about 20 dB. It is of

great practical importance, especially at higher frequencies between 150 and 100 MHz, for

Yagi array used for TV reception.

The simplest array configuration is array of two point sources of same polarization and

separated by a finite distance. The concept of this array can also be extended to more number

of elements and finally an array of isotropic point sources can be formed [2].

Based on amplitude and phase conditions of isotropic point sources, there are three

types of arrays:

(a) Array with equal amplitude and phases

(b) Array with equal amplitude and opposite phases

(c) Array with unequal amplitude and opposite phases

Let us consider that there are two point sources at a distance d, symmetrically situated wrt

the origin (see Fig. 4.4). Let P be an observation point at distance R from the origin O. From

Fig. 4.4, it is clear that ray 2 radiated from source 2 leads ray 1 due to path difference AB

involved between two rays. The path difference

d d d

AB = OA + OB = cos R + cos R = d cos R = cos R per wavelength

2 2 M

Hence, the phase difference

d

(Z ) = 2Q cos R = C d cos R rad (4.1)

M

If E1 = E1e jZ /2 is field component due to source 1, then field component due to source 2

jZ /2

will be E2 = E1e (because source 2 is opposite wrt source 1).

Antenna Array 119

e jZ /2 + e jZ /2

ET = E0 (e jZ /2 + e jZ /2 ) = 2E0 = 2E0 cos Z /2 (where E1 = E2 = E0 )

2

C d cos R

ET = 2E0 cos (4.2)

2

i.e., maximum value of total field ET is 2E0, when cos(y/2) = 1. In another case, if

reference point, i.e., origin O is shifted to the point source number 1, then the amplitude field

pattern will remain unchanged but change in phase will occur, i.e.,

ET = E0 e j 0 + E0 e jZ = E0 (1 + e jZ )

e jZ /2 + e jZ /2 Z jZ /2

= 2 E0 e jZ /2 = 2 E0 e jZ /2 cos(Z /2) = 2 E0 cos e (4.3)

2 2

Hence, it is clear that phases of ET and ET are not the same. In order to draw the field pattern

of this array, we must know the position of maxima, half-power and minima.

(a) Maxima direction: ET is maximum, i.e.,

C d cos R 2Q M Q

ET = cos = cos . cos R = cos cos R is maximum.

2 M 2 2

Q

cos cos R = 1

2

which gives qmax = 90 or 270.

120 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Q 1

cos cos R =

2 2

q = 60 or 120

Q

when cos cos R = 0 R min = 0 and 180

2

Hence, the pattern will be as shown in Fig. 4.5, which is similar to field pattern of broad-

side array and also known as broadside couplet.

Geometrical arrangement of this array is similar to previous one, except that point source 1

is out of phase (i.e. 180) with point source 2. This means that if there is maximum field

at source 1 at particular moment, the field at source 2 will be minimum at that instant and

vice versa. The amplitude and phase of this array are shown in Fig. 4.6, where E1 and E2

are radiated fields due to source 1 and source 2 having phases y/2 and y/2 with reference

point O respectively. Hence, the total far-field at distance point P can be given by

jZ /2 + jZ /2

e jZ /2 e jZ /2

ET = E1e + E2 e = E0 2j

2j

C d cos R

= 2E0 j sin Z /2 = 2jE0 sin (4.4)

2

Antenna Array 121

That is, Eq. (4.4) involves the sine function instead of cos function in Eq. (4.2), and also

addition operator j. Presence of j indicates that opposite phases of the point sources (1, 2)

introduces a phase-shift of 90 in total field at P.

For particular array with d = l/2 and term 2E0j = 1

Q

En = sin (4.5)

2 cos R

i.e., maxima occurs at qmax = 0 and 180, and minima occurs at qmin = 90 and 270 and

half-power at q3dB = 60 and 120. Hence, the field pattern of the array is as shown in Fig. 4.7.

That is, the field pattern is shifted by 90 from the horizontal in comparison to the field

pattern shown in Fig. 4.5. Since this array provides maximum radiation in direction along

the line joining two point sources, it can be called end-fire array; the previous one is called

broadside array.

122 Antenna and Wave Propagation

It is an array in which amplitude of current radiated from both the point sources is not equal

and therefore they are infinite phase difference. Let us consider source 1 as the reference for

the phase and amplitude of fields due to source 1 and source 2, i.e., E1 and E2 (where

E1 > E2) as shown in Fig. 4.8. Hence the total phase difference between radiations from two

point sources at observation point P is

2Q

Z = d cos R + B (4.6)

M

where a is the phase angle between the currents I2 and I1. Current I2 leads the current I1.

Hence, if a = 0 and 180, this is a special case of the previous two cases, because E1 =

E2 = E 0 .

E = E1e j 0 + E2 e jZ = E1 (1 + ce jZ ) (4.7)

where

E2

c= i.e. 0 c 1

E1

E = [ E1 {1 + c(cos Z + i sin Z )}]

E = E1 1 + c2 cos2Z + 2 c cos Z + c 2 sin 2 Z <G

1/2

Antenna Array 123

c sin Z

in which f is phase angle at point P and it is equal to tan 1 . If E1 = E2,

1 + c cos Z

c = 1 and a = 0, then Eq. (4.7) becomes Eq. (4.2), which is the case of broadside array. On

the other hand, if E1 = E2, c = 1 and a = 180 then this is the case of end-fire array.

In the previous sections we have discussed the arrays of two isotropic point sources radiating

field of constant magnitude (i.e., E0). In this section the concept of array is extended to non-

isotropic sources. The sources identical to point source and having field patterns of definite

shape and orientation. However, it is not necessary that amplitude of individual sources is

equal. The simplest case of non-isotropic sources is when two short dipoles are superimposed

over the two isotopic point sources separated by a finite distance. If the field pattern of each

source is given by

E0 = E1 = E2 = E sin q

Then from Eq. (4.2) the total far-field pattern at point P becomes

Z Z Z

ET = 2E0 cos = 2E sin R cos ETn = sin R cos (4.9)

2 2 2

Z

or ETn = E (R ) cos

2

2Q d

where Z = cos R + B

M

Equation (4.9) shows that the field pattern of two non-isotropic point sources (short dipoles)

is equal to product of patterns of individual sources and of array of point sources. The

pattern of array of two isotropic point sources, i.e., cos y/2 is widely referred as an array

factor. That is

ET = E (Due to reference source) Array factor (4.10)

This leads to the principle of pattern multiplication for the array of identical elements. In

general, the principle of pattern multiplication can be stated as follows:

The resultant field of an array of non-isotropic but similar sources is the product of

the fields of individual source and the field of an array of isotropic point sources, each

located at the phase centre of individual source and having the relative amplitude and

124 Antenna and Wave Propagation

phase. The total phase is addition of the phases of the individual source and that of isotropic

point sources. The same is true for their respective patterns also.

The normalized total field (i.e., ETn), given in Eq. (4.9), can re-written as

E = E 1 (q ) E 2 (q )

where E1(q) = sin q = Primary pattern of array

2Q d

E2 (R ) = cos cos R + B = Secondary pattern of array.

M

Thus the principle of pattern multiplication is a speedy method of sketching the field pattern

of complicated array. It also plays an important role in designing an array. There is no

restriction on the number of elements in an array; the method is valid to any number of

identical elements which need not have identical magnitudes, phase and spacing between

them. However, the array factor varies with the number of elements and their arrangement,

relative magnitudes, relative phases and element spacing. The array of elements having

identical amplitudes, phases and spacing provides a simple array factor. The array factor

does not depend on the directional characteristic of the array elements; hence it can be

formulated by using pattern multiplication techniques. The proper selection of the individual

radiating element and their excitation are also important for the performance of array. Once

the array factor is derived using the point-source array, the total field of the actual array can

be obtained using Eq. (4.10).

EQUAL AMPLITUDE AND LINEAR SPACING

In this section the concept of array is extended to n-isotropic point sources, which are

equally spaced by d and is fed with in-phase currents of equal amplitudes, i.e., E0 (see

Fig. 4.9). Hence the total far-field pattern at the observation point P will be the vector sum

of the fields of individual sources, i.e.,

ET (1 ejy) = E0(1 ejny)

1 e jnZ

ET = E0 jZ

(4.11)

1 e

Antenna Array 125

jnZ /2

e jnZ /2 )

= = jZ /2 = e

1 e jZ /2 e+ jZ /2 e (e jZ /2 e jZ /2 ) (e jZ /2 e jZ /2 )

sin n Z /2

= e j ( n 1)Z /2

sin Z /2

n 1

If G = Z is the resultant phase-angle, then

2

sin n Z /2 jG

ET = E0 e (4.12)

sin Z /2

where ejf represents the phase-term. Equation (4.12) is the total far-field pattern of a linear

array of n-isotropic point sources with source 1 as reference point for phase. In case the

reference point is shifted to the centre of the array from source 1, then phase angle f is

eliminated and Eq. (4.12) is reduced to

sin n Z /2

ET = E0 (4.13)

sin Z /2

Again, it is clear that Eq. (4.13) is a product of the two terms: E0, the primary pattern, and

sin n Z /2

, the secondary pattern or array factor of the n-element array. There are two

sin Z /2

particular cases of the n-array: broadside array and end-fire array.

Broadside Array

As we know that the array is said to be broadside, if (i) maximum radiation occurs in

direction perpendicular to the line of array, and (ii) array sources should be in phase, i.e.,

126 Antenna and Wave Propagation

a = 0 and y = 0 must be satisfied, i.e., q = 90, 270. Hence, from Eq. (4.13), it is clear

that Et is maximum when sin ny/2 is maximum, i.e.,

nZ

sin =1

2

nZ Q

or = (2N + 1)

2 2

Q

which gives Z (2N + 1)

n

Q

C d cos(R max ) + B = (2N + 1)

n

1 (2N + 1)Q

R max = cos1

Cd n

where N = 0, 1, 2, 3, ..., n

and N = 0 corresponds to major lobe maxima; hence

1 2Q

(R max ) major = cos1 B (4.14)

Cd n

1 (2N + 1) Q

(R max ) minor = cos1 B

Cd n

(2N + 1) M

(R max )minor = cos1 (4.15)

2 nd

nZ 2N Q

sin = 0, i.e. Z =

2 n

1 2N Q

or (R min )minor = cos1 B

Cd n

Antenna Array 127

NM

(R min ) minor = cos1 (4.16)

nd

Beam width is defined as the angle between first nulls, i.e., BW = 2 qb

qb = 90 q or qmin = (90 qb)

NM

cos R min = cos (90 R b ) = sin R b = from Eq. (4.16)

nd

If qb is very small,

NM NM

sin R b R b = Rb =

nd nd

M

Hence N = 1, which gives R b = , therefore the beam width between the first nulls is

nd

2M

BWFN = (4.17)

nd

Here n is the total number of elements and d is spacing between the elements. Hence

(n 1)d = nd = L (total length of the array, in m)

2M 2

BWFN = = rad

L LM

2 57.3 114.6

= deg = deg

LM LM

BWFN 1

HPBW = = rad

2 LM

57.3

= deg

LM

128 Antenna and Wave Propagation

End-fire Array

We know that an array is said to be end-fire if the phase angle is such that it makes

maximum radiation in the direction of array axis, i.e., q = 0 or 180. Thus for an array to

be end-fire, y = 0 and q = 0 or 180, i.e., bd cos q + a = 0

2Q d

bd = a or B=

M

As we know for pattern maxima

nZ (2N + 1)Q

sin =1 Z =

2 n

where N = 0 corresponds to major lobe maxima.

For end-fire array y=0 and a = bd

(2N + 1)Q

Hence C d cos(R max ) C d =

n

(2N + 1)Q

cos(R max ) = +1

C nd

Beam widths of major lobes for both the arrays are shown in Fig. 4.10.

FIG. 4.10 Beam width of major lobes: (a) broadside array; (b) end-fire array.

(2N + 1)Q

(R max ) minor = cos1 + 1 (4.18)

C nd

Similarly, for pattern minima

1

2N Q NM R NM 2

(cos R min 1) = = or sin min =

C nd nd 2 2nd

Antenna Array 129

NM

(R min )minor = 2 sin 1

2nd

NM

If qmin is very small, sin(qmin)minor (qmin)minor = 2

2nd

2N M

Hence (R min ) minor = (4.19)

nd

This is given by

2N M

BWFN = 2 R min = 2

nd

2 2

BWFN = 2 rad = 114.6 deg (4.20)

LM LM

L

where LM = , known as the length of the array per unit length.

M

From the previous discussions, it is clear that the maximum radiation from an array can be

released in the desired direction by controlling the phase excitation between the elements of

array. In particular case, if the maximum radiation of an array is required to be oriented at

an angle q0(0 q0 180), the corresponding phase excitation a between the elements will

be

Z = (C d cos R + B )R =R0 = 0

i.e., by controlling the progressive phase difference between the array elements, the maximum

radiation can be released in the desired direction, hence forming a scanning/phased array.

This is basic concept of scanning/phased array operation. In order to have continuous scanning

the array system must be capable of continuously varying the progressive phase between the

elements. In practice it is accomplished electronically by the use of ferrite phase shifter.

Hence the progressive phase change is controlled by the magnetic field within the ferrite,

which in turn is controlled by the amount of current flowing through the wires wrapped

around the phase shifter.

130 Antenna and Wave Propagation

In general, it is assumed that radiators are fixed far away from the earth surface; but in

practice they are erected right at or within a few l off the earth surface. Under such situations,

currents flow in the reflecting surface which magnitude and phase depends upon frequency,

conductivity and dielectric constant of reflecting surface. These induced currents modify the

radiation pattern of antenna accordingly. For the practical purposes, the resultant radiation

fields are often computed on the assumption that reflecting surfaces are perfectly conducting.

However, this computation is limited up to medium frequencies for the earth as reflecting

surface, and radio frequency for the metallic reflector surface. The horizontal and vertical

antennas located above perfect ground are shown in Fig. 4.11(a).

++

++

++

++

Perfectly conducting plane

++

++

++

++

(i) Vertical antenna (ii) Horizontal antenna

According to boundary conditions the ET and HN must vanish, i.e., at the surface E is

normal and H is tangential. Hence the charge distribution and currents flow on conducting

surface would be in such a way that boundary condition is satisfied. Therefore, the total

electric and magnetic fields will not be only due to charges and currents on the antenna, but

also due to these induced charges and currents. The E and H above the conducting plane can

be obtained by removing this plane and replacing it by suitably located images and currents;

the image charges will be mirror images of actual charges, but are opposite nature. The

currents in original and image antennas will have the same direction for vertical antennas,

but opposite direction for horizontal antennas. The present case can be dealt with simple ray

theory, where resultant field is considered as made up of direct and reflected waves. Actual

antenna and image antenna will be the sources of direct and reflected waves. The vertical

component of E for the incident wave is reflected without phase reversal, whereas horizontal

component will have phase reversal of 180. The phase delay due to path difference is

automatically controlled.

Antenna Array 131

Therefore, using image theory, it is simple to take into account the effect of earth on

the radiation pattern. The earth is replaced by an image antenna, located at a distance below

2h, where h is the height of actual antenna above the earth. The field of image antenna is

added to that of the actual antenna and obtain the resultant field. The shape of the vertical

pattern is affected greatly, whereas horizontal pattern found remains unchanged (only the

absolute value changes).

The effect of the earth on the radiation pattern can also be explained using the principle

of pattern multiplication of array theory [see Fig. 4.11(b)]. The vertical pattern of the antenna

(or array) is multiplied by the vertical pattern of two non-directional radiations of equal

amplitude and 2h spacing.

ray

y

y

ray

t ra

t ra

ted

ed

c

c

Dire

Dire

lect

flec

Ref

Re

FIG. 4.11(b) Direct and reflected rays from actual and image antennas.

In case of vertical antenna pattern there will be equal phase, whereas there will be

opposite phase for the horizontal antenna. That is, vertical antenna may be treated as broadside

array and horizontal antenna array as end-fire array. The resultant radiation patterns of such

antennas are shown in Fig. 4.12 (a and b). Only a half-portion of the pattern is visible; the

rest is hidden in both the cases.

Comparison of Methods

When antennas are sloped (i.e., neither vertical nor horizontal), or when antennas are not

multiples of half-wavelength long, the antenna array process fails; but image theory still be

useful to obtain the resultant field. Similarly, when the finite conductivity of the earth is

considered, the image theory will still be valid, whereas the array theory will no longer be

adequate.

132 Antenna and Wave Propagation

+

O

(a)

(b)

FIG. 4.12 (a) Vertical pattern of a horizontal antenna using array theory. (b) Vertical pattern

of a vertical antenna using image theory.

Generally in the antenna design it is often desired to achieve narrowest beam width besides

low side level. However these characteristics of an antenna system are so related that any

attempt in the improvement of the one deteriorates other. C.L. Dolph proposed a method to

minimize the beam width of the main lobe for a specific side-lobe level and vice versa. In

other words, if the beam width between first nulls is specified, then the side-lobe level is

minimized. Thus, Dolph array produces narrowest beam width for given side lobe-level and

vice versa. Dolphs approach indicates that reduction inside lobe can be accomplished at a

cost of antenna performance in some other respect such as beam width, and gain or directivity.

DolphTchebyscheff current distribution is optimum for d l/2. It has been found that a

high gain narrow beam antenna can be designed for side lobe levels of 2030 dB in VHF

and UHF bands, particularly for radar applications. A 20 dB level is considered good and

30 dB is excellent; however, it is difficult to achieve 40 dB levels.

Tchebyscheff Polynomial

The Tchebyscheff polynomial is represented by letter T and defined as

Tm(x) = cos (m cos1 x) for |x| < 1 (4.22a)

and Tm(x) = cosh (m cosh1 x) for |x| > 1 (4.22b)

Antenna Array 133

If m = 0 Tm(x) = cos (0 cos1x) = cos(0 d) = 1

where d = cos1x or x = cos d. Similarly, for other values of m, we get

m = 1 T1(x) = cos (1 d) = x

m = 2 T2(x) = cos (2 d) = 2cos2d 1 = 2x2 1

m = 3 T3(x) = cos (3 d) = 4cos3d 3cos d = 4x3 3x

m = 4 T4(x) = cos (4 d) = 2cos2 2d 1 = 2[(2cos2 d 1)2 1]

= 8 cos4 d 8 cos2 d + 1

T4(x) = 8x4 8x4 + 1

Further higher term can be obtained from the expression

Tm+1(x) = 2xTm(x) = Tm1(x) (4.23)

So, for m = 5, we must put m = 4 in the above equation, i.e.,

T5(x) = 2xT4(x) T3(x) = 2x[(8x4 8x2 + 1) (4x3 3x]

T5(x) = 16x5 20x3 + 5x

Similarly, the values of T6, T7, T8, T9 and T10 are also found and summarized as follows:

T0(x) = 1

T1(x) = x

T2(x) = 2x2 1

T3(x) = 4x3 3x

T4(x) = 8x4 8x2 + 1

T5(x) = 16x5 20x3 + 5x

T6(x) = 32x6 48x4 + 18x2 1

T7(x) = 64x7 112x5 + 56x3 7x

T8(x) = 128x8 256x6 + 160x4 32x2 + 1

T9(x) = 256x9 576x7 + 432x5 120x3 + 9x

T10(x) = 512x10 1280x8 608x6 + 40x4 14x2

Hence, in general the Tchebyscheff polynomial can be expressed as

Tm(x) = cos (m cos1x) = cos md = cos (my/2)

or Tm(x) = cos (my/2) (4.24)

134 Antenna and Wave Propagation

m

Tm(x) when

m is odd (x0, r)

Tm(x) when

(x0, r)

m is even +1

+1 r 1

a O +1

a O

1 1

+1 x0

1

x0

The main lobe extends into the range x > 1. It is also seen from Tchebyscheff polynomial

that the value of m and the degree of the polynomial are the same.

Tchebyscheff Polynomial

Consider a linear array of n number of isotropic point sources; n may even or odd number.

All the sources are in same phase and at uniform spacing d. The individual sources have the

amplitudes A0, A1, A2, , Ak, etc. as indicated, the amplitude distribution being symmetrical

about the centre of array. The direction q = 0 is the direction perpendicular to array with

origin at the centre of the array. The total field ET at a larger distance in a direction q from

the even number of sources is then sum of the fields of the symmetrical pairs of sources, i.e.,

Z 3Z n 1

ET = 2A0 cos + 2A1 cos + ... + 2AK cos e Z (4.25)

2 2 2

where ne = 1, 2, 4, ..., 2(K+1)

2Q

Z = d sin R

M

Each term in Eq. (4.25) represents the field due to a symmetrically disposed pair of the

sources.

If ne = 2(K+1), where K = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...

ne 1 2K + 1

Therefore =

2 2

Antenna Array 135

K = N 1

2K + 1

Hence ETE = 2 AK cos

2

Z

(4.26)

K =0

ne

where N = .

2

Similarly, consider the case of a linear array of an odd number of isotropic point

sources, i.e. n0 [see Fig. 4.13(b)] under the same condition. In addition the amplitude distribution

is symmetrical about the centre source. The amplitude of the centre source is taken as 2A0

and sequent next amplitudes, A1, A2 and Ak. The total field ET at a larger distance in a direction

q from the odd number of sources is the sum of the fields of the symmetrical pairs of

sources, i.e.,

Z 3Z n 1

ET = 2A0 + 2A1cos + 2A2 cos + ... + 2AK cos 0 Z (4.27)

2 2 2

n0 = 1, 3, 5, ..., (2K+1)

Each term in Eq. (4.27) represents the field due to a symmetrically disposed pair of the

sources.

As ne = 2K+1, where K = 0, 1, 2, 3, ....

ne 1 2 K

Therefore =

2 2

K=N

2K

Hence ETE = 2 AK cos Z where N =

ne 1

(4.28)

K =0 2 2

Equation (4.28) may be recognized as a finite Fourier series of N terms. Since for

K = 0, we have constant term 2A0, which represents the contribution of centre source.

Similarly each higher value of K gives a higher harmonics term, which in turn represents the

contribution of a pair of symmetrically disposed sources. Therefore the total field pattern is

the summation of the series of terms in increasing order of Fourier series having constant

term, fundamental terms and 2nd harmonic term, etc., as is being represented in case of

alternating currents. However, the total field pattern of an even number of sources is also

represented by a finite Fourier series, but without constant term and having odd harmonics.

The coefficients A0, A1, A2, A3, in either series are arbitrary and expressed in amplitude

distribution.

The factor 2 that appeared in the expression of ETe (4.27) and ETo (4.28) can be omitted as

we are mainly concerned with relative field pattern. If the total number of sources involved

in array are n, the steps below need to be followed:

136 Antenna and Wave Propagation

(a) Let the ratio of main lobe maximum to minor lobe level be specified as R, i.e.

r=

Side lobe level

i.e., r can be calculated from the side lobe level below the main lobe maximum in dB as

follows: 20 log r.

(b) Select Tchebyscheff polynomial of the same degree as the array polynomial, i.e.,

Tn1(x0) = r and solve it for x0 using the equation

1

x0 = {r + r 2 1}1/m + {r r 2 1}1/m

2

where m = n1. The above formula is used only for high degree of Techebyscheff polynomial.

(i) Choose array polynomial ET from

in which z = (x/x0)

(ii) Equate Tchebyscheff polynomial Tn1(x) with array polynomial Et, i.e., Tn1(x) = Et,

and calculate the coefficients and take ratios for relative amplitudes.

(i) It provides a minimum optimum beam width for a specified degree side lobe level

reduction,

(ii) It results in side lobes are all of the same amplitudes, unlike in uniform distribution

in which side lobes near adjacent to the main lobe are largest and others progressively

decrease as angle increase from main lobe.

(iii) Ratio of current between centre element and end element is small, which provides

ease in feeding design.

M 1 Q

BWFN = 2sin 1 cos1 cos (4.29)

Q d x0 2(m 1)

Half power beam width (HPBW) and minor lobe maxima of Chebyshev polynomial patterns

is given by

Antenna Array 137

r

cosh cosh 1

HPBW = 2 sin 1 M cos 1 1 2

Q d (4.30)

x0 m 1

M 1 kQ

R nm = sin 1 cos1 cos (4.31)

Q d x0 m 1

where the parameters have the usual meaning and have been defined already.

As the name suggests, it is an array where elements are arranged one above the other and

the array occupies a flat area of rectangular shape. It is just an extension of obtaining the

field-pattern of linear array to the rectangular broadside array. The array may consist of

isotropic radiators or be a continuous current sheet.

If all the elements of the array operated are in phase, the array is called broadside

rectangular array, i.e., maximum radiation is in the direction perpendicular to the plane of

array. If a unit array is stacked upto height m, the power gain in the direction of maximum

radiation over single unit is mn, provided all the elements are co-operated in phase (see

Fig. 4.14), where m and n are numbers of elements along length (l) and width (b) of the

array. The 3-D configuration of a rectangular array is shown in Fig. 4.15. Let the field

pattern across the array in the y-direction is same for any value of z between ( b/2), while

the field pattern across the array in z-direction is the same for all values of y between ( a/2).

Therefore, the field pattern in x-y plane is a function of q and depends only on the y-direction

(i.e., l) of the array, while the field pattern in x-z plane is function of f and depends only

y

n-elements

O x

m-elements

138 Antenna and Wave Propagation

on z-dimension (i.e., b) of the array. That is, array is combination of y-array of height l and

z-array of height b, in addition the array also has depth in x-direction (i.e., has end-fire

directivity). Therefore the resultant field-pattern of the rectangular array can be obtained by

using principle of pattern multiplication for y-array and z-array. Radiation pattern of the

array of dimension l b is bidirectional, i.e., having forward and backward radiating beams

(see Fig. 4.16).

y z

x x x x

y z

Directivity

If qhp and fhp are the half-power beam width in (x-y) and (x-z) planes respectively, the

directivity of a rectangular antenna array is given by (see [3]).

41.287

D= (4.32)

R hp G hp

However, in general the directivity of a large rectangular broadside array of height (l) and

width (b) of the uniform amplitude distribution is given by

Antenna Array 139

4Q F (R , G ) max

D= (4.33)

F (R , G ) sin R dR dG

Subject to condition that the minor lobes are not large, where F(q, f) is a parameter termed

space-power pattern and varies as the square of the space-field pattern. The space-field

pattern of a large rectangular array is given as

Q l sin R Q b sin R

sin

M

sin

M

E = E xy (R , G ) + E xz (R , G ) =

Q l sin R Q b sin R

M

M

The main beam maximum is in the direction of q = f = 0; thus for larger array sin q = q, and

sin f = f; therefore

Q lR Q bG

sin sin

M M

E=

Q lR Q bG

M M

sin 2 (R l ) sin 2 (R b )

E2 =

(R l ) (R b )

where

Q lR Q bG

Rl = and Gb =

M M

In the condition of maximum directivity, i.e. q at North pole, sin q = 1; therefore

4Q

D= dR l dGb (4.34)

Q /2 Q /2 sin 2 R l sin 2 R b

Q /2 Q /2 Rl

Rb

i.e., the array is radiating only in forward direction, there is no lost of power in backward

direction. Assuming the limit to in place of limit p/2 to p/2, the above equations

denominator reduces to l2/l b. Therefore approximate directivity is

4Q 12.56 12.56

D= l b= l b= Area of aperture

M 2

M 2

M2

For example, the directivity of a broadside rectangular array of height h = 20 l and width

b = 12l is 34.5 dB.

140 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Antenna designs which result in greater directive gain than the ordinary directive gain is

termed as super directive. Super directive antennas are those antennas whose directivity is

very high compare to conventional antennas of the same specifications. In antenna array,

super directivity is accomplished by inserting number of elements within a fixed length of

array. However, it leads eventually to a very large magnitudes and rapid changes of phase

in the excitation coefficients of the elements of the array and therefore adjacent elements

have very large and oppositely directed currents. As a result, the ohmic losses increase and

the efficiency of the array decreases very sharply. In addition, increases in reactive power

relative to the radiated power and the quality factor of the array are also observed. Super

directivity antenna arrays are also called super gain array, as such antennas have actual

overall gains (because of very low efficiency) less than the gain of uniform array of the same

length. The main limiting factor to the directivity of any array is its length. Available results

show that theoretically very high directivity can be obtained from linear end-fire arrays.

DolphTschebyscheff arrays with element spacing less than l/2 can provide desired directivity,

however, the efficiency of array system goes down.

The most important parameter which characterizes the performance of receiving array

antenna is the signal to noise ratio (SNR), which is proportional to the directive gains.

Conventional method to design a high directive gain (hence SNR) antenna is to feed the

array elements with constant amplitude and proper phase, so that radiation from each element

gets added in-phase in the desired direction. But the array becomes huge when more number

of elements is added in order to have high directivity. The alternative way to design an array

for maximum directive gain has been proposed by E.M. Newman [4]. The array is designed

in order to achieve maximum directive gain subject to a constraint on the sensitivity factor.

The involved parameters are directive gain, sensitivity factor, bandwidth, efficiency, number

of elements and array spacing. It is also found that the conventional receiving arrays can be

substantially reduced in size without a loss in directive gain and SNR.

As already mentioned, SNR and directive gain are proportional; hence, if the external noise

is uniformly distributed in space, the system SNR can be expressed as

ISex D(R m , Gm )

SNR = (4.35)

I N ex + N ai + N R

where Nex = Power at antenna/load interface due to external noise

Nai= Power at antenna/load interface due to internal noise

NR= Power at antenna/load interface due to receiver noise

Sex= External signal level incident from the direction (qm, fm)

D(qm, fm)= Directive gain

h = Antenna efficiency expressed by h = PL/PcL, in which

Antenna Array 141

PcL = power delivered to the conjugate matched load assuming lossless conditions

If the receiving system is external or background noise limited, then by definition

hNex >> Nai + NR

Hence Eq. (4.35) reduces to

Sex D(R m , G m )

SNR = (4.36)

N ex

i.e., SNR is proportional to the directive gain and independent from the efficiency. Therefore,

the SNR could be maximized by maximizing the directive gain without effecting the efficiency

so long as the system has limited background noise (i.e., hNex >> Nai + NR).

Sensitivity Factor

Sensitivity factor is an important parameter to describe the performance of an array, especially

in practical implementation. The sensitivity factor for an N-element array is defined by

| I n | 2

K= (4.37)

| nn=1 I n e jkrn | 2

rn = distance between nth feed port and observation point located in the far-field

region in direction of maximum radiation.

k = measure of the susceptibility of the pattern to random errors in the excitation

and position of the array elements.

In practice, the excitation coefficients and the positioning of the array elements which

results in the desired pattern cannot be obtained as specified. A certain amount of electrical

and mechanical error will always be present, i.e., in reality, if any array of N-element is built

the ideal pattern is not precisely realized. This discrepancy is due to two factors; one is

current difference in real antenna and ideal antenna, second one is location specification

between them. If Cn be the feed port current at the nth feed port of the real array, then

C n = I n + I n B n = I n (1 + B n )

where Cn is realized, current excitation coefficient and ( I n B n ) represents the error in the nth

excitation coefficient and mean square value of an is denoted by

2 2

F = <| B n | >

To take into account the error associated with the location of the elements, let define s be

the root mean square value of the element position error, such that

142 Antenna and Wave Propagation

k 2T 2

E2 =

3

Combining the above equations yields

k 2T 2

E 2 + F 2 = '2 = + < |B n |2 > (4.38)

3

where D combines measures of electrical and mechanical error. Therefore in presence of

these errors the pattern of real array is treated as sum of patterns of ideal array and an error

pattern.

It is defined as the ratio of the far-field amplitude of the super directive radiation pattern in

the broad side direction to the far-field amplitude that would obtained if all the elements

were fed in phase. Radiation efficiency [5]

1N I p

Irad = 100% (4.39)

1N | I p |

| 1N I p |2

Irad = (4.40)

1N | I p |2

Since it produces 100% efficiency for all in-phase current distribution and it also provides

a more discrepancy measure of super directive array efficiency. Super directive functions

become more efficient when the overall length of the array is reduced. A greater number of

elements permit greater beam width reduction at the cost of radiation efficiency.

ADAPTIVE ARRAY

In general the antenna element along with their transmission line feed produce a beam or

beams in predetermined directions, on the other hand receiving array/antenna look in a

particular direction regardless of whether any signals are arriving from this direction or not.

If by processing the signals from the individual elements, an array can become active and

reacts intelligently to its environment. And steering its beam towards a desired signals while

simultaneously steering a null towards an undesired, interfering signal and thereby the maximum

signal to noise ratio of the desired signal. This antenna is termed adaptive array antenna.

Also, by appropriate sampling and dignifying the signals at the terminals of each element

(of such array) and processing them with a computer, a very efficient antenna can be

built up, this new antenna is termed SMART antenna.

Antenna Array 143

Earlier adaptive antennas were used as radar antenna with the side lobe elimination

characteristics. The side lobe eliminator antenna consists of a conventional radar antenna

where output is coupled with that of much lower gain auxiliary antennas. The gain of the

auxiliary antenna is slightly greater than the gain of maximum side lobe of radar antenna.

Addicting the weighted signals received by the auxiliary antenna to those received by the

radar antenna permitted suppression of interfering sources located in direction other than the

main beam of the radar antenna. This early use of adaptive antenna evolved to adapted array

and multiple beam antennas. An antenna is an essential component of an adaptive antenna

system, which is uniquely related to the disciplines of antenna design. In fact, adaptive

antenna system uses antenna of various types and configurations, however, they can be

classified as phased array, multiple-beam antenna and a combination of both. Each of these

antenna configurations has several ports where received signals Pr appears in response to

sources located in the antennas field of view. By characteristics, phased array have identical

elements each of which has a port where the output signal is represented as

M

Er = I m Fn (R m , Gm ) e jHn (4.41)

n =1

where

Pm Gm

Im = C2

(4Q Rm ) f

2

in which

Pm = power radiated by mth source

Gm = gain of antenna used by mth source

Rm = distance between mth source and adaptive antenna

f = operating frequency

Fn and Hn represent the amplitude and phase that relates Im to a signal at the antenna port.

The (qm, fm) part gives angular position of mth source and measured in a suitable spherical

co-ordinate system. In most of adaptive phased array antennas, Fn is identical whereas

Hn is generally different for all elements of the array. For signals at the output port of multi-

beam antenna (MBA), the Hn are nearly equal and Fn differ; however; this fundamental

difference between phased array and an MBA results in the inherently larger bandwidth of

the MBA.

Weighting of Signals

Weighting of signals received at the port of an adaptive antenna determines directional

response of antenna to incident signals, weights attenuate and alter the phase of received

signals and designed to be either frequency-independent or adaptively varied as a function

of frequency. Some adaptive antenna operates entirely at the received frequency and use RF

weights; however, many others have mixer amplifier at each antenna port and the weights

operate at lower IF (see Fig. 4.17). All the antenna systems have frequency dependent

144 Antenna and Wave Propagation

response to incident signals. Whenever frequency independent weights are used, suppression

of undesired signals varies with frequency. Because of scenario-dependent, this inherent

performance characteristic cannot be succinctly and accurately described. However, it is

found that for frequency independent weights the cancellation parameters C (suppression of

an interfering signal) of an adaptive array antenna is limited as follows (see [6]):

2Q

C 20 log K DW sin (R m /2) (4.42)

c

where

qm = maximum angle subtended by antennas field of view

D = maximum dimension of antenna aperture

W = nulling bandwidth

c = velocity of light in free space

The K is constant depends on the array configuration and particular scenario of interfering

and desired sources and its values ranges from +5 to +15.

As we know that adaptive antennas use both phased-array and multi-beam antennas, so

it is necessary to be aware of the fundamental difference between these two antennas in

regard of adaptive antenna. Phased-array antennas are focused to receive signals from a

particular direction by adjusting phases of array elements. The differential time delay tm

associated with signals arriving at the ports of the array elements is created by inserting

delay tm in the range of

pM

0 Um U

c

where p is constant. That is, the array is perfectly focused at the design frequency fc and its

performance deteriorates as the operating frequency altered from the fc.

Antenna Array 145

The parameter p is constant for a signal source located adjacent to the bore sight

direction of the array and array does not focused effectively even for a large bandwidth

(Df = fc f). According to rule of thumb relating Df to antenna aperture D and q1, the

fractional bandwidth is given by

2FM fc

'f = (4.43)

D sin R

D 'f

where F = sin R

M 2 f0

and known as differential path delay. In case e is less than 0.1 (a path-length error = l/10),

and q = 10 and D = 120l. Equation (4.43) gives

'f 2 0.1 M

%= 1.0%

fc 120 M sin 10

The available result shows that for e = 0.1 the interference signal suppressed 20 dB.

Halving or doubling Df changes the signal suppressed to 26 dB or 14 dB respectively. That

is signal suppression varies approximately as (Df)2. As far as MBA is concerned, most MBA

uses lens or parabolic reflector antennas and focused over wide frequency band. The side

lobes and receiving patterns shape changes with frequency and alter the phase of received

signals significantly.

Reports indicate that this effect of varying frequency does not degrade related

adaptive antenna performance as much as that of an equivalent planar, because each beam

of MBA performs like a phase array with its receiving beam in the bore sight direction. As

the side lobes of an MBA do not dominate the determination of the weight applied to beam

port, MBA with an aperture of D = 120l can suppress interfering signals more than 20 dB

for

'f

= 5%

fc

If the expected Df/fc meets or exceeds system requirements, the phased-array may be the best

choices, however, if the estimated Df/fc is less than required, an MBA may be the best

choice.

The major limiting factor on the capacity of a cellular mobile system is interfering from co-

channel mobile in neighbouring cells. Adaptive antenna technology can be used to overcome

this intelligent combination of the signals at multiple antenna elements at the base station.

As we have discussed, two types of antenna phased array and multiple beam antenna.

146 Antenna and Wave Propagation

In cellular mobile system a set of antennas (phased array) is arranged in space and the

output of each element is multiplied by a complex weight and combined by summing as

shown in Fig. 4.18, where Y is resultant out of new radiation pattern. In arrangement shown

in Fig. 4.18 the radiation pattern of individual elements are summed with phase and amplitude

depending upon both the weights applied and their positions in space providing a new and

combined pattern. If the weights are allowed to vary in time the array becomes an adaptive

array, and it is exploited to improve the overall performance of mobile communication

system by choosing the weights so as to optimize some measure of the system performance.

The reason behind using a mobile adaptive antenna system is to improve the performance

of the system in the effect of the noise and interference. If a base station in a cellular system

uses an adaptive array to direct its radiation patterns towards a mobile phone which is in

communication, there are the following advantages:

(a) The transmitted power for a particular signal quality can be reduced in both up-link

and down-link directions. In other words, the cell radius and thereby the number of

base stations required to cover a given area can be increased.

(b) Since the mobile transmit power is reduced, its battery life can be extended.

(c) Channel delay spread is reduced because off-axis scatters are no longer illuminated.

(d) Depending on the direction of the mobile the probability of base-stations causing

interference to co-channel mobile in surrounding cells is reduced.

(e) In the same way, the probability of mobile causing interference to co-channel base

station is also reduced.

Hence the applications of adaptive antenna to mobile system have significant advantages

in terms of coverage, capacity and quality. Currently few operational mobile systems actually

use adaptive antennas in standards operation; however, it is expected that in the next few

years, such antennas will form a standard feature of virtually all systems.

Antenna Array 147

BINOMIAL ARRAY

In order to increase the directivity of an array its total length need to be increased. In this

approach, number of minor lobes appears which are undesired for narrow beam applications.

In has been found that number of minor lobes in the resultant pattern increases whenever

spacing between elements is greater than l/2. As per the demand of modern communication

where narrow beam (no minor lobes) is preferred, it is the greatest need to design an array

of only main lobes.

The ratio of power density of main lobe to power density of the longest minor lobe is

termed side lobe ratio. A particular technique used to reduce side lobe level is called tapering.

Since currents/amplitude in the sources of a linear array is non-uniform, it is found that

minor lobes can be eliminated if the centre element radiates more strongly than the other

sources. Therefore tapering need to be done from centre to end radiators of same specifications.

The principle of tapering are primarily intended to broadside array but it is also applicable

to end-fire array. Binomial array is a common example of tapering scheme and it is an array

of n-isotropic sources of non-equal amplitudes. Using principle of pattern multiplication,

John Stone first proposed the binomial array in 1929 [2, 3], where amplitude of the radiating

sources are arranged according to the binomial expansion. That is, if minor lobes appearing

in the array need to be eliminated, the radiating sources must have current amplitudes

proportional to the coefficient of binomial series, i.e.

(n 1)(n 2) (n 1) (n 2) (n 3)

(1 + x )n = 1 + (n 1)x + x2 + x 3 ... (4.44)

!2 !3

where n is the number of radiating sources in the array.

For an array of total length (nl/2), the relative current in the nth element from the one

end is given by

n!

=

r !(n r )!

triangle.

For example, the relative amplitudes for the array of 1 to 10 radiating sources are as follows:

No. of sources Pascals triangle

n = 1 1

n = 2 1 1

n = 3 1 2 1

n = 4 1 3 3 1

n = 5 1 4 6 4 1

n = 6 1 5 10 10 5 1

n = 7 1 6 15 20 15 6 1

n = 8 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

n = 9 1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1

n = 10 1 9 36 84 126 126 84 36 9 1

148 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Since in binomial array the elements spacing is less than or equal to the half-wave

length, the HPBW of the array is given by

HPBW = = = (4.45a)

n 1 2L LM

M

and directivity

D0 = 1.77 n = 1.77 1 + 2LM (4.45b)

Using principle of multiplication, the resultant radiation pattern of an n-source binomial

array is given by

Q

En = cosn 1 cos R

2

In particular, if identical array of two point sources is superimposed one above other, then

three effective sources with amplitude ratio 1:2:1 results. Similarly, in case three such elements

are superimposed in same fashion, then an array of four sources is obtained whose current

amplitudes are in the ratio of 1:3:3:1.

The far-field pattern can be found by substituting n = 3 and 4 in the above expression

and they take shape as shown in Fig. 4.19(a) and (b).

It has also been noticed that binomial array offers single beam radiation at the cost of

directivity, the directivity of binomial array is greater than that of uniform array for the same

length of the array. In other words, in uniform array secondary lobes appear, but principle

lobes are narrower than that of the binomial array.

These are:

(a) The side lobes are eliminated but the directivity of array reduced.

(b) As the length of array increases, larger current amplitude ratios are required.

FIG. 4.19(a) Radiation pattern of 2-element array with amplitude ratio 1:2:1.

Antenna Array 149

FIG. 4.19(b) Radiation pattern of 3-element array with amplitude ratio 1:3:3:1.

The mutual coupling between array elements can be described by taking an array of two

elements. For example, two dipoles of lengths L1 and L2 such that first dipole is fed by

voltage V1 and second one is coupled with the first one, as shown in Fig. 4.20(a). (The second

one is passive.)

If I1 and I2 are the currents in the terminals, then from the network theory:

Z11I1 + Z12I2 = V1 (4.46a)

where Z11 and Z22 are the self-impedances of elements (1) and (2), and Z12 ~ Z21 are the

mutual impedances between the elements. In case the lengths of both the dipoles are equal

in length (L1, = L2 = L), then self-impedances is also equal. Therefore

(I1 + I2) [Z11 + Z12] = V1

So, if I1 = I2, we get

V1

I1 = (4.47)

Z11 + Z12

For the present case (thin half-wave length dipoles), the self-impedance values are found to

be

Z11 = 73.1 + j42.5 W

The variations of mutual impedance between two similar half-wave dipoles with normalized

distance d/l are shown in Fig. 4.20(b). In the limiting case of the separation distance d

0, the mutual impedance approaches self-impedance, which is to be expected.

150 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 4.20 (a) Arrangement of two dipoles; (b) Mutual impedance vs d/l of dipoles.

SOLVED EXAMPLES

Example 4.1 Find and plot the array factor for three identical antenna arrays, which individually

consists of two isotropic elements. Elements of array are separated by 5, 10 and 20 cm and

each element is excited in phase and fed by a signal of 1.5 GHz.

Solution: The operating wavelength

3 108

M= = 20 cm

1.5 10 9

Therefore normalized separations between elements are: l/4, l/2, l.

The corresponding phase difference is zero, i.e., d = 0. Therefore the array factor will

be

F (R , G ) = cos = cos = cos

2 2M M

M Q

(a) d = , F (R , G ) = cos cos R ; therefore

4 4

1

q = 0, F (R , G ) = = 0.707

2

q = 30, F(q, f) = 0.77

Antenna Array 151

q = 60, F(q, f) = 0.92

q = 90, F(q, f) = 1

M Q

(b) d = , F (R , G ) = cos cos R ; therefore

2 2

q = 0, F(q, f) = 0

q = 30, F(q, f) = 0.22

q = 45, F(q , f) = 0.444

q = 60, F(q , f) = 0.707

q = 90, F(q, f) = 1

(c) d = l, F(q, f) = cos(p cos q); therefore

q = 0, F(q, f) = 1

q = 30, F(q , f) = 0.99

q = 45, F(q , f) = 0.606

q = 60, F(q, f) = 0

q = 90, F(q, f) = 1

Radiation patterns of three-element arrays are shown in Fig. 4.21.

90 1 90 1 90 1

120 60 120 60 120 60

150 150 150

270 270 270

(a) (b) (c)

FIG. 4.21 Radiation patterns of three-element arrays: (a) d = l/4, (b) d = l/2, (c) d = l.

Example 4.2 Draw the radiation pattern of 4-isotropic sources of equal amplitudes and

phases in broadside and end-fire arrays.

Solution: Broadside array:

152 Antenna and Wave Propagation

(R max ) min = cos1 = cos

2 nd 4

3

= cos1 = 0.75 for N = 1

4

which gives

(qmax)minor = 41.4 or 138.6

That is there will be 4 minor lobes (maxima) adjacent to major lobes. No major lobes occur

for other values of N, i.e., 2, 3, , because cos (qmax)min 1, which violates the rule of

cosine function. The major lobe occurs at q = 90 and 270. Again from Eq. (4.16), N = 1.

1M 1 1

(R min ) minor = cos1 = cos

4 M /2 2

which gives

(qmin)minor = 60 or 120

Also, N = 2. Therefore,

2M

(R min ) minor = cos1 1

= cos [ 1]

4 M /2

(qmin)minor = 0 or 180

That minor lobes (minima) occurs at 0, 60, 120, 180; i.e., 6 lobes. No other minor

lobe minima occur because for N = 3, the values of cosine become greater than one (Fig. 4.22a).

Antenna Array 153

End-fire array:

(2N + 1) M 1 (2N + 1)

(R max ) 1 = cos1 = cos

C nd 4

M

n = 4, , B = Q, N = 1

2

3 7 1

= cos1 + 1 = cos1 or cos1

4 4 4

in which cos1(7/4) does not exist whereas cos1(1/4) gives qmax = 75.5.

Similarly for N = 2,

5 9 1

cos1 + 1 = cos1 or cos1

4 4 4

Again cos1(9/4) does not exist whereas cos1(1/4) gives qmax = 75.5

NM

R min = 2sin 1

2 nd

M

n = 4, ,N =1

2

1M 1

(R min )1 = 2 sin 1 = 2 sin 1 = 2 30 = 60

2.4 M /2 4

Similarly

1

(R min )2 = 2sin 1 = 2 45 = 90

2

3

(R min )3 = 2 sin 1 = 2 60 = 120

4

154 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Solution:

114.6 114.6

(FNBW) broad = M= = 6.37

L 18 M

2M 114

(FNBW)end-fire = 114 = = 38.2

18 M 3

Example 4.4 Find and plot the radiation pattern of two parallel thin half-wave length

electric dipoles separated by

M 3M

d= , M and

2 2

Solution: The array factor for this case is given by

M Q

(a) d= , F (R , G ) = cos cos R ; therefore

2 2

q = 0, F(q, f) = 0

q = 45, F(q, f) = 0.444

q = 90, F(q, f) = 1

(b) d = l, F(q, f) = cos(p cos q); therefore

q = 0, F(q, f) = 1

q = 45, F(q, f) = 0.606

q = 90, F(q, f) = 1.

3M 3Q

(c) d= , F (R , G ) = cos cos R ; therefore

2 2

q = 0, F(q, f) = 0

Antenna Array 155

q = 90, F(q, f) = 1.

Radiation patterns of three-element array are shown in Fig. 4.23.

90 1 90 1 90 1

120 60 120 60 120 60

150 150 150

270 270 270

(a) (b) (c)

FIG. 4.23 Radiation patterns of three-element array: (a) d = l/2, (b) d = l, (c) d = 3l/2.

Example 4.5 Using the concept of principle of pattern multiplication, find the radiation

pattern of the four-element array separated at l/2 as shown in Fig. 4.24(a).

FIG. 4.24(a)

Solution: To solve this problem, we have to consider the case of binomial array. Let us

consider that we have a linear array that consists of three elements which are physically

placed away d = l/2 and each element is excited in phase (d = 0), the excitation of the centre

element is twice as large as that of the outer two elements [see Fig. 4.24(b)].

156 Antenna and Wave Propagation

The choice of this distribution of excitation amplitudes is based on the fact that 1:2:1

are the leading terms of a binomial series. Corresponding array which could be generalized

to include more elements is called a binomial array. As the excitation at the centre element

is twice that of the outer two elements, it can be assumed that this three-element array is

equivalent to two-element array that are away by a distance d = l/2 from each other. If so,

equation

NZ

sin

2

F (R , G ) =

Z

N sin

2

can be used for N = 2, where it is interpreted to be the radiation pattern of this new element,

i.e.,

F (R , G ) = = cos = cos = cos

Z 2 2 2

2 sin

2

i.e., the array factor of these elements is the same as the radiation pattern of one of the

elements. Therefore from pattern multiplication principle, the magnitude of the far-field

radiated electric field from this structure can be given by

Q cos R

F (R , G ) = cos2

2

Hence in general, for an array of n-elements:

Q cos R

F (R , G ) = cosn 1

2

Therefore, in given question, the array could be replaced by an array of two elements

containing three sub-elements (1:2:1), each and new array will have the individual excitation

(1:3:3:1), and

F (R , G ) = cos cos = cos

3

2 2 2

Three patterns are possible:

Q cos R

(a) The element pattern: cos

2

Antenna Array 157

Q cos R

(b) Array factor: cos2

2

Q cos R

(c) The array pattern: cos3

2

The radiation patterns are shown in Fig. 4.24(c).

90 1 90 1 90 1

120 60 120 60 120 60

150 150 150

270 270 270

(a) (b) (c)

Example 4.6 Show that the directivity for a broadside array of two identical isotropic

in-phase point sources separated at distance d is given by

2

D(R , G ) =

sin C d

1+

Cd

Solution: As we know that the directivity of an array is given by

4 Q E 2 (R , G ) max

D= 2Q Q

0 0

F (R , G ) sin R dR dG

or

4 Q F (R , G ) max

D= 2Q Q

0 0

F (R , G ) sin R dR dG

sin 2Z /2 2 Z 2 Z

where F (R , G ) = E 2 (R , G ) = 2

= 2 cos = 4 cos

sin Z /2 2 2

158 Antenna and Wave Propagation

F(q, f) = 4 cos (0.5 bd cos q) = F(q, f)max = 4

2Q Q Q Z

Let I= E 2 (R , G ) sin R dR dG = 2Q 4 cos2 sin R dR

0 0 0

2

Q Q Q

2Q 0

2(1 + cos Z ) sin R dR = 4Q

0

sin R dR + 0

cos Z sin R dR

= 4 Q [2 + I1 (say)]

where

Q Q

I1 = cos Z sin R dR = cos (C d cos R ) sin R dR

0 0

dx

If x = C d cos R dx = C d sin R dR or sin R dR =

Cd

and the corresponding limit varies between bd and bd.

Therefore

Cd dx 1 2 sin C d

I1 = Cd

cos x = =

Cd Cd

[ sin x ]C Cd d =

Cd

Hence,

4Q 4 2

D= =

2sin C d sin C d

4 Q 2 + 1+

Cd C d

2

D=

sin 2 C d

1 + 2 C d

Hint: In case of end-fire array, a = bd and y = (bd cos q bd).

Take x = (bd cos q bd), dx = bd sin q dq. The limit varies between 0 and 2bd.

Example 4.7 A uniform array consists of 18 isotropic point sources, each separated at

distance of (l/4). If the phase difference d = 90. Calculate (i) HPBW, (ii) solid beam

angle, (iii) beam efficiency and directivity, and (iv) effective aperture. Also find the improved

directivity using HansenWoodyard uniform array approach as well as change in directivity

value.

Antenna Array 159

57.3

L/2 M

where the length of array

M 17 M

L = (n 1)d = (18 1) =

4 4

57.3 57.3

HPBW = = = 39.32

17 M 1.457

2M

4

(ii) Directivity

4L 4 17 M

D= = = 17 = 12.30 dB

M M 4

(iii) Beam solid angle

4 Q 4 3.14

:= = = 0.74 Sr

D 17

(iv) Effective aperture

D M2 17 M 2

Ae = = = 1.353 M 2 = 1.353 3.52 = 16.57 cm 2

4Q 12.5

We also know that

d M

Dim = 1.789 4 n = 1.789 4 18 = 32.02 = 15.07 dB

M 4 M

DD = 15.07 12.30 = 2.77 dB

(a) No mutual coupling exists between the dipoles.

(b) Mutual coupling exists between the dipoles.

Assume that the first dipole of array is fed by voltage 100 V and the dipoles are

separated by d = l/2. Also, determine the amplitude and the phase changes.

160 Antenna and Wave Propagation

V1 100

I1 = = = 1.183 exp ( j 30.70)

Z11 73.1 + j 42.5

(b) For the case where coupling is existing, we obtain [from Fig. 4.20(b)],

Z12 = (12.5 j29.9) W

Hence from Eq. (4.47), we get

I1 = 1.2 ej21.8A

The amplitude of the input current changes slightly while the changes in phase is more

significant.

Example 4.9 Design an 8-element broadside array of isotropic sources having l/2 spacing

between elements. The pattern is to be optimized with a side lobe 25 dB down the minor

lobe maximum.

Solution: (i) Side lobe below main lobe is maximum in

dB = 20 log (r) 25 20 log (r)

25

log r = = 1.25 r = 17.78 = 18

20

(ii) n = 8; Tchebyscheff polynomial of degree (n 1) = 8 1 = 7.

From the relation

T7(x0) = r

1 1/m 1/m

x0 = r+ (r 2 1) + r (r 2 1)

2

1 1/7 1/7

= 18 + (182 1) + 18 (182 1)

2

1 1

= {[18 + 17.97]1/7 + [18 17.97]1/7} = {[35.97]1/7 + [0.03]1/7}

2 2

1 1 1

x0 = log 35.97 + log 0.03

2 7 7

Antenna Array 161

1 1.556 2.4771 1

= + = (0.222 + 1.7824)

2 7 7 2

1

= = (anti-log 0.222 + anti-log 1.7824)

2

1

x0 = = (1.6680 + 0.6060) = 1.137 = 1.14

2

The array of 8 elements can be shown as follows:

a3 a2 a1 a0 a0 a1 a2 a3

T7(x) = E8

x x 2 x

64 z 7

112z + 56z 7z = A0 + A1 4 3

5 3

x0 x0 x0

x 5

x

3

x

+ A2 16 20 5

x0 x0 x0

x 7 x

5

x

3

x

+ A3 64 112 + 56 7

x0 x0 x0 x0

x

64x 7 = 64 A3 A3 = (x0 ) 7 = (1.14) 7

x0

log A3 = 7 log 1.14 A3 = 2.502

x 5 x

5

112 x = A2 16 112 A3

5

x0 x0

162 Antenna and Wave Propagation

3 3 3

x x x

3

56 x = 4A1 20 A2 + 56 A3

x0 x0 x0

1

A1 = [56(x0 )3 + 20 A2 56 A3 ]

4

1

[56(1.14)3 + 20 4.039 56 2.502] = 5.9085

4

x x x x

7x = A0 3 A1 + 5 A2 7 A2

x0 x0 x0 x0

A0 = 3A1 5A2 + 7A3 7x0

Thus it is clear that in array centre elements have maximum current amplitude while last

ones have minimum current amplitudes. And relative amplitudes will be

1.0 : 1.614 : 2.362 : 2.823 : 2.823 : 2.362 : 1.614 : 1.0

Thus tapering of current amplitudes start symmetrically on either sides of the centre source,

hence DalphTchebyscheff gives optimum pattern.

We know that

M 1 cosh 1 (r/ 2)

HPBW = 2 sin 1 cos1 cosh

Q d x m 1

Let

cosh 1 (r/ 2) cosh 1 (18 0.707) 1

y= = = cosh 1 (12.73)

1 7

m 7

1 1

= log (12.73 + 12.732 1) = log (25.416)

7

7

y = 0.2007

Hence

y2 y4

cosh(y) = 1 + + ... = 1 + 0.0204 = 1.020

12 14

Antenna Array 163

M 1.020 1 2

HPBW = 2 sin 1 cos1 = 2 sin 26.5 = 34.26

Q M /2 1.14 Q

M 1 kQ

R nm = sin 1 cos1 cos

Q d x0 m 1

2 1 1 Q

= sin 1 cos1 cos = 24.82

Q 1.14 7

Example 4.10 Calculate the directivity of a broadside stacked antenna of height 10.5 m

and length 21 m in dB, if operating frequency f = 3.5 GHz.

Solution: We know that

D= h l= 10.5 21 =

M 2

M 2

M2

where

c 30

M= = = 8.57 cm

f 3.5

2769.48

D= = 37.695 = 15.763 dB

8.572

Example 4.11 Describe the directivity of DolphTchebyscheff array.

Solution: Directivity of large DT array with side lobes in the range of 20 dB to 60 dB,

is generally defined in term of a factor called beam broaden factor (f). Where the beam

broaden factor is given by [2].

2

2

f = 1 + 0.636 cosh { (cosh 1 Rv )2 Q 2 }

Rv

where Rv is the major to minor lobe voltage ratio.

The directivity relates f as follows:

2 Rv2

D0 =

M

1 + (Rv2 1) f

(L + d )

164 Antenna and Wave Propagation

where (L + d) is the array length. The beam width of DT array can also be given in terms

of D0 as follows:

101.5

BW3dB =

D0

in degree. That is, the product of directivity and 3 dB beam width is approximately equal

to 100. This is similar to the product of the gain and beam width for electronic amplifier.

The above expression can also be considered for most of linear broadside array (see [7]).

Example 4.12 Calculate the directivity of DT array antenna, if the pattern is to be optimum

at side lobe 20 dB down to the minor lobe and length of array is 4l.

Solution: From the question, Rv = 20

The total length of the array is (L + d) = 4l

Hence the beam broaden factor

2

2

f = 1 + 0.636 cosh { (cosh 1 20)2 Q 2 }

20

2 2

1 1

= 1 + 0.636 cosh { (3.69)2 3.142 } = 1 + 0.636 3.52

10 10

f = 1 + 0.079 = 1.079

Therefore the directivity

2 20 2 800

D0 = = = 7.364

M 108.63

1 + (22 1) 1.079

2

4M

= 8.67 dB

101.5 101.5

R3dB = = = 13.78

D0 7.364

Example 4.13 Show that the directivity of an ordinary end-fire array can be expressed as

n

D=

M n =1 n k 4Q kd

1+ k =1 sin

2nd k M

Antenna Array 165

Solution: If the spacing between array elements is uniform and constant (d, say), the beam

area

nZ

2

sin 2

1 2 Q Q

:A = sin R dR dG

n2 0 0 Z

sin

2

where q is angle form the array axis. Since array pattern is not function of f, hence above

equation reduces to

nZ

2

sin 2

2Q Q

:A = sin R dR

Z

2

n 0

sin

2

in which

Z Qd dZ Qd

= (cos R 1) = sin R dR

2 2 2 M

M dZ

= sin R dR =

Qd 2

Hence above equation reduces to

nZ

2

sin 2

2M Q

dZ

:A =

n d 2 0 Z 2

sin

2

Further, let

Z Z Z 2Q d

=R = 0, if R = 0 and = , if R = Q

2 2 2 M

Also

nZ

2

sin 2

n =1

2kZ

= n + 2(n = k ) cos

Z k =1 2

sin

2

166 Antenna and Wave Propagation

2M 2Q d/M n =1

2kZ dZ

:A = 2

n d 0

n + 2(n = k ) cos

k =1

2

2

2Q d/ M

2M nZ n =1 2(n k )

2kZ

= 2 + sin

n d 2 k =1 2k 2 0

2M 2Q nd n =1 (n k ) 2Q d

= + sin 2k

n d M

2

k =1 k M

The directivity

4Q 2n2 dQ /M

D= =

:A 2 Q nd n k 2Q d

+ nk =1 sin 2 k

M =1

k

M

n

D=

M (n k ) 2Q d

nk =1 sin 2k

M

1+

2 Q nd

=1

2

Solution:

1.06 1.06

HPBW = = = 0.253 rad = 15.2

17 1 4

and directivity

D0 = 1.77 17 = 7.3 = 8.64 dB

Example 4.15 Using the principle of pattern multiplication, describe radiation characteristics

of binomial array antenna.

Solution: We know that relative far-field pattern of two-point sources of same amplitude

and phase is given by

Q

En = cos cos R

2

If another identical array is superimposed on this array, the resultant relative far-field pattern

Q

(using pattern multification) is En = cos2 cos R . This arrangement doubles the current

2

Antenna Array 167

amplitude of the array at centre than that at the edges. In other words the array has the three

effective sources with current amplitudes ratio 1:2:1. Similarly if same procedure is repeated

for an array of three sources array, then an array of four effective sources with current

amplitude in ratio 1:3:3:1 is obtained. Both the above arrays have no minor lobes in radiation

pattern. The total far-field pattern of array will be as shown in Fig. 4.19(a) and (b). From

the above examples, it is clear that current amplitudes of the array are according to the

binomial coefficients. Therefore we can design binomial array of n-sources without minor

lobes for any desired directivity using principle of pattern multiplication and superimposing

sources on the others. That is, the current amplitudes should correspond to the coefficient

of binomial expansion. The far-field pattern of n-sources binomial array therefore will be

Q

En = cos1 cos R

2

Example 4.16 Derive the relation between length of n-elements array and its directivity.

Show that directivity of end-fire array is twice that of broadside array.

Solution: We know that the directivity is defined as

D= =

Radiation intensity of isotropic antenna G0

In general, the radiation intensity is defined as

2

sin z

G (R ) =

z

where

nC d

z= cos R i.e. f(q) = fmax =1 at q = 90

2

In particular, for broadband array

2

1 sin z Q

G (R ) = G0 =

nC d

z

dz =

nC d

Therefore

G max nC d d L d L d

Db = = = 2n = 2 1 + 2

G0 Q M d M d M

L

Db = 2

M

where L is the length of the array and

168 Antenna and Wave Propagation

L = (n 1)d

Similarly, for end-fire array

2

1 sin z Q

G (R ) = G0 =

nC d 0

z

dz =

2 nC d

Therefore

Gmax 2 nC d d L d L d

De = = = 4 n = 4 1 + 4

G0 Q M d M d M

L

=4

M

Therefore De = 2Db.

Example 4.17 Show that the maximum of minor lobe of the n-array factor:

(AF) n =

n sin [Z /2]

is 13.46 dB down from the maximum at the major lobe in a linear array of uniform amplitude,

phase and spacing.

Solution: We know that the maximum of first minor lobe occurs when ny/2 = 1. Therefore,

Z Q

n = (2n + 1)

2 2

Z C d cos R + B 3Q

n = n =

2 2 2

Z Q

sin n sin 3

2 2 2Q

(AF) n = = = = 0.212

Z Q 3

n 3

2 2

i.e., maximum of first minor lobe of the array factor is 13.46 dB down from the maximum

at major lobe.

Example 4.18 Find the percentage change in directivity of a 12-element array in the cases

of broadside and end-fire array configurations.

Antenna Array 169

Solution:

n = 12

d 2 12 M

Db = 2 n = = 12 = 10.8 dB

M 2M

d 4 12 M

Db = 4 n = = 24 = 13.8 dB

M 2M

DD = Db De = 13.8 10.8 = 3.002 dB

% change = 3.002 100/13.8 = 21.75% w.r.t. De

% change = 3.002 100/10.8 = 27.85% w.r.t. Db

Example 4.19 Three isotropic point sources with spacing l/4 between them are placed

along the x-axis. The excitation coefficient of each outside element is unity while that of

centre element is 2. Find the resultant array factor and show that

(i) No nulls exist on the pattern between 0 q 180.

(ii) Only one maximum exists at q = 90 on the pattern 0 q 180.

Solution: As per question, arrangement is shown in Fig. 4.25. If E1, E2 and E3 are the

amplitudes of corresponding radiation field, then the resultant field ET = E1 + E2 + E3.

ET = E0 + 2E0 + E0

r1 r r2

in which for the far-field region, r1 = r2 = r for amplitude variation, whereas for phase-

distribution (from Fig. 4.25)

r1 = r d cos q

r2 = r + d cos q

170 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Therefore

exp( jkr )

ET = E0 [2 + e jkd cos R + e jkd cos R ]

r

exp( jkr )

= E0 [2 + 2 cos(x )]

r

where x = kd cos q

exp ( jkr )

= 2E 0 [1 + cos(x )]

r

exp( jkr )

ET = 2E0 2 cos2 (x/2)

r

Therefore

kd cos R

(AF)n = [1 + cos(kd cos R )] = 2 cos2

2

If

2Q M

k= and d =

M 4

Hence

kd cos R 2Q M Q

= , cos R = cos R

2 2M 4 4

Q

(AF) n = 2 cos2 cos R

4

(i) If qn are the positions of null on the pattern, then

Q

(AF) n = 0 = 2 cos2 cos R

4

Q nQ

cos R n = cos1 (0) =

4 2

or qn = cos1 (2n)

where, n = 1 3 5, ...

Since for none of the values of n, the value of qn satisfies the cosine function, hence

no null exists.

Antenna Array 171

Q

2 cos2 cos R m = maximum

4

Q

cos cos R m = 1

4

Q

= cos R m = cos1 ( 1) = mQ m = 0, 1, 2, 3

4

qm = cos1(4m)

So, if m = 0,

q0 = cos1(4.0) = 90

No other value of m satisfies the cosine function, therefore only one maximum exists,

on the radiation pattern 0 q 180.

Example 4.20 Design a 4-element ordinary end-fire array of isotropic sources, positioned

along the x axis such that spacing between elements are d and its only one maximum occurs

at q0 = 0. Assuming d = l/2, find

(a) Progressive phase excitation between elements

(b) Angle where nulls occur

(c) Angle where maximum of array factor occurs

(d) FNBW and directivity (dB).

Solution:

2Q M

(a) B = C d = = Q = 180

M 2

M 1 M 1 N

(b) R n = cos1 1 N = cos 1 N = cos 1

nd 4M /2 2

where, N = 1, 2, 3,

Therefore, for

N = 1 q1 = cos1(1/2) = 60

N = 2 q1 = cos1(0) = 90

N = 3 q1 = cos1(1/2) = 120

(c) qm = cos1(1 ml/nd) = cos1(1 2m)

where m = 0, 1, 2,

172 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Therefore, for

m = 0, q0 = cos1(1) = 0

m = 1, q0 = cos1(1) = 180

(d) FNBW = 2 cos1(1 l/nd) = 2 cos1 (1 l/(4 0.5l))

= 2 cos1(1/2) = 2 60 = 120

D = 4n(d/l) = 4 4(l/2l) = 8 = 9.03 dB

Example 4.21 Show that in order to have no minor lobe for a uniform array of n-elements

the spacing and progressive phase shift between elements must be:

(a) D = l/n; b = 0 for a broadside array

(b) D = l/2n; b = kd for an end-fire array

Solution: We know that for an array of n elements:

1 sin[nZ /2]

(AF)n =

n sin[Z /2]

C d cos R C d cos R

where Z = +B =

2 2

as a = 0, for broadside array.

(a) In order to have no minor lobes, first null should occur at q = 0 or 180, thus

(AF) n = =0

n sin [Z /2]

nC d M

=Q d =

2 n

(b) Similarly, for end-fire array

C d cos R + C d Cd

Z = = (cos R + 1)

2 2

Cd

sin n (cos R + 1)

(AF) n = 2

Cd

(cos R + 1)

2

So, if

Cd

sin n (cos R + 1) = 0

2

Antenna Array 173

nC d

(cos R + 1) = Q

2

2nC d

=Q

2

which gives d = l/2n.

Example 4.22 In order to suppress grating lobes from a linear scanning array the maximum

spacing between elements is as follows:

M

d=

1 + cos R m

element without lobes at f = 3.0 GHz, when the array is designed to scan a maximum angle

of 30.

Solution:

l = 10 cm

M

d= , R m = scan angle

1 + cos R m

at qm = 30

M

d= = 0.5359 M = 5.4 cm

1 + cos 30

Example 4.23 Show that a three-element binomial array with a spacing of d l/2 between

the elements does not have a side lobe.

Solution: The excitation coefficient of a thee-element binomial array will be 1:2:1. The

normalized array factor of the array will be:

C d cos R

AF3 = cos2

2

Hence it is clear that its maxima occur at q = 90. In order to have no side lobe, the phase

factor

R

C d cos at R = 0 or 180

2

must be equal to or less than p/2. Thus,

174 Antenna and Wave Propagation

C d cos R Q

at q = 0, 180

2 2

2pd/2l p/2

2Q Q

d

2M 2

Q

d

2

Example 4.24 The total length of DT array is 4l. For a 30 dB side lobe level design and

spacing of (l/2) between the elements along the array axis, find (i) number of elements,

(ii) directivity and (iii) half-power beam width.

Solution: (i) N = 2n + 1 = 9 as n = 4

R0 = 30 dB R0 = 101.5 = 31.6222 dB

2

2

(ii) F = 1 + 0.636 662 cosh (cosh) 1 (31.662)2 Q 2

31

2

2

= 1 + 0.636 (7.54)

31.662

= 1 + 0.144 = 1.144

Hence

2 R02

D=

M

1 + (R0 1) f L + d

2

2 (31.662)2 2004.96

= = = 7.844

1 255.559

1 + ((31.662) 1) 1.144 4.5

2

= 8.945 dB

M 1 M

(iii) HPBW = f cos1 cos R 0 0.443 cos cos R + 0.443

L +d L + d

Antenna Array 175

M 1 1

= 1.144 cos1 0.443 cos 0.443 at R = 90

L +d 4.5

= 1.44(95.65 84.35]

= 12.93

Using direct formula, BW3dB = 101.5/D = 101.5/7.844 = 12.93, which is the same as above.

(a) Elements should be of equal length

(b) Elements should be fed with equal current

(c) Elements should be equally spaced

(d) None of these.

2. The total field produced by an array is

(a) Vector sum of fields produced by individual elements

(b) Sum of fields produced by individual elements

(c) Sum of vector fields produced by first three elements

(d) None of these.

3. The essential condition for an array to be uniform linear is

(a) Elements should be of equal length

(b) Element should be fed with a current of equal magnitude and uniform progressive

phase shift.

(c) Elements should be equally spaced and opposite phased

(d) None of these.

4. In multi-elements array, variation in electrical length from l/2 within ________ does

not affect the radiating properties.

(a) 10% (b) 5%

(c) 15% (d) 1.3%

5. Bi-directional properties of broadside array can be converted into unidirectional if

an identical array exciting by current leading in phase 90o is placed

(a) Behind the array at l/2 distance

(b) Front of the array at l/2 distance

(c) Behind the array at l/4 distance

(d) None of these.

6. The variation between lengths of reflector, driven element and director of 3-element

parasitic array is

(a) 10% (b) 5%

(c) 5% (d) 1.3%

176 Antenna and Wave Propagation

7. In practice parasitic arrays are successfully used in frequency range of 100 MHz

1000 MHz. This antenna also known as:

(a) YagiUda antenna (b) Log antenna

(c) Folded dipole antenna (d) None of these.

8. A broadside couplet is formed if two isotropic radiators operates in phase, whereas

end-fire couplet is formed if two equal radiators are operated

(a) In-phase quadrature at a distance of l/2

(b) In-phase quadrature at a distance of l

(c) In-phase quadrature at a distance of l/4

(d) None of these.

9. Which statement is incorrect for collinear array?

(a) Its other name is broadcast array

(b) Gain is maximum when d = 0.3 l to 0.5 l.

(c) Two elements collinear array known as collinear couplet.

(d) Power gain does not increase with number of elements after four (04).

10. The directivity of a 10-element uniform linear end-fire array with separation of l/4 is

(a) 10 dB (b) 20 dB

(c) 0 dB (d) 2 dB

11. The directivity of a collinear array increases with

(a) Increase in the length of the array

(b) Decrease in the length of the array

(c) Increase in the size of elements

(d) None of these.

12. The FNBW for 20-element broadside array with separation l/4 is

(a) 12.92 (b) 20.5

(c) 10.58 (d) 22.92

13. This antenna array has the largest beam width:

(a) Edge array (b) Uniform array

(c) Optimum array (d) Binomial array

14. In electronic phased array, the direction of maximum radiation is controlled by

(a) Controlling the progressive phase difference between the elements

(b) Controlling the current amplitudes of the elements

(c) Tapering the array

(d) None of these.

15. Tapering is a technique in which ________ of the array is controlled.

(a) FNBW (b) HPBW

(c) Side lobe (d) Spillover

16. Main constraint with DT array is that it increases beam width at the cost of

(a) Radiation pattern (b) Efficiency

(c) Directivity (d) None of these

Antenna Array 177

(a) Broadside array (b) End-fire array

(c) Parasitic array (d) None of these

18. The directivity of a broadside rectangular array of height h = 20l and width b = 12l

is

(a) 40.5 dB (b) 50 dB

(c) 5 dB (d) None of these

19. Super directivity is accomplished by inserting a number of elements within a fixed

length of array

(a) True (b) False

(c) Partially true (d) None of these

20. In mobile communication adaptive antenna is used mainly to reduce

(a) Size of handset (b) Co-channel interference

(c) SNR (d) Scattering power loss

Answers

1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (b) 4. (c) 5. (c)

6. (c) 7. (a) 8. (c) 9. (c) 10. (a)

11. (a) 12. (d) 13. (d) 14. (a) 15. (c)

16. (c) 17. (a) 18. (d) 19. (a) 20. (b)

EXERCISES

1. What are the advantages of array antenna? Describing principle of pattern multiplication

and sketch the radiation pattern of a three-element array separated at l/2.

2. Show that the directivity for an end-fire array of two identical isotropic in phase

point sources separated at distance d is given by

2

D (R , G ) =

sin 2C d

1+

2 Cd

3. Design a 5-element broadside array of isotropic sources separated at l/2. The pattern

is to be optimized with a side lobe 15 dB down the minor lobe maximum.

4. Calculate the directivity and effective area of DT array antenna operating at l = 3 cm,

if the pattern is to be optimized a side lobe 15 dB down to the minor lobe.

5. Find HPBW, directivity, effective area and gain of a 15-element binomial array.

Assume that array efficiency is 92%.

178 Antenna and Wave Propagation

6. A uniform array consists of 20 isotropic point sources such that elements are l/2

away and fed in same phase. Assuming operating wavelength of 2.5 cm, find FNBW,

WA, directivity and effective area.

7. Find the change in directivity of a 10-element array antenna when they are arranged

in (a) broadside and (b) end-fire configurations.

8. A broadside array consisting of several l/2-long isotropic radiators is used to have

a directive gain of 30 dB. Estimate array specifications. What will be these values

for end-fire array?

9. Derive an expression for beam width of a uniform linear array between first nulls

and also determine its value for n = 5 to 8 elements, if the spacing between elements

is l/4.

10. What do you mean by electronic phased array antenna? Find the beam width of

primary lobes of 4 and 10 elements in case of (a) broadside array, (b) end-fire array.

Comment on the array with reference to its directivity.

11. Find the FNBW and HPBW for end-fire and broadside linear array consisting of

20 Hertzian dipoles with element spacing l/4 and l/2 respectively.

12. Distinguish between end-fire, broadside, parasitic and collinear arrays. Show that

array of two isotropic sources fed with equal amplitudes and opposite phases acts as

an end-fire array.

13. Find the location of the first nulls on the either side of the centre beam for a linear

array of 60 in phase elements spaced at l/2 and fed with equal amplitude current.

14. What are the advantages of DolphTchebyscheff array antenna? Write the expression

for its design parameters.

15. Derive the expression of directivity for the length of n-elements broadside array.

16. Design broadside and end-fire array to be used for 30 MHz communication where

30 dB directive gains are needed for proper communication.

17. Describe stacked array antenna. Show that the directivity of a broadside rectangular

stacked array is

12.56 A

D=

M2

where A is the area of array.

18. Describe the principle of operation of super directive antenna. Show that its SNR is

proportional to the directive gain and independent from the efficiency.

19. A 4-element broadside array, where elements are spaced at l/2, is operating at 250 MHz

such that each element carries current in the same phase and of 0.5 A amplitude.

Find its HPBW, FNBW and power radiating from the array.

Antenna Array 179

20. Describe the design procedure of a binomial array with suitable example. Also

mention its disadvantages. Find the directivity and gain of a 5-element binomial

array.

21. Sketch the radiation pattern of 3-element isotropic point array in end-fire and broad-

side array configurations.

22. What is tapering? Find the HPBW and directivity of a 19-element binomial array?

23. Find the half power bandwidth of 10-element binomial array with a spacing of l/2

between the elements. Also find the change in maximum directivity if the value

obtained, assuming the array factor is 7.32 dB.

24. Describe the effect of earth on the radiation pattern of the antenna. Mention the

merit of image principle in comparison to simple array method. Also sketch the

radiation pattern of vertical and horizontal antennas, if they are at height h which is

a multiple of l/2.

25. Design a two-element array of isotropic point sources positioned along x-axis such

that spacing between elements are l/4 and its only one maxima occurs at q = 0.

Assuming end-fire condition, find: (i) Array factor of the array; (ii) Relative phase

excitation of each element.

26. Design an ordinary end-fire uniform linear array with only one maximum so that its

directivity is 20 dBi. If the length of array is much greater than the spacing (l/4).

Find:

(a) Total length of array (l)

(b) HPBW (degree) and progressive phase shift.

(c) Amplitude level (compared to maximum of the major lobe) of first minor lobe

(dB).

27. Find the beam width and directivity of a 10-element uniform array of isotropic

sources placed along the x-axis, if the spacing between the elements is l/4 and the

maximum is directed at 45 from its axis.

28. Design a five-element 50 dB side lobe level DT array of isotropic elements, if

spacing between elements are l/4. Also find: (a) array factor; (b) directivity and

(c) HPBW.

29. Describe the stacked antenna array. Estimate the directivity of a broadside stacked

array of height 10 m and length 20 m, at operating frequency f = 3.2 GHz.

30. Write short notes on the following:

(a) SMART antenna

(b) Mutual coupling between array antennas

(c) Sensitive factor of super directive array.

180 Antenna and Wave Propagation

REFERENCES

[1] Prasad, K.D., Antenna and Wave Propagation, Satya Prakasan, New Delhi, 1996.

[2] Balanis, C.A., Antennas, John Wiley & Sons, N.Y., 2001.

[3] Kraus, J.D., Antennas for All Applications, 3rd ed., Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi,

2003.

[4] Newman, E.H., et al., Super directive receiving arrays, IEEE Trans. Antennas and

Propagate, AP. 26, No. 5, pp. 629635, Sept. 1978.

[5] M.M. Dagwood and A.P. Anderson, Design of super directive array with high

radiation efficiency, IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagate, AP. 26, No. 6, pp. 819823,

Nov. 1978.

[6] Meghan, J.T. et al., Wideband adaptive antenna nulling using tapped delay lines,

Tech Note 197945, Lincoln Laboratory, MIT, Lexington, Mass, June 26, 1979.

[7] R.S. Elliott, Beam width and directivity of large scanning arrays, Parts I and II,

Microwave Journal, pp. 5360, Dec. 1963.

C H A P T E R

INTRODUCTION

feeding techniques, impedance matching as well as the design of antenna and antenna arrays.

This chapter is going to be the first, which will deal with antenna directly, specially wire

antennas. As far as wire antenna, in general, is concerned, it is the simplest, cheapest and

most prevalent and versatile antenna, and is useful for many applications. Wire antennas can

be constructed from either solid wire or tubular conductors. They are resonant antennas, i.e.

input reactance is zero at resonance. Examples of wire antenna are: long wire antenna,

folded dipole antenna, V-dipole, rhombic, and YagiUda antennas. Loop antennas are special

form of wire antennas. In order to obtain complete and accurate solution for wire antennas,

current on it must be solved, subject to boundary condition, which results the tangential

component of E is zero along the wire. This approach gives rise to integral equation, whose

solution is complex. In addition, this approach restricted to few wire antennas only. However

the latest numerical methods, full wave analysis, finite difference time domain and finite

elements method are simple and suitable for all kinds of wire antennas. The moment method

is a rather simple and conceptual approach to solve and analyze the properties of small wire

antennas.

As the name suggests, dipole means two opposite charges at a finite distance. So, before

considering the study of any particular dipole (i.e. l/4, l/2 or full wave dipole), let us first

understand the mechanism by which electric lines of force are generated and then detached

from a dipole antenna to form the free-space waves. In order to give better physical interpretation

of detachment of the field lines, we can assume a dipole carrying sinusoidal current distribution,

which is a good approximation and verified experimentally. If so the current must, of course,

be zero at the ends. We have been using effectively the current distribution, which found on

181

182 Antenna and Wave Propagation

an open-circuited parallel wire lines. If such transmission lines are bent out to form the wire

antennas, the current distribution essentially unchanged. But practically it is not strictly true;

it may be only good approximation for the thin wire antennas, whose diameter is 0.01l [1].

In order to give a better description of radiation from a dipole antenna, let us consider

a centre fed small dipole of two opposite charges having maximum separation between

charges l0 (Instantaneous separation l), oscillating up and down in harmonic motion which

focusing attention of electric field [2]. At the initial time t = 0, the charges are at distance

l0 and undergo maximum acceleration say (v) as they reverse their direction, therefore

instantaneous current I is zero. Later at a time T/8, the charges start moving toward each

other and, they pass the midpoint at T/4 period (Fig. 5.1(a)(c)). As soon this happens the

field lines detach and new field lines of opposite nature are generated, producing maximum

current I and zero charge acceleration. As time further progresses (i.e., 3T/8 period),

charges start moving opposite direction, creating additional (opposite) field lines (see

Fig. 5.1(d)), and finally at time-period T/2 charges arrived at their original position

(i.e., maximum separation l0, current I is again zero and acceleration is maximum) completing

one cycle. That is, two equal charges of opposite nature oscillating up and down in harmonic

motion generated electric field lines. If this process continues, several field lines move

radically outward, detached from the antenna and form electromagnetic free space waves,

which in turn called radiation. Electric field lines producing radiation from a l/2 dipole is

shown in Fig. 5.2.

FIG. 5.1 Electric field lines and its detachment from dipole antenna.

Linear Wire Antennas 183

FIG. 5.2 Electric field lines moving from half wave-dipole antenna.

The light is EM waves and both travel by the wave disturbance of the same speed.

Maxwell (1873)

HERTZIAN DIPOLE

practically it is not possible to have such a dipole, but it is interesting to examine the

properties of these dipoles. Hertzian dipole is very useful to calculate the field of a large wire

antenna. This can be done by considering a long wire antenna as a combination of a large

number of Hertzian dipoles connected in series. Let us consider a Hertzian dipole of length

dl(<<l) as shown in Fig. 5.3, is located at the origin of a 3-D co-ordinate system.

184 Antenna and Wave Propagation

As the diameter of dipole is very small compared to its length, it is omitted in analysis.

If the dipole carries a uniform constant current I = I0 cos w t, the retarded magnetic vector

potential A at a far-field point P due to dipole is given by

N[I ] dl (5.1)

A= a z

4Q r

where a z is a unit vector as dipole is situated along the z-axis.

with [I] = retarded current and given by I = I0 cos w(t r/v)

I = I cos(wt br) = Re [Iej(wtbr)]

0 (5.2)

X 2Q 1

in which C = and v is velocity of waves = .

v M NF

[] is added to indicate that it is retarded current. (t r/v) is retarded time as the phase

of the wave at point P is retarded w.r.t. the phase of the current in the element by an angle

(wr/v). Equation (5.2) implies that the disturbance at time t at distant point P (at distant r

from original) from the element is caused by a retarded current [I] that occurred at an earlier

time (t r/v). The time-difference (r/c) is the time needed by the disturbance to travel the

distance (r) at the velocity of EM wave, i.e., velocity of light c. The corresponding retarded

current density [J] can be defined as

J = J e j(wtbr) A/m2

m

Since potential vector A is acting in z-direction, it will have only z-component, i.e., Az. Thus,

we may write A in the phasor form as follows:

N I 0 dl jCr

Az = e

4Qr

Transforming this vector from Cartesian to spherical co-ordinate using

AR = cos R cos G cos R sin G sin R Ay

AG sin R cos G 0 Az

gives Ar = Az cos q Aq = Az sin q and Af = 0

G

We know that B = NH = A (by definition)

Hr = Hq = 0 (5.3a)

Linear Wire Antennas 185

I 0 dl jC 1

HG = sin R + 2 e jC r (5.3b)

4Q r r

E

Similarly by using Maxwells equation, H = F = jFX E .

t

We find electric field components and they are:

II 0 dl 1 j jC r

Er = cos R 2 e (5.4a)

2Q r Cr 3

II 0 dl jC 1 j jCr

ER = sin R + 2 e (5.4b)

2Q r r Cr3

and Ef = 0 (5.4c)

The close observation of expressions for magnetic and electric fields given in Eqs. (5.3) and

(5.4) reveals that there are terms varying as 1/r3, 1/r2 and 1/r and (1/r3). The terms vary with

(1/r3), known as electrostatic or simply electric field. Since it corresponds to the field of an

electric dipole and dominates over other terms in a region very close to Hertzian dipole/

conductor. Both equations have components varying as 1/r2 and they are known as near field

or induction field, and it is predictable from the BiotSavarts law. Induction field is predominant

at point near to dipole only and represents the energy stored in the magnetic field surrounding

the current element. This energy is alternatively stored in the field and returned to the source

current element during each half-cycle. As well as radiation is concerned this field is of little

importance and omitted in radiation field calculations.

The term varies as 1/r is known as radiation/distant or far-field, because it is the only

term that remains up to the far-zone. This field accounts for the radiation of EM waves from

the conductor/dipole. The radiation fields are of great significance at large distance from

conductor/dipole. Since the components of the magnetic field are produced by the alternating

electric fields and the electric field components arise from the alternating magnetic field and

vice versa; the flow of current establishes the local induction fields, whereas the radiation

fields exist as sequence of the changing induction field. Just close to the conductor the

magnetic field is in phase with the current; whereas the electric field varies in phase with

the change on either side of the conductor. In far-field region, the magnetic and electric

fields thus have a phase-difference of p/2 radians and are at the right angles to each other

in space, i.e., Eq and Hf are in phase in the far-field region. Here we are concerned mainly

with far-field varying as 1/r, i.e.,

I 0 dl

HG = sin R (j C e j Cr ) (5.5a)

4Q

II 0 dl

and ER = sin R (j C e j Cr ) (5.5b)

4Q

186 Antenna and Wave Propagation

That is, Eq /Hf = h, which is same as in the case of plane wave radiation.

The time-average power density, thus obtained

1 1 1

Pav = Re ( ER HG ) = Re ( ER HG* ar ) = I |HG |2 ar

2 2 2

Therefore, the average radiated power is

2Q Q (I 0 C dl sin R )2

Prad = Pav ds = 0 0 32 Q r 2 2

I r 2 sin R dR dG

2

I 02 C 2 dl 2 Q I 2Q 4 dl 4Q 2

=I 2Q sin R dR = I 0 as C 2 =

3

32 Q 2 0 3 M M2

If medium surrounding the dipole is air, h = 120p; then

2

I 02 Q 120 Q dl

= 40 Q [dlM ] I 0

2 2 2

Prad =

3 M

This power could be considered as the power dissipated in a fictitious resistance Rrad by

current I, which is equal to I0 cos w t. That is

2 1

Prad = I rms Rrad = I 02 Rrad

2

2

dl

2 40 Q I 02 2

M

2

2 dl

Rrad = = 80 Q (5.6)

I 02 M

Thus, the antenna requires large amount of radiation resistance to radiate sufficient amount

of power. Since, Hertzian dipole is very small, the radiation resistance Rrad is very small and

no feeding lines of such low impedance are available to match the dipole. Also, we have to

consider uniform current that current be non-zero at the end-points of the dipole, which is

practically impossible because the surrounding medium is not conducting. Hence these are

limitations with the Hertzian dipole.

As name indicates, it is dipole antenna of length of half-wave length, i.e. l/2, where l is

operating wavelength. Half-wave dipole can be considered as the series combination of large

numbers of Hertzian dipoles and fields due to l/2 dipole antenna can be found easily by

integrating the field of infinitesimal dipole under specified limit, i.e. l/4. The basic half-

Linear Wire Antennas 187

wave dipole antenna fed with two-wire transmission line and its current distribution is shown

in Fig. 5.4(a), whereas Fig. 5.4(b) shows the geometry of field calculation due to dipole,

where an infinitesimal length dl = dz of the dipole is located at distance z from the

centre. The magnetic vector potential at observation point P due to dl = dz carrying current

I = I0 cos wt is given by

N I 0 cos C z dz jCr1

dAz = e (5.7)

4 Q r1

where r1 = distance of element from the point of observation P and r z cos q .

FIG. 5.4(a) Half-wave dipole and current distribution. FIG. 5.4(b) Geometry of field calculation.

As well as the distance is concerned, we can replace r1 by r, i.e. r1 r as they are very

jCr

large, but not the phasor terms e 1 and ejbr, as there is a significant difference between

terms br1 and br. So, let us replace r1 = r z cos q in Eq. (5.7), and find out the total

magnetic vector potential as follows:

N I0 M /4 N I 0 jCr M /4

Az =

4Qr M /4

e jC (r z cos R ) cos C z dz =

2Qr

e M /4

e j C z cos R cos C z dz

Q

jC r

cos cos R

N I0 e 2

Az = for L = l/2 (5.8)

2 QC r sin R

2

Using B = mH = A and Maxwells equation H = jweE

The expressions for magnetic and electric fields come as follows:

Q

jCr

cos cos R

jI 0 e 2 (5.9a)

HG =

2Qr sin R

188 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Q

cos cos R

jC r

and jI I 0 e 2 (5.9b)

HR =

2Qr sin R

It is also seen that expressions of Eq and Hf indicate that they are in time phase and

orthogonal. Also, the ratio of Eq and Hf is constant and equal to h. In addition, both Eq and

Hf contains two terms: first term is constant for particular distance r, whereas second term

shows the variation of field with angle q, i.e., it determines the pattern of antenna. So it may

be termed as pattern factor and

Q

cos cos R

2

F (R ) = (5.10)

sin R

which is termed normalized electric field pattern of a half-wave dipole antenna. Radiation

patterns of a centre fed dipole antenna of different lengths along with half-power beam width

are shown in Fig. 5.5(a)(d), which indicates that HPBW decreases as length of dipole

increases. With the similar procedure to Hertzian dipole, the time-average power density are

found to be

Q

cos2 cos R

I I 02 2 G

Prad = ar (5.11)

8Q r 2 2

sin 2R

Hence the time-average radiated power can be determined as follows:

Prad = Pav ds

Q

I I 02 cos2 sin R

2Q Q 2

= 0 0 8 Q 2 r 2 sin 2R

r 2 sin 2 R dR dG

1 2 Prad

and since Prad = 2

I rms Rrad , therefore Rrad is defined as Prad = = 73 W

2 I 02

(Neglecting ohmic loss, that is Pdis and hence Rl = 0.)

In order to compare the radiation resistance of these two dipoles let us assume that the

length of Hertzian dipole is l/2, we found Rrad = 2 W, which is very much less than 73 W.

That is, there is significant increase in the radiation resistance of the half-wave dipole

antenna over a Hertzian dipole antenna. Therefore, l/2 dipole antenna is capable of delivering

greater amounts of power to space than the Hertzian dipole. As the total input impedance of

Linear Wire Antennas 189

FIG. 5.5 Radiation patterns of dipole antenna of different lengths (L = l/2 to 3/2 l).

an antenna is represented by Zin = Rin + jXin (where Rin is resistance and Xin reactance), the

input impedance of a l/2-dipole antenna can be expressed as Zin = Rin + jXin = Rrad + jXin,

where Rrad = Rin for a lossless dipole antenna and reactance Xin is to be 42.5 W for a dipole

of length l/2; however, Xin approaches zero if the length of dipole reduced slightly. Typically,

for l = 0.485l, Xin is zero and Zin = 73 W. That why, in practice, dipole antenna designed

maintaining its length lesser than the actual length. Approximate parameters (length to diameter

ratio, thickness and corresponding resonant length) of dipole (for Zin = 73 W and Xin = 0)

are listed in Table 5.1.

5000 2 Very thin 0.49 l

50 5 Thin 0.475 l

10 9 Thick 0.455 l

190 Antenna and Wave Propagation

In general, the input impedance Zin of a device is defined as the ratio of the voltage to

current at a pair of terminals or the ratio of approximate components of the electric to

magnetic fields at a point. The real part of Zin is referred as input resistance Rin and Zin

Rin for a lossless antenna (i.e. Xin is zero) and resulting into the radiation of real power. The

radiation resistance Rrad is referred to the maximum current for which some lengths (l =

l/4, 3l/4, ..., etc.) does not occur at the input terminals of the device. In order to refer

radiation resistance to the input terminal of the antenna, antenna must be lossless Rl = 0, and

then the power at the input terminals is equated to the power at the maximum current. There

are several formulas to relate/compare the input resistance of the dipoles (Table 5.2).

TABLE 5.2 Expressions of input resistance for different range of dipole length (l)

2

M l

0 < l < 20 Q

2

4 M

2.4

M M Ql

< l < 24.7

4 2 M

4.17

M Ql

< l < l 11.14

2 M

Bandwidth

As dipoles are resonant type radiating device, therefore, their bandwidth is low. The available

data shows that for standard VSWR less than 2.0:1, the bandwidths are 16% and 8% respectively

L L

for = 50 and = 2500 at design frequency 300 MHz [3]. In general, the bandwidth

2a 2a

is directly proportional to thickness of dipole; thicker the dipole wider its bandwidth. The

minimum VSWR for thicker dipole occurs at a lower frequency than for the thinner one.

Radiation intensity

We know that the radiation intensity U is the power per unit Sr, i.e., it can be expressed in

watt per unit solid angle (W Sr1). That is

P

U= (5.12)

4Q

Linear Wire Antennas 191

From the definition of Poynting vector, the power radiated per unit surface area can be given

as

P P

Sr = Sr r 2 = =U

4Q r 2

4Q

1 1

or r2 I | HG |2max = r 2 | ER |2max = U m (5.13)

2 2I

value of Eq from Eq. (5.9b) gives

I 2 I 02

ER (Q /2) =

4Q 2

I I 02 120 2

and hence Um = = I 0 = 4.8 I 02 (5.14)

8Q 2

8 Q

Directivity

4Q U m

The directivity of a l/2 dipole antenna is defined as D = .

P

4Q 120I 02 120

Hence from Eq. (5.14) D = = = 1.64

36.56 I 02 8Q 73.12

Therefore the directivity of l/2-dipole, i.e. 1.64 is only slightly greater than the directivity

of an ideal dipole which is 1.5. That is, the directivity of short dipole (1.5) increases to 1.64,

as the length of dipole increases to a half-wavelength. Further increase in the length of

dipole increase the directivity of dipole and a full wavelength dipole has directivity of 2.41.

Increase in directivity continues till dipole length approaches 1.25l, and further increase in

the length of dipole deteriorates the value of directivity.

As usual maximum effective area of l/2 dipole antenna is defined

M2 M 2 1.64

Ae = D0 = = 0.13l2 (5.16)

4Q 12.56

Radiation efficiency

In the previous section, we have found that the power radiated by a l/2-dipole antenna is

Pr = 1/2 I 02 Rr , in which power dissipation was neglected. Therefore taking into account

ohmic resistance of dipole, we can define the power delivered to the dipole as follows:

192 Antenna and Wave Propagation

1

Pr = I02 ( Rr + Rl ) (5.17)

2

where Rl is ohmic resistance of the dipole corresponding to the maximum current. In general,

the radiation efficiency is the ratio of power radiated to the total power supplied to the

antenna at a given frequency [4], therefore

1 2

Pr I 0 Rr Rr

I= = 2 = (5.18)

Pd 1 2 (Rr + Rl )

I 0 (Rr + Rl )

2

1

Pdis = Rl I 02 (5.19)

2

If I(z) is assumed to symmetrical current distribution of dipole, Pdis may also be defined as [5],

M /4 Rs I 02 M /4

Pdis = M /4

I z2 Rs dz =

2 0

2 sin C z dz

I 02 M

= Rs (5.20)

2 4

Comparing Eqs. (5.19) and (5.20), we get

M

Rl = Rs

4

1 XN

where Rs is surface resistance [6] and equals (=) .

2Q a 2T

Therefore radiation efficiency h can be given as (see [7]).

1

I=

1 XN 1

1+

8Q a 2T 73.12

Since for l/2 dipole, Rr = 73.12 W, the radiation efficiency h reduces to

1

I=

M Nf 1 1

1+

a T 8 Q 73.12

Linear Wire Antennas 193

1

or I= (5.21)

M Nf 1/2

4

1+ 9.6 10

a T

The radiation efficiency for a half-wave dipole of circular cross-section has been computed

using above two efficiency Eqs. (5.18) and (5.21). The variation of radiation efficiency of

copper dipole (s = 5.8 107 mho/m) in free space as function of d/l as well as frequency

has been plotted. Calculations were repeated using the conductivity of silver instead of

copper and found that efficiency differs from those of copper. The same was done for

aluminium half-wave dipole too and concluded that the results are useful in determining the

radiation efficiency only when ohmic losses are neglected [7].

MONOPOLE ANTENNA

Monopole antenna is one of the most widely used antennas throughout the RF spectrum

ranging from VHF to UHF. The simple structure of monopole coupled with unique properties

such as a pure vertical polarization and horizontal omnidirectional coverage, hence attract its

extensive possible uses in a variety of applications. Therefore, monopole antenna is an

attractive option for broadband communications. The available literature indicates that the

impedance bandwidth of a simple thin-wire monopole can be increased by introducing specific

changes in geometry such as folding wire, loading and thickening. Compared to simple wire

monopole, modified monopoles, such as conical or rotationally symmetric monopoles are

bulkier. In fact, it is extremely wide bandwidth antenna but its radiation pattern deteriorates

at the higher operating frequency. Amman and Chen [8] have proposed an alternative wider-

band planar monopole with considerable volume reduction to replace the wire monopole for

broad impedance bandwidth purposes.

Monopole antenna is half in the length of half-wave dipole antenna and generally fed

by a co-axial cable connected to its base. The monopole antenna is perpendicular to the

plane, which is usually assumed to be infinite and perfect conducting. Using the image

theory we can replace monopole antenna as a half-wave dipole antenna as shown in Fig. 5.6.

194 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Therefore the field produced by monopole antenna in the region above the ground

plane with its image is same as the field due to l/2 wave dipole, i.e.,

Q

jCr

cos cos R

jI 0 e 2

HG = (5.22a)

2Qr sin R

Q

jCr

cos cos R

I jI 0 e 2

ER = (5.22b)

2Q r sin R

However, monopole radiates only over the hemispherical surface above the ground plane,

i.e., 0 q p. That is, radiated power is half of power radiated from the dipole with the

same amount of current. Thus for l/4 monopole antenna the radiated power will be

Prad = 18.28 I 02 and therefore Rrad = 73/2 = 36.5 W and hence input impedance is given by

In fact, the radiation resistance is a function of height above the ground and it may vary

between 60 W and 90 W. The main difference is that l/4 monopole radiates only in hemisphere

surface whereas l/4 dipole radiates more or less in all directions. The l/2 dipole and l/4

monopole antenna also called Hertz antenna and Marconi antenna respectively.

A folded dipole antenna (see Fig. 5.7) is a modified l/2 dipole with an additional wire

connecting its two ends. Folded dipole antenna is an extremely practical wire antenna and

also called ultra closed spaced array. It consists of two parallel, closely spaced l/2 dipoles

join together at the outer ends forming a narrow wire loop (d << L and d << l). The antenna

is fed at centre of one dipole, i.e., the dipoles have the same voltage at their ends. As well

as radiation fields are concerned it is same as the l/2 dipole antenna, but input impedance

differs and equal to 300 W.

d

L = L + L

Linear Wire Antennas 195

Folded dipole antenna differs from the conventional dipole mainly in two respects:

directivity and wider bandwidth. The directivity of folded dipole antenna is bi-directional but

because of the distribution of current in the parts of the folded dipole antenna the input

impedance becomes higher, however the radiation patterns of both are equal. The folded

dipole antenna does not accept power at any even harmonics (i.e., 2nd, 4th, , etc.) of the

fundamental frequency, however it works with low value of VSWR on odd harmonics

(i.e. 3rd, 5th, ). This is because current distribution of l/2 and 3l/2 antennas is almost

similar. That is, if any folded dipole antenna functions at 20 MHz, it will also function at

60, 100 MHz frequencies. Since a simple l/2-dipole antenna carries 73 W radiation resistance,

so it is inconvenient to match it with a feed line of characteristic impedance (Z 0 )

300 W or so. However a folded dipole antenna offers terminal resistance nearly 300 W and

found suitable for such impedance matching.

Theoretical Analysis

Folded dipole antenna is basically an unbalanced Tx line with unequal currents which radiates

because of its unbalanced condition. A folded dipole antenna operation may be analyzed by

considering its current to be composed of two distinct modes, namely Tx line mode and

antenna mode. A model composed of these modes has been referred as a transmission line

model [9]. This model accurately calculates the input impedance of folded dipole antenna

provided the parallel wires are electrically close so that the usual transmission line equations

apply. Using transmission line model the input impedance of folded dipole antenna can be

expressed as:

4 ZT Z D 1

Z in = = 4Z D (5.24)

Z T + 2Z D 1 ZD

1 + 2 Z

T

L

where ZT = jZ 0 tan C . So if the length of folded dipole antenna, i.e., L = l/2,

2

2Q M

then ZT = jZ 0 tan =

M 4

i.e. the half-wave folded dipole antenna offers a four-fold increase in input impedance

over its l/2 dipole version. Since input impedance of a resonant antenna l/2-dipole antenna

is 73 W, therefore, Zinf = 4 73 = 292 300 W (i.e. very close to impedance of common

twin lead transmission). Similar to half-wave dipole, l/2-folded dipole antenna also has real

input impedance at resonance. Equation (5.24) can be used to predict the input impedance

of folded dipole antenna of any length, provided the impedances of Tx line mode ZT and

196 Antenna and Wave Propagation

corresponding linear dipole are known. The equivalent radius for a folded dipole antenna is

given by (see [8]).

1 d

ln (ae ) = ln (a) + ln (5.26)

2 a

where d is spacing between dipoles. Equation (5.26) can be sampled as ae ae (ad)1/2. Therefore

the necessity of using the equivalent radius (ae) depends upon both the wire radius (a) as

well as spacing between them (d). The above method is limited to a spacing of 0.01l

between dipoles, but in practice many folded dipole antennas in the range of VHF, exceed

this separation limit substantially as result accuracy degraded. For example, a folded dipole

antenna manufactured using 19 mm aluminium tubing has a separation of 100 mm or 1/20th

wavelength at 150 MHz [10]. Therefore, in general, the method fails for separations

d > 0.01l, because general transmission line equations do not apply therein. The Tx line

equation depends on the characteristic impedance Z0 as follows:

Vs = VR cosh rl + IR Z0 sinh rl (5.27a)

VR

I s = I R cos H l + sin H l (5.27b)

Z0

d

Z 0 = 276 log10 : (5.28)

a

i.e., Z0 is function of the separation d and the radius a of the two-wire line.

A.R. Clark has proposed the extension of the use of this method to a folded dipole

antenna with spacing even greater than or equal to one-sixth of a wavelength or so. The

physical length of the folded dipole antenna is increased by an extension factor 0.39 time

the inter-element spacing and the NEC2 method of moments program is used for this

purpose. Clarks extension method is based on extended length theory of wire antennas

proposed by Austin and Fourier [11]. They have shown that the resonant length of a bent

monopole is constant for bending up to 90 for various configurations. Experimentally it is

found that the wire with a bend less than 90 behaves electrically like longer straight wires.

Bends such as ones at the tips of a folded dipoles, can hence be treated by extending the

physical length of the antenna by a factor dependent on the inter-element spacing (d).

Therefore the accuracy of Thiele Tx line mode can improve if the overall length (l) is

increased by an amount dependent on the additional wire-length at the tips of folded dipole.

The extended length relates the original lengths, separation between them and extended

factor as follows:

lext = Iorig + ad (5.29)

a = Unknown factor to be determined for different antennas

(Using NEC2 method of moments the common value of a for folded dipole antenna

is found to be 0.39.)

Linear Wire Antennas 197

The value of a was originally found for a folded dipole antenna of length 1 metre

manufactured using a 19 mm (a = 9.5 mm) aluminium tube. That is extension factor (a) can

provide consistently accurate results for wide range of wire thicknesses. Comparison of three

methods, NEC2, Thiele and Clarke methods is shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4 of [11] (for

d = 30 mm, 100 mm and 200 mm, length l = 1 metre and radius a = 1 mm). From these plots

it is concluded that the improved method is much closer to NEC2 than Thiele method as the

separation increases.

In general the input impedance of a folded dipole antenna is given by Zin = n2 73 provided

all the wires carry equal currents. Where n is number of l/2 dipoles having radiation resistance

73 Q. However for folded dipole antenna of unequal radii of the two dipoles the input

impedance is modified to

2

a

Z in = 73 1 + 2 (5.30)

a1

Since input impedance depends not only on radius of wires, but also on the separation

between them, Uda and Mushiake proposed another formula for calculating the input impedance

in terms of d as:

2

d

log

a1

Z in = 73 1 + = 73 Zr (5.31)

d

log

a2

2

log d/a1

where Zr = 1 + is termed impedance transformation ratio/impedance set-up ratio.

log d/a2

Equation (5.31) is well suited when matching is done with low impedances, e.g. directive

arrays using parasitic elements because the radiation resistance of these arrays is quite low.

The folded dipole antenna is very useful as an FM broadcast band receiving antenna particular

as elements in Yagi-folded antenna, which is mostly used in television. In this Yagi antenna,

the driven element is folded dipole antenna and remaining elements simple l/2 dipole antennas.

It is constructed by cutting a piece of 300 W twin lead transmission line of length about

l/2. The ends are soldered together maintaining overall length slightly less than l/2 at the

desired operating frequency.

198 Antenna and Wave Propagation

HARMONICS ANTENNA

So far we have discussed wire antennas of finite length; less than or equal to l/2. We are

also aware that an antenna resonates as long as it length is integral multiple of l/2. Therefore

we can design an antenna of length even more than one half wavelengths long by combining

many l/2 elements in series. The antenna designed in this fashion is termed as harmonics

antenna and provides better directivity. The higher the number of l/2 elements, greater its

directivity. So harmonics antenna is a long wire antenna of improved directivity over other

single wire antennas. It radiates a horizontally polarized wave at low angles from 17 to 24

relative to the earth surface. The currents in adjacent half-wave section must be out of phase

and hence a feeding system cannot be used that disturb this condition. Examples of long wire

antenna (i.e. harmonics antennas) are V-antenna, rhombic and beverage antennas.

On the basis of terminating to its characteristic impedance, the long wire antenna is

classified as resonant (un-terminated) and non-resonant (terminated with Z0) LW antennas.

In resonant long wire antenna because of mismatching of impedances standing waves exist

along its length and the pattern becomes bidirectional corresponding to incident and reflected

waves. However in case of terminated antenna all the incident waves absorbed in terminating

impedance and there is no existence of reflected waves. Radiation pattern of antenna is

unidirectional and uniform current and voltage exist along the axis of antenna. The resonant

and non-resonant LW antennas and their directional radiation patterns are shown in Figs. 5.8

and 5.9 respectively.

Linear Wire Antennas 199

The angle of radiation with reference to antenna axis depends on number of half wave-

length (l/2), i.e., n. For example, direction of maximum radiation from a long-wire antenna

of 16 elements (i.e. 8l long) w.r.t. antenna axis is found to be 17.5. Large wire antennas

(resonant and non-resonant) are used for transmission and reception in many communicating

systems in frequency range from 30 kHz to 30 MHz. Irrespective of theoretical complexity

LW antenna is useful because of its simple structure and low cost. They provide a simple

and effective method of obtaining directional pattern as well as power gain. These properties

of LW antennas are utilized when they are used as a circuit element in wire array antennas,

V antennas and rhombic antennas.

Parametric Specifications

(i) Physical length: The total physical length of LW antennas are given in terms of

number of dipoles connected continuously in the antenna. That is for n-number of

half wave dipoles. The length of antenna is

492(n 0.05)

L= ft (5.32)

f MHz

(ii) Field strength: The field strength of the long-wire antenna made with odd and

even number of l/2-dipoles are given by

nQ nQ

sin 2 cos R sin 2 cos R

60 I rms 30 2 I 0

E (r , R , G ) = = for n even (5.33a)

r sin R r sin R

nQ nQ

cos 2 cos R cos 2 cos R

60 I rms 30 2 I 0

E (r , R , G ) = = for n odd (5.33b)

r sin R r sin R

I0 = peak amplitude of current

E = electric field strength (V/m)

r = distance between observation point and antenna

In case a long wire antenna is terminated to its characteristic impedance (i.e. non-

resonant), the number of l/2 dipoles (i.e. n = odd or even) do not affect the pattern

of the antenna.

200 Antenna and Wave Propagation

60 I rmssin R IQ

E (r, R , G ) = sin (1 cos R )

r (1 cos R ) 2

30 2 I 0 sin R QL

= sin (1 cos R ) (5.34)

r (1 cos R ) M

(iii) Radiation resistance: The radiation resistance Rr of an n-element LW antenna in

terms of radiation resistance and its number is given by

Rrw = Rrd + 69 log10(n) = 73.13 + 69 log10(n) (5.35)

where 73.13 W is radiation resistance of a l/2-dipole antenna.

(iv) Angle of maximum radiation and maximum electric field intensity: The angle of

maximum radiation, i.e., angle between maximum lobe and axis of antenna is given

by

n 1

cos R m = (5.36)

n

Therefore corresponding maximum electric fields (Eqs. 5.33a and b] are reduced to

30 2 I 0 n (n 1)Q

Emax = cos for n is odd (5.37a)

r 2n 1 2

30 2 I 0 n (n 1)Q

Emax = sin for n is even (5.37b)

r 2n 1 2

Similarly, the maximum field for a terminated antenna (Eq. 5.34) is modified to

30 2(2n 1) I o Q 30 2(2 n 1) I 0

Emax = sin = (5.38)

r 2 r

30 2(2n 1) I 0 QL

or Emax = sin (5.39)

r nM

(v) Input impedance: Using transmission line model a wire antenna can be treated as

lossless parallel transmission line, i.e. a = 0 and hence g = jb. Therefore, impedance

at the input terminals of resonant wire antenna can be expressed as

Linear Wire Antennas 201

R + jZ 0 tan (C l)

Z in = Z 0 L (5.40)

Z 0 + jRL tan(C l)

where l = length of wire antenna

Z0 = characteristic impedance of wire antenna

b = phase constant = 2p/l

l = operating wavelength

RL = resonant terminal load resistance. (When a wire antenna with diameter d

is adjusted at height h above the earth surface, RL is given by

4h

RL = 138 log10 (5.41)

d

and its value lies between 200 W and 300 W to achieve proper impedance matching.)

(vi) Maximum directivity: The maximum directivity of a LW antenna in terms of its

radiation resistance is given by

120

Dm = (5.42)

Rrw sin 2R max

The voltage and current distributions along a LW antenna operating at various harmonics

frequency can be obtained using Eqs. (5.33) to (5.39). For example, the voltage and current

distributions of a LW antenna excited at its 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th harmonics are obtained as

shown in Fig. 5.9(c).

FIG. 5.9(c) Voltage and current distribution when operated at various harmonics.

202 Antenna and Wave Propagation

From Fig. 5.9(c) it is clear that a long-wire antenna can be used for harmonically

related frequencies (i.e. l/2, l, 3l/2, 2l, ) and therefore multi-band operation can be

achieved using long-wire antenna(s). In general, long-wire antennas are found very useful in

the MF (300 KHz3 MHz) and HF (3 MHz30 MHz) ranges. The performance characteristics

of LW antenna can still be enhanced by using them in arrays/specific configurations.

V-DIPOLE ANTENNA

As already mentioned, the main drawback of a conventional linear dipole is that its directivity

begins to diminish due to an increasing side lobe level, when dipole length goes much

beyond a wavelength. It has been reported that this undesirable performance characteristic

of a conventional linear dipole can be eliminated by tilting the lengthened arm in particular

shape in which V shape tilting is very common. The V shape tilted dipole antenna offers

enhanced directivity and gain. The resonant V antenna is one of the cheapest antennas for

providing a low angle beam for a fixed frequency operation in HF band. It is an extension

of long wire antennas in such a way that two LW antennas (generally l/2 or multiple) are

jointed together forming V shape and fed at apex.

The terminated and non-terminated V-antennas are shown in Fig. 5.10, where both the

wires are fed 180 out of phase with each other. The directivity and gain of these antennas

can be increased further by lengthening the arms. The ground V-antenna offers nearly twice

the gain of a single large wire antenna. The apex angle of V-antenna is also important and

it varies between 36 and 72 for arm length 8l to 2l long. If a V-antenna has to be operated

over a wider frequency range, the apex angle must be made the average between the optimum

values for the highest and lowest frequencies in terms of the number of l/2 dipoles in each

arm. In general, for a long-wire antenna, the main lobes of the pattern is observed at angle

b = 36 w.r.t. the antenna axis [Fig. 5.10(b)]. If inclined angle a of V-antenna is twice of

b, i.e. (2 36 = 72) a bi-directional pattern is obtained, which is sum of patterns of

individual arms. However bi-directional pattern of V-antenna can be converted into uni-

directional by terminating antenna arms in its characteristic impedance. As a result, wires do not

(a) (b)

FIG. 5.10 (a) Resonant V-antenna; (b) Terminated V-antenna.

Linear Wire Antennas 203

carry reflected waves, hence all the back radiations stand nearly cancelled and antenna

functions like travelling wave-antenna. In order to obtain alignment at elevation angles

greater than zero, the inclined angle a of antenna would be somewhat less than 2b. The

performance of V-antenna can be increased further by stacking them in array form in such

a way that another V-antenna is placed at an odd multiple of l/4 from back of the first. In

order to achieve end-fire action both the antenna is to be excited with a phase difference

of 90.

In this way, directional pattern of antenna narrowed in horizontal plane in broadside

direction and power gain increases approximately equal to number of section times used in

the array. That is power gain of two elements V-antenna array is doubled, similarly triplet

and so on for further increase in the number of elements in the array (see Fig. 5.11).

Alternative way to minimize the back radiation of V-antenna with termination is to use

V-element of considerable thickness, length and angle (b). The reflected waves on such

elements are very small compared to travelling waves (outgoing waves) as a result antenna

behaves as travelling wave antenna. A V-antenna of two elements, each of radius ( l/20) and

length 1.25 l/4, with an inclined angle b = 90 are found to provide highly uni-directional

pattern (see Fig. 5.12). Input impedance of a V-antenna is less than that of a linear dipole

of the same length l. The major drawbacks of V-antenna are its stronger side-lobes and

narrow BW. The inverted V-antenna is a modified form of V-antenna (see Fig. 5.13). If a

V-antenna is constructed above a perfectly conducting plane, the image of it would carry the

currents oppositely directed to those in antenna wire.

The main disadvantage of inverted V-antenna is that it has undesirable minor lobes

due to other portion of the radiating lobes. Therefore, these lobes emit horizontally

polarized waves in some other direction and hence inverted V-antenna may also receive

some horizontally polarized waves from these waves. The inverted V-antenna is one of the

travelling wave antennas used in HF band. It is effectively used for reception of waves up

to 60 GHz [12].

204 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Design Parameters

The close observation indicates that V-antenna may be visualized as an open-circuited flared

transmission line of length l and inclined angle a [Fig. 5.10(a)]. Therefore the directivity of

a V-antenna in the normal direction can be increased (i.e., side lobes reduced) over that of

corresponding linear dipole by choosing proper inclined angle a. In general, the larger the

value of arm length l the smaller the angle a must be. Using method of moments and

computer codes as well as concept of current distribution [13], the improved formulas for

the optimum angle a and corresponding directivity has been achieved. The inclined angle

(a) for which the directivity is greatest in the direction of the bi-sector of a is given by

(see [14])

3 2

h h h h

B = 149.3 + 603.4 809.5 + 443.6 for 0.5 1.5 (5.43a)

M M M M

2

h h h

and B = 13.39 78.27 + 169.77 for 1.5 3.0 (5.43b)

M M M

Linear Wire Antennas 205

h

D = 2.94 + 1.15 (5.44)

M

The variation of optimum values of a and arm length per unit wavelength is shown in

Fig. 5.14, and corresponding directivity variations are plotted in Fig. 5.15. In these

figures, the asterisks show some of the actual data compared and solid line that of either a

second or third order polynomial fit to the actual data [14, 15].

10

MM calculations

8 Polynomial fit

Weeks curve

7

6

Directivity

0

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

206 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Therefore, for V-dipoles with 0.5 h/l 3.0, either Fig. 5.14 or Eq. (5.40) may be considered

to obtain the optimum value of a. Similarly for directivity, Fig. 5.15 or Eq. (5.44) may be

used for calculations. The radiation characteristics of asymmetrically fed wire antenna (off

centre), with overall length (l) less than a half wavelength (i.e., l < l/2) is almost independent

from feed point location along the wire. However, if overall length (l) of wire antenna is

greater than l/2 (i.e. l > l/2), the feed point and current distribution undergoes a phase

reversal maintaining almost sinusoidal current distribution, and this situation finally causes

influences on input impedance as well as radiation pattern of the antenna. The input impedances

of centre fed and off-centre fed dipoles are approximately related as (see [16])

Zcf = Zocf cos2(kDl) (5.45)

where Zcf = input impedance of symmetric centre driven dipole

Zocf = input impedance off-centre driven dipole

Dl = displacement from the centre through the arm

k = wave number

Sleeve antenna is another form of wire antenna with advantages like mechanically simple,

broadband, purely vertically polarized and omnidirectional radiation in horizontal plane. The

sleeve antennas are widely used in mobile communication and broadcast systems [17]. The

basic geometrical configuration of a sleeve antenna is shown in Fig. 5.16. The sleeve antennas

are formed by adding sleeve(s) to a monopole or a dipole antenna. Accordingly, there are

two types of sleeve antennas: sleeve monopole antenna and sleeve dipole antenna. The

addition of sleeves increases the operating bandwidth of the antenna. The reason behind it

is that if short tubes (or sleeves) are added around a conventional monopole antenna,

Sleeve

Feed

Linear Wire Antennas 207

the resulting antenna shows satisfactory impedance matching with its feeding device, over

a wider frequency range than that of a single monopole antenna [18].

Sleeve Monopole

It is the addition of sleeves to a monopole antenna, and is fed by a co-axial line (see Fig. 5.17).

In 1947, Bock et al. designed an elementary sleeve antenna, useful for high frequency

applications.

2a

Sleeve dia 2b

H

L

Ground plane

Coaxial line

Later in 1966, as an attempt to improve bandwidth further, Poggio and Mayes proposed

a sleeve monopole, in which the feed has been elevated from the ground plane into the

sleeve itself as shown in Fig. 5.18. The radiating element of diameter 2a, protruding out of

the enclosing cylindrical sleeve of diameter 2b is an extension of the centre conductor of the

co-axial feed line, whose outer conductor is at a distance l from the ground plane. The

cylindrical sleeve having length L is also shorted to the ground plane. The total height (H)

of proposed new sleeve antenna is set to resonate at approximately one-quarter wave length

at the lowest frequency. In principle the length of sleeve may be any portion of the total

length of the monopole from greater than zero to the entire radiating portion of the antenna.

However, in practice the sleeve portion may be only from 33% to 50% of the height of

monopole, because the current at the virtual feed point changes only slightly as the overall

monopole height varies from l/4 to l/2 [19]. Poggio and Mayes results show that first sleeve

monopole resonance occurs at a frequency where monopole length H is approximately l/4.

In addition, a VSWR of less than 8 to 1 is achieved over 4:1 frequency band by suitably

adjusting the length l that is displacing the feed point within the sleeve. It was also observed

that significant improvement in VSWR is possible only at the cost of the bandwidth.

208 Antenna and Wave Propagation

The other optimum pattern design of a sleeve monopole is: (HL/L) = 2.25 and b/a = 3.0.

The reader interested in knowing about pattern optimization of sleeve monopole may see [19].

In order to overcome the problem of high VSWR of sleeve monopole (i.e. VSWR 8:1),

K.G. Thomas and his team proposed a new top loaded dual sleeve antenna having features

of broadband operation. It has been found the antenna features excellent radiation characteristics

within a broad impedance bandwidth of 4.2:1, covering 0.5 to 2.1 GHz for VSWR less than

2:1. This new antenna is found to be a suitable option for broadband mobile and vehicular

communication [20]. The proposed antenna is fed by a co-axial transmission line of charac-

teristic impedance 50 W. It is like gap-coupled two layer-stacked sleeve monopole antennas

(Sleeve A and Sleeve B) of length L1 and length L2 respectively (Fig. 5.19). The exterior of

sleeve A acts as the radiating element while interior B acts as the outer conductor of the feed.

A discontinuity (gap) is created in the outer conductor of the feed just above the ground

Linear Wire Antennas 209

plane, which is significantly responsible for the broadband impedance matching. Therefore,

wider impedance bandwidth can be obtained by optimizing the gap. Generally, a teflon

spacer of dielectric constant 1.8 is used to introduce gap between sleeves A and B. The inner

conductor of feed line is extended beyond the upper end of sleeve A and then it is surrounded

by sleeve B. The upper end of sleeve B is attached to a hollow cylindrical section of diameter

D and height h. The sleeve B is shorted at a point at a distance d down from the upper end

of the sleeve. The bottom faces of cylindrical top section (of diameter D) and height h acts

as the top loading. The diameter of the circular ground plane and the cylindrical top section

is maintained as the same; therefore the section comprising Sleeve A and Sleeve B acts as

a capacitor plate antenna in the lower frequency band and produces input resistance identical

to near quarter wave resonance. The position of the metallic short is optimized by using a

short circuit plunger, presenting a very high impedance at the lower end of upper sleeve

section B and thereby decouples it in the upper frequency band operation. The photograph

of proposed antenna is shown in Fig. 5.20.

The performance characteristics of the dual sleeve antenna have been measured and found

in good agreement with simulated ones [20]. The obtained results reveal that the first resonant

of antenna occurs at a frequency where monopole length (H) is approximately l/4. Total

length of antenna is 0.23l and the diameter of circular ground plane feed is 0.083l, where

l is wavelength in frequency range 0.5 to 2.1 GHz. A VSWR less than 2:1 is noticed over

the entire frequency band. The cylindrical top loading significantly reduces the lower edge

of the frequency band from 0.75 to 0.5 GHz with a resonance near 0.6 GHz. The line section

(L1 + L2) acts as the conventional sleeve monopole and also operates in frequency band

0.52.1 GHz. It is also observed that return-loss performance of antenna with larger ground

plans is degraded over the frequency band. The radiation pattern represents perfect omni-

directional patterns in the H plane and typically dipole pattern in E plane. The deviation from

typical monopole pattern in E plane is attributed to the small ground plane size of the

antenna.

210 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Sleeve dipole antenna is closely resembles an asymmetric dipole and hence can be analyzed

in a similar manner [see Fig. 5.21(a)]. It is essentially the same as that of a base-driven

monopole antenna above ground plane. By introducing the outer sleeve the excitation gap

voltage (maintained by the feeding line) is moved upward from the conducting plate z = 0

to z = zf. Therefore, image theory yields an equivalent structure in which two generators

carry equal voltage at z = zf.

As shown in Fig. 5.21(b), because of the linearity of Maxwells equations the total

current in the antenna system will be equal to the sum of the currents maintained independently

by each generator in each of the two asymmetric excited radiating elements [21]. Therefore

the total current at the input to sleeve IA (zf) is then approximately sum of currents at the

points z = zf, from the two configurations in Fig. 5.21(c) (upper and lower halves). Since

both the structures are identical at their feed, the input current is

IA = Ias(zf) + Ias(zf) (5.46)

Then the input admittance YA to the sleeve will be

I as (z f ) + I as ( z f )

YA =

VA

I as (z f )

or YA = Yas 1 + (5.47)

I as ( z f )

Linear Wire Antennas 211

1 2

where Yas = =

Z as Z1 + Z 2

where

IA = input current at the feed of the sleeve dipole [Fig. 5.21(a)]

Ias(h) = currents of asymmetric structures at z = h [Fig. 5.21(c)]

Zas = input impedance of centre-fed sleeve dipole

Z1 and Z2 = impedances due to symmetrical antennas of half lengths L1 and L2

Analysis shows that the frequency response of sleeve dipole antenna is much superior

to either that of a half wavelength or full wavelength dipoles.

The sleeve dipole antenna can also be approximated with an open-sleeve dipole by replacing

tubular sleeve with two conductors close to either side of the driven element. According to

Barkley [22], open sleeve antenna is a variation in the physical arrangement of the conventional

sleeve antenna. It consists of a dipole with two closely spaced parasitic elements of length

approximately one half of a centre-fed dipole. In fact, so many parameters arise which can

be varied to allow a wide range of choice between VSWR performance and operating

bandwidth. However, Barkley made a parametric study on impedance characteristics by

varying the length and spacing of open-sleeve monopole antenna. The gain and radiation

characteristics of open-sleeve antenna are found similar to a conventional cylindrical

sleeve antenna. Later, H.E. King and J.L. Wong [23] conducted study on a balun-fed open

sleeve dipole in front of a metallic reflector for operation in 225 MHz to 400 MHz frequency

range, especially for a satellite system application. They made parametric study on the

VSWR response as a function of dipole and sleeve diameters, sleeve length and sleeve to

dipole spacing. In addition, radiation patterns, gain and effects of mutual impedance were

also determined in order to derive suitable parameters for the proposed antenna system

operating over a 1.8:1 frequency band. Basic configuration of open-sleeve dipole antenna

is shown in Fig. 5.22, in which, proposed antenna structure has been incorporated with a

balloon, and dipole is fed by a co-axial line. The design parameters of the open-sleeve

dipole antenna for lowest VSWR for frequencies 225 MHz and 400 MHz are given in

Table 5.3.

Both the dipole and the sleeve were constructed in circular cylindrical elements with

a copper-clad 0.141 in. diameter, semi-rigid co-axial cable as the feed line. The balanced line

of the balloon is also a part of the semi-rigid cable (but without the centre conductor), and

the short-circuit of this line is coincident with the reflector surface. The dipoles are screwed

into the feed terminals while the sleeves were supported by Styrofoam. The angle a at the

feed point was made 90 for all dipoles, except for 1 18 dipole. However, for the 1 18 dipole,

a was inadvertently chosen as 45.

212 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Reflector

surface

Co-axial feed

(c) Side view

TABLE 5.3 Design parameters of open-sleeve antenna at 225 MHz and 400 MHz

D (diameter) 0.026l = 3.45 cm 0.047l = 3.53 cm

H (length) total 0.385l = 51.20 cm 0.684l = 51.34 cm

L (length) 0.216l = 28.73 cm 0.385l = 28.88 cm

S 0.0381l = 5.067 cm 0.0677l = 5.071cm

Sd 0.163l = 21.68 cm 0.29l = 21.75 cm

a 90 (for all dipoles) 90 (for all dipoles)

45 (dipole 1.125 in) 45 (dipole of 1.125 in)

Performance Characteristics

VSWR and coupling characteristics

Though VSWR tests were conducted taking both dipole and sleeve of the same diameter at

two values of dipole to reflector spacings 6 in. and 8.6 in. But it was noticed that the latter

Linear Wire Antennas 213

one showed significantly better VSWR performance than the first one. Therefore, 8.6 in.

spacing was considered a reasonably good choice for the antenna and it was considered for

the entire measurements. The reason behind choosing 8.6 in. spacing is that it is equal to

0.29l at f = 400 MHz and it is the position where radiation pattern beam bifurcation starts.

The VSWR characteristics of antenna as a function of frequency for different parameters are:

(a) dipole and sleeve diameters, (b) sleeve spacing, and (c) sleeve length are shown in

Figs. 5.23, 5.24 and 5.25 respectively. Figures 5.24 and 5.25 show the VSWR responses for

3/4 in. diameter open-sleeve dipole with sleeve spacing and length respectively [23].

D = 11/8

(Conventional

dipole without

sleeves)

0 = 3/8

VSWR

1/2

3/4

13/8

11/8

1

200 250 300 350 400

Frequency (MHz)

FIG. 5.23 VSWR response of open-sleeve dipole for various dipole and sleeve diameters.

5 Sleeve spacing

S = 1.05

S = 1.80 Sleeve length

S = 1.29 L = 11.88 in.

4

VSWR

Dipole length

3 H = 21.7 in.

All dimensions

2 are in inches.

1

200 250 300 350 400

Frequency (MHz)

FIG. 5.24 VSWR for 3/4 in. dia open-sleeve dipole with sleeve spacing as parameter.

214 Antenna and Wave Propagation

9

L = 14.5 in.

8

S = 1.29 in. L = 13.5 in.

7 H = 21.7 in.

6

VSWR

5

L = 12.75 in.

4

3

L = 11.88 in.

2 L = 11.00 in.

1

200 250 300 350 400

Frequency (MHz)

FIG. 5.25 VSWR for 3/4 in. dia open-sleeve dipole with sleeve length as parameter.

transverse mound dipole in front of a 60 in. diameter cylinder is nearly same as those of a

dipole mounted in front of a flat reflector. The VSWR response becomes flatter and the

required dipole length shorter as the diameter increases. The wide band characteristic has

been confirmed by showing the VSWR response of conventional dipole of diameter 1 18 in.

From Fig. 5.24, it is clear that sleeve spacing has relatively little effect on VSWR response

for diameters less than 3/8 in. However both Figs. 5.24 and 5.25 illustrate how the VSWR

response can be modified at the upper end of the frequency band at the expense of the mid-

band region. The amount of coupling between two adjacent sleeves (terminated in one of

three conditions: open circuit, short-circuit and 50 W load) was found less than 20.6 dB in

the 225 MHz400 MHz frequency range.

The radiation pattern and gain of proposed antenna in front of a reflector were measured on

a half-scale model, where dipole to reflector, sleeve to reflector and dipole to reflector

spacing were made up half size. The measurements conducted at three test frequencies: 450

MHz, 600 MHz and 800 MHz, indicate that both E plane and H plane patterns are similar

at these frequencies plotted. The E plane pattern shows minimum power of 32.5dB at

angle 100 for frequencies 450 MHz and 600 MHz; however, it is reduced to 40 dB for

800 MHz [23]. The directivity of antenna in each case is computed by the integration of the

E plane and H plane patterns, assuming the patterns were azimuthally symmetric, i.e.

Q Q

DE = 0

E -pattern and DH = 0

H -pattern (5.48)

Linear Wire Antennas 215

DE + DH

D= (5.49)

2

The antenna gain is then calculated by subtracting ohmic losses from the directivity D, i.e.

G = D PL (5.50)

where PL is an ohmic loss. The gain of the open-sleeve dipole antenna for different frequencies

is tabulated in Table 5.4.

TABLE 5.4 Gain of the open-sleeve dipole antenna for different frequencies

(MHz) Theoretical Measured

450 8.62 9.1

600 9.03 9.1

800 7.24 7.0

for achieving a 1:8:1 operating bandwidth and further bandwidth broadening is also possible

without cast of radiation pattern alteration.

The Beverage antenna is a long-wire antenna of length greater than one wavelength, however

some designer claimed that its length > 0.5l is sufficient enough. Unlike regular long-wire

antenna, the Beverage antenna is mounted close to the earths surface (typically < 0.1l) [24].

Beverage antenna was first used as directional antenna in 1992 however its technical

description by H.H. Beverage (after whom it is named) was published as The wave-antenna

for 200-metre Reception in QST Magazine in the same year. In general, the length of

Beverage antenna varies from 8 to 10 ft. Basic configuration of a Beverage antenna carries

a single travelling wave is shown in Figs. 5.26(a) whereas current and phase distributions

along antenna are shown in Figs. 5.26(b) and (c), where IR is relative current and DA is

distance along antenna. The current distribution is uniform while there is a linear variation

Wave

RL

Feed

FIG. 5.26 Contd.

216 Antenna and Wave Propagation

IR

DA

FIG. 5.26 Beverage antenna.

in phase along the antenna. Beverage antennas are terminated at the far end with a resistance

RL equal to the antenna characteristic impedance and shows uni-directional pattern; however,

unterminated Beverage antennas offer bi-directional radiation.

Principle of Operation

In general, the electric field of a wave travelling along any perfect conducting surface is

normal to the surface, however they undergo forward tilt near the surface, in case the surface

is an imperfect conductor, such as earths surface/ground. If E is electric field intensity of

a wave travelling along imperfect conductor (tilted wave) in x-direction, then x-component

of electric field intensity (Ex) will enter the surface and dissipated resulting in to heat [25].

However, normal component (Ey) continues to travel along the surface and responsible for

propagation [Figs. 5.27(a) and (b)]. Horizontal components provide the means of generating

an RF current in the conducting wire. Therefore, Beverage antennas work on vertically

polarized waves arriving at low angles of incidence. Beverage antenna consists of a long

horizontal wire terminated in its characteristics impedance is shown in Fig. 5.27(c). In this

case of Beverage antenna as waves incident/travel toward the receiver, the horizontal component

of field (Ey), induced emfs along the antenna, and all these add up in the same phase at the

receiver. On the other hand, the waves arriving from the opposite directions are largely

absorbed in the termination. Therefore, the antenna exhibits a directional pattern in the

horizontal plane with maximum response in the direction of termination.

Direction of propagation

E

E

Y Y

Direction of propagation

Ey

Ex

X X

Perfect conductor Perfect conductor

(a) (b)

FIG. 5.27 (a) Electric field on ground; (b) Component of electric field E.

Linear Wire Antennas 217

E

Y

Ey

Tx

A Ex B

Terminated end Rx

X

Ground

(c)

FIG. 5.27 (c) Machanism of radiation.

The Beverage antenna is highly directional, responsive to low-angle signals, has little

noise pick-up, and produces excellent signal to noise ratios. Applications of Beverage antenna

range from 15 to 500 KHz and 3 to 30 MHz. Beverage receiving antenna requires a lot of

space, as it is several wavelengths long, mounted near the ground and oriented towards

desired reception. A ballon is required at the juncture of the wire (antenna) and coaxial feed

line. High resistance (nearly 600 W) is needed to terminate the end of antenna. Beverage

antenna provides good gain and directivity, but its efficiency is poor, that why it is not

suitable as a Tx antenna.

Theoretical length of Beverage antenna should be close to a factor known as the

maximum effective length (MEL), which is defined as

M

MEL = (m) (5.51)

100

4 1

K

where l = operating wavelength (m)

K = velocity factor and expressed in per cent

Beverage antennas work best over lossy ground, which does not make a very good ground

connection. The Beverage antenna should be installed at a height of 6 to 10 ft. off the ground

and it should be level with the ground over its entire length. In case the ground is not flat

enough, a height 6 to 10 ft. can also be considered above the average terrain elevation [26].

RHOMBIC ANTENNA

The rhombic antenna is a highest developed long-wire antenna [see Fig. 5.28(a)]. It is a non-

resonance antenna and consists of four similar conductors joined together in a rhombus form/

diamond shape. A rhombic antenna can also be made of two obtuse-angle V antennas that

are placed side by side, erected in a horizontal plane. The rhombic antenna is terminated

with load resistor RL of suitable such that to match the feeding Tx line. For a typical rhombic

antenna designs: a = 14.4, L = 6l and H = 1l load resistor RL are typically on the order

218 Antenna and Wave Propagation

of 700 to 800 W. The terminated resistor should be non-inductive and capacitance should be

negligible. In particular, terminating resistance of 800 W can be used if antenna is to be used

as a receiving antenna. The antenna carries outward travelling waves are absorbed in the

matched load. The reason behind its radiation is that the separation between the lines is

longer compared to wavelength. Rhombic antenna is also called diamond antenna, because

its principle of operation is based on travelling wave radiator. Its acute angles and leg length

determine completely the physical form and size of the antenna. In general, rhombic antenna

is fed by a balance line and terminated load resistance is adjusted to set up travelling waves

in the all four legs of the antenna. Rhombic antenna offers maximum gain along its axis, i.e.,

line joining feed and termination points and its polarization exists in the horizontal plane.

In practice only half of power is radiated rest half is dissipated in the terminating resistor.

The radiation pattern of antenna is unidirectional; however, it can be converted into

bidirectional by removing the terminated resistance. Antenna of this kind found suitable for

long distance shortwave reception of horizontally polarized waves. In case, we choose a =

0.08f, the beams of the rhombic antenna [see Fig. 5.28(a)] numbered 1, 2, 3, and 4 will be

aligned, where f is the angle of maximum radiation [27] and

0.371

G = cos1 1 (5.52)

LM

Linear Wire Antennas 219

Alignment design: The maximum of main lobe is considered with the desired elevation

angle a. The design parameters for an alignment design of rhombic antenna are

M

Height of antenna above ground H = 5.53(a)

4 sin B

0.5 M

Length of each leg L = 5.53(b)

sin 2 B

Tilt angle q = 90 a 5.53(c)

Maximum E-design: The maximum relative field intercity E is obtained at the desired

elevation angle a for constant antenna current. The design parameters are given as

M

H= 5.54(a)

4 sin B

0.371 M

L= 5.54(b)

sin 2 B

and q = 90 a 5.54(c)

0.371

That is, only the length is different in the alignment design method being = 0.74 of

0.5

the value for the maximum E-design. Assuming uniform current, in general, the electric field

intensity E in the vertical plane coincides with the rhombic axis is given by [28]

E= (5.55)

Z

in which a = elevation angle w.r.t. ground

y = 1 sin q cos a

2Q H

Hr =

M

2Q L

Lr =

M

The length of legs (L) varies from 4l to 8l, due to which major lobes of radiation pattern

changes from 17 to 24 only [see Fig. 5.28(b)]. However, the typical value of power loss

is 35% to 50% in terminating resistor. The directivity varies from 13 dB to 20 dB and power

gain is of the order of 17 dB to 18 dB. As a result, a rhombic antenna operates satisfactorily

over a wide frequency range.

220 Antenna and Wave Propagation

120 60

135 45

150 30

165 15

180

195 345

210 330

315

225

240 300

255 270 285

Advantages

The rhombic antenna is much easier to construct and maintain than other wire

antennas of comparable gain and directivity.

The rhombic antenna is useful over a wide frequency range. Only small changes in

gain, directivity, and characteristic impedance occur with a change in operating

frequency.

The rhombic antenna also has the advantage of being non-critical as far as operation

and adjustment are concerned.

It is a highly directional broadband antenna with greatest radiated/received power

along the axis or longer diagonal.

The voltages present on the antenna are much lower than those produced by the

same input power on any resonant antenna. This is particularly important when high

transmitter powers are used or when high-altitude operation is required.

The vertical angle of radiation is low and hence these are suitable for long distance

F-layer ionosphere propagation.

Disadvantages

A fairly large antenna citation is required for its erection as legs are made at least

1l or 2l long at the lowest operating frequency. However, when larger gain and

directivity are required, legs of length 8l to 12l are also used. Therefore, they are

suitable only when a large area is available.

Linear Wire Antennas 221

Rhombic antennas are used for long-distance sky wave propagation at low vertical

angles of radiation (less than 20). Since horizontal and vertical patterns depend on

each other, if a rhombic antenna is designed to have a narrow horizontal beam, the

beam is also lower in the vertical direction. Therefore, obtaining high vertical-angle

radiation is impossible, except with a very broad horizontal pattern and low gain.

A considerable amount of the input power is dissipated in the terminating resistor

though it is necessary to make the antenna unidirectional.

The efficiency of rhombic antenna is decreased significantly because of matched

termination as it produces large numbers of lobes.

SOLVED EXAMPLES

Example 5.1 Obtain inclined angle and directivity of a V-dipole antenna of arm length

h = 0.75l. Show that directivity of V-dipole is greater than the directivity of 1.5l long linear

dipole (3.4 dB).

Solution: a = 149.3(0.75)3 + 603.4(0.75)2 809.5(0.75) + 443.6 = 112.87

D = 2.94 0.75 + 1.15 = 3.355 = 5.26 dB. Hence proved.

Example 5.2 Find the radiation resistance of a 0.25 l long dipole antenna.

2 2

dl 0.25 M

Solution: We know that Pr = 790 = 790 = 790 0.0625 = 49.4 :

M M

Example 5.3 Calculate the maximum radiation intensity and directivity of a l/2 dipole

antenna carrying current 2.5 rms value at f = 200 MHz. Also, find the maximum effective

area responsible for radiation.

I 02

Solution: 2

We know that I rms = I 02 = 2 2.5 2.5 = 12.50

2

Maximum radiation intensity,

And directivity is already defined as equal to 1.64 or 2.25 dB.

The operating wavelength: l = c/f = 150 cm.

The maximum effective area, Aem = 0.13 M 2 = 0.13 150 2 = 3.0 103 cm 2 .

Example 5.4 Calculate the radiation efficiency of above dipole, if it manufactured using

copper wire of radius 2.0 cm.

222 Antenna and Wave Propagation

1

I=

M fN

1+ 9.6 10 4

a T

Given: a = 20 mm = 0.02 mm, l = 150 cm = 1.5 m.

m = m0 = 4p 107 = 12.56 107 and s = 5.7 107

Therefore the value of factor

M fN 150 12.56 10 7 2 10 8

= = 157 103

a T 2 5.7 10 7

1

Hence I= 5

= 0.9998

1 + 1.57 10 9.6 10 4

h = 99.98%

Example 5.5 Find the change in impedance of folded dipole antenna, when it is designed

using l/2 dipoles of radii 1.5 and 2.0 cm. Also, find the input impedance when separation

between element 10 cm is considered.

Solution: In general, Zin of a folded dipole antenna is 300 W.

2 2

a 2.0

In the first case Z in = 73 1 + 2 i = 73 1 + i = 397.44 :

a1 1.5

Hence, the change in impedance; DZin = 97.44 W

2 2

log (s/a1 ) log (10/1.5)

i = 73 (1 + 1.1805)

2

Again Z in = 73 1 + = 73 1 +

log ( s/ a )

2 1 log(10/2.0) 1

Zin = 347.089 W

Hence, the change in impedance, DZin = 47.0879 W.

designed with 10 numbers of dipoles in series. Calculate the following, if it is to be operated

at 150 MHz:

(i) Angle of maximum radiation

(ii) Total length, and

(iii) Radiation resistance

Linear Wire Antennas 223

n 1 9

cos R m = = R m = cos1 (0.9) = 25.4

n 10

(ii) Total length L = = = 32.64 ft

f MHz 150

(iii) Radiation resistance

RR = [73.12 + 69 log10(n)] W

= [73.12 + 69 log10(10)] W

= 142.12 W

Example 5.7 Obtain the input impedance of a 0.45 l long wire antenna to be operated at

1.5 MHz. The antenna is fixed at a height of 1.85 m from the ground. Assume the resonant

resistance is 60 W. Also, find the directivity in the direction of 30 from the axis of antenna,

if Z0 = 50 W.

Solution: We know that the input impedance is given by

2Q

60 + j 50 tan M 0.45 M

R + jZ 0 tan (C l)

Z in = Z0 L = 50

Z 0 + jRL tan (C l) 2Q

50 + j 60 tan 0.45 M

M

60 + j 50 tan (162)

= 50 = 1.74[26.84 j19.9]

50 + j60 tan (162)

Hence Zi = (46.6 j34.6) W

120 120

Directivity D = = = 2.67 = 4.26 dB

Rrw sin R m

2

60 sin (90 30)

2

Example 5.8 A 0.4 l long wire antenna is made up of a conductor with cross-section area

of 36.0 cm2 and characteristic impedance of 55 W. The antenna is supposed to be operated

at 25 MHz at height 2.0 m from the ground. Calculate resonant load terminated resistance

(RL) and input impedance (Zin). Also, find the change in RL value if the height of antenna

increases by 20%.

Solution: The resonant load resistance at height h from the ground is given as

4h 36

and A = Q r = 36 r =

2

RL = 138 log10 = 3.38

d Q

224 Antenna and Wave Propagation

4 2 10 2

Hence RL = 138 log10 = 138 log10 (118.17) = 286 :

6.77

2Q

286 + j 50 tan 0.4 M

M

Input impedance, Zin = 50 = (7.38 j 67.04) :

2Q

50 + j 286 tan 0.4 M

M

In the second case, when height h increases, i.e., 2 1.2 = 2.4

4 2.4 10 2 960

RL = 138 log10

= 138 log10

= 297 :

6.77 6.77

Example 5.9 Obtain the height for the load resistance of 250 W, if the diameter of the wire

is 2.6 cm. Also, find position of a point where antenna directivity is 2.5 dB.

Solution: The resonant load resistance at height h from the ground is given by

4h 250 4 h 10 2

RL = 138 log10 or = log10

d 138L 2.6

1.8L = log10(153.5 h) h = 0.4 m = 40 cm

120

Directivity, D =

RL sin 2R max

1/2

120

or R max = sin 1 = sin 1 (0.52)1/2 = 31.28

250 1.78

Example 5.10 Find the incident angle a and directivity of a V-dipole antenna of arm

length h = 1.6l.

Solution: The arm length h is equal to 1.6l h/l > 1.5. Therefore, the incident angle a

will be

2

h h

B = 13.39 78.27 + 169.77

M M

= 13.39(1.6)2 78.27(1.6) + 169.77 = 78.82

Linear Wire Antennas 225

7.5 dB.

Solution: Directivity, D = 7.5 dB = 10 log (X) D = 5.62

h

Therefore, 5.62 = 2.94 + 1.15

M

1.52 l = 1.52 15 = 22.8 m

The inclined angle (a) = 13.39(1.52)2 78.27(1.52) + 169.77 = 81.74

or a = 81.74

Example 5.12 What will be maximum effective length of a Beverage antenna to be operated

at 100 MHz, if the velocity factor is considered to be 50%?

Solution: We know that maximum effective length is given by

M M 3

MEL = = = = 0.75 cm

100 100 4

4 1 4 1

K 50

Example 5.13 An electric dipole is formed with opposite charges of (+) and (), separated

at distance 2l. Show that the electric potential at a distance r from the centre of the dipole is

ql cos R

V =

2QF r 2

where q is an angle between the radius r and axis. Find the actual values if q = 15 pF, r = 500 m

and 2l = 6 cm at an angle of 60.

Solution: Let us consider the dipole, formed as shown in Fig. 5.29.

226 Antenna and Wave Propagation

q 1 1

V =

4QF r1 r2

Hence

q r + l cos R r l cos R ql cos R

V = =

4 QF r 2 l 2 cos2R 2 Q Fr 2

In particular

15 10 14 3 10 2 cos 60 4.045

V = 12

= = 1.61 103 V

2 3.14 8.8574 10 500 2

25 10 4

2V/m for R = 30 80

E= and G = 0 90

0 elsewhere

at a distance of 100 m from its centre. Find solid beam angle, directivity, radiation resistance

and loss resistance for 90% efficiency.

90 80

Solution: Solid beam angle : A = 0 30

sin R dR dG

80

Q Q

cos R = [cos 80 cos 30] = 1.087 Sr

2 30 2

4Q 4 3.14

D= = = 11.55 = 10.63 dB

:A 1.087

1 E2 1 22

Rr = :A r2 = 1.087 100 2 = 7.208 :

I2 Z 4 2

377

Rr 1 Rl 1 Rl 1 Rl

I= =1+ = = = =

Rr + Rl I Rr 9 Rr 9 Rr

Rr 7.208r

or Rl = = = 0.78 :

9 9

Linear Wire Antennas 227

20 I

Example 5.15 An isotropic antenna is characterized by the field pattern E = Am 1 .

r

Find the efficiency of antenna if loss resistance is 20% of the radiation resistance. Also, find

their values.

20 I

Solution: Given E = Am 1

r

E2

Hence power density Pd =

I

400 I 2

or Pd = for free space

r 120 Q

If Pt is power over sphere, then it will be equal to pr2Pd and as per circuit theory it must

be equal to I2R. That is, I2R = 4pr2Pd, where R is radiation resistance and hence

R= = = = 13.33 :

I 2

I 2

r 2

120 Q 30

Hence Rl = 13.33 0.02 = 0.267 W

Rr 13.33 1

Therefore, efficiency I = = = = 98%

Rr + Rl 13.33 + 0.02 1 + 0.02

Example 5.16 Find directivity, gain, effective aperture area and solid beam angle for a

centre-fed dipole of length l/10. Assume that the field distribution across the antenna is

E(q) = sin q and Rl = 0.4 W.

Q 8Q

Solution: (i) The solid beam angle : A = Q 4

sin 2R d : = 2Q 0

sin 3R =

3

= 8.38 Sr

4Q 4Q 3

(ii) The directivity D = = = 1.5 = 1.76 dB

:A 8Q

I av

2 2 2

1 1

2

I 2 10

Rr 1.975

(iv) The efficiency I = = = 83.34%

Rr + Rl 1.975 + 0.4

(v) Gain G = hD = 0.833 1.8 = 0.967 dBd

228 Antenna and Wave Propagation

M2 3M 2

(vi) Effective aperture Ae = I Am = 0.833 = 0.833 = 0.099 M 2

:A 8Q

in case l = 3.2 cm. Hence, Ae = 0.099 3.22 = 1.014 cm2

Example 5.17 (a) Design a maximum E-type Rhombic antenna for an elevation angle a =

17.5 to be operated at l = 3 cm.

(b) Design an alignment type rhombic antenna for an elevation angle a = 17.5 to be

operated at l = 3 cm.

Solution: (a) a = 17.5 and l = 3.0

M 3.0

H= = = 2.5 m

4 sin B 4 sin 17.5o

0.5 M 0.5 3.0 1.5

L= = = = 16.5 m

4 sin B 2 2

4 sin 17.5 o

0.0904

q = 90 17.5 = 72.5

Angle of maximum radiation

0.371 3.0

G = cos1 1 = 21.17

o

16.5

M 3.0

H= = = 2.5 m

4 sin B 4 sin 17.5o

0.371 M 0.371 3 1.113

L= = = = 12.3 m

4 sin B 2 2

4 sin 17.5 o

0.0904

q = 90 17.5 = 72.5

Angle of maximum radiation

0.371 3

G = cos1 1 = 24.37

o

12.3

Example 5.18 Calculate the relative electric field pattern in the axial direction for a rhombic

antenna of elevation angle a = 17.5 and to be operated at l = 3 cm.

Solution: We know that

E=

Z

Linear Wire Antennas 229

L 16.5

Lr = 2Q = 2 3.14 = 34.54

M 3.0

H 2.5

Hr = 2Q = 2 3.14 = 5.23

M M

Z = = = 0.545

2 2

Hence

cos 72.5 [sin (5.23 sin 17.5)] [sin (0.545 3.454)]2

E=

0.545

E= = 16.225 Vm 1

0.545

2Q L 2 3.14 12.3

Lr = = = 25.75

M 3.0

E=

0.545

= = 8.95 Vm 1

0.545

(a) Input reactance (b) Input resistance

(c) Input impedance (d) None of these

2. One of the following combinations is true for Hertzian dipole:

(a) Hr = Hq = 0 and Ef = 0 (b) Hr = Hf = 0 and Eq = 0

(c) Er = Ef = 0 and Hf = 0 (d) None of these

3. The induction field surrounding dipole varies as

(a) 1/r3 (b) 1/r2

(c) 1/r (d) None of these

230 Antenna and Wave Propagation

(a) Equal to radiation resistance of half wave dipole

(b) Lesser than radiation resistance of half wave dipole

(c) Greater than radiation resistance of half wave dipole

(d) None of these

5. The directivity of an ideal dipole is found to be

(a) 1.0 (b) 1.5

(c) 1.64 (d) None of these

6. Folded dipole antenna function at

(a) Only at odd harmonics (b) Only at even harmonics

(c) Both of these (d) None of these

7. The apex angle of V-antenna varies between 36 and 72 for leg length

(a) l/2 to 3l/2 (b) 5l to 8l

(c) 8l to 2l (d) None of these

8. Beverage antenna was first used in the year

(a) 1992 (b) 1995

(c) 2002 (d) None of these

9. The length of a Beverage antenna is

(a) Greater than l (b) Lesser than l

(c) Lies between 0.55l and 5l (d) None of these

10. Rhombic antenna is

(a) Bidirectional (b) Unidirectional

(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these

M

11. The height of a Rhombic antenna is given by H = as per the

4 sin B

(a) Alignment method (b) Maximum E-method

(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these

12. The directivity of a Rhombic antenna varies

(a) 13 dB to 20 dB (b) 20 dB to 25 dB

(c) 25 dB to 30 dB (d) None of these

13. The radiation resistance of a folded dipole antenna found to be

(a) 350 W (b) 292 W

(c) 73 W (d) None of these

14. A half-wave is to be operated at 250 MHz. What will be its length if the velocity

factor of antenna element is 0.85?

(a) 0.3 m (b) 1.2 m

(c) 0.51 m (d) None of these

15. The following is/are wideband antenna(s):

(a) Folded dipole antenna (b) Marconi antenna

(c) Discone antenna (d) None of these

Linear Wire Antennas 231

(a) Co-axial cable (b) Tx line

(c) Flat ribbon type Tx line (d) None of these

17. Radiation resistance in a given direction is

(a) Power radiated per m2

(b) Field transmitted per m2

(c) Power radiated per unit solid angle

(d) None of these

18. For a dipole of length (l), the number of lobes in the radiation pattern will be

(a) 1 (b) 2

(c) 4 (d) None of these

19. A balun is virtually a/an

(a) Impedance transformer (b) Frequency supporter

(c) Attenuator (d) None of these

20. The inverted antenna can be used for reception of waves of frequency

(a) 10 GHz (b) 60 GHz

(c) 90 GHz (d) None of these

Answers

1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (c) 5. (b)

6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (b)

11. (c) 12. (a) 13. (b) 14. (c) 15. (a) & (c)

16. (c) 17. (c) 18. (d) 19. (a) 20. (b)

EXERCISES

1. What are the advantages and application of rhombic antenna? Design a rhombic

antenna of leg length 1.5l and elevation angle 35.

2. What is the suitable frequency range of applications of long wire antenna?

3. Write the expression for the maximum field for a terminated long wire antenna.

4. Describe the principle of operation of folded and V-dipole antennas. Explain the

various parameters of antennas.

5. Compare half-wave dipole, folded dipole antenna and V-dipole antennas in terms of

designs and radiation characteristics.

6. What are the Marconi and Hertz antennas? What are their radiation patterns and

impedances? List the differences between them.

232 Antenna and Wave Propagation

7. Describe the principle of operation of rhombic antenna. Explain the various parameters

of antenna.

8. Sketch the phase and current distributions of Beverage antennas.

9. Why is rhombic antenna used? Draw its neat diagram and explain its special features.

What happens to the main lobe of rhombic antenna if its frequency is doubled?

10. What are the advantages of dual sleeve antenna over a sleeve monopole antenna?

11. Show that the radiation resistance of a l/2 dipole antenna is 73 W.

12. Describe folded dipole antenna. Show that the input impedance of this antenna is

300 W. Mention its applications as a receiving antenna.

13. Describe sleeve dipole and open sleeve dipole antennas. Compare the l/2 dipole,

sleeve dipole and open sleeve antennas.

14. Describe a method to calculate the directivity and gain of open sleeve dipole antenna.

15. Describe working principle and applications of Beverage antenna.

16. Derive the expression for the radiation efficiency of a l/2 dipole antenna. (Hint: See

Eq. 5.22.)

17. Describe the characteristics of folded dipole antenna. Write the expression for its

input impedance in different cases.

18. What are the resonant and non-resonant antennas? Sketch their radiation patterns.

Write the expression for the field strength of these antennas.

19. Describe the characteristics of various V-dipole antennas. Highlight their applications

in various communication systems.

20. Find the direction of maximum radiation of a rhombic antenna of leg length 0.6l.

21. What is rhombic antenna? Explain its design procedure with reference to height.

22. A rhombic antenna above the ground is to be designed for a main beam maximum

at an elevation angle of b. Determine the rhombic configuration required for this

angle.

23. How does rhombic antenna differ from the Beverage antenna? Write the formulae

involved in the design of the rhombic antenna.

24. Find the radiation resistance of an antenna in a medium of er = 2.2, if its electric

10 I V

field pattern is E = , where I is current and r is distance.

r m

25. Show that average power radiated from a Hertzian dipole of length dl is equal to

40p2(dll)2 I 02 .

Linear Wire Antennas 233

REFERENCES

[1] Thiele, G.A. and W.L. Stutzman, Antenna Theory and Design, John Wiley & Sons,

New York, 2001.

[2] Kraus, J.D., Antennas, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988.

[3] Loo, Y.T. and S.W. Lee, Antenna Handbook, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York,

pp. 2721, 1988.

[4] IEEE Standards on Antennas, Methods of testing, 48, IRE, 2S2, 1948.

[5] Stratton, J.A., Electromagnetic Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 537, 1941.

[6] Schelkunoff, S.A. and H.T. Friis, Antennas: Theory and Practice, John Wiley & Sons,

Inc., p. 338, 1952, New York.

[7] King, R.W.P., The Theory of Linear Antennas, Harward University Press, Cambridge,

M.A., 1956.

[8] Amman, M.J. and Z.N. Chen, A wide band shorted planar monopole with bevel,

IEEE Trans Antennas Propagate., Vol. AP. 51. No. 4, pp. 901903, April 2003.

[9] Thiele, G.A., On the accuracy of the transmission line model of the folded dipole

antenna, IEEE Trans Antennas Propagate, Vol. AP-28, No. 5, pp. 700703,

May 1980.

[10] Austin, B.A. and A.P.C. Fourier, Numerical modelling and design of loaded broadband

wire antennas, Proc. IEEE 4th Int. Conf. on HF Communication systems and Techniques,

284, pp. 125128, 1988.

[11] Clark, A.P. and A.P.C. Flourier, An improvement to the transmission line model of

the folded dipole antenna, IEE, Proc-H, Vol. 138, No. 6, Dec. 1991.

[12] Prasad, K.P., Antenna and Wave Propagation, 2nd ed., Satya Prakashan, New Delhi,

1996.

[13] Richmond, J.H., Computer program for thin wire structures in a homogenous

conducting medium, NTIS, Springfield, VA., 22131, NASA, Contractor Rep., CR.

2399, July 1973.

[14] Thiele, G.A. and E.P. Ekelman, Design formulas for V-dipoles, IEEE Trans.,

Antennas and Propagate, Vol. AP. 28, No. 4, July 1980.

[15] Iizuku, K., The array of two travelling wave V-antenna as a space craft antenna,

IEE, Proc., Vol. 65, No. 7, pp. 6465, May 1976.

[16] Yagi, H., Beam transmission of ultra short waves, IEEE Proc., Vol. 72, No. 5,

pp. 634645, May 1984.

[17] Li, J.Y. and Y.B. Gan, The characteristic of sleeve antenna, Progress in

Electromagnetic Research, Symposium 2005, China, Hangzhou, pp. 2326, August

2005.

234 Antenna and Wave Propagation

[18] Bock, E.L., J.A. Nelson and A. Dorne, Sleeve Antennas in Very High Frequency

Techniques, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 119137, 1947.

[19] Poggio, A.J. and P.E. Mayes, Pattern bandwidth optimization of the sleeve monopole

antenna, IEEE Trans Antennas Propagate, Vol. AP. 14, No. 5, pp. 643645, Sep. 1966.

[20] Thomas, K.G., et al., Wide band dual sleeve antenna, IEEE Trans Antennas Propagate,

Vol. No. 3, March 2006.

[21] Weeks, W.L., Antenna Engineering, McGraw-Hill, NY, Sec. 2.6, pp. 161180, 1968.

[22] Barkley, H.B., The open-sleeve as a broadband, U.S. Novel Post Graduate School

Monterrey, CA, Teach Rep. 14, AD-82036, June 1955.

[23] King, H.E. and W.L. Wing, An experimental studies of balun fed open-sleeve

dipole in front of a metallic receiver, IEEE Trans Antennas Propagate, Vol. AP. 20,

No. 3, pp. 201204, March 1972.

[24] King, R.W.P., Asymmetric driven antennas and sleeve dipole, Proc., IRE, Vol. 38,

pp. 11541164, Oct. 1950.

[25] Kraus, J.D., AntennasFor all applications, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2005.

[26] Johnson, R.C. (Ed.), Antenna Engineering Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993.

[27] Wolf, E.A., Antenna Analysis, Chap. 8, John Wiley, New York, 1967.

[28] Beck, A.C. and L.R. Lowry, Horizontal rhombic antennas, Proc., IRE, 23, pp. 2446,

January 1953.

C H A P T E R

6 Loop Antennas

INTRODUCTION

The loop antennas are very simple, inexpensive and versatile antennas. They are just wire

antennas, but compulsorily not a straight wire; they may be of any shapecircular, square,

rectangular, hexagonal and triangular as well as many more configurations. However, the

circular/square loop antenna is very common, simplest in construction and easy in analysis.

Basically, loop antenna is a radiating coil of any convenient cross-section of one or more

than one turns carrying sinusoidal current. A loop of more than one turn is also called frame.

The overall directional performance of the antenna can be significantly enhanced by selecting

proper phasing between turns/coils. In general, there are two types of loop antennasmall

loop and large loop. It is assumed that the periphery of small loop antenna is less than the

one wavelength (i.e., C < l) however, a large loop antenna periphery is greater or equal to

one wavelength (i.e. C l). It is found that the radiation of a small loop antenna is equivalent

to radiation of an infinitesimal magnetic dipole whose axis is normal to the plane of the loop.

The field pattern of a small circular loop of radius a can be determined very easily by

equating its area with the area of a square loop of side d (see Fig. 6.1). That is, d2 = pa2.

The ordinary loop antenna is designed in such a way that its periphery is smaller than

wavelength. Because currents are found to be of same magnitude and phase throughout the

loop. The radiation resistance of loop antenna is smaller than the loss resistance; hence its

radiation efficiency is poor and this is the reason why loop antenna is mostly used as

receiver not as a transmitter. One of popular method of improving the radiation resistance

hence efficiency of loop antennas is increasing its perimeter and number of turns. In addition,

radiation resistance of loop antenna can also be increased by inserting ferrite core into loop,

which is termed ferrite loop antenna.

Historical View

During 19151930, the first loop antennas were used in receivers to minimize dependence

on long wire antennas. Later in 1938, they appeared again and used to fully eliminate the

235

236 Antenna and Wave Propagation

(a) Basic configurations

(b) Geometries

FIG. 6.1 Basic configuration of loop antenna and the various geometries.

need of long wire antennas. The first high performance loop antenna termed box loop

antenna (as it was wound on a 40 square box frame) was designed by Ray Moore in the

mid-1940s; this later became popular as the Moore loop antenna. The next major advances

in loop antenna designs were brought in the 1960s by Nelson at M.I.T. The main advantages

with the new antenna were its free movement in the vertical and horizontal planes. This loop

was 35" on a side and wound on a wood frame. These antennas have the alt-azimuth feature

(available as a kit).

Joe Worchester (19701977) developed the Space Magnet, a small 12 ferrite rod

loop antenna using a bipolar junction transistor amplifier. This was probably the first loop

antenna commercially available to the hobbyist, at a cost of about $45.00 at that time. This

antenna also used a Faraday shield around the ferrite bar. However, Ralph Sanserino (1970

1985) designed a 2-ft air core box loop using a differential amplifier. The amplifier was also

used in the radio ferrite loop antenna. In the 1980s, Mackay Dymek and Palomar designed

small ferrite antennas primarily for the broadcast band applications. In subsequent years, the

following antennas were designed by antenna engineers; each utilized the Nelson alt-azimuth

feature:

(i) A 23, high performance, Space Magnet-like, ferrite rod loop was designed using

differential amplifier by Radio West during 19791985.

(ii) Quantum loop, a small ferrite rod antenna less than 1 in size (length), with a high

gain (40 dB) amplifier, was designed by Gerry Thomas in 1990.

(iii) The high performance, solidly built first air core loop antenna was designed by Kiwa

in 1992. He integrated IC amplifier opto-isolated regeneration and varactor diodes

with antenna for better performances.

(iv) A high performance transformer coupled non-amplified 35 spiral wound antenna

was designed by Moore in December 1994. Since then varieties of loop antennas

have been continuously designed and developed for various purposes.

Loop Antennas 237

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

In order to discuss the principle of operation of loop antenna, let us consider a single loop

rectangular antenna; it is such that its plane is vertical and free to rotate around the ZZ axis

(see Fig. 6.2). From Fig. 6.2 it is clear that out of four arms (AB, DC, AD, and BC) two arms

(AB and DC) act as horizontal antenna while the other two arms (i.e., AD and BC) act as

vertical antenna.

FIG. 6.2 Equivalence of a loop antenna to a rectangular antenna with rotation axis (where

E1 and E2 are the voltage induced in vertical arms AD and BC).

In terms of this construction, radiation from a loop antenna can be described in two ways:

(i) If the plane of the loop is right angle to the direction of arrival of vertically polarized

waves [see Fig. 6.3(a)] then the same voltage will be induced in both the arms.

These voltages will produce currents of equal magnitude and opposite phase in the

loop, hence they will be cancelled out. This happens because during normal position

of loop antenna, plane with respect to incoming waves, both sides (rather all the four

arms) are at equidistance from the radiator, therefore no emf is induced. If at all any

emf exists, that would be due to horizontally polarized downcoming waves and it

could be neglected as its magnitude is very small. That is in horizontal arms no emf

is produced whatever may be orientation, as result no radiation from the loop in this

plane.

(ii) If the loop is rotated by 90 such that plane of the loop is along the direction of

arriving waves [see Fig. 6.3(b)], the voltage induced in each vertical sides will not

be cancelled out. This is because of the involvement of distance between two vertical

sides (i.e. CD). And waves take some time to travel this distance, introducing a

definite phase difference (say, a) between induced fields E1 and E2. Therefore, rms

value of emf induced in two vertical sides will be the same in magnitude, but

different in phase by a.

Therefore resultant induced emf across the vertical ZZ axis would be (E1 E2) and it

will be produced around the loop. The value of induced emf will be maximum, when the

238 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 6.3 (a) Perspective view of loop antenna; (b) Plane view of loop antenna, when the

plane of loop is (^r) to direction of incoming waves.

plane of the loop is along the direction of incoming waves from the transmitter. In any other

position (except 90), E1 and E2 will not be in phase; hence the resultant is zero and therefore

no radiation (Figs. 6.4 and 6.5). The radiation pattern of a small loop antenna is free from

the exact size of the loop and it is similar to the radiation pattern of Hertzian dipole with

a minor difference that E and H are interchanged. Therefore a small loop is surrounded by

a magnetic field everywhere at right angle to the loop and hence referred to as a magnetic

dipole [1].

D C

AD BC

A B

(a) (b)

FIG. 6.4 (a) Side view of loop antenna; Plane view of loop antenna, when the plane of loop

is (||) to the direction of incoming waves.

Loop Antennas 239

In general, the induced emf in any direction q from the loop antenna is given by

Eq = Erms cos q (6.1)

where q is the angle between the plane of the loop and direction of wave arrival and Erms

is rms value of electric field E. The value of Eq depends on the height of the vertical side

(h), width of the loop (d) and operating wavelength (l). Loop antenna is very suitable for

direction finding applications because when loop is rotated 360 around vertical axis ZZ, the

maximum radiation appears twice, first at q = 00, 180 and then at q = 90, 270.

Radiation Fields

In order to treat a small loop as a short magnetic dipole, let a small loop of area A carrying

uniform current I be replaced by an equivalent magnetic dipole of length l, which carries

fictitious magnetic current Im as shown in Fig. 6.6.

p = qm l (p is magnetic dipole moment)

Im = Imoejwt

dqm

The magnetic current is related to pole strength by I m = N

dt

dqm

or

I mo e jX t dt = N dt

dt

which gives

Im

qm = (6.2)

jXN

240 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Equating magnetic moment of loop (I A) with the magnetic moment of dipole, i.e.

Im

qml = IA or l =I A

jXN

IA

I m = j 240 Q 2

Ml

which can be re-written in retarded form as follows:

[I ]

[I m ] = j 240 Q 2 A (6.3)

Ml

Equations (6.3) describes the relation between loop area A and current I to its equivalent

magnetic dipole of length l and fictitious current Im.

r

where [I m ] = I mo e jX t (6.4a)

c

r

or [I ] = I o e jX t (6.4b)

c

Therefore the retarded magnetic vector potential, F, of the magnetic current (Im) can be

given by

G N [J m ]

F=

4Q r

dv

N + l/2 [I m ]

or Fz = az

4Q l/2 r

dz (z-component of F) (6.5)

Solving Eq. (6.5) with the help of Eqs. (6.3) and (6.4) gives

r

N I mo jX t c

Fz = le (6.6)

4Q r

1

Therefore E= ( F ) (6.7)

N

Solving Eq. (6.7) in polar co-ordinate (r, q, f) system, the f-component of E is obtained as

[I m ] l sin R jX 1

EG = + 2 (6.8)

4Q cr r

Loop Antennas 241

EG = =

4 Q cr 2r M

IA

Substituting I m = j 240Q 2

Ml

120 Q 2 [I ] sin R A

we get EG = (6.9)

r M2

EG Q [I ] sin R A

Therefore HR = = (6.10)

I (=120 Q ) rM 2

The electric and magnetic fields of loop and short dipole are given in Table 6.1.

Electric field EG = ER =

r M 2

r M2

Q [I ] sin R L j[I ] sin R L

Magnetic field HR = HG =

r M 2

r M2

Since Ef and Hq are the functions of q (the angle measured from the polar axis as

shown in Fig. 6.7) and independent from f, the radiation pattern of a small dipole is of

doughnut shape.

242 Antenna and Wave Propagation

In previous section, we have seen that emf induces between vertical sides of loop, provided

fields in the sides are in phase of a. In order to derive expression for emf in any loop

antenna, the value of a must be known, particularly when the plane of loop is at an angle

q with respect to the direction of arrival of signals. Let us consider vertical sides AD and

BC to be represented by two-point source (similar to two-point source arrays) separated at

distance d, with the waves (1, 2) incident at any instant at angle q, as shown in Fig. 6.8.

FIG. 6.8 Loop antenna (as two-point source) and wave arrivals.

Therefore, similar to array analysis, the phase difference between rays 1 and 2 will be

2Q Q d cos R

B= = Path difference =

M M

If at any instant the electric field arrived at origin O is Em sin w t, then the fields arriving

at R will lead and at P lag by angles +a and a, respectively. Therefore, the resultant emf

across the loop will be the difference of emfs induced in arms AD and BC,

i.e. ef (q) = Em h sin(w t + a)|AD Em h sin(wt a)

= Em h [sin(w t + a) sin(w t a )

= 2Em h(sin a) cos w t

= 2Em h a cos w t (since a is very small compared to sin q)

2Q hd cos R

or e f (R ) Em cos X t (6.11)

M

If there are N number of turns in the loop and area A = hd, then instantaneous emf around

the loop can be given by

Loop Antennas 243

2Q AN cos R Q

e f (R ) = Em sin X t + (6.12a)

M 2

Q

e f (R ) = Vm sin X t + (6.12b)

2

2Q AN cos R

in which Vm = Em (6.12c)

M

2Q A N cos R

or Vrms = Erms (6.12d)

M

2Q AN

with all the parameters having their usual meaning. The term is known as effective

M

height of loop. When it multiplies by field strength in mV/m, gives the induced voltage in

mV provided it is taken in maximum response position, i.e. cos q = 1. Equation (6.12a) is

the general expression for the instantaneous value of emf at the centre of the loop and it is

clear that induced ef (q) is an alternating emf of frequency w/2p. Also, there is p/2 phase

difference between ef (q) at the centre of loop and EM field being received at the antenna.

To describe the radiation pattern of a loop antenna, let us assume a circular loop of radius

r carrying current I is represented by a square loop of side d, such that the area of the square

loop is the same as the area of the circular loop, i.e., d2 = pa2 as shown in Fig. 6.9.

We know that the fields from sides AB and DC must be ignored as they are equal and

opposite in nature. Therefore, only two sides, AD and BC, will be responsible for radiation

and they may be considered to be two short dipoles. That is, individual dipoles AD and BC

act like two isotropic point sources in Y-plane (see Fig. 6.10). Now, the far-field radiation

pattern due to isotropic sources AD and BC with reference to centre point O will be (see [2])

Ef = Field component due to AD + Field component due to BC

Z

2

C d sin R

EG = 2 jE0 sin (6.13)

2

j 60Q [I ] L

where y = bd sin q is phase difference and ER = , is electric field amplitude of

M

dipole.

Here, L of short dipole is equivalent to d, i.e., L d and q = 90, because the pattern

is measured from x-axis instead of z-axis.

244 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 6.9 (a) Equivalence of circular loop to square loop; (b) its orientation in (r, q, f)

coordinate system.

120 Q 2 [I ] sin R A

Therefore EG = provided d << l (6.14a)

r M2

Q [I ] sin R A

hence HR = (6.14b)

rM 2

where A = d2 is the area of square loop.

Comparison of Eqs. (6.9) and (6.14) reveals that the radiation fields of circular loop

and square loop are identical, provided they have equal area.

Loop Antennas 245

As we have seen, the far-field radiation fields of circular loop and square loop antennas are

M2

the same, provided the loops are identical and their area is such that A < . So, in

100

general, the properties of loop antenna depend on area and the shape has no effect. The

radiation pattern of these antennas depend on the angle q not on f, i.e., the radiation

characteristics of electrically small loop antennas, which have a perimeter much less than l,

are insensitive to loop shape and depend only on the loop area. Also, the radiation from

the small loop is maximum in the plane of loop and is zero along the axis normal to the loop.

These facts are consequences of the current amplitude and phase being constant around

the loop, provided the loop perimeter length L is electrically small. However, for the

loops of considerable perimeter (greater than l) the current amplitude and phase vary

with positions around the loop and cause performance variation with changing the size.

Equivalently, a fixed size large loop antenna shows performance changes with varying

frequency, and acts like a resonant antenna. The radiation pattern of a large loop antenna

depends on both q and f. From the construction point of view, large loop antennas have

either a circular or square perimeter, and both are operated near the first resonant point, if

perimeters of circular loops are equivalent to square loops. A detailed explanation on a

square loop antenna is given here. A square loop of one wavelength l perimeter is considered,

as it can be analyzed using the same techniques that we generally use for other resonant wire

antennas.

Since the size of loop is 1l, it is reasonable to assume that current distribution around

the loop is sinusoidal. Then, the current distribution is continuous around the loop

( curves). Since the loop is fed at the centre of a side parallel to x-axis (see Fig. 6.11),

the sinusoidal current can be expressed as

M

0 cos(C x )

I1 = I 2 = xI where x (6.15)

8

M

I 3 = I 4 = y I 0 sin (C y ) where y (6.16)

8

Here (x, y) represent a point at the midle of the side.

The vector potential is

e j C r

A=N

4Q r loop

Ie j C (r r ) dl (6.17)

where l is length of side of square and r is unit radial vector and equals (xi + yj ), r

+ zk

is position vector of point (x, y, z) and r is distance of observation point. Using Eqs. (6.15)

and (6.16), the solution of Eq. (6.17) gives the simplified form of vector potential as

246 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Y

Sinusoidal current distribution

Current magnitude

I2

X

I4

I3

I1

FIG. 6.11 Square loop of one (l) perimeter and (l /4) side length.

Q cos :

cos

x 4 Q cos H Q cos H

cos H sin cos

e jCr 2 2 I 0 sin H

2

4 4

A= N

4Qr C Q cos :

sin

4 Q cos : Q cos :

y cos : cos cos

sin 2 : 4 4

= Ax x + Ay y (say) (6.18)

in which cos g = sin q cos f

cos W = sin q sin f

Therefore the far-zone electric field components will be

G

ER = jX AR = jX AR = jX (Ax x R + Ay y R)

Similarly E y = jX AG = jX ( Ax sin G + Ay cos G ) (6.20)

Substituting the value of Ax and Ay from Eq. (6.18), we get the simplified values of Eq and

Ef as follows:

jI 0I e j C r sin G sin C cos G cos B

ER = cos R (B cos B sin B ) (C sin C cos C )

2Qr 1 B1 1 C12

2 1 1

(6.21)

Loop Antennas 247

EG = cos R (B1 cos B sin B ) + ( C1 sin C cos C )

2Q r 1 B1 1 C1

2 2

(6.22)

Q Q

where B = sin R sin G and C = sin R cos G

4 4

a1 = sin q sin f and b1 = sin q cos f

A close observation of Fig. 6.11 reveals that there are planes, xy, xz and yz, where far-

field radiation takes place effectively and therefore needs to be analyzed. Basically there are

three cases.

Case A: The far-fields in x-y plane, which is the plane of loop (an E-plane) known as

principal plane and is obtained by putting q = 90; hence

Q

ER R = = 0 (6.23)

2

Q cos G

sin

4 Q sin G Q sin G

sin G cos sin

Q cos G 4 4

Q jI Ie jC r Q 4

EG R = = 0

2 2Q r 4 Q sin G

cos

4

Q cos G Q cos G

+ cos G sin cos

Q sin G 4 4

4

(6.24)

For f = 0 and 180 along x-axis, Ef = 0, this is true also since both the sides 3 and 4 alone

have patterns that are zero in the broadside direction; this is because the current distributions

are in opposite phase around the mid-point. And along y-axis, i.e., q = f = p/2, Eq. (6.24)

reduces to

jI 0Ie j C r 1 jI 0 Ie j C r

EG = = = Ey (6.25)

2 Qr 2 R =G =

Q 2Q r

2

248 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Ef(f = 0) = 0 (6.26)

Q Q

jCr sin R sin 4 sin R cos 4 sin R

jI 0Ie

and ER (G =0) = (6.27)

2 Qr cos R

i.e., Eq = 0, for q = 90, 270, i.e., along y-axis. Eq 0, for q = 0, 180, i.e., along x-axis.

Hence from Eq. (6.27), we get

jI 0I e C r

ER R =0

= = Ex (6.28)

2Q r

which is similar to far-field radiation along y-axis in case of xy-plane.

Case C: In yz-plane (H-plane)

Q

ER G = = 0 (6.29)

2

and

Q jI 0I e j C r Q

EG G = = cos sin R (6.30)

2 2Q r 4

Q

which indicates that EG G = 0 for any value of q.

2

Q jI 0I e j C r

Therefore, EG G = = , which is the same as the electric field along

2 R = 0 2Q r

the x-axis (Eq. 6.28). Comparison of field levels along x and y directions, indicates that the

field in the y-direction is 2 times that in the x-direction, i.e., ( 2 E y = E x ) . The radiation

patterns of the square loop antenna in these planes are plotted in Fig. 6.12.

So, it can be concluded that in case of 1l square loop, radiation is maximum normal

to the plane of the loop (i.e., along the z-axis) and it is polarized parallel to the loop side

containing the feed. However, in the plane of the loop, there is a null in the direction parallel

to the side containing the feed point (i.e., along the x-axis) and there is lobe in the direction

normal to the side containing the feed (i.e., along the y-axis). But in the case of a small loop,

there is a null on the axis and maximum (uniform) radiation in the plane of the loop. It has

also been found that the input impedance of 1l square loop antenna (wire radius 0.001l) is

about 100 W and resonance occurs for a 1.09l perimeter. The gain is 3.09 dB, which is lesser

than 3.82 dB, the gain of a straight wire 1l dipole antenna.

Loop Antennas 249

The important parameters of a loop antenna are: radiation resistance, loss resistance, total

radiated power and directivity [3], and they are expressed as follows:

2 4

A C

1. Radiation resistance of a single turn loop Rr = 31200 2 = 197 (:)

M M

2

NA

2. Radiation resistance of N turns Rr = 31200 2

M

C a

3. Total radiated power P = 30 Q 2 I m2 = 60 Q 3 I m2

M M

Ll f N0

4. Loss resistance Rl = N (:)

d QT

1 Rr

5. Radiation efficiency (N turns) I = =

Rl Rl + Rr

+ 1

R

r

3430

where the ratio of Rl/Rr for copper conductor is

C 3 fMHz

3.5

Nd

2Q f 0 L f0

6. Quality factor (Q) = =

Rr + Rl + Rc 'f HP

250 Antenna and Wave Propagation

f0

7. Bandwidth (BW) 'f HP = (Hz)

Q

S Pr Pt Aet Aer

8. Signal-to-noise ratio = =

N N r M 2ITs 'fHP

2

Directivity: In general, the directivity of a circular loop antenna with uniform current

distribution is given by Fosters expression as follows [4]:

2C 2 C sin R

J1

M M max

D= 2C

(6.31)

0

M J 2 (y) dy

C 1 3

(i) For small loop of

, the directivity Dmax = , which is the same as the

M 3 2

directivity of a small electric dipole. This is because the pattern of small loop is

equivalent to short electric dipole.

C C

(ii) For a large loop of 5, directivity D = 0.682 .

M M

As usual, the maximum effective area of a loop antenna is

M2 0.682

Aem = = C M = 5.42 10 2C M (6.32)

4Q D 4 3.14

4Q Aem I

and Gain = (6.33)

M2

In the above equations

A = area of loop

C = 2 pa

N = number of turns in loop

Im = peak or maximum current in loop of area A

Ll = circumference/perimeter of loop

Loop Antennas 251

d= diameter of loop wire

L= inductance (H)

Rc = conductor loss

Ts = Antenna temperature (K)

r= distance from the observation point (m)

h= radiation efficiency factor

The instantaneous expression for electric and magnetic fields at a large distance (r)

from a loop of radius a are

60QC [ I ] a QC[ I ] a

EG = J and HR = J (6.34)

r 2r

where J = J1(ba sin q) represents pattern of antenna and others are constant.

In the previous section, we discussed all the parameters of loop antenna. The radiation

efficiency of the loop antenna is calculated in terms of ohmic resistance and radiation

resistance. In general, radiation resistance is very less than the ohmic resistance, therefore

h is low and heavily depends on the ohmic loss [5], i.e.

Rr Rr

I= as Rr << Rl

Rr + Rl Rl

In order to increase the radiation efficiency, a multi-turn loop antenna is chosen. In which

the ohmic resistance of a small loop antenna is taken to be same as that of a straight

conductor. The length of this conductor is equivalent to length of uncoiled loop, and calculation

is done under skin effect [6]. A multi-turn loop of close spacing can be treated as a system

of parallel wires, and the distribution of current over conductor cross-section is determined

by two effects skin effect and proximity. A multi-turn loop antenna of radius b with spacing

between turns 2c is shown in Fig. 6.13(a).

The loops have essentially N turns, and each carrying same current I, and the total

length of the loop is much lesser than the free-space wavelength. If the current is confined

to a thin layer near the wire surface, it is known as skin effect. If the effect causes a non-

uniform distribution of current in the layer, this is called proximity effect. If the skin depth

(d) in a conductor is very small compared to the wire radius, i.e. d << a, then the resistance

per unit length of a system of n equally spaced parallel conductors carrying equal currents

in the same direction is given by

n

Q

Rn = 2aRs R =0

K m2 (R ) dR :/m (6.35)

m =1

252 Antenna and Wave Propagation

2c

where Km = Surface current on mth perfect conducting wire carrying total current of 1 A

XN

1/2

2T

The additional loss due to proximity effect is then

R

R p = R0 n 1 = ( Rn R0 ) (6.36)

R0

where R0 is the skin effect resistance alone and equals

nRs

: /m (6.37)

2Q a

For close spacing between the conductors, the loss due to proximity effect can be more than

double the ohmic resistance of the system of conductors. Hence, the ohmic resistance of the

loop antenna can be given as

Rl = Circumference Resistance per unit length

= 2pb Rn = 2pb (Rp + R0)

where Rn = Rp + R0

Rp Rp nRs

Rn = + 1 R0 = + 1

R0 R0 2Q a

Rp nRs nbRs R p

Therefore Rl = 2Q b + 1 = + 1 (6.38)

R0 2Q a 2Q a R0

Loop Antennas 253

= 20p2n2(bb)4 (6.39)

Therefore the radiation efficiency is obtained as

Rr 20Q 2 n2 (bC ) 4

IA = = (6.40)

Rr + Rl nbRs Rp

20Q n (bC ) +

2 2 4

+ 1

a R0

Rp

Under no proximity effect, =0.

R0

After simplification, Eq. (6.40) reduces to

1

IA = (6.41)

8.48 10 10 (f MHz T r )1/2

1+

n(b)3 a

where a = a/l and b = b/l.

sr = ratio of conductivities of wire and copper

The variation of radiation efficiency hA with domensionless quantity (K) and the number

of elements (N) is shown in Fig. 6.13(b).

100

N=8

N=6

N=4

Radiation efficiency (%)

N=3

10

without proximity effect

with proximity effect

N=8

N=6

N=4

N=3

1 N=2

N = number of turns

N=1

0 K

0.1 1.0 6 10

FIG. 6.13(b) The variation of radiation efficiency of the small loop antennas vs factor K for

different values of N.

254 Antenna and Wave Propagation

If the matching network is used along with antenna, it introduces losses as large as

ohmic loss; therefore overall efficiency of antenna is modified to [7]

E = h AE m (6.42)

where Em is the radiation efficiency of matching network.

In general, the radiation pattern of a loop antenna is calculated by integrating the Poynting

vector over a large sphere. This gives total radiated power P, which is then equated to the

square of the effective current on the loop times the radiation resistance. This radiation

resistance is the value that appears at the loop terminals connected to the transmission

line (and not the entire length of perimeter of the loop). Another formula is needed to

calculate the reactive part of impedance. This method is complex, as it involves Bessels

function and many approximations are also need to be considered. External devices

such as phase-shifter/multiple feeds are needed to obtain uniform current distribution and

proper phase condition over the loop [8]. In this section, approximate closed and simple

formulas are used to determine the input impedance of a regular loop configuration, where

the ratio of a/l is limited up to 0.8 for the reactive part and up to 0.5 for the resistive

part. The proposed method is based on an equivalent transmission model, where a loop of

fixed perimeter is equated with a shortened line of finite length of varying characteristic

impedance.

Let us assume that the length of Tx line is equal to half of C, whereas wire radius a

remains the same. The loop is considered to be extended in such a way that it forms a Tx

line (Fig. 6.14). The characteristic impedance of the line is taken as the average characteristic

impedance of the loop. Hence it is clear that input impedance determined in this way is

approximately equal to the reactive part of impedance of the loop.

FIG. 6.14 Circular loop and its equivalence to two-wire short-circuited Tx line.

Loop Antennas 255

We know that the input impedance of a finite lossless (i.e., a = 0) Tx line of length

l is

Z cos(C l) + jZ 0 sin (C l)

Z in = Z 0 L (6.43)

Z 0 cos(C l) + jZ L sin (C l)

If the line is short-circuited, ZL = 0, and hence

Zin = jZ0 tan bl = jXL (6.44)

2Q

where Z0 is the characteristic impedance of the line, C = (wave number), and l is length

M

of Tx line and equals the perimeter of loop 2.

If the area confined by the Tx line is taken to be equal to the area of the loop, the

characteristic impedance (Z0) of Tx line is equal to the average impedance of the loop wire

s

Z 0 = 276 log : (6.45)

a

where s is the spacing between coaxial wires/loop area.

Resistive part of input impedance (R) is related to the radiated power, and heavily depends

on the perimeter of loop and almost independent from the radius of wire. Actually, resistive

part of the input impedance (R) is computed using moment method, and investigations on

its variation against (C/l) deduced that it follows a formula of the form

CC

R = a tan b (6.46)

2

where a and b are new constants which have different values for different loop configurations

(see Table 6.2). The reactive part of input impedance for different loop configuration has

also been calculated using above approximation and found to be relatively in good agreement

with results computed using moment method for (C/l) 0.8 [8]. Good accuracy of the

results obtained from this method is restricted to (C/l) 0.5. Typically, for a small circular

loop, Eq. (6.46) reduces to

CC

R = 1.793 tan 3.928 (6.47)

2

or R = 20 b2A2 (6.48)

256 Antenna and Wave Propagation

TABLE 6.2 Constants a and b for different loop geometries for different values of (C/l)

S.No. Configurations of loop A b a b

1 Circular 1.793 3.928 1.722 3.676

2 Square (centre fed) 1.126 3.950 1.073 3.271

3 Square (corner fed) 1.140 3.958 1.065 3.452

4 Triangular (base fed) 0.694 3.998 0.755 2.632

5 Triangular (top fed) 0.688 3.995 0.667 3.280

6 Hexagonal 1.588 4.293 1.385 3.525

In the previous section, we have described the input impedance, and the resistive and reactive

parts of loop antenna, using equivalent Tx line model. But the properties such as the conductivity

of the medium have not been taken into consideration, which may effectively change the

impedance of the antenna. Galejs [9] in his paper reported that a thin layer of insulation

helps to maintain a uniform current flow around a loop antenna, in case it is immersed in

a conducting medium. Later, it was also suggested that the presence of the insulating material

could be neglected while computing the impedance of loop antenna; however, Kraichman

[10] first analyzed a loop antenna located in a conducting medium. Therefore, the present

section describes a method to calculate the impedance of a loop antenna located in a conducting

medium using tabulated functions.

Let a circular loop antenna having uniform current distribution across its wire is immersed

in a medium of conductivity (s) as shown in Fig. 6.15, where am, ai and a0 are the medium,

inner and outer radii of loop, and r is radius of conductor wire [11].

Loop Antennas 257

Q e jH R

Z = jXN am ai cos Z dZ = (Re + jX m ) (6.49)

0 R

(1 j ) T

where H = jXNT = is propagation constant for >> 1 and d is skin depth.

E XF

If y = R/d, the real and imaginary parts of impedance from Eq. (6.49) can be separated as

XN ai am Q f (y )

Re = cos Z dZ (6.51)

E 0 y

XN ai am Q g( y)

Xm = cos Z dZ (6.52)

E 0 y

where f(y) and g(y) are newly introduced functions and defined as follows:

nQ

(2) n/2 ( y) n sin

4

f (y) = e y sin y = n!

(6.53)

n =1

nQ

(2) n/2 ( y) n cos

4

g(y) = e y cos y = 1 + n!

(6.54)

n =1

If the ratio (ai/am) lies between (1 < ai/am 0.95), the value of y may be accurately approximated

as

R ai am 4(1 cos Z ) 2 ai am Z

y= = = sin (6.55)

E E 2 E 2

Therefore, from Eqs. (6.53) and (6.54), the value of Re [Eq. (6.51)] reduces to

n

(2)(3 n 2)/2 nQ ai am

Re = XN ai am sin K (6.56)

n =1 n! 4

E n 1

Q Z n 1

0

2

258 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Substituting the value of g(y) into Eq. (6.54), Eq. (6.52) gives

Q cos Z

X m = XN ai am dZ

0 R

nQ

( y)n 1 cos

XN ai am Q

4

(2) n / 2 cos Z dZ = X m1 + X m 2 (6.57)

E 0 n =1 n!

which consist of two terms. The first term is recognized as the external inductance of a direct

current loop, i.e.,

Xm1 = wL1 (6.58)

Q cos Z

where L1 = N ai am dZ

0 R

Equation (6.58) can be solved in terms of elliptic integrals and L1 is found equal to

1 q2

L1 = N ai 1 + 1 K E (6.59)

p 2

ai 2 p Q /2 dG Q /2

in which p =

am

, q=

(1 + p)

, K= 0 (1 q sin G )

2 2 1/2 and E = 0

(1 q 2 sin 2G )1/2 dG ,

nQ

( y) n 1 cos

XN ai am Q Q

4

X m2 = (2) n/2 cos Z dZ (6.60)

E 0 n =1 n!

Substituting the value of y from Eq. (6.55) and after simplification yields

n

(2)(3n 2)/2 nQ ai am

X m 2 = X L2 = XN ai am cos I

n =1 n! 4

E n 1

n

(2)(3 n 2)/2 nQ ai am

or L2 = N ai am cos I (6.61)

n =1 n! 4 E n 1

where In1 is another constant function [11]. Therefore, the total external impedance of the

loop antenna can be expressed as

Z = Re + jX (L1 + L2 ) (6.62)

where Re, L1 and L2 are defined in the above equations.

Loop Antennas 259

As already mentioned, the main disadvantage with a simple loop antenna is its low efficiency.

This is so because loss resistance of a small magnetic loop antenna is comparable to its

radiation resistance. Expression to calculate efficiency of a loop antenna indicates that antenna

efficiency can be increased by increasing the radiation resistance and in turn the circumference

of the loop. But this method makes antenna heavy. Fortunately, ferrite rod has the properties

of increasing magnetic flux, the magnetic field, the open-circuited voltage and hence the

radiation resistance. This is because of the high permeability m and high resistivity of the

ferrite material. The high resistivity reduces the core losses and raises the quality factor of

a coil. Therefore, by inserting a ferrite rod into the circumference of the loop, antenna

efficiency could be increased. The parameters of n-loop ferrite antenna are modified as

follows [12]:

2Q

The induced maximum emf V= EANF Ner (6.63)

M

N NA

2 4

NC 2

Radiation resistance Rr = 31200 er 2 = 20Q 2 N er (6.64)

M M

2Q

Effective length le = ANF Ner as V = Ele (6.65)

M

where mer = effective relative permeability of the ferrite and its value ranges from 100 to

10000. The mer depends upon the choice of material and the size and shape of the rod. Higher

length to diameter ratio of the ferrite rod offers a high permeability m, which is desirable for

better performance. The effective relative permeability of ferrite loop in terms of relative

intrinsic permeability of unbounded ferrite material mfr is given by

Ne Nfr

Ner = = (6.66)

N0 1 + D(Nfr 1)

where mfr is much larger than 1 (i.e., mfr >> 1) and D is demagnetization factor and found

to be different for different geometries. The value of D for an ellipsoid of length 2l and

radius a (l >> a) is given by

2

a 2l

D = ln 1 (6.67)

l a

However, for a sphere, D is equal to 1/3. The basic configuration and radiation mechanism

of ferrite rod antenna are shown in Figs. 6.16 and 6.17 respectively.

Ferrite rod antenna is a broadside radiator; maximum radiation is in direction perpendicular

to the antenna axis provided antenna lies at 90 w.r.t. incoming waves (see Fig. 6.18).

Because this particular orientation induces maximum voltage in the antenna coil, the performance

260 Antenna and Wave Propagation

of the antenna is maximum when coil is positioned at the centre of the rod and degraded in

case coil moves toward the end of the rod. Therefore, coil is placed at the quarter point from

one end of the rod. Because of losses in ferrite, when we try to use ferrite loop antenna as

Tx antenna, the power dissipated heats up the material until it decomposes/melts. This is

because ferrite behaviour tends to vanish (me falls to unity), when we apply a large field or

try to transmit significant power levels. This is the reason why ferrite rod antenna makes

an excellent Rx antenna, not Tx antenna, except the power level to be transmitted is quite

low (typically less than a watt or so).

Loop Antennas 261

Loop antennas are used in RF and aircraft receivers, direction finding and also as UHF

transmitters. Loop antennas are also used in pagers and handheld transceivers, which is

probably due to loops low efficiency, which is not as important as SNR. Most of the

applications of loop antennas are found in HF, VHF and UHF bands, and they are used even

in microwave frequency range as probes in field measurement and as directional antennas

for radio-propagation. Large loop antennas significantly used in directional arrays are helical

arrays, yagi-arrays and quad arrays. As far as ferrite rod antennas are concerned they are

mostly used in pocket transistor radios. Ferrite loop antenna is a form of RF antenna and

found suitable in portable transistor, broadcast receiver as well as in many hi-fi tuners for

LW, MW and SW frequency bands. As the antenna is tuned, it usually forms the RF tuning

circuit for the receiver, enabling both functions to be combined within the same components,

thereby reducing the number of components and hence the cost of set. Ferrite rod antenna

is directive and it best operates only when the magnetic force lines fall in line with the

antenna. That is the antenna has a null position where the signal level is at a minimum when

the antenna is in the direction of the transmitter. Though we can compare ferrite loop

antenna with RF antenna, its efficiency is much less than that of a large RF antenna. The

performance of the ferrite also limits the frequency response and it is only up to MHz levels.

Mostly it is used as Tx; however it can also be used as Tx antenna where efficiency is not

an issue and transmitted power level is low. As they are more compact than RF antennas,

this can be an advantage, and as a result they can be used in RFID applications.

SOLVED EXAMPLES

Example 6.1 Calculate the voltage induced by a plane wave of electric field E = 0.03 Vm1

at operating frequency 2.0 MHz for a (i) vertical antenna of height 8 m and (ii) loop antenna

of 1.5 m2 and 10 turns, if the plane of the loop is in the plane of propagation of the wave

and also, (iii) find total power radiated by the loop.

Solution: Given E = 0.03 V/m, l = 300/2 m, h = 8 m

N = 10, q = 0 and A = 1.5 m2

Therefore

(i) Magnitude of induced voltage in vertical antenna is given by

| Vrms | = | Erms h sin wt | = Erms h = 0.03 8 = 0.24 V

2 Q Erms AN

(ii) Vrms for the loop is Vrms = cos R V

M

2 3.14 0.24 1.5 10

= cos 0 = 0.151 V

150

262 Antenna and Wave Propagation

2 2

A 1.5

(iii) Radiation resistance Rr = 31200 2 = 31200 2

= 2.08 :

M 150

Therefore, the radiated power

1 V2 1 0.1512

PT = = = 2.74 mW

4 Rr 4 2.08

Example 6.2 A circular loop frame has 150 turns such that the periphery of each turn is

1.5 m. Determine maximum field strength so that receiver tuned at 10 MHz inducing a

voltage of 10 mV. Consider loop is oriented at 60 from the direction of the transmitter and

quality factor of the loop is 85.

Solution: Given: Q = 85, N = 150, 2pr = 1.5 p; therefore r = 0.75 m.

A = pr2 = 3.14 0.752 = 1.766 m2

f = 10 MHz l = 30 m, Vin = 10 mV and q = 60

Vin 10 2

We know that Vrms = = = 1.176 10 4 V

Q 85

Vrms M 1.176 10 4 30

and Erms = = Vm 1 = 4.232 Vm 1

2Q AN cos R 2 3.14 1.766 150 0.5

Em 5.985

Hence Hm = = = 1.587 10 2 Am 1

377 377

Example 6.3 A square loop of arm length 0.8 m has 20 turns. The winding wire is characterized

with resistance 105 W and inductance 0.5 mH. It is supposed to be turned by a capacitor at

resonance with a wave defined by E = 250 sin (8p 105) mVm1. Find the rms value of

voltage developed across the capacitor when the waves incident at 60 w.r.t the plane of

loop.

Solution: Area, A = 0.8 0.8 = 0.64 m2 N = 20

R = 10 W L = 0.5 mH

E = 250 sin (8p 105) t = Em sin wt (say)

Then Em = 250 10 6

Vm 1

Em 250 10 6

therefore Em = = = 176 10 6 Vm 1

2 2

w = 2p f = 8p 105 rad s1. Therefore, the voltage across the capacitor will be

Loop Antennas 263

(Vrms )c = Vrms Q = =

M R c R

In which c is velocity of wave and 3 108 ms1. Therefore,

(Vrms )c = =

3 108 10.5 3.15 10 9

= 1.128 104 V = 0.1128 mV

Example 6.4 Design a loop antenna which induced a maximum emf of 0.55 mV across it

at a frequency of 1 MHz when it is placed in a field region, where the rate of flow of energy

is 5 mVm2.

Solution: The operating wavelength l = 300/1 = 300 m

2

V2 A

We know that Wmax = , where Rr = 31171 2 .

4 Rr M

Let us consider a circular loop antenna of area A is used in this case.

V2 (0.55)2 10 6

Rr = = = 15.125 :

4 Wmax 4 5 10 3

1/2

15.125 10 6 (300) 4

Hence, A= = 1.982 m 2

31171

1/2

1.982

A = Q a2 = 1.982 a = = 0.79 m

Q

i.e., radius of loop is 0.79 m.

Therefore, perimeter of loop = 2pa = 2 3.14 0.79 = 49.612 cm.

Example 6.5 A 3-turn circular loop antenna of radius is 12 cm made up of copper of radius

1.2 mm. The antenna carries a current of 10 mA when being operated at f = 2 MHz.

Calculate the radiated power, percentage radiation efficiency, effective area and gain of the

antenna.

Solution: N = 3, a = 0.12 m, d = 2.4 103 m, Im = 10 103 A, l = 300/2 = 150 m.

a

The total radiated power P = 60 Q 3 I m2 n

M

60 (3.14)3 (10 2 )2 0.12 3

= W = 0.4458 mW

150

264 Antenna and Wave Propagation

1

The radiation efficiency (I) =

Rl

+ 1

Rr

where for copper

Rl 3430 3430

= = = 1.99 10 6

Rr C 3 3.5

fMHz Nd 2 3.14 0.12

3

2

3

2 3 2.4 10 3

1

Therefore radiation efficiency

1 1

(I) = = 5.025 10 5 = 5.025 10 3 %

(1.99 10 + 1) 6

(1.99 10 6 )

C 2 3.14 0.12 1

= = 5.02 10 3 << .

M 150 3

Hence Dmax = 3/2.

Maximum effective aperture

M2 150 2

Ae = = = 1194.26 m 2

4Q D 4 3.14 1.5

Gain G = = = 3.35 10 5

M 2

150 2

Example 6.6 A circular loop antenna with uniform in phase current has diameter D. Find

(i) radiation pattern for D = l/10; (ii) Rr and directivity of the antenna for D = l/3.

Solution: (i) The far-field pattern of a circular loop is given by

2Q M Q

J1 (C a sin R ) = J1 sin R = J1 sin R

M 6 3

3

Q 1Q 1 Q

J1 sin R is a Bessels function of first order and equals sin R sin R + ...

3 2 3 83

C 1 C 2Q M Q

For = = = 0.314

M 3 M M 20 10

Loop Antennas 265

Q 1 Q

J1 sin R sin R = 0.523 sin R

3 2 3

Therefore, far-field pattern can be found as

(E1)q=0 = 0 dB

(E)q=30 = 0.523 0.5 = 5.83 dB

Similarly

(E3)q=60 = 3.44 dB and (E4)q=90 = 0.523 sin 90 = 2.81 dB

FIG. 6.19 Radiation pattern of circular loop antenna for Example 6.6.

(ii) We have

C 2Q M 1

= = 1.0472 >

M M 6 3

a 1 M

Therefore, Rr = 3720 = 3720 = 620 :

M M 6

2 3.14 M

D = 0.682 = 0.7141 = 1.462 dB

M 6

Example 6.7 Find skin-effect resistance of a 4-turn circular loop antenna of copper wire

to be operated at f = 2 MHz. The radius of loops wire is 1.2 mm. Also, find radiation

efficiency, if loop radius is 0.45 m and resistance per unit length is 0.207 W.

XN

2

nRs

Solution: We know that Rs = 0 and R0 =

2T 2Q a

266 Antenna and Wave Propagation

2

2 3.14 2 10 6 4 3.14 10 7

Rs = = 0.372 m:

2 5.7 10 7

4 0.372 10 3 1.488

Hence R0 = 3

= = 0.1975 :

2 3.14 1.2 10 7.536

1

8.48 10 10 (f MHzT r )1/2 R p

We know that IA = 1 + + 1

n (b)3 a R0

a 1.2 10 3

where a = = = 0.08 10 4

M 150

b 0.45

b = = = 3.0 10 3

M 150

T

T = =1 Rp = (Rn R0) = 0.207 0.1975 = 0.0095 W

T

Rp 0.0095

= = 0.048

R0 0.1975

1

8.48 10 10 (2 1)1/2 1.048

IA = 1 + = [1 + 1.45 10 +3 ] 1

4 27 10 9 0.08 10 4

= (1455.43)1 = 0.06878%.

Example 6.8 Find resistance, inductance and impedance of the loop antennas to be operated

at f = 1 MHz, if the shape of the loop is

(i) Small circular loop of radius 0.15 m

(ii) Square loop of sides 0.12 m

(iii) Triangular loop of arms 0.28 m

(iv) Hexagonal loop of arms 0.25 m

Assume that the radius of the wire is constant in all cases and is equal to 2.5 103 m.

C 2 3.14 0.15

Solution: We have = = 0.00314 , which is less than 0.2.

M 300

Therefore, XL = jwL = Z0 tan (bl), in which case

S

Z 0 = 276 log

r

where l = C/2, S = area of loop, r = radius of wire.

Loop Antennas 267

3.14 (0.15)2

(i) Z 0 = 276 log = 276 log (0.0283 10 3 ) = 400.69 :

2.5 10 3

X L = 400 tan = 400 tan 0.0098 = 0.06895

300

0.06895

Hence, L= = 10.97 nH

2 3.14 10 6

2

2Q 2 20 4 (3.14) {3.14 (0.15) }

2 2 2

R = 20 A =

M 300 2

788.768 0.05

= = 0.0044 :

90000

0.122

Z 0 = 276 log = 209.87 :

2.5 10 3

2Q 4l

Z in = jX L = jZ 0 tan

M 2

4Q l 4 3.14 0.12

= jZ 0 tan = jZ 0 tan

M 300

= 0.0184

0.0184

L= = 2.93 10 9 = 2.93 nH

2 3.14 10 6

and

CC

R = a tan b

2

where a = 1.126 and b = 3.950.

2 3.14 2 0.12

Therefore, R = 1.126 tan 3.950

300

log R = log 1.126 + 3.95 log tan (0.005024) = log 1.126 + 3.95 log (8.768 105)

log R = 0.052 16.0254 = 15.973

Hence R = 1.062 1016 W 0.

268 Antenna and Wave Propagation

3 3

Area = a2 = (0.28)2 = 0.034 m2

4 4

S 0.034

Z 0 = 276 log = 276 log 3

= 312.856 :

r 2.5 10

2Q 3a 3.14 3 0.28

X L = Z 0 tan = 312.856 tan = 0.0494

M 2 300

0.0494

Hence L= = 7.86 10 9 = 7.86 nH

2 3.14 10 6

CC

and R = a tan b

2

where a = 0.694 and b = 3.998.

Therefore

R = 0.694 tan 3.998 = 0.694 tan

300 2 100

log R = 0.1586 15.254 = 15.4086

Hence R = 3.9026 1016 W 0.

(iv) Length of hexagonal arm is a = 0.25 m.

6 3 6 3

Area = a2 = (0.25)2 = 0.162 m 2

4 4

S 0.162

Z 0 = 276 log = 276 log 3

= 500.27 :

r 2.5 10

2 3.14 6 0.25

X L = 500.27 tan = 0.13708

300 2

0.13708

Hence L= = 21.83 10 9 = 21.83 nH

2 3.14 10 6

Loop Antennas 269

2 3.14 3 0.25

Therefore, R = 1.588 tan 4.293

300

log R = log 1.588 + 4.293 log (0.000274) or log R = 0.2008 15.293 = 15.092

Hence, R = 8.088 10 16

W 0.

Example 6.9 Find the relative permeability of a single-turn ferrite spherical loop if the

relative permeability of the un-balanced ferrite material (mfr) is 85.76. Also, find the radiation

resistance if the circumference of loop is 3.55 l.

Solution: We know that the demagnetization factor for spherical rod is 0.333; therefore

Nfr 85.76

Ner = = = 2.94

1 + D(N fr 1) 1 + 0.333(85.76 1)

4

C

Hence, Rr = 20 Q N er2 = 20 (3.14)2 (3.55) 4 (2.94)2 = 27.07 10 4 :

2

Example 6.10 Find the radiation resistance and the efficiency of a 10-turn ellipsoidal

ferrite loop antenna of length 35 cm and radius 3.5 cm. The antenna is to be operated at

50 MHz and loss resistance is only 2.5% of the radiation resistance. Assume that mfr is 85.76.

Solution: The demagnetization factor

2 2

a 2l 3.5 2 35 3

D= ln 1 = ln 1 = 19.95 10

l a 35 3.5

Nfr 110

Ner = = = 34.64

1 + D(Nfr 1) 1 + 19.95 10 3 (110 1)

2

N NA 34.64 10 3.85 10 3

2

Rr = 31200 er 2 = 31200 = 42.81 :

M 362

2.5

Therefore Rl = 42.81 = 1.070

100

Rr 42.81

I= = = 0.9756 = 97.56

Rr + Rl 42.81 + 1.070

270 Antenna and Wave Propagation

infinitesimal magnetic dipole, whose axis is

(a) Normal to the plane of loop (b) Parallel to the plane of loop

(c) Both (d) None of these

2. A loop antenna is preferred for use as receiving antenna rather than the transmitting

one because of its

(a) High efficiency (b) High gain

(c) Low efficiency (d) None of these

3. Moore loop antenna was designed on a square box frame, later which was famous

as

(a) Box loop antenna (b) Box square antenna

(c) X-ray antenna (d) None of these

4. Quantum loop antenna is integrated with a high gain 40 dB amplifier; it is an

example of

(a) Small loop antenna (b) Long wire antenna

(c) Ferrite rod antenna (d) None of these

5. When a loop antenna is freely rotated around its axis the maximum radiation appears

at

(a) (0, 180) and (90, 270) (b) (30, 180) and (60, 270)

(c) (90) and (180) (d) Only at 145

6. Fosters expression deal with the directivity of a

(a) Rectangular loop antenna (b) Square loop antenna

(c) Circular loop antenna (d) None of these

7. The radiation efficiency of a ferrite loop antenna is greater than a loop antenna by

the multiple factor

(a) F er2 (b) N er2

(c) mer (d) None of these

8. The value of relative effective permeability (mer) of ferrite material ranges from

(a) 100 to 10,000 (b) 10 to 1,000

(c) 50 to 500 (d) None of these

9. Loop antenna is a type of

(a) Directive antenna (b) Low efficiency antenna

(c) Both of these (d) None of these

10. What will be the directivity of a circular loop antenna of radius l?

(a) 5.7 (b) 1.5

(c) 0.745 (d) None of these

11. What will be the radiation resistance of a circular loop antenna of radius l?

(a) 4000 W (b) 17200 W

(c) 73.56 W (d) None of these

Loop Antennas 271

12. The directivity of small loop antenna is 1.5, because its radiation field is maximum

at angle q

(a) 90 (b) 60

(c) 100 (d) None of these

13. What will be the radiation efficiency of a 1 m dia loop of 10 mm dia copper wire

at 103 KHz

(a) 40.5 dB (b) 50 dB

(c) 82.75 dB (d) None of these

14. A 10-turn ferrite rod antenna operating at 2 MHz. The length of the rod is 15 cm,

radius of the rod is 1.5 cm and diameter of a wire wound on the rod is 1.5 mm, what

will be radiation efficiency if mer = 60?

(a) 5.7 104 (b) 15.7 102

(c) 2500 (d) None of these

15. The induced maximum emf across ferrite antenna terminal increases by a multiple

factor of

(a) mer (b) mer + 1

(c) 25 mer (d) None of these

Answers

1. (a) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (a)

6. (c) 7. (b) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (d)

11. (d) 12. (a) 13. (a) 14. (d) 15. (a)

EXERCISES

2. Describe the applications of loop antenna in wireless communication. How does it

take the place of monopole antenna in wireless communication?

3. If a small loop of area A carries current I is radiating in free space, show that far-

120 Q 2 [ I ] sin R A

zone electric field is given by E = 2 . Draw its radiation pattern

r M

also.

4. Describe the array theory of loop antenna. Derive the expression for the induced

voltage for n-turn loop antenna operating at frequency fo.

5. What are the characteristic features of circular and square loop antennas? Write the

expressions for their far-fields.

6. Describe the large loop antenna. Write the expressions for far-fields in different

planes of the antenna.

272 Antenna and Wave Propagation

7. Show that for a square loop antenna, the radiation resistance is Rr = 31200(a/l)4,

where a is side of loop antenna, whereas for the elliptical loop antenna, it is Rr =

1950 (pab/l2)2, where a and b are the semi-major and semi-minor axes of the ellipse.

8. What are the advantages of multi-turn loop antenna? Show that the total ohmic

resistance for n-turn circular loop antenna with loop radius b, wire radius a and turn

nb Rp

separation 2c is RL = Rs + 1 .

a R0

9. Using suitable approximations, find the resistance, inductance and impedance of a

centre-fed loop antenna to be operated at f = 1.5 MHz, if the shapes of loop are

(a) equivalent triangle of side = 0.3 m. (b) Hexagonal loop of arm = 0.28 m.

10. Find the radiation efficiency of a 12-turn ferrite ellipsoidal antenna, operating at

f = 150 MHz, under the following specifications:

Rt = 1.5% of radiation resistance

Radius (a) = 0.5 m

Length (l) = 1.2 m

mfr = 90.

Also, find the directivity of the antenna, if gain of the antenna is 15 dB.

11. Define the loop antenna. Mention the disadvantages of the loop antenna.

12. Define the directivity of a circular loop antenna. Explain both small and large loop

antennas with suitable examples.

13. Derive the expression for the far-field components of a small loop antenna.

14. Find the voltage induced by a plane wave of field strength of 10 mVm1 and frequency

of 10 MHz in (i) vertical antenna of height 8 m; (ii) 10-turn loop antenna of area

2m2, if the loop is in the plane of travelling of the wave.

[Ans: (i) 80 mV; (ii) 4.18 mV]

15. Calculate the field strength induced in a 10-turn loop antenna operating at 300 MHz.

The loop antenna area is 2.5 m2 and it is found that maximum potential difference

across antenna is 3.5 mV. Assume antenna response is maximum along travelling

path of the wave.

[Ans: E = 0.2512 Vm1]

16. Find the change in induced voltage of 12-turn loop antenna operating at 20 MHz,

if orientation of antenna changes 45 off from original position. Assume area of loop

is 1.5 m2 and field across it is 0.02 Vm1.

[Ans: V1 = 0.15 V, and V2 = V1 cos 45 = 0.106, hence DV = 0.044]

17. Similarly find change in induced field strength if voltage across the antenna is 0.05 V.

E1 6.64

[Ans: E1 = 6.64 mVm1t1, E2 = o

= = 9.39 mVm 1t 1 ]

cos 45 0.707

Loop Antennas 273

18. A 15-turn loop antenna each with 1.5 m2 area operating at 15 MHz. Calculate the

peak value of the magnetic field intensity H of the radio wave, which induces an emf

of 20 mV (rms) in the antenna. Also find changes in the value of H, if 5 turns are

added to the loop.

2 Vrms 0.02828

[Ans: H1 = Am 1 = = 1.062 Am 1

2Q f N0 AN 2662.09

H1 N1 1.062 15

H2 = = = 0.7965 ]

N2 20

19. Find the radiation efficiency of a 4-turn circular loop antenna operating at f = 100 MHz.

The radius of loop is l/20 and radius of antenna wire is 104 l, and conductivity of

wire is 5.7 107 Sm1. Assume that the antenna is radiating into a medium having

dielectric constant er = 5.5 and spacing between turns is 5 times greater than the

radius of antenna wire.

[Hint: I =

Rr

, Rs = RL =

b XN0 S2

and Rr = 31200 N 2 4 ]

Rr + RL a 2T M

20. A 8-turn copper loop antenna operating at 50 MHz is connected to a 50 W Tx line.

The radii of loop and its wire are l/25 and l/250 respectively, and spacing between

turns is 0.01l. Determine directivity, radiation efficiency and gain of antenna, assuming

Rp/R0 = 1.7.

[Hint: D = 1.5 (1.761 dB), Rr(8) = 6.282 W, Rs = 18.609 104, RL = 4093 104 W,

hr = 93.88% and G = 1.408 = 1.46 dB]

REFERENCES

[1] Kraus, J.D., Antennas: For All Applications, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2005.

[2] Prasad, K.P., Antenna and Wave Propagation, 2nd ed., Satya Prakashan, New Delhi,

1996.

[3] Carr, Joseph J., Practical Antennas: Handbook, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill/TAB Electronics,

2001.

[4] Foster, D., Loop antennas with uniform current, Proc. IRE., Vol. 32, pp. 603607,

Oct. 1944.

[5] Thiele, G.A. and W.L. Stutsman, Antenna Theory and Design, John Willey & Sons,

New York, 2001.

[6] Smith, G.S., Radiation efficiency of electrical small multi-turn loop antenna, IEEE

Trans. Antenna Propagate, Vol. 20, No. 9, pp. 656657, Sept. 1972.

[7] Wheeler, H.A., Fundamental limitations of small antennas, Proc. IRE, Vol. 35,

pp. 14791484, Dec. 1947.

274 Antenna and Wave Propagation

[8] Awadallo, K.H., et al., A simple method to determine the impedance of a loop

antenna, IEEE Trans. Antenna Propagate, Vol. AP. 32, No. 11, pp. 12481251,

Nov. 1984.

[9] Galejs, J. , Admittance of insulated loop antennas in a dissipative medium, IEEE

Trans. Antenna Propagate, Vol. 13, pp. 229235, March 1965.

[10] Kraichman, M.B., Impedance of a circular loop antenna in an infinite conducting

medium, J. Res. NBS, Vol. 66D, pp. 499503, JulyAugust 1962.

[11] Benning, C.J., Impedance of a loop antenna in a conducting medium, IEEE Trans.

Antenna Propagate, Vol. 13, pp. 242243, March 1966.

[12] Rumsey, V.H. and W.L. Weeks, Electrically small ferrite loaded loop antenna,

IRE Convention Record, Vol. 4, Part I, pp. 165170, 1956.

C H A P T E R

Metal-Plate Lens

7 Antennas

INTRODUCTION

Lens antenna basically a radiator which basic principle of operation is based on the collimated

action of a simple optical lens. Like a parabolic reflector, a lens antenna is an antenna which

is applied at microwave frequency and its working manner is same as that of a reflector

antenna. That is, a lens antenna is also fed by horn/dipole antenna from its focal point and

produces collimated rays on another (right) side of lens. The basic operating principle of a

lens antenna is illustrated in Fig. 7.1.

Spherical

wave front

Direction of plane

wave propagation

Source

From Fig. 7.1, it is clear that one can convert spherically radiated microwave energy

into a plane wave in a desired direction by using a point source and collimated lens antenna.

275

276 Antenna and Wave Propagation

The point source can be regarded as a gun that shoots the microwave energy toward the lens

and the collimating lens forces all radiated segments of the spherical wave front into parallel

paths. Usually a collimated lens is made of a dielectric material of finite dielectric constant

(er). However, collimated lens can also be constructed using materials having refractive

index less than unity at RF, so that the focusing properties can be achieved. Although

parabolic reflector and lens antennas have same applications yet the main uses of lens

antenna are only at higher frequencies, because at lower frequencies the lens antenna becomes

heavy. Actual frequency range of lens antenna starts at 1.0 GHz, but its greatest uses are at

and above 3 GHz. Lens antenna functions on the principle of equality of path lengths and

illustrates the principle of reciprocity theorem.

A metal-plate lens antenna is an attractive alternative to dishes or large horns being used for

portable microwave operation. There are other similar types of microwave lenses, namely

dielectric lens and Fresnel lens; however, metal plate lens is the easiest to build, cheap, easy

to construct and integrate, and lightest to carry. The metal plate lens antenna is constructed

using series of thin metal plates with narrow air gap between them, such that the curvature

of the edges of the plates forms the lens and the space between the plates forms a series of

wave-guides. The input and output edges of these wave-guides are shaped simply to change

path lengths and hence form the lens surface.

The metal lenses were first originally described by KBIVC at the 1992 Eastern VHF/

UHF Conference for 10 GHz. Later, lens antennas were designed by Angel Vilaseca and

found suitable for VHF communications. After that, Kock [1] described the design process,

working principle and applications of metal-plate lens antenna using HDL_ANT computer

program, which provides adequate gain enhancement and doubles the range of Gunnplexer

system. The working principle of metal-plate lens is similar to ordinary lens, only refraction

in this case occurs at the interface of two plates in which light travels at different speed

changing the direction of travelling the beam of light. If the beam constitutes many rays of

light, each one may be bent. The rays at the edge of beam are bent more; they end up parallel

to the centre rays, which are hardly bent. This will happen only if each ray takes exactly the

same time to travel from its source (i.e., focal point of the lens) to its destination. Since light

travels more slowly in glass, a lens is made thicker at the middle to slow down the rays with

a shorter path and thinner at the edges to allow the rays with longer paths to catch up. The

simple arrangement of a lens along with travelling rays is shown in Fig. 7.1.

The curvature of the lens to form the beam exactly is an ellipse. However, for small

bending angles a circle is almost identical to an ellipse and nearly all optical lenses are

grounded with spherical curves. The metal-plate lens differs from an optical lens is that the

phase of the EM waves travel faster in a wave-guide than in free-space. Thus the curvature

of the metal lens is the opposite of an equivalent optical or dielectric lens. Therefore,

concave lens is same as convex lens in this case or vice versa. We can still avoid the use

of circular aperture instead of ellipse, as long as we dont require bending the rays too sharp;

that is the reason why the lens is fed with a small horn.

Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 277

First of all, the dimensions of feeding horn are calculated by using

56 67

Eplane = deg and H plane = deg

AM e AM h

G = 10 log (4.5 AleAlh) dB

where Ale and Alh are aperture dimensions in E and H planes per wavelength respectively.

The focal length of lens is given by

Lensdiameter

f =

W

2 tan E

2

where WE is the width of lens in E-plane. However, the spacing between the metal-plates is

related to index of refraction as follows:

1/2

M

N = 1 l

2 dS

M0

in which Ml = is wavelength in the lens

Fr

dS = spacing between plates

m = refractive index = l1/l0

and the focal length f of the two lens surfaces are calculated as follows:

1 1 1

= (N 1)

f R1 R2

where f is the focal length, and R1 and R2 are radii of curvature. For any single curved

surface, one radius approaches infinity [see Fig. 7.2(a)]. The single curved lens along with

symmetrical double curve is shown in Fig. 7.2(b).

The radius of curvature, as calculated above, is for the surface and thus the central plate

which has full curvature. The rest of the plates must be successively wider and have smaller

radii so that the edges of all the plates form a spherical lens surface. However, for very large

lenses the size may be reduced by stepping the width of the plates into zones which keep

transmission in phase.

In particular construction of metal plate lens antenna is simple. Metal-plates of aluminium

foil spaced by Styrofoam of thickness 0.75 in. are formed metal-plate lens antenna. Final

278 Antenna and Wave Propagation

FIG. 7.2 Basic geometry of E-plane metal-plate lens: (a) single curve; (b) double curve.

antenna is a block of foam-there is no need to shape the foam to the lens size. A metal lens

antenna works only in the E-plane. This is parallel to the elements of a dipole or Yagi

antenna but perpendicular to the wide dimension of a wave-guide. In order to achieve

maximum gain the metal-plate must be normal to the wide dimension. The horn should point

through the centre of the lens, but the focus is not as critical as a dish. The lens focuses the

beam more tightly but does not change the beam direction, because tilting the lens will not

steer the beam.

Pauls results for 10 GHz [2] reveal that the best gain was with the horn slightly closer

to the lens than calculated. It might be due to edge effects. This effect may be eliminated

if the size of the plates is chosen slightly larger than calculated and resulted the gain a bit

higher. All the lenses were designed to be fed with the standard Gunnplexer horn which has

small matched phase-centres. The gain measurements on an antenna range are shown in

Table 7.1. It was found that the lenses perform with about 50% efficiency, if we consider

them as having a round aperture. The corners do not contribute significantly, even though

they are made square for convenient fabrication and mounting. The metal-plate lens antennas

are also found useful at frequencies of 5.76 GHz and 24 GHz, with foam thicknesses of

around 35 mm and 8 mm respectively.

Gunnplexer horn 17.5 dBi 57%

Horn + 150 mm 8 in. 20.9 dBi 45%

Horn + 300 mm 21 in. 27.4 dBi 50%

Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 279

Basically there are two types of lens antenna: E-plane and H-plane lens antennas. In addition,

there are two special lens antennas. Luneburg and Rotman lens antennas.

E-plane lens antenna: It is also known as fast lens antenna; here the electric path length

is decreased by the lens.

H-plane lens antenna: It is also known as dielectric or delay lens antenna, here electric

path length is increased by the lens. Dielectric lenses are further divided two types:

(a) Non-metallic type lenspolystyrene and lucite

(b) Metallic or artificial dielectric type lens.

All delay lens antennas may be regarded basically as end-fire antennas with the poly-rod and

monofilar axial mode helix as the rudimentary form.

The function of operation of E-plane lens antenna depends upon the acceleration of waves

by the lens. In this type of lens, the metal plates are parallel to E-plane or plane of the

electric fields. E-plane metal plate lens antenna makes use of wave-guide theory, where three

wavelengths lc, lg and l0 are related to each other (see Fig. 7.3). If v is the velocity of wave

propagation in the x-direction between two parallel conducting plates of large size, then it

can be given as

v0

v= 1/2

M

2

1 0

Mc

1/2

v0 v M

2

1

v= = 1 0 =

N

2 a

2 1/2 v0

M

1 0

2 a

m = [1 (l0/2a)2](1/2) (7.1)

where v0 = velocity of wave in free space.

a = spacing between plates

l0 = free space wavelength

m = equivalent index of refraction of a medium constructed by many such parallel

plates at constant spacing

280 Antenna and Wave Propagation

O

y

a

x

Equation (7.1) indicates that m is always greater than unity and the spacing between

plates must not be less than a critical value, i.e.,

M

a= . This implies that a l/2.

2

Therefore, while designing an E-plane metal plate lens antenna, it is compulsory to

construct the antenna from parallel plates only. It is also found that the velocity of wave

propagation v between the plates is always greater than the free-space velocity v0.

The geometry of E-plane metal plate lens, shown in Fig. 7.2, contains r, which is found

from Fermats principle as follows:

L (1 N )

r= (7.2)

1 N cos R

That is, when (m < 1), Eq. (7.2) represents an equation of ellipse. If primary antennas

were a line source perpendicular to say, Fig. 7.2, all the plates would be identical and the

lens surface would be in the form of an elliptical cylinder. It must also be noted that waves

entering the lens at point P (L to R) obey Snells law of refraction; however, it is not

necessarily the case for wave entering at point P, where the metal plates constrain the wave

to travel between them. The major disadvantage of this antenna is that it is frequency-

sensitive (i.e., BW is relatively small), and the total BW is given by (see [3])

2NE

'f = (7.3)

(1 N 2 ) t

where t = thickness of concave portion of lens antenna

d = electrical path difference of OQQ and OPP; if d = 0.25l, then

50 N

'f = (7.4)

(1 N 2 ) t

Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 281

Hence, for m = 0.5 and t = 6l, the bandwidth Df is found to be 5.5%, which is very small.

The only possible way to decrease the frequency sensitiveness of E-plane metal plate lens

antenna is zoning. A zonal E-plane metal plate antenna is shown in Fig. 7.4.

M0

z= (7.5)

1 N

Ln = L + (n 1)z (7.6)

where n = 1, 2, 3, .

Zoning of an antenna is important in two contexts: first, it saves weight and second,

it increases the bandwidth. The bandwidth of a zonal E-plane metal plate lens antenna is

given by

50 N

'f = (7.7)

(1 + K N )

where K is the number of zones, the zone on the axis of the lens being counted as the first

zone. Under the above condition, i.e., m = 0.5, and K ~ t/2 = 3, the bandwidth of this zoned

lens is found to be 10%, i.e., nearly double than the conventional lens antenna, i.e.,

50 0.5 25

'f = = = 10%

1 + 3 0.5 1 + 1.5

282 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Non-metallic dielectric lens antenna is similar to the optic lens, hence they may be described

by the ray analysis method of optics and Fermat principle. If this lens has to convert a

spherical wave from a source (at focus) into a plane wave front, then all the rays paths from

O to the plane surface of the lens should have equal electric length (see Fig. 7.5). A plano-

concave lens can solve the purpose, provided it is fed with an isotropic antenna.

Then from Fig. 7.5, the electric path length OPP must be equal to OOQQ or simply

OP = OQ. Therefore

r L r cos R L L (N 1)

= + r= (7.8)

M0 M0 Ml N cos R 1

where

M0 free space wavelength

N= =

Ml wavelength in line

Equation (7.8) is an expression of hyperbola with focal length (l) and radius (r) and represents

the curvature of the lens in polar co-ordinate and describes the required shape of the lens.

Polystyrene (er = 2.5 and m = 1.6) and polyethylene (er = 2.2 and m = 1.6) are important

materials for dielectric lens antenna deigns. If the wavelength is comparable to the lens

aperture at RF, the wave emanating from such lens antenna produces radiation pattern with

uniformity of illumination just like a parabolic reflector. If the lens antenna is circular and

of diameter D, the radiation of uniform illustration is like that of paraboliod and gain is

approximated by G = 6(D/l)2. A large focal length provides more uniform illustration rather

than a short focal length lens. However practically it is difficult to get uniform illumination

for a lens antenna.

Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 283

The concept of artificial lens antenna was first proposed by Kock in 1948 in a paper entitled,

Metallic delay lens. The design procedures for artificial lens antenna are similar to ordinary

dielectric lens. The major difference between ordinary and artificial lens antennas is that

ordinary lens antenna consists of molecular particles of microscopic size, while artificial one

consists of discrete metal particles of macroscopic size. The metal particles may be of any

configuration: spheres, disks, strips or rods. But mostly spherical metal particles are considered

due to its simplicity and ease of analysis [4]. A plano-convex lens constructed with metal

spheres and arranged in a 3-dimensional array or lattice structure as shown in Fig. 7.6. This

arrangement simulates the crystalline lattice of an ordinary dielectric substrate but on a much

large scale. These spheres are analogous to oscillating molecular dipoles of an ordinary

dielectric lens antenna.

The size of metal particles should be small compared to the operating wavelength.

This is to avoid resonance effect. The maximum particle size (parallel to the electric

field) less than l/4 is found satisfactory.

The spacing between the particles should be less than l, this is to avoid diffraction

effect.

In order to design an artificial lens antenna, it is necessary to know the effective index of

refraction in addition to the other parameters. The refractive index of a lens can be measured

experimentally with a slab of the material or calculated it theoretically. In the present section

a method to calculate the refractive index is described by considering a spherical metal

particle, because they are light in weight and can be more readily analyzed.

284 Antenna and Wave Propagation

induced two opposite charges: (+q) and (q). If these induced charges are separated at

distance l, the arrangement is an electric dipole of dipole moment (m), which is equal to ql,

i.e., m = ql.

Therefore, the potential due to this dipole at distance (r), where r >> l, will be (see [5])

ql cos R

V = (7.9)

4 QF 0 r 2

and the polarization of the artificial dielectric lens will be

P = Nql

where N = total number of spheres/cm3

l = unit vector of length (l) joining the charges

Since polarization P is related to electric displacement density (D) and electric field intensity

(E) as follows:

D = F E = F0 E + P

P ql

F = F0 + = F0 + N (7.10)

E E

where e0 is the free space permittivity.

The potential at a distance r from the point charge is defined as the work done per unit

charge by an external agent in transferring a test charge from infinity to that point and is

expressed as follows:

r

V =

E dl

Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 285

Therefore in the present case, i.e., in a uniform field the potential will be

r

V =

E cos R dr = Er cos R (7.11)

where q is the angle between radial vector and the field direction.

Then the potential V0 outside the sphere placed in an originally uniform field will be

ql cos R

V0 = Er cos R + (7.12)

4 Q F0r 2

ql cos R ql

Er cos R = = 4 QF 0 a3 (7.13)

4 QF 0 r 2

E

Hence, from Eq. (7.10),

F

F = F 0 + 4QF 0 Na

3

= 1 + 4 Q Na3

F0

or er = 1 + 4pNa3 (7.14)

where er = e/e0 and defined as the effective relative permittivity of artificial dielectric lens.

Therefore, if the effective relative permeability of the artificial dielectric is unity, the

index of refraction is given by

However, the magnetic field lines of a radio wave are deformed around the sphere, because high-

frequency fields penetrate to only a very small distance in good conductor. The effective relative

permeability of an artificial dielectric of conducting sphere is given by mr = (1 2pNa3); hence

Equation (7.16) reveals that m is smaller than the m0. Since in most of the cases the relative

permeability is unity, in general m can be taken as F r . The values of m for different

dielectric spheres are listed in Table 7.2.

(er) (mr )

Sphere (1 + 4pNa3) (1 2pNa3) m = [(1 + 4pNa3)

(1 2pNa3)]1/2

Disk (1 + 5.33Na3) ~1 (1 + 5.33 Na3)1/2

Strip (1 + 7.85NW3) ~1 (1 + 7.85NW3)1/2

286 Antenna and Wave Propagation

All the values given in Table 7.2 are reliable only for er < 1.5; however for er > 1.5,

N becomes sufficiently large and particles start interacting because of their close spacing [6].

In order to find the variation of field intensity in the aperture of spherical lens, let us

consider an annular section of strip width (dr) on the annular zone of radius (r) at angle (q),

as shown in Fig. 7.8. From the figure it is clear that for an isotropic point source (primary

antenna) and given focal length L, the field at the edge of the line (q = q1, say) is lesser than

at the centre (q = 0). The variation of field intensity in the aperture plane of the lens can

be determined by calculating the power per unit area passing through an annular section of

the aperture as a function of the radius (r). Referring to Fig. 7.8, the total power passes

through the considered annular section can be given by

W = 2pr dr Pr (7.17)

where Pr is power density/Poynting vector at radius (r).

FIG. 7.8 Annular section of strip width (dr) on annular zone of radius (r) at angle (q).

This power must be equal to the power radiated by the isotropic source over the solid

angle = 2p sin q dq. That is

W = 2p sin q dq U (7.18)

where U is radiation intensity of the isotropic source. Equations (7.17) and (7.18) yield

(N cos R 1)2

( p) S = U

((N 1)2 (N cos R ) L2

where r = r sin q as q 0.

Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 287

(N 1)2 U

PS = U= (7.19)

(N 1) (N 1)L

2 2

L2

=

(PS )R =0 (N 1)2 (N cos R )

1/2

ER (PS )R (N cos R 1) 1

= = (7.20)

E0 (PS )R =0 (N 1) (N cos R )

where Eq/E0 is referred to as relative field intensity (Er) at a radius (r). For m = 1.5

(1.5 cos R 1) 1

ES = (7.21)

(1.5 1) (1.5 cos R )

Therefore for nearly uniform aperture illumination, an angle (q1) to the edge of the lens

(even less than 20) is essential unless the pattern of the primary antenna is an inverted type,

i.e., one with less intensity in the axial direction (q = 0) than in direction of off-axis.

However uniform aperture illumination may be replaced by a tapered illumination in order

to suppress minor lobes. But the disadvantage of this method of producing a taper is that the

lens becomes bulk. However, the bulkiness can be reduced by choosing a lens of smaller (q1)

and large focal distance.

Luneburg lens is a live example of artificial dielectric lens antenna. It is designed to provide

scanning performance that is free from the direction of radiated beam as well as its own

spherical geometry. Lenses of Luneburg type may be constructed on foamed dielectric containing

many small glass spheres whose spacing are varied to achieve the relation m(r). They may

also be made of spherical shells of graded dielectric constant fitted one within the other;

however, at least ten steps with equal increments of refractive index are desirable. Two-

dimensional lenses may be made using conducting plates with a variable spacing adjusted

to provide the required refractive index variation, assuming that propagation within the lens

takes place as in a TE10 wave-guide. If a Luneburg sphere is cut in half and a reflecting sheet

placed on the flat side, Luneburg reflector lens antenna results in an incoming wave at an

angle of incidence qi brought to a focus at the corresponding angle of reflection qr = qi.

Basically, two primary feeds are used for the Luneburg lens antenna: (a) open ended

wave-guide and (b) tapered slot antenna. Especially, tapered slot antenna makes the antenna

288 Antenna and Wave Propagation

integrated with an entire RF system. A rotationally symmetric parallel plate Luneburg lens

requires a specific refraction index in order to focus the wave of the primary feed at the lens

aperture [7]. Here, a periodic regular metal post structure, which acts as a metallic artificial

isotropic dielectric, is used. Y.J. Port used geometrical optics (GO) and aperture integration

method in order to predict the far-field pattern of Luneburg antenna.

It was found that the proposed antenna offers wide coverage with multiple primary

feeds at very low cost. Also, the complete antenna system is made of metal and hence can

be cheaply and massively produced using such a precise casting method. The Luneburg lens

antenna is a spherical symmetric delay type lens formed with a dielectric having index of

refraction (m), which depends on radius as follows [see Fig. 7.9(a)]:

1/2

r

2

N = 2 (7.22)

R

r = radial distance from centre of sphere

When r 0, N = 2 N max at centre of sphere.

When r 1, m = 1 = mr at principal axis.

Using Luneburg lens antenna signals can be received simultaneously from many directions

since space is available on the sphere to place feed horns or other receiving devices. For

steering a single beam, the receiver/transmitter can be switched to different feed horns, or

a single movable feed horn can also be used. The variable refractive index can be obtained

with an artificial dielectric material or with concentric shells of dielectric having different

indices of refraction. Full Luneburg lens provides beam steering in both polar co-ordinates

(i.e., q and f). However, for steering in only one co-ordinate (f), a plane (parallel sided)

section through the centre of sphere can be used. In general the beam is no longer the same

in both co-ordinates due to vignette in the q-direction.

A lens structure similar to Luneburg construction but different in index presented by Maxwell

is known as Maxwell fisheye lens. The lens structure is a sphere and it is assumed to be

Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 289

embedded in an optical material with the same index of refraction as appears at the outer

surface of the lens (e.g. water in the case of a fish with the idealized Maxwells lens). The

refractive index of the Maxwell fisheye sphere is given by (see [8])

2

N(r ) = 2

(7.23)

r

1+

R

which indicates that m(r) decreases from a value of 2 at the centre to 1 at the outer surface.

This lens has a property of creating an image of an object on the sphere at the diametrically

opposed point on the same sphere (i.e., a somewhat far-sighted fish).

The different index gradient of the Luneburg has an additional advantage, in that it allows

the lens to focus on an incident parallel beam onto a point, as illustrated in Fig. 7.9(b).

In/Out

In/Out

FIG. 7.9(b) Spherical Luneburg lens: Point to parallel beam or vice versa.

Applications

In view of the major applications of Luneburg lens antenna especially to automotive radar,

a multiple beam antenna is very important for the wide coverage of the vehicles. A new

Luneburg lens antenna composed of multiple primary feeds and a parallel plate Luneburg

lens with metallic artificial dielectric are found supporting wide scanning, hence suitable for

the automotive applications in MM and sub-MM wave frequencies [9].

The major applications of Luneburg antenna include:

A Luneburg lens antenna is commonly used in wide angle scanning applications

such as radar reflectors for targets and drones. It has also been used in military

applications as tracking radar antennas.

Luneburg lenses are useful in a variety of antenna, satellite-based communication

systems and scattering applications. Presently, most Luneburg lenses are used as

RCS augmenters. Luneburg type lenses also have ability to form a number of

290 Antenna and Wave Propagation

independent beams at different frequencies and powers. Low profile Luneburg lenses

fed by a horn antenna have been recently used for a variety of airborne applications.

In antenna applications, the main advantages are in their ability to form multiple

beams that may point in arbitrary directions and their broadband behaviour.

Recently, in 2005, NHK of Japan has developed a hemispherical lens antenna for

HDTV transmission via communication satellite. This antenna is also found suitable for a

small SNG van at breaking news sites. Konkur Ltd. has produced a line of Luneburg lens

antenna with dia = 8 m, which was found very suitable for satellite TV and commercial

applications. In particular, a hemispherical lens antenna upto 8 m diameter have also been

made, with the commercial product line extending to 4 m satellite uplink antennas. This is

termed Multsat 1 M Lens antenna.

As we know there are several applications of multiple beams, both in radar and communication

systems. In these systems it is often required to cover wide area which is achieved using an

antenna array. But a multiple beam forming network requires for controlling the amplitude

and phase at each element of the antenna array. Microwave lenses are found to be an

important alternative class of multiple beams forming network [1012].

First microwave lens for wide beam scanning was proposed by Ruze in 1950; later in

1963, it was modified by Rotman for better scanning capabilities. Suggested lens for improving

scanning capabilities by Rotman is termed Rotman lens antenna. They are very useful as

multiple beam forming networks for a linear array antenna. A Rotman lens has three focal

points, and the shape of focus for the position of exciting elements between those focal

points is given by a circular arc. Therefore, when exciting elements between focal points are

excited, phase errors on the aperture of the linear array antenna occur which need to be

minimized [13]. D. Archer in his study on Lens fed multiple beam arrays, suggested that

wide-angle scanning capabilities of these lenses are well-established. However, Rotman

himself suggested that the feed curve should be circular and he optimized the design parameters

accordingly. Shelton [14], proposed that it is not necessary to have circular focal arc, even

a Rotman lens can designed with front to back symmetry.

The Rotman approach to design a dielectric lens is well-suited for implementation in

strip line or microstrip circuitry. In general, the design of a particular strip-transmission line

lens is done in region between air and the dielectric then scaled by the inverse square root

of the substrate dielectric constant. Gagron derived a procedure for proper refocusing of the

dielectric filled Rotman lens with beam port locations, determined according to Snells law.

sin B

sin C =

Fr

where a = scan angle of antenna array

b = corresponding angle of focus inside lens

er = relative dielectric constant in parallel plate region of lens

Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 291

The proposed approach is an alternative lens configuration named refracting lens, which

may offer a wider field of scan at a given focal length for lenses fabricated in microstrip/

strip line. The theoretical performance of the refracting lens has also been compared with

that of conventional design at wider scan angle. It is found that the magnitude of the

coupling coefficient for the beam port/array port pairs is 1.36 times (2.7 dB) greater for

the refracting lens at a frequency of 10 GHz. P.K. Singhal [15] proposed elliptical

refocusing of Rotman type lens and analyzed it using the contour integral technique.

Comparison of results indicates that the lens is more compact with elliptical focal arc.

Recently at GIT, Georgia, a prototype Rotman lens that operates at mm waves was built. It

is first of its kind to operate at frequencies as high as 37 GHz. The device got its name

because it is able to focus milimeter (mm) wave energy coming from a particular direction

by passing the EM wave energy through a pair of parallel plats that are shaped like a lens.

Beam forming is carried out on one side of the plates, fed by a switch array. Energy fed into

a specific focal part emerges from the antenna elements and produces a beam along a

particular direction.

Beside the low cost, compact size and ruggedness, Rotman lens antenna also offers

very low throughput loss and side lobe emissions. In the prototype Rotman, side lobe power

can be suppressed by a factor of one thousand below the energy of the main beam. The

power loss through the lens itself is less than 2 dB.

Applications

Applications of Rotman lens antenna include:

Poor visibility caused by heavy fog can keep pilots from seeing enough of the runway to

allow a safe landing. A synthetic vision system based on millimetre wave radar could produce

images through fog, allowing aircraft to land even when runways are obscured. Such a

system would require a reliable, compact and inexpensive antenna (such as Rotman) to be

affordable.

Operators of ground vehicles such as tanks also need to see through fog and smoke, but the

vibration and harsh operating conditions limit use of conventional antennas. A Rotman lens

antenna could be integrated into the tanks structure, eliminating the need for an external

dish and providing necessary reliability and ruggedness.

Collision avoidance systems built into automobiles could provide drivers with warning of

approaching vehicles. If implemented in plastic, the Rotman antenna could lower the cost of

such systems enough to make them practical.

292 Antenna and Wave Propagation

4. Commercial communications

Rotman lens antennas could be used in short-range building to building wireless communications.

Implementation in plastic could help lower the capital costs for such systems.

5. Missile seekers

Low cost, reliability and compactness of Rotman lens antenna could find applications in

airborne systems such as missile seekers.

As dielectric lens is an optical device the differences in the path length may be caused by

deviations in thickness from the ideal contour as well as the variations in the refractive

index. Assigning an allowable variation of (l/32) rms to the refractive index, we can define

the thickness tolerance as follows:

't 't 1

=

Md M0 32

't M0 1 't 1

1 = [N 1] =

Md Md 32 M0 32

M0

't =

32(N 1)

0.03 M0

If m0 = 1 is the free space refractive index, then 't =

'N

Therefore, the tolerance on m will be

'N = and NU = =

't N N 't

'N

In a particular case, for m = 1.5, Dt = 4l0, it is found that = 0.5% .

N

Tolerances for different types of lens antenna are listed in Table 7.3.

All tolerances in Table 7.3 assume l/32 rms for the individual lens variations and

l/64 rms for the reflector variations, where m is the refractive index, t is the thickness of the

lens, and tl is the lens thickness in terms of free space wavelength.

Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 293

Parabolic reflector Surface contour 0.016 l0

0.03 M0

Dielectric lens (unzoned) Thickness

N 1

3 M0

Refractive index %

Nt A

3(N 1)

Refractive index %

N

3N

Plate spacing %

N +1

3 M0

E-plane metal plate lens (unzoned) Thickness %

1 N

3N

Plate spacing %

(1 N 2 )tM

SOLVED EXAMPLES

Example 7.1 Design a plano-convex dielectric lens antenna using a material of dielectric

constant er = 8.5 and mr 1 with diameter 10 l. The antenna is to be operated at a frequency

of 5 GHz and F is to be 1. Also find the relative power density at the edge of the lens.

Solution: We know that

N = Nr F r = 8.5 = 2.9

3 108

M= = 0.06 m = 60 mm

5 10 9

Since F = 1, so from geometry L = d = 10l = 600 mm.

294 Antenna and Wave Propagation

where d is the diameter of the lens. Hence from Eq. (7.8), we have

r= = r=

N cos R 1 2.9 cos R 1 2.9 cos R 1

which gives the relation between q and r of the lens antenna. Basic geometry of the lens

antenna is shown in Fig. 7.10.

= = =

P0 (2.9 1) (2.9 cos 25.5)

2

3.61 1.997 7.209

= 2.29 dB.

Any value of (q) giving satisfactory value of d, i.e. d = 2r sin q, will optimize the design angle.

That is

0 600 0

10 614 106

20 660 225

22 674 252

25 699 300

26 709 311

27 720 326

30 754 377

Example 7.2 Design an artificial dielectric lens antenna, with a dielectric constant of 1.4,

to be used at 3.0 GHz, when the artificial dielectric consists of (i) copper sphere or (ii) copper

strip. Consider the radius of the sphere to be 5% of the operating wavelength and the width

to be 0.45% of the wavelength.

Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 295

er = 1 + 4pNa3

Fr 1

Hence N=

4 Q a3

At 3 GHz, l = 0.1 m = 100 mm; therefore a = 5 mm

1.4 1

N= = 2.55 10 5 m 3

4 3.14 (5 10) 3 )3

Therefore, the dielectric volume per sphere is

1

= 4 10 6 m 3

2.55 10 5 m 2

The volume of the each sphere is given by

4 4

(a)3 = 3.14 (5 10 3 )3 = 5.2 10 7 m 3

3 3

Therefore

Volume of dielectric per sphere 4 10 6

= = 7.7

Volume of sphere 5.2 10 7

That is, the volume of dielectric per sphere is greater than the volume of the sphere. (There

is space between two adjacent spheres.) Side of dielectric volumetric shapes (4.6 (10)6)1/2 =

15.9 mm. Therefore, the artificial lens will be as shown in Fig. 7.11.

Cube

2.45 mm

2.45 mm

Sphere

10 mm

296 Antenna and Wave Propagation

er = 1 + 7.85 NW2

Fr 1 1.4 1

N= = 2 2

= 2500 m 2

7.85 W 2

7.85 (0.45 10 )

as W = 4.5 mm = 0.45 102 m. Then the area covered per strip is

1

= 4 10 4 m 2

2500

Square 20

So, if the covered area is a square, its sides will be 0.02 m. The ratio of = = 4.44.

Strip 4.5

Therefore four strips can be adjusted in a particular area (see Fig. 7.12).

20 mm

Example 7.3 Design an unzoned plano-concave E-plane metal plate lens of the unconstrained

type with aperture 10 l squares for use with a 3.5 GHz line square 10 l long. If the source

is to be 20 l away from the lens, then (i) find the spacing between the plates, (ii) draw the

shape of the lens and find its dimensions and (iii) find the bandwidth of the lens, if the

maximum tolerable path difference is l/4. Assume F = 2 and m = 0.6.

Solution: (i) As F = 3.5 GHz, l = 0.085 m = 85 mm.

From Eq. (7.1), if a is the spacing between the plates, then

M 1 85 1

a= = = 53.13 mm

2 (1 N ) 2 1/2

2 (1 0.36)1/2

L (1 N ) LM (1 N ) 20 (1 0.6) 8

r= rM = = =

1 N cos R 1 N cos R 1 0.6 cos R 1 0.6 cos R

Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 297

0 20 0

10 19.6 3.4

12 19.3 4.026

15.25 19.0 5.0

20 18.34 6.27

FIG. 7.13 Unzoned plano-concave E-plane metal plate lens for Example 7.3.

(iii) Hence the frequency bandwidth will be

'f = = = 0.28 = 28%

(1 N ) tM

2

(1 0.36) 1.67

Example 7.4 A five-zoned E-plane metal plate dielectric lens is made of material of mr =

0.66 and is to be used at f = 40 GHz. Find zone thickness, extension focal length and

percentage operating bandwidth. Also find the percentage of plate spacing tolerance.

Solution: K = 5, er = 3.2. Hence m = 0.66 = 0.81, l0 = 7.5 10 m

3

M0 0.075

Zone thickness (z) = = = 0.395 m

1 N 1 0.81

Lex = (n 1)z = (5 1) 3.95 = 1.578 m

298 Antenna and Wave Propagation

50 0.81

'f = = 8%

1 + 5 0.81

3N 3 0.81

%tolerance = = = 1.34%

1+N 1 + 0.81

Example 7.5 (i) Estimate the tolerance of zoned and unzoned dielectric lens of refractive

index 1.5 and thickness t = 0.25l to be used at 5 GHz. (ii) Repeat the same for the E-plane

metal plate lens antenna if m = 0.75.

Solution: (i) From the table for zoned dielectric lens, the tolerance is

3(N 1) 3(1.5 1)

% = 1.0%

N 1.5

0.03M0 0.03 6

%= = 0.36%

N 1 1.5 1

Tolerance (refractive) is

3 3

= = 0.5%

N , tM 1.5 0.25

3N 3 0.75

= = 1.3%

1+N 1 + 0.75

0.03 M0 0.03 6

= = 3.6%

1 1.5 0.5

The tolerance (plate spacing) is

3N 3 0.75

%= = 2.11%

(1 N ) tM

2

(1 0.752 ) 25

Example 7.6 Find the index of refraction of lens material at radial distance r = 10 cm for

the following types of lens: (i) Luneburg lens; (ii) Maxwells fisheye, assuming spherical

shape of radius 1.0 m.

Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 299

1/ 2

r

2

N = 2 = [2 (0.1)2 ] 1/2 = 1.411

R

2 2

N= =

2 2

= 1.98

1 + r 1 + 0.01

Example 7.7 The wavelength of a wave (f = 400 MHz) increases by 50% if it passes

through a metal-plate lens antenna. Find the separation of plates.

Solution: We know that

Ml

N= and ll = 1.5 l0 = 1.5 0.75 = 1.125 m.

M0

Therefore

Ml 1.125

N= = = 1.5

M0 0.75

1/2

M Ml 1.125

N = 1 l = ds = = = 45 cm

2d s 2 (N 1)

2

2 (2.25 1)

Example 7.8 Find the focal length of the metal-plate lens antenna of diameter 40 cm.

Assume that the E-plane width of lens is 25% lesser than the diameter.

Solution: D = 40; WE = 40 75% = 40 0.75 = 30 cm.

We know

DL

f =

W

2 tan E

2

0.4 0.4

= = = 1.33 m

0.15 180 2 tan (8.6)

2 tan

2 3.14

300 Antenna and Wave Propagation

(a) 1963 (b) 1950

(c) 1960 (d) 2002

2. The focal length of metal plate lens antenna is _________ of to its diameter.

(a) Inversely proportional (b) Directly proportional

(c) The inverse square root (d) None of these

3. Lens antennas are mostly used in the frequency range of

(a) 5080 MHz (b) Above 80 MHz

(c) 100150 MHz (d) Above 3.0 GHz

4. A metal plate lens antenna function only in

(a) E-H plane (b) E-plane

(c) H-plane (d) None of these

5. Lens antenna function on the principle of

(a) Equality of phase (b) Phase difference

(c) Equality of path lengths (d) None of these

6. Operating bandwidth of the zonal lens antenna is found to be

(a) 5% (b) 8%

(c) 10% (d) 15%

7. Maxwell fisheye lens antenna is similar to

(a) Luneburg lens antenna (b) Rotman lens antenna

(c) Both of these (d) None of these

8. Multsat 1 M lens antenna is an example of

(a) Metal-plate lens antenna (b) Rotman lens antenna

(c) Luneburg lens antenna (d) None of these

Answers

1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (b) 5. (c)

6. (c) 7. (a) 8. (c)

EXERCISES

1. Find the spacing between plates of an unzoned plano-concave E-plane metal lens

antenna made of material having er = 1.57 and to be operated at f = 3.75 GHz.

2. Estimate the optimum thickness of concave portion of E-plane metal-plate lens antenna

operating with 6.2% bandwidth, if refractive index is 0.57. Also, find the percentage

change in operating B/W if the thickness increases by 15%.

Metal-Plate Lens Antennas 301

3. Design a plano-convex dielectric lens antenna for 6 GHz with diameter 20l. The

lens material is to be polystyrene and F is unity. Draw the cross-section of lens and

also find relative power at the edge of lens.

4. Design an artificial dielectric lens antenna for 3.2 GHz, with a material of refractive

index 1.2 where the dielectric consists of (i) copper discs; (ii) copper strips.

5. Design an unzoned plano-concave E-plane metal-plate lens antenna of the unconstrained

type with an aperture, of 16l square for use with a 3 GHz line source and 20l

length. The source is 30l away from the lens, whose F number is 2. If the refractive

index is 0.8: (i) What should be the spacing between the plates? (ii) Draw the shape

and find the dimensions, and (iii) What is the BW of the antenna if maximum

tolerable path difference is 0.25l?

6. Repeat Example 7.6 with the following specifications:

(i) m = 1.75, tl = 0.35 and f = 3 GHz; (ii) m = 0.65 and f = 3.5 GHz.

7. An EM wave of frequency 500 MHz passes through a metal plate lens antenna of

m = 1.68. Find the wavelength in the antenna if the spacing between plates is half

of the free-space wavelength.

[Ans: 109.344 cm]

8. Find the focal length of the metal plate lens antenna of E-plane width 20 cm.

Assume the diameter of the antenna is 20% greater than the E-plane width.

[Ans: 1.2 m]

9. Describe the advantages of Rotman lens antenna.

10. Describe the similarities and differences of lens antenna with reflector antenna.

11. What are applications of Rotman lens antenna in communication systems?

REFERENCES

[1] Kock, W.E., Metal-lens antennas, Proc., I.E.R., pp. 828836, Nov. 1946.

[2] Wade Paul, Metal plate lens antenna, www.w1ghz.org/antbook, Chapter 3, 1998.

[3] Kraus, J.D., Antennas: For All Applications, 3rd ed., Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi,

2003.

[4] Prasad, K.D., Antennas and Wave Propagation, Satya Prakashan, New Delhi, 1996.

[5] Bandhopadhyay, T.K., Antennas, Radio Wave Propagation and Noise, Khanna Pub.,

4th ed., New Delhi, 2003.

[6] Kock, W.E., Metallic delay lens, Bell System Tech., J., 27, pp. 5882, January 1948.

[7] Part, Y.J., et al., Applications of Luneburg lens antenna to automotive radar in sub-

MM and MM wave frequency, IFHE, University of Karlsruhe, Germany, 2002.

[8] Lawrena, G.N. and S.H. Hwang, Beam propagation in gradient refractive-index

media, Applied Opt., Vol. 31, pp. 52015210, Sep. 1992.

302 Antenna and Wave Propagation

[9] www.ecs.umas.edu/Allerton

[10] Maybell, M.J., Ray structure method for coupling coefficient analysis of the two-

dimensional Rotman lenses, IEEE Antennas Propagate, Symposium Dig., June 1981.

[11] Smith, M.S., et al., A microstrip multiple beam forming lens, Radio Electron.

Engg., Vol. 54, No. 7/8, pp. 318320, 1984.

[12] Hilton, J., et al., Lens antenna with amplitude shaping or sine condition, IEEE

Proc., Vol. 136, Pt. H, No. 3, June 1989.

[13] Katagi, T., et al., An improved design method of Rotman lens antennas, IEEE

Trans. Antennas Propagate, Vol. AP. 32, No. 5, May 1984.

[14] Shelton, J.P., Focusing characteristic of symmetrically configured bootlace lenses,

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagate, Vol. AP. 26, pp. 518, July 1978.

[15] Singhal, P.K., et al., Theoretical investigation on elliptical refocusing of Rotman

type lens multiple beams forming, Journal of Microwaves and Optoelectronics,

Vol. 3, No. 4, April 2004.

C H A P T E R

Parabolic Reflector

8 Antennas

INTRODUCTION

According to the applications of antenna particularly in radar systems, antennas are classified

into two categories: optical antenna and array antenna. Optical antenna category comprises

antennas that function on principle of optics, and examples are lens antennas and reflector

antennas. We have already discussed lens antennas in Chapter 7. Reflector antennas, which

are found suitable for radar applications are considered in this chapter. Reflector antennas

are modified plane sheet antennas where the backward radiation from the antenna is eliminated

using a plane sheet reflector. In general, beams of predetermined characteristics may be

produced by means of large, suitably shaped and illuminated reflector surfaces. Reflectors

are high gain antennas and routinely achieve gains for in excess of 30 dB in the microwave

spectrum. That is why reflectors are very much required for long-distance communication

and high resolution radar applications. Depending on feed techniques there is a variety of

reflector antennas and each one is suited for particular applications. The most common types

of reflector antenna are illustrated in Fig. 8.1(a)(f). Despite these reflectors, there are many

more configurations of reflector antennascircular reflector, hyperbolic reflector, parabolic

cylindrical reflector and Cassegrain reflector, etc., which are suitable for various purposes [1].

Figure 8.1(a) shows a basic parabolic reflector antenna, which collimates radiation

from a feed (at the focus) into a pencil beam, proving high gain and minimum beam width.

They are built with apertures of many wavelengths to provide high directive radiation. The

parabolic reflector functions on the principle of radiation; it reflects the waves originating

from a source at the focus into parallel beams. That is, the parabolic reflector transfers the

curves wave front from the feed antenna into a plane wave front. Feed antenna is known as

primary antenna, while reflector is known as secondary antenna. Figure 8.1(c) represents

the active corner reflector antenna. It is nothing but a modified form of flat sheet reflector

(a = 180). Here, two flat sheets intersect at an angle a < 180 and produce sharp radiation

beams parallel to the axis.

303

304 Antenna and Wave Propagation

F

Z

FIG. 8.1(a) Basic parabolic reflector. FIG. 8.1(b) Reference co-ordinate system.

FIG. 8.1(c) Active corner reflector. FIG. 8.1(d) Parabolic reflector antenna.

The active reflector is found most practical where apertures are of 1 or 2 wavelengths.

A corner reflector without an exciting antenna can be used as a passive reflector or target

for radar waves, but in this application the aperture may be of many wavelengths with a 90

constant corner angle [2]. Reflectors of this specification (a = 90) have the property that

an incident wave is reflected back towards its source and itself acts as a retro-reflector

[Fig. 8.1(e)]. Figure 8.1(f) shows an elliptical reflector antenna and produces a diverging

beam with all reflected waves passing through the second focus of the ellipse. Elliptical

reflector has two focuses: the driven element is fixed at the first focus, F1, however, reflected

beams are collimated at focus F2.

A hyperbolic reflector also has two focuses, but the first one is a virtual focus. As

usual, the reflector is fed at second focus and produces forward radiation. Another similar

reflector is circular reflector where the incident waves follow reverse path through the feed

point. In this case, all the reflected waves pass through the focal point. A multiple reflector

system, also known as Cassegrain antenna, offers one more degree of freedom by shaping

Parabolic Reflector Antennas 305

Driven element

F2

Aperture

90 F1

Driven element

the primary beam and allowing the feed system to be conveniently located behind the main

reflector. Parabolic cylindrical reflector performs beam collimation in one plane but allows

the use of a linear array in the other plane, thereby adding flexibility in the shaping or

steering of the beam in that plane.

In addition to the above reflectors, there are some special geometry reflector antennas

that are used as high-gain antennas with different beam widths in the principal planes.

Reflectors shown in Fig. 8.2(a) produce a narrow main beam in the horizontal plane

and are found very suitable for VSAT (very small aperture terminal) satellite communication

applications. This is because a geostationary satellite avoids interference between adjacent

Parabola

Parabola

Circle

FIG. 8.2 (a) Non-circular aperture parabolic reflector; (b) parabolic torus; (c) horn reflector.

306 Antenna and Wave Propagation

satellites. The essential condition for this reflector is that the feed antenna must have a

broader pattern in the horizontal plane for proper dish illumination. The parabolic torus,

shown in Fig. 8.2(b), is curved version of the parabolic cylinder and it is a combination of

parabolic and circular cross-section in the principal planes. A popular application for this

reflector antenna (employs multiple feeds located along the feed arc) is to produce separate

beams for receiving different satellite signals with a single earth terminal. Aperture efficiency

of this reflector is too low, but there is a cost saving over using several antennas. The horn

reflector antenna, shown in Fig. 8.2(c), is formed by joining a horn with an offset parabolic

reflector and it is very useful for terrestrial microwave communication links due to its low

side and back lobes.

FEEDING SYSTEMS

As is known, the reflector antenna is fed indirectly through another antenna (primary antenna)

located at the centre of the reflector. Therefore, it is necessary that the primary antenna be

fed properly in order to realize maximum performance, particularly high aperture efficiency

and high gain. Because most communication systems operate at microwave frequency, feeds

for reflector antennas should be typically some form of flared wave-guide. Only at lower

frequencies can dipole be used, particularly in the form of a linear array of dipoles, to feed

a parabolic cylinder reflector. But, in general, common feed includes wave-guide slots and

open wave-guides; however, the flared wave-guide horns are most widely used in reflector

feeding. Various feed techniques of reflector antennas are shown in Fig. 8.3.

As we know in receiving mode most of the reflectors convert incoming waves into spherical

phase fronts centred at the focus. In view of this, the feeds must be point source radiators.

In addition, if high aperture efficiency is desired reflector feeds must have the following

characteristics:

The feed pattern should be rotationally symmetrical over the desired operating

frequencies.

The feed should have a point phase centre and the phase centre should be positioned

at the focal point of the reflector.

The feed should be small in order to reduce blockage; usually on the order of wave-

length in diameter.

The feed must provide proper edge illumination (@ 11 dB), minimum spill over and

correct polarization with minimum cross-polarization (< 30 dB).

The feed must be capable of handling the required peak and average power levels

without breakdown under all operational environments.

Additional considerations include operating frequency band and types of antennas

used, such as whether the antenna is a single-beam, multi-beam or mono-pulse antenna.

Parabolic Reflector Antennas 307

Front feed

Vertex (rear) feeds

pyramidal horn conical horn conical horn

multimode horn horn aperture horn

A simple form of reflector feed is a dipole antenna, but low efficiency and high cross-

polarization are its limitations. This is because they often integrated with some type of metallic

backing to reduce direct feed radiation in the direction of the reflector main beam. Dipole-

fed reflector functions satisfactorily in the UHF range with an aperture efficiency of about

24%. However, for operating frequencies above GHz levels wave-guide and small horn

antennas are preferred as they offer minimum losses. Rectangular/pyramidal wave-guides and

horn antennas operating in dominant mode TE10 mode are widely used as feed for reflectors.

308 Antenna and Wave Propagation

This is because they meet high power requirements. Circular wave-guides and conical horns

operating in the dominant TE11 mode are also used as feed and provide more symmetric

principal plane patterns. Both the feeds discussed above have unbalanced principal plane

patterns, this is due to the markedly different amplitude distributions that are uniform in the

E-plane and taper to zero in the H-plane. The open-ended wave-guide provides a good match

to a reflector with q = 59 or F/D = 0.44; however, conical horn antennas provide optimum

gain with 52 to 56% efficiency range [3]. In case of special antenna performance requirements

polarization diversity, multiple beams, high beam efficiency, or ultra-low sidesthe feed

becomes more complex. Reflector antennas are fed by segmented finned, multimode and/or

corrugated horns. The most popular multimode feeds are Potter horns and they operate on

the principle of Huygens source. Both the modes (TE11 and TM11) are generated in these

feeds. A bandwidth of 10% is achieved with diameter > 1.3l and half-power is calculated

using 1/26l/df, where df is the larger aperture of the corrugated horn.

The narrow bandwidth constraint of the dual mode feed can be overcome by hybrid

mode (HE11) feed. In this case, a mixture of TE11 and TM11 modes occur in a natural way

and propagates with a common phase velocity. The most popular hybrid mode feed is the

corrugated (conical) horn. This feed is very useful for most of todays microwave reflector

antennas [4] (see Fig. 8.4).

The corrugated horn has the desirable features for feed antennas of a phase centre, i.e.,

it is independent (stable) with frequency. The phase-centre of the feed is positioned at the

focal point of a reflector system for maximum gain. The phase-centre of the corrugated horn

is at the horn aperture centre for small D and moves along the axis towards the throat as D

increases, approaching a fixed value at the horn apex for D > 0.7l.

The corrugated horn also called a scalar horn, because of its field direction dependence.

This name is usually reserved for the large flare angle cases. From Fig. 8.4.

Parabolic Reflector Antennas 309

df B

'= tan (8.1)

2 2

The 12 dB beam width of a corrugated horn feed is calculated by

PARABOLIC REFLECTOR

The parabolic reflector antenna is a simplest and popular form of reflector antenna. It is

inherently a very wideband antenna. At low frequency the bandwidth of a reflector is obtained

by choosing the size of the reflector and therefore it should be at least of several wavelengths.

However at high frequencies, performances are limited by the smoothness of the reflecting

surface. Surface distortions necessarily must be less than a wavelength to avoid phase errors

in the aperture. After all, the bandwidth of a reflector antenna is limited by the bandwidth

of the feed antenna rather than the reflector. Reflectors still serve as a basis for many radar

antennas in todays applications, because they offer the maximum available gain and minimum

beam widths with the smallest and simplest feeds [5].

The basic geometry of a parabolic reflector antenna is shown in Fig. 8.5, where a

parabolic conducting reflector surface, of focal length F, has the feed at the focus F. From

the geometrical optic, it is clear that spherical wave emerging from F is transformed into a

plane wave travelling in the positive (+z) direction after reflection from the inner surface of

parabola (see Fig. 8.6).

310 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Axis

Beam

Vertex F

Plane

Parabolic reflector

The equation describing the parabolic reflector surfaces shape in the rectangular form

with reference to point (r, z) can be written as

2

S 2

+ F + Fz = 0 , r a

2

or r2 = 4F(F z) (8.3)

The points (r = 0, z = F) and (r = a) z = (F2 a2/4F) represent the apex and edges of the

reflector respectively. For a given displacement r from the axis of the reflector, r is the

distance of the point R on the surface of the parabolic reflector from the focal point (F). With

reference to a point R(r, qf) in the polar co-ordinates, the parabolic reflector can be expressed

as

2F

r= (8.4)

1 + cos R f

This is because any two rays generated from the focus takes two paths; path 1, FVF (2F)

and path 2 (FRA) = r + r cos qf. Therefore, the distance travelled by these rays must be the

same, i.e.,

FVF = FRA

2F = r(1 + cos q f)

2F R f

r= = F sec2

1 + cosR f 2

Parabolic Reflector Antennas 311

2F sin R f Rf

S = r sin R f = = 2 F tan (8.5)

1 + cosR f 2

At apex (qf = 0), r = F and r = 0

At edge of reflector (qf = q)

2F

r= and r = a (8.6)

1 + cos R

Therefore, from Eq. (8.5), we get

R D R

a = 2F tan or = 2F tan

2 2 2

F 1 R

= = 0.25 cot

D 4 tan R /2 2

F R 1 D

= 0.25 cot or R = 2 tan 1 (8.7)

D 2 4 F

The referred axis symmetric parabolic reflector is specified completely in terms of two

parametersthe diameter D and the ratio of focal to diameter length (F/D). The ratio (F/D)

gives the shape (curvature rate) of the antenna and is known as aperture number. When

(F/D) approaches infinity the reflector becomes planar, i.e., the normally incident waves are

reflected back as plane waves. In contrast, if (F/D) is 0.25, the focal point lies in the plane

passing through the rim. The ratio of (F/D) will also have an impact on the cross-polarization

level. The cross-polarization decreases as (F/D) increases and in case of flat reflectors it

reduces to zero. The main objective in designing the reflector antenna is to match the feed

antenna pattern to the reflector and have the feed pattern about 10 dB down in the direction

of rim, i.e., F(qf = q) = 10 dB. Feed antennas for this purpose can be designed for an (F/D)

ratio between 0.3 and 1.0. The focal distance (F) of a reflector antenna can be expressed

easily in terms of D and height H. Therefore, from Eq. (8.3), for r = D/2 and z = F H0.

Therefore, from Fig. 8.5 the focal length (F) is

2

D

= 4F ( F F + H 0 )

2

D2

F= (8.8)

16 H

312 Antenna and Wave Propagation

That is, when F/D = 1/4, Eq. (8.5) gives H0 = D/4, i.e., H = F. The variation of angle q with

aperture number (F/D) is given in Table 8.1.

S. No. F/D q

1 0.25 90

2 0.30 79.6

3 0.33 73.7

4 0.40 64.0

5 0.50 53.4

6 1.0 28.1

(i) All rays leaving the feed point F are collimated after reflection from the inner

surface and travel parallel to the reflector axis (i.e., z-axis).

(ii) All the path lengths from the focal point (F) to the reflecting surface are the same

and equal to 2F. Since the total path length is constant (2F), the phase of waves

arriving in the aperture plane from a point source at the focus will also be constant.

Hence, the parabolic reflector with a feed that has a point phase centre at the focal

point will produce uniform phase across the aperture plane. The aperture amplitude

distribution, however, will not be uniform.

In order to derive the expression for far-field distribution on the aperture of reflector, let us

consider a narrow strip of width dy and dr, located along the radial line of the reflector, in

Cartesian and Polar co-ordinates respectively (see Figs. 8.7 and 8.8). Both cases have isotropic

sources; a line source and a point source at their respective focuses.

So, if Py is the power density at y, then the power P in the strip of width dy will be

P = dy, Py = dq . P

when P = the power per unit angle per unit length in the z-direction.

Therefore, from the above equation

Py dR dR 1 1

= = = =

P dy d (R sin R ) d d 2F sin R

(R sin R )

dR dR 1 + cos R

Parabolic Reflector Antennas 313

paraboloidal reflector. revolution.

Py 1 + cos R

=

P R 2F

Py 1

Therefore =

P R =0 2F

PR 1 + cos R

= (8.9)

P0 2

Since the field intensity of a radiator is proportional to the square root of power density,

Eq. (8.9) is reduced to

1/2

ER 1 + cos R (8.10)

=

E0 2

where Eq /E0 is the relative field intensity at a distance y from the axis and y = R sin q.

Similarly in the case of paraboloidal of revolution the total power P through the annular

section of radius r and width r is given by

Pr = 2pr dr = 2p sin q dq U (8.11)

This is because the total power (P) must be equal to the power radiated by the isotropic

source over the solid beam angle 2p sin q dq. Here Pr is the power density at a distance r

from the axis in W-m2 and U is radiation intensity in W-m2. Therefore, from Eq. (8.11)

314 Antenna and Wave Propagation

2

PS sin R (1 + cos R )

= = U as r = R sin q (8.12)

U dS 2L

S

dR

Hence, the ratio of power density at q to the power density at q = 0 can be given as

2

PR (1 + cos R )

= (8.13)

P0 2

Since the field-intensity of a radiator is proportional to the square root of power density,

Eq. (8.13) reduced to

ER 1 + cos R

= (8.14)

E0 2

where Eq /E0 is the relative field intensity at a distance r from the axis and r = R sin q.

The radiation from a large paraboloid with uniformly illuminated aperture is essentially

similar to the radiation from a circular aperture. This is true if both of them have same

diameter D in an infinite metal plate and a uniform plane wave is incident on its surface. The

radiation field pattern for such a uniformly illuminated aperture can be calculated in terms

of the normalized field pattern Ef as follows [1]:

Q D

J1 sin R

2M M

EG = (8.15)

QD sin R

where D = diameter of reflector antenna (m)

f = angle w.r.t. normal to aperture

J1 = first-order Bessels function and J1(x) = 0, when x = 3.83

Therefore, the angle q0 (say) to the first nulls of the radiation pattern can be calculated as

follows:

QD 3.83 M

sin R 0 = 3.83 R 0 = sin 1

M QD

If q0 is very small, the above equation yields

1.22M 70 M

R0 = (rad) or R0 = (deg) (8.16)

D D

Parabolic Reflector Antennas 315

Therefore, for a large circular aperture, the first null beam width will be

140 M

BWFN = (deg) (8.17)

D

The beam width between half-power points is defined as

58 M

HPBW = (deg) (8.18)

D

The directivity Dr of a large uniformly illuminated aperture is defined as

Area

Dr = 4Q (8.19)

M2

Hence for a circular aperture,

2

Q 1 D

Dr = 4Q . D . 2

= 9.87 (8.20)

4 M2 M

115 M

First null beam width (BWFN) = deg (8.21)

L

2

L2 L

Directivity (Dr) = 4Q = 12.6 (8.22)

M M

2

The maximum achievable gain for an aperture antenna is given by Gmax = 4p/l Ap, where 2

Ap is the aperture area. This is possible only under ideal circumstances; however, in practice,

these conditions are rarely met, and the modified expression of gain is

4Q

Gmax = F a Ap (8.24)

M2

where ea is aperture efficiency and its values lie between 0 and 1.

The spherical spreading loss at the aperture edge (dB) is given by

1 1 + cosR

20 log 1 + 2

= 20 log (8.25)

F 2

16

D

The above expression shows that (F/D) influences the amount of spherical spreading loss.

And it varies from 0.5 to 6.0 dB for (F/D) ranging from 1.0 down to 0.25.

316 Antenna and Wave Propagation

In the case of flat reflector (i.e., aperture number ), the angle of the beam scan (q1)

equals the feed tilt angle (q 2); however, for curved reflectors the beam scan angle will be

less than the feed tilt angle.

In general, scanning is quantified with a factor known as beam derivation factor (BDF)

which is expressed as

BDF = = (8.26)

R2 Tilt angle

i.e. BDF is maximum at unity for a flat reflector and decreases with decreasing (F/D) for

axis-symmetric and offset reflectors. However, for small displacement d (as shown in Fig. 8.9)

another approximate expression can be used [6].

4F

1 + 0.36

D

BDF = 2

F (8.27)

1 + 4

D

Lateral feed displacement introduces a planar phase front tilted with respect to the aperture

plane responsible for beam scanning in a direction opposite to the displacement.

The definition of polarization loss efficiency is based on the integration of Poynting vector

with the antenna aperture. The power flow across the antenna aperture is assumed to be

equal to the radiated power. Polarization loss efficiency is defined as the ratio of the

co-polarized power flow across the antenna aperture to the total power, i.e.

Parabolic Reflector Antennas 317

2Q R

I=

0 0

| Emp (R G ) |2 S 2 sin 2R dR dG

(8.28)

2Q R

0 0

| Emp (R , G ) |2 + | Ecp (R , G ) |2 S 2 sin R dR dG