Anda di halaman 1dari 32

T1-2 [94 marks]

A grassland food web was studied to understand how climate warming affects the interaction of different animal and
plant species. Grasshoppers (Melanoplus femurrubrum) feed on grasses growing amongst taller bushes. Spiders
(Pisaurina mira) feed on the grasshoppers. For 75 days, the feeding behaviour of the grasshoppers was observed with
and without predators, in temperatures that were cool or warm. During the study period, the grasshoppers progressed
through stages of larval development (instars) to adulthood.

1a. Identify the primary food for all grasshoppers without predators. [1 mark]
The hypothesis that aging involves loss of brain cells was investigated in mice. The olfactory bulb (OB) of the brain was
studied because its layered arrangement of neurons resembles large regions of the human brain. Sensory input about
smell is sent to the OB by axons of receptor cells that line the upper nasal cavity. These axons synapse with relay
neurons in the OB where interpretation of smell perception begins. The bar charts show the total volume of neurons in
the OB and the density of synapses (number of synapses per unit area) in two regions of a mouses OB.

State when the total volume of OB neurons is the greatest. [1 mark]


1b.
An investigation was conducted among competitive swimmers to determine the effects of two different training
programmes.

Swimmers were encouraged to maintain an even pace throughout the programmes. The pace was slightly slower in
the 3000 m programme than in the 6000 m programme.

Tissue samples were taken from the shoulder muscle of each swimmer, before and after each session. Glycogen
levels were analysed in slow (type I) muscle fibres.

Calculate the percentage of slow (type I) muscle fibres that contain low levels of glycogen after the 3000m [1 mark]
1c.
programme.
Malnutrition affects the body mass index (BMI) of mothers. The height and mass of over 7000 mothers in Ethiopia and
the sex of their most recently born child was recorded. The graph shows the percentage of mothers with a BMI below
18.5 and the percentage of their most recent births that were males in 11 regions across Ethiopia.

State the regions with the highest and lowest percentage of male offspring. [1 mark]
1d.
Region with highest percentage: .......................................................................
Region with lowest percentage: .......................................................................

1e. Compare the total synapse density of neurons in the outer and inner OB layers. [2 marks]
State the effect of the 3000 m programme on glycogen levels in slow (type I) muscle fibres. [1 mark]
1f.

Comment on the variation in BMI of mothers in Ethiopia. [2 marks]


1g.

Deduce, using the data, how the feeding behaviour of instar larvae changes if without predators, conditions [1 mark]
1h.
change from cool to warm.
Deduce, using the data, how the feeding behaviour of instar larvae changes if in warm conditions, predators are [1 mark]
1i.
introduced.

1j. Compare adult feeding to instar larval feeding. [2 marks]

Evaluate, using the data in the bar charts, the hypothesis that aging involves loss of brain cells. [2 marks]
1k.

Discuss whether the data supports the hypothesis that malnutrition affects the sex ratio of offspring. [2 marks]
1l.
Compare the effects of the 3000 m programme with the 6000 m programme on muscle glycogen levels. [2 marks]
1m.

Suggest reasons for the differences between the 3000 m programme and the 6000m programme in their effects [2 marks]
1n.
on muscle glycogen levels.

Suggest why adult feeding differs from instar larval feeding when predators are present. [1 mark]
1o.
Suggest the implications of the data for humans. [2 marks]
1p.

Suggest one limitation of the data. [1 mark]


1q.

Suggest one limitation of the data. [1 mark]


1r.
In 2003, the Integrated Approach to Community Development (IACD) organization introduced the chulli water [2 marks]
1s.
purifier to homes in Bangladesh that had not previously had access to safe drinking water. It was designed to be made
cheaply from local materials. The purifier uses sand filtration to remove organic particles and heat treatment to eliminate
microbes from water.

Water samples from 15 different locations containing high levels of the bacterium E. coli were passed through the purifier
at different flow rates and temperatures to test its effect on contaminated water. The shaded area of the graph below
represents the recommended temperature and flow rate for using the purifier.

Evaluate the chulli purifier as a method of controlling microbial growth.

Suggest one factor that could cause malnutrition in mothers. [1 mark]


1t.
Which of the following will contribute to the cell theory? [1 mark]
2.
I. Living organisms are composed of cells.
II. All cells come from pre-existing cells by mitosis.
III. Cells are the smallest units of life.

A. I only
B. II only
C. I and III only
D. I, II and III

A red blood cell is 8 m in diameter. If drawn 100 times larger than its actual size, what diameter will the drawing [1 mark]
3.
be in mm?

A. 0.08 mm
B. 0.8 mm
C. 8 mm
D. 80 mm

Which functions are carried out by all unicellular organisms? [1 mark]


4.

Which property makes stem cells suitable for therapeutic use? [1 mark]
5.
A. They can divide by meiosis to form gametes.
B. They contain chemicals that can kill bacteria.
C. Their chromosomes are suitable for gene transfer and cloning.
D. They can differentiate into specialized cells.
Which features are present in prokaryotic cells? [1 mark]
6.
A. DNA, plasma membrane and mitochondria
B. DNA, cell wall and pili
C. ribosomes, chloroplasts and cell wall
D. cytoplasm, ribosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum

Which process is possible due to the fluidity of cell membranes? [1 mark]


7.
A. Endocytosis
B. Osmosis
C. ATP production
D. Cell recognition

What is an example of the therapeutic use of stem cells? [1 mark]


8.
A. Sequencing the human genome
B. Forensic investigations of paternity
C. Production of genetically modified crops
D. Restoration of insulation tissue in neurons
How do cells in multicellular organisms differentiate? [1 mark]
9.
A. Some cell types divide by mitosis more often than others.
B. They express some of their genes but not others.
C. Some of their proteins denature but not others.
D. Their DNA content changes with time.

What is the function of the Golgi apparatus? [1 mark]


10.
A. Transport of lipids
B. Synthesis of polypeptides
C. Processing of proteins for secretion
D. Generation of most of the cells supply of ATP

Which structure is present in a prokaryotic cell? [1 mark]


11.
A. Plasma membrane
B. 80S ribosome
C. Nucleus
D. Chloroplast
What is the approximate thickness of the plasma membrane of a cell? [1 mark]
12.
A. 10 nm
B. 50 nm
C. 10 m
D. 50 m

Which property makes stem cells suitable for therapeutic use? [1 mark]
13.
A. They can divide by meiosis to form gametes.
B. They contain chemicals that can kill bacteria.
C. Their chromosomes are suitable for gene transfer and cloning.
D. They can differentiate into specialized cells.

Which features are present in prokaryotic cells? [1 mark]


14.
A. DNA, plasma membrane and mitochondria
B. DNA, cell wall and pili
C. ribosomes, chloroplasts and cell wall
D. cytoplasm, ribosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum
Where in the cell do condensation reactions involving amino acids occur? [1 mark]
15.
A. Nucleus
B. Golgi apparatus
C. Ribosomes
D. Lysosome

Which process is possible due to the fluidity of cell membranes? [1 mark]


16.
A. Endocytosis
B. Osmosis
C. ATP production
D. Cell recognition
In which stage of mitosis is the cell labelled X? [1 mark]
17.

A. Anaphase
B. Interphase
C. Metaphase
D. Prophase

If there are 16 chromosomes in a cell that is about to divide, what will be the number of chromosomes in a [1 mark]
18.
daughter cell after division by mitosis or meiosis?
Draw a labelled diagram to show the structure of membranes. [6 marks]
19a.

Explain passive transport and active transport across membranes. [8 marks]


19b.

20. What is the principal mode of division for the prokaryote Escherichia coli ? [1 mark]

A. Endocytosis
B. Binary fission
C. Cytokinesis
D. Meiosis
21. Where can 70S ribosomes be found? [1 mark]

A. On membranes of the Golgi apparatus


B. In prokaryotic cells
C. On membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum
D. In nuclei

Why do crop plants dry out when a field is irrigated with water contaminated by sea water? [1 mark]
22.
A. The plants lose water by active transport.
B. The plants gain salt by osmosis.
C. The plants gain salt by diffusion.
D. The plants lose water by osmosis.

What is proportional to a cells surface area? [1 mark]


23.
A. Rate of exchange of materials
B. Rate of heat production
C. Rate of waste production
D. Rate of oxygen consumption
Which is a difference between prokaryote and eukaryote cells? [1 mark]
24.

The following events occur in mitosis. [1 mark]


25.
X: Attachment of spindle microtubules to centromeres
Y: Movement of sister chromatids to opposite poles
Z: Supercoiling of chromosomes

What is the correct sequence of events?

A. X Z Y
B. X Y Z
C. Z X Y
D. Z Y X
The following electron micrograph which shows part of two adjacent liver cells.

What is happening at the structure labelled X? [1 mark]


26.
A. Synthesis of proteins
B. Transport of proteins to the nucleus
C. Modification of proteins prior to export
D. Secretion of proteins through the plasma membrane

What is the structure labelled Y? [1 mark]


27.
A. Nucleus
B. Starch grain
C. Lysosome
D. Mitochondrion
Which process requires channel proteins? [1 mark]
28.
A. Simple diffusion
B. Facilitated diffusion
C. Binding of hormones
D. Exocytosis

What feature of cell membranes allows endocytosis to occur? [1 mark]


29.
A. Fluidity of phospholipid bilayer
B. Presence of protein pumps
C. Presence of carrier proteins
D. Glycoprotein binding sites

A red blood cell is 8 m in diameter. If drawn 100 times larger than its actual size, what diameter will the drawing [1 mark]
30.
be in mm?

A. 0.08 mm
B. 0.8 mm
C. 8 mm
D. 80 mm
An unknown cell is observed using a microscope. A cell wall, ribosomes and DNA are identified. What can be [1 mark]
31.
concluded from these observations?

A. It can only be a prokaryotic cell.


B. It can only be a eukaryotic cell.
C. It could be a prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell.
D. It can only be a plant cell.

Which pair of features is correct for both diffusion and osmosis? [1 mark]
32.
The diagram below shows a cell during mitosis. [1 mark]
33.

What are the structures and stage of mitosis?

A cell has cytoplasm, a cell wall, naked DNA and ribosomes. Based on this information, what type of cell could this [1 mark]
34.
be?

A. A cell from a pine tree


B. A grasshopper cell
C. A human red blood cell
D. A bacterium
What do diffusion and osmosis have in common? [1 mark]
35.
A. They only happen in living cells.
B. They require transport proteins in the membrane.
C. They are passive transport mechanisms.
D. Net movement of substances is against the concentration gradient.

How does the surface area to volume ratio change with an increase in cell size? [1 mark]
36.
How do prokaryotic cells divide? [1 mark]
37.
A. By mitosis
B. By meiosis
C. By budding
D. By binary fission

During which phase of the cell cycle do chromosomes duplicate? [1 mark]


38.
A. G1
B. S
C. G2
D. Mitosis
What is the difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion? [1 mark]
39.

Which of these processes require mitosis? [1 mark]


40.
A. Embryological development
B. Reducing surface area to volume ratio
C. Maintaining cell size
D. Cell growth
Which of the following structures are found in all cells? [1 mark]
41.
A. Mitochondria
B. Cell walls
C. Chloroplasts
D. Ribosomes

The diagram below shows a plasma membrane. What is molecule X? [1 mark]


42.

A. Cholesterol
B. Peripheral protein
C. Glycoprotein
D. Polar amino acid
Which functions of life are found in unicellular organisms? [1 mark]
43.
A. growth, response and nutrition
B. differentiation, response and nutrition
C. metabolism, meiosis and homeostasis
D. growth, metabolism and differentiation

Which statement is part of the cell theory? [1 mark]


44.
A. Cells are composed of organic molecules.
B. Cells have DNA as their genetic material.
C. Cells have cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane.
D. Cells come from pre-existing cells
Which of the following are features of prokaryotes and eukaryotes? [1 mark]
45.

46. What route is used to export proteins from the cell? [1 mark]

A. Golgi apparatus rough endoplasmic reticulum plasma membrane


B. Rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus plasma membrane
C. Golgi apparatus lysosome rough endoplasmic reticulum
D. Rough endoplasmic reticulum lysosome Golgi apparatus
47. Which events occur during the G1 phase and S phase of the cell cycle? [1 mark]

In a cell, what is the effect of a large surface area to volume ratio? [1 mark]
48.
A. Slower rate of exchange of waste materials
B. Faster heat loss
C. Faster rate of mitosis
D. Slower intake of food
How can cells in a multicellular organism differentiate? [1 mark]
49.
A. They express some of their genes but not others.
B. They all have a different genetic composition.
C. Different cells contain a different set of chromosomes.
D. Different cells do not have some of the genes.

The diagram below shows a bacterium. [1 mark]


50.

What structure does the part labelled X identify?

A. Nucleus
B. Nucleoid
C. Nucleolus
D. Nuclear membrane
51. What do prokaryotic cells have that eukaryotic cells do not? [1 mark]

A. Mitochondria
B. 70S ribosomes
C. Histones
D. Internal membranes

52. What happens during the G2 stage of interphase? [1 mark]

A. Homologous chromosomes pair


B. Synthesis of proteins
C. Homologous chromosomes separate
D. Replication of DNA

53. Which of the following take(s) place during interphase and mitosis in animal cells? [1 mark]

I. Re-formation of nuclear membranes


II. Pairing of homologous chromosomes
III. DNA replication

A. I only
B. I and II only
C. II and III only
D. I and III only
International Baccalaureate Organization 2017
International Baccalaureate - Baccalaurat International - Bachillerato Internacional