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Chapter 5

Industry Solutions

SAP Aerospace and Defense

From IDES Release 4.5B you can now perform processes from SAP Aerospace and
Defense (SAP A&D). SAP A&D is suited to work with the comprehensive and
technically complex processes that are usual to aircraft, satellites, global
communication systems, and military equipment. The IDES examples look at the
complex processes involved in the aircraft business.

Organizational Structures
For IS A&D, the Wichita and Orlando plants have been set up in the North American Production
company code. The Wichita plant is responsible for production and quality control
of aircraft spares. The production of these spares is illustrated by nose landing
gear. The landing gear is delivered to the customer on completion of production.
The quality check is illustrated by a hydraulic pump that has to be inspected in Quality check
respect of its airworthiness.

Company code Plant Location Task

3000 3600 Wichita Production of aircraft spares
Quality checking of spares
3700 Orlando Service processing

The Orlando plant services and maintains aircraft parts. Preventive Maintenance
A functional location structure for an aircraft has been created to illustrate the
industry-specific processes in preventive maintenance. The relevant equipment
has been included in the individual technical locations. The aircraft has a regular
aircraft maintenance schedule.
Unlike maintenance of a clarification plant as described in the section on PM
maintenance, this industry-specific maintenance has an in-depth integration with
Project Management. This is due to the complexity of the business processes of
companies that use SAP A&D.

5 Industry Solutions

The IDES Example

Production of aircraft- The manufacturer of the aircrafts spares creates a sales order. Then, the BOM
spares explosion (MRP) triggers transmission of the requirements. The manufacturer
generates a production order and produces the spares. During confirmation, a
backflush of the parts is made. Using the material provisioning date, the
manufacturer creates a delivery and triggers transportation. Finally, the
manufacturer performs billing, and control of costs and revenues in CO.
Delivery of a quality-checked A supplier delivers a hydraulic pump to the Wichita plant. Goods receipt takes
spare place in the quality inspection stock. On the basis of an automatically-generated
inspection lot, the pump is inspected for airworthiness. If it passes this check, the
pump is transfer posted to unrestricted stock. The spare is delivered to the customer
from this stock.
Maintenance of an engine A customer calls the service department to place a repair order for an engine. The
plant receives, processes, and returns the engine.
The engine was not manufactured in this plant; it is only maintained by the service
department. This engine has been maintained in the workshop on a previous
occasion, therefore, master data such as serial number and dimension already exists.
The workshop only has to ensure that the correct spares with the correct serial
numbers are installed in the engine.

Industry Solutions 5

SAP Automotive
IDES takes into account many of the specific requirements of the automotive SAP Automotive in IDES
industry, which are mapped in the standard system. Optimization of the logistical
business processes via integration is defined in two main areas:
Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and
Automotive supplier
The examples of an OEM and an automotive supplier are used to explain the
typical business processes involved in the automotive industry. Particular emphasis
is placed on communication between the manufacturer and suppliers, as well as
between suppliers at different levels. The quantity and value flow is also explained.

Fig. 5-1: Process Flow

5 Industry Solutions

IDES Processes
Business processes at the A product group is created or changed in Sales and Operations Planning. A second,
automotive OEM inactive sales and operations plan is then created. Using a planning scenario, the
inactive requirements are planned, analyzed, and compared with the active
requirements. A sales order, triggered by automotive dealer Franzl, is configured,
and entered in the system. Planned orders are then created via the BOM explosion.
In the Hamburg plant (1000), make-to-order repetitive manufacturing is used to
manufacture automobile AM2-GT on production line AM-LINE1. When production
is complete, this is confirmed in repetitive manufacturing. Shipping and billing
are then carried out to complete the process.
Business processes at the on- The supplier receives the forecast or JIT delivery schedules from the manufacturer
board computer supplier via EDI, and plans the SD scheduling agreement schedule lines. The supplier then
carries out shipping processing, which includes creating the delivery, picking,
packing, issuing serial numbers, and transportation to the manufacturer.

Organizational Structures
The automobiles are created in two company codes: Germany (1000), and UK
(2000). Automobile AM2-GT is produced by the OEM in one plant, and the
components are ordered from two different suppliers via SD scheduling
agreements, and delivered via MM scheduling agreements.

Automobile Company code Controlling area Operating concern

Supplier 2000 1000 0001
OEM 1000 1000 0001

Automobile Plant Line Supplier Customer MM-scheduling SD-scheduling

agreements agreements
Supplier 2000 1098 1012 5500000040 30000046
1099 5500000038 30000045
OEM 1000 Am-line1 1012

Industry Solutions 5

Long-term planning for automobile AM2-GT is designed to simulate different Long-term planning
versions of the demand program using information from the operational situation.
You can optimize the simulation as regards MRP, capacity planning, order volumes,
purchasing budgets, cost center planning, and inventory controlling. Once the
process of optimization is complete, the simulation data is copied to the operational
environment. The planning scenario is used to determine the settings for long-
term planning or simulation planning. To carry out long-term planning, you must
first release a planning scenario.
The inactive mode ensures that planned independent requirements do not appear
in operational planning, since this could trigger a procurement action during the
In line design, the line segments at the lowest level of the line hierarchy are called Line design
takt areas. Once a takt time has been determined, you can check whether the
operations can actually be carried out on the production line within this time in
the individual takt areas (line hierarchy AM-LINE1). The aim of line balancing is
to ensure that the optimum work content quantity (operations) is assigned to each
takt area. The total operating time should be as close as possible to the takt time.
Production line AM-LINE1 (line hierarchies) is assigned via the production line
field of production version 0001 for model AM2-GT. The assigned automobile
can be displayed in the line hierarchy list. To create this list, the system determines
all products for which the relevant line hierarchy was recorded in the production
To check whether operations can actually be carried out on the production line Takt load
within the takt time set for the individual takt areas, you can use the takt load
graphical function.
The takt load displays the work content (all operations) for each takt area as an
average value. The average value is calculated by the system on the basis of the
average routing values for the individual products manufactured on the produc-
tion line. To show which products are manufactured in which distribution, a model
mix is entered. The operations per takt area per product, as well as the average
values, can be displayed. The takt time is also displayed so that you can check
whether operations can actually be carried out on the production line within the
takt time set for the individual takt areas.

5 Industry Solutions

Characteristics Planning
The strategies for configurable products mean that you can plan products with a
virtually unlimited number of combinations of characteristics and characteristic
values. With automobile AM2-GT, a strategy of this type is used to enter a practical
combination of characteristic values that does not include final assembly.
Since the high number of variants would make maintenance difficult, these cannot
be used to plan automobile AM2-GT. If you enter usage probabilities for
characteristic values instead, you can plan materials with a large number of
variants. This process also facilitates change management for the components,
since planning and construction changes are carried out separately.
Make-to-order repetitive Make-to-order repetitive manufacturing is the manufacturing and execution
manufacturing process relevant to the manufacturer. This production type is used to process sales
orders individually, and create planned orders with a direct reference to the sales
orders. Production is, therefore, controlled via sales orders. The quantities produced
cannot be exchanged between the individual orders, and the finished products
are mapped specifically for individual sales orders in the stock (sales order stock).
The sales order stock is reduced via the goods issue caused by the sales orders.
Sequencing Sequencing is an important part of planning in make-to-order repetitive
manufacturing, particularly in the automotive industry. If the number of orders is
usually high, sequencing enables you to view and plan them more easily.
Pull list The pull list controls the internal material flow of deliveries to production. Pull
lists assume that the components required by production have already been
procured internally or externally, and only have to be transferred from their current
storage location or bin to the production supply area (internal materials staging).
The pull list checks the stock of components at the production storage location
(issue storage location), and compares this with the requirement situation from
the production plan (material requirements planning). The difference calculated
equals the number of missing parts. Replenishment elements can be created for
these missing parts. One procedure for staging components is direct stock transfer.
The system updates the stock transfer (in other words, it posts the goods issue of
the components from the replenishment storage location). You can print out a list
to be forwarded to the warehouse staff. This list includes the storage location, the
receiving storage location, as well as the quantity required, and can then be used
to carry out the actual stock transfer.

Industry Solutions 5

The R/3 system enables the original equipment manufacturer to communicate EDI
with suppliers via other external systems. This electronic data interchange (EDI)
is carried out by means of IDocs, which link the R/3 systems with the external
EDI subsystem.
MM scheduling agreements are outline agreements created for a material. They Procurement
contain the expected target quantity of the material to be purchased by a supplier
over a given period.
Two different types of schedule are managed by the system: forecast delivery
schedules and JIT delivery schedules.
The following goods receipts with reference to a shipping notification are used in
the IDES example for the procurement process:
Goods receipt posting with reference to shipping notification
The credit memo confirms the goods receipt and the amount that the manufacturer
owes the supplier.
The invoice or billing document is checked, and then triggers a payment run in
the manufacturers system before the actual payment advice is sent to the supplier.

5 Industry Solutions

IDES Banking
The IDES bank reflects the special demands placed by banks on Financial Ac-
counting. In addition to supplying a bank chart of accounts, during its implemen-
tation, emphasis was placed particularly on providing solution approaches for
the depiction of bank-specific processes.
Organizational units
Special features in Financial Accounting

Organizational Structures
The bank consists of two company codes, one for Germany (F100) and one for
USA (F300). Both company codes use the same chart of accounts: BANK. Over-
head cost controlling involves two controlling areas. F100 is the controlling area
for European banks, controlling area F300 is for the American bank.

Company code Head Currency Chart of accounts

description office
F100 Frankfurt EUR BANK
Frankfurt Bankers
F300 New York USD BANK
Liberty Bankers

Controlling area Currency Chart of accounts

CA Banks of United States

Industry Solutions 5

Characteristics and Special Features

The banks use of FI is concentrated mainly on general ledger accounting, where General ledger accounting
use of the special ledgers for evaluation purposes is of particular significance.
These circumstances were taken into consideration for the banking IDES. Less
emphasis was placed on accounts payable and accounts receivable accounting.
The chart of accounts BANK takes the special requirements of a banks chart of Chart of accounts
accounts into consideration. It comprises accounts for all essential banking
transactions and is structured in accordance with internationall regulations (for
example, HGB, IAS, US-GAAP). Initially, no provision is made for several charts
of accounts for different bank groups (for example, German - American, private
banks - savings banks). Different balance sheet structures that report in accordance
with HGB, IAS or US-GAAP are created.
Individual ledgers have been created for the depiction of bank-specific Special ledgers
requirements in special ledgers FI-SL. There is, for example, a daily ledger with
366 periods and an average ledger. A new totals table has been defined that can be
accessed for all evaluations, and to which the postings are also forwarded. The
transactions correspond to those on the general ledger and by making certain
selections, only certain information is forwarded to the individual ledgers. We
have also enhanced the coding block with a few evaluation terms typical for banks,
and also fields that are ready for input during the individual postings and in which
you can store the appropriate information.
Bank-specific processes in general ledger accounting have been mainly defined in Bank-specific processes in FI
the FI-SL component in order to meet the reporting requirements of banks at all
times. These processes include in particular the daily balance sheet (depiction by
means of a daily ledger) and currency accounting. In this respect, the (new)
valuation of the transaction currency to the local currency at the key date rate
deserves special mention, in addition to a balance sheet per currency. The currency
sell-down process of an (investment) bank (internal forwarding of the exchange
rate risk to the Treasury area) also represents a special feature in the area of banking.

5 Industry Solutions

Tax processing Within general ledger accounting (FI-GL), particular attention is paid to input tax
processing in banks (known as bank key). The customary tax scheme applies in
the German company code, although there are various tax indicators that have
been specially defined for the non-deductible input tax with different percentage
rates. The tax scheme TAXO has been enhanced with the condition type ZAST
(IntIncTax) for the interest income tax, with its own tax indicator ZA with 30%
for normal savings transactions. Using this tax indicator it is possible to have the
corresponding interest income tax recorded in various reports. The standard cost-
ing scheme TAXUSJ applies for the American bank company code. This costing
procedure involves jurisdiction codes. Contrary to the company code in Ireland
(tax scheme TAXIE) which also operates with jurisdiction codes, the levels state,
state region and town/city apply for tax processing in America. For this reason,
the jurisdiction code is defined with 9 digits, the first two digits representing the
state, the next 3 digits the state region and the last 4 digits the town or city.
Prospects In a later development phase of the banking example, implementation of bank-
specific processes with corresponding transaction data in accounting is planned,
as is the realization of further modules.

Industry Solutions 5

SAP Chemicals
SAP Chemicals was developed specially to meet the requirements of the chemical
industry. It supports business processes specific to the chemical industry, such as
process manufacturing, quality management, process costing, batch/lot
management, and substance and hazardous material management. The business
scenarios used represent typical business processes carried out in a chemical
company, such as discontinuous and continuous production. The scenarios cover
all the business processes required to comprehensively map the process flows in a
In IDES, the example of paint production is used to demonstrate the entire multi-
level planning and control processes. The planning and control functions of PP-PI
are carried out in plant 1100 (Berlin) on the basis of the independent requirements
for finished product CH_5102 (primer coat black 500-l canister).

Organizational Structures
The following organizational units are used:

Organizational unit Key Description

Company code 1000 IDES AG
Plant 1100 Berlin

IDES Examples
The IDES scenarios listed for PP-PI are interdependent and arranged sequentially. PI Manufacture of bulk
The starting point is program planning, in which the planned independent materials and filling in the
requirements for the end product (CH_5102) are entered. In material requirements
process industry
planning, the independent requirements are then converted to planned orders
(internal procurement) or purchase requisitions (external procurement). At the
same time, dependent requirements are created for all components subject to MRP.
The part of the example that deals with procuring stock materials gives particular
emphasis to managing components handled in batches. This means that QM
(inspection lot) is also integrated in this part of the process.
As in real-life situations, with goods receipt for different material components,
specific characteristic value assignments must be defined for the batch. These
assignments are used to integrate the SAP Classification System. Suitable batches
are proposed by batch determination. Once all materials have been procured, the
planned orders are converted into process orders on the basis of the current stock/
requirements list. The next step is production, before which the integration of
WM (staging of components) is demonstrated. Via process management, the PI
sheets defined in the master recipes are sent to the predefined recipients of the
process operators, where they are processed. The production step is completed by
a final check of the bulk materials, and the filling process.

5 Industry Solutions

SAP Consumer Products

The SAP Consumer Products component is a fully integrated application solution
for the consumer goods industry.
R/3 IDES allows you to simulate the typical processes carried out by the consumer
goods industry. All the functions involved are linked, ensuring that the Logistics,
Accounting, and Controlling components are integrated.

Organizational Units
The following organizational units are used:

Organizational unit Key Description

Operating concern IDEA Operation concern IDES global
Controlling area 1000 CO Europe
Company code 1000 IDES AG
Plant 1200 Dresden

Sales organization 1020 is responsible for selling products. In this sales organization,
the sales activities in the area of consumer products are handled by a separate
distribution channel. Sales in IDES are carried out on a cross-divisional basis via
division 00. The combination of sales organization, distribution channel, and
division listed in the following table constitutes the sales area with which sales
orders in the Consumer Products area are entered.

Organizational unit Key Description

Sales organization 1020 Germany Berlin
Distribution channel 20 Retail chain
Division 00 Cross-divisional

Industry Solutions 5

The following process examples are integrated in IDES:

A rebate is agreed in a retail company. The rebate agreement stipulates that a price Rebate processing from a
discount will be granted depending on the annual sales volume achieved by the sales perspective
chain for particular products. This rebate is paid to the head office. The rebate
basis includes the sales figures for all the companies belonging to the chain.
A promotion, which is to be implemented as a series of sales deals, is devised for Monitoring sales promotion
a certain product group. At the promotion level, a budget is planned that contains budgets
discounts granted to customers via these deals. When the sales deals are being
defined, the system checks the availability of resources planned in the budget. If
sales orders or billing documents for a sales deal are available, the budget
assignment is displayed with the actual data from these business transactions.
The sales quantities are planned in the Sales Information System (SIS) at the product Integrated planning for
level, and then transferred to Sales and Operations Planning (SOP). sales/production
Production planning is carried out in repetitive manufacturing, and the various Repetitive manufacturing of
planning views (material, production line) are shown. Confirmation is carried out light bulbs
via backflushing. Once the process is complete, the documents generated are passed
on to cost accounting and accounting.

5 Industry Solutions

SAP Engineering and Construction

SAP Engineering and Construction supports the process chain in companies and
business areas, which actively plan, produce, and maintain highly complex and
one-off products and plants that are generally based on individual customer
specifications and requirements.

Organizational Structures
Plant 1300 is responsible for The main focus falls on assembly processing, variant configuration, milestone
the order-related production technique, integration of production planning and controlling, confirmation, time
recording, delivery in the Project System, down payment processing, and billing.
of elevators.

Company code Plant Location Task

1000 1300 Frankfurt Order-related production of elevators

IDES Processes
You can find the relevant IDES processes in the Project System (PS)

Make-to-order production of elevators

Project billing with down payment processing

Other processes are in preparation

Industry Solutions 5

SAP Pharmaceuticals
SAP Pharmaceuticals supports the specific requirements of the pharmaceutical
industry, such as process manufacturing, quality management, process costing,
batch/lot management, and substance and hazardous material management. Since
SAP Pharmaceuticals is based on tried-and-tested business processes, it can be
adapted to meet the individual requirements of any pharmaceutical company.
The processes specific to the pharmaceutical industry are mapped in IDES. The
script PI make-to-stock production in the pharmaceutical industry describes a
possible scenario for producing pills in a pharmaceutical company.

Organizational Structures
The following organizational structures are used:

Organizational unit Key Description

Company code 1000 IDES AG
Plant 1100 Berlin

IDES Processes
Once the product group has been analyzed, the sales and operations plan for the PI make-to-stock production
product group is created or changed. The quantities are disaggregated to the in the pharmaceutical
members (materials), and transferred to demand management as planned
independent requirements. Multi-level material requirements planning is then
carried out for finished product N-2000. From the current stock/requirements list,
the system converts a planned order created during the planning run to a process
order. This creates a process order for generating a batch containing all data relevant
to the production on the basis of a master recipe. A process order for the packaging
of the pills is also created. Further planning steps needed to release the process
order (manual batch determination) are then carried out. When a process order is
saved, an inspection lot for the in-process quality inspection is created
simultaneously. The PI sheets are then generated and processed. During this process
confirmations are carried out, and material movements posted. In a final step, the
batch record is simulated.

5 Industry Solutions


SAP Retail in IDES

R/3 IDES includes retail-specific processes. In addition to existing industry-
oriented organizational structures, new retail-specific structures, master data and
Customizing settings have been added to IDES.
IDES provides an environment with the structures and master data detailed below
to allow you to run most Retail business processes. The online IDES documentation
contains examples of the most important sectors and site categories used in the
retail and wholesale sectors as well as additional information relating to changed
made in correction releases.
In addition to the business processes and functionality detailed in the
documentation, a range of further possibilities also exist. You can easily adapt
your existing system to include adjustments, changes and enhancements.

Organizational Units
FI / CO Company codes R300 (USA) and R100 (Germany) are active for Retail. Company
code R100 (Germany) was added in Release 4.5A. This allows you to map
international and cross-company code business processes for an international
retailing enterprise.
In IDES, results area R300 represents the superior unit in the Controlling structure
for Retail. R300 is linked to controlling area R300 (IDES Retail INC US) and R100
(IDES Retail Europe).
Logistic Structures / Objects Purchasing organizations R300 (USA) and R100 (Germany) and the relevant
in Procurement and Sales purchasing groups are used in procurement.
Sales organization R300 (USA) and R100 (Germany) are used in sales. They each
have different sales channels at their disposal that are controlled by distribution
chains, a combination of purchasing organizations and distribution channels. The
sites use distribution chains to provide consumers and wholesalers with
merchandise according to the specified characteristics.
The organizational structures contain three distribution centers and ten stores which
are used for displaying examples of merchandise flow from the vendor to the
A multilevel merchandise category hierarchy groups assortments containing
articles with different characteristics.

Industry Solutions 5

The following table displays the links between the organizational structures:

Operating concern Controlling area Company code Sites

R300 IDES Retail R100 IDES Retail Europe R100 IDES Retail GmbH R100 Distribution center
R110 - R112
SB Department stores
R300 IDES Retail INC US R300 IDES Retail INC US R300 - R301 DCs
R310 - R316 GM Stores
R320 Supermarket
RFDC Reference DC
RFSR Reference store

The HR area for Retail in IDES contains a complete organizational structure for a HR
retailing enterprise. The first branch contains organizational unit Central
organization (key O 50012898) with the relevant organizational units: Human
Resources Department, Financial Accounting / Controlling, Marketing,
Logistics / Data Processing and Assortment Planning.
The second branch contains the organizational unit Decentralized Organization
(key O 50012899) with the relevant organizational units Distribution Chain
Distribution, Distribution Chain Department Store, Distribution Chain
Supermarket, Distribution Chain GH, Distribution Chain Fashion and
Distribution Chain Online Store.
The Retail Company in IDES Retail is based in the USA. Of particular interest is
store R310 Department Store R310 whose organizational unit Department POS
displays complete, retail-specific personnel planning integrated in personnel
master data, personnel time management and payroll.

5 Industry Solutions

Special Features
WEB @ Scenarios SAP Online Store is a Business-to-Consumer and Business-to-Business Internet
application component for selling or procuring merchandise via the Internet. The
assignment of web-based applications is done using existing IDES structures and
objects. Especially for Retail in IDES, you can access the Electronic Store in the
Consumer-to-Business environment.
TheTheSAP Retail Store enhances SAP Retail by making existing and new store
retailing functions available to a wide range of store personnel in a simple manner.
This store component enables SAP to offer Retail functions using a web-based
interface. The IDES example has been created for a single site and can be viewed
directly from the IDES @ Web initial screen, as with the Electronic Store.
Installation You can use full SAP Retail functionality by configuring your IDES installation as
an SAP Retail system.
SAP Retail White Paper For more detailed information, see the Retail White Paper: SAP Retail IDES the
Model Company in R/3.
Material number: 50 024 214 (DE), 50 024 555 (EN)

Industry Solutions 5

SAP Service Providers

IDES gives you access to the functionality of the SAP Service Provider industry
solution. This industry solution comprises and describes processes typically carried
out in service companies. In this context, service companies include professional
service providers (for example, consultancy and external auditing companies),
technical service providers (for example, inspection services, consulting engineers),
personnel management companies (for example, temporary employment agencies,
personnel agencies), outsourcers (for example, for IT services, accounting), and
research and development companies (for example, software development,
contract research).

Organizational Structures
The company code is the smallest organizational unit for which a complete, self- Financial Accounting
contained set of accounts can be drawn up for purposes of external reporting. A
separate company code exists in IDES for the area of service providers.

Organizational unit Key Description

Company code S300 IDES Services

Company code S300 belongs to controlling area S300 (IDES services). From the Controlling
profitability analysis viewpoint, this controlling area belongs to operating concern

Organizational unit Key Description

Company code S300 IDES Services
Operating concern S300 Operating IDES Service Provider

Sales organization S300 is responsible for selling services. In this sales organization, Sales
sales activities in the service area are handled by a separate distribution channel
and division. The combination of sales organization, distribution channel, and
division listed in the following table constitutes the sales area with which sales
orders in the Service Provider area are entered.

Organizational unit Key Description

Sales organization S300 Services USA
Distribution channel S300 Services
Division S3 Services

5 Industry Solutions

Integration with Logistics Organizational unit Key Description

Sales organization S300 Services USA
Distribution channel S300 Services
Division S3 Services

IDES Processes
Processing services using This IDES process describes a typical process chain for a customer requesting ser-
sales orders vices that are entered in a sales order. In this case, the sales order items record
costs and revenues, and constitute the controlling object. The actual costs are in-
curred when working hours are confirmed via the time sheet, and, if necessary,
when travel costs or other costs are entered in the sales order. The actual revenues
are determined via resource-related billing of the sales order. At period end, once
results analysis has been carried out for the sales order, the costs and revenues
affecting net income are settled to costing-based Profitability Analysis, where they
can be evaluated.
Processing services using This IDES process describes a typical process chain for a customer requesting ser-
service orders vices that are entered in a customer outline agreement and released via service
orders. In this case, the customer outline agreement items record costs and reve-
nues, and constitute the controlling object. The actual costs are incurred when
working hours are confirmed via the time sheet, and, if necessary, when travel
costs or other costs are entered in the sales order. The actual revenues are deter-
mined via resource-related billing of the customer outline agreement. At period
end, once results analysis has been carried out for the customer outline agree-
ment, the costs and revenues affecting net income are settled to costing-based
Profitability Analysis, where they can be evaluated.
Processing services using the This IDES process describes a typical process chain for a customer requesting ser-
Project System vices that are entered in a sales order. WBS elements, which are also used as con-
trolling objects, are assigned to the sales order items. The actual costs are incurred
when working hours are confirmed via the time sheet, and, if necessary, when
travel costs or other costs are entered in the WBS elements The actual revenues are
determined via resource-related billing of the sales order, and posted to a WBS
element. At period end, once results analysis has been carried out for the project to
which the WBS elements belong, the costs and revenues affecting net income are
settled to costing-based Profitability Analysis, where they can be evaluated.