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The complete report of Animal Ecology experiment unit 6 with experiment


title ³Measurement of Abundance and Distribution of Worm Population´ created by:
Name : Nuni Rismayanti Nurkalbi
Reg. no : 071 404 193
Class : Bilingual Biology
Group : III (Third)
Have been investigation by assistant and assistant coordinator and this report
is accepted.

Makassar, May 2010

Assistant Coordinator Assistant

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Known by,
Lecturer of responsible

 
NIP: 1955 06 06 1983 031 003
 
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?  ! 
Ecology is a new name for a very old subject. It simply means scientific
natural history. To a great many zoologists the word "natural history" brings up a
rather clear vision of parties of naturalists going forth on excursion, prepared to
swoop down on any rarity, which will serve to swell the local list of species. It is
a fact that natural history has fallen into disrepute among zoologists, at any rate in
England, and since it is a very serious matter that scientists should neglect a third
of the whole subject of zoology, we may ask for reasons. The discoveries of
Charles Darwin in the middle of the nineteenth century gave a tremendous
impetus to the Study of species and the classification of animals. Although
Linnaeus had laid the foundation of this work many years before, it was find that
previous descriptions of species were far too rough and ready, and that a revision
and reorganization of the whole subject was necessary. It was further realize that
many of the brilliant observations of the older naturalists were render practically
useless through the insufficient identification of the animals upon which they had
worked.
It is undeniable that today's circumstances, was no longer in its natural
condition. It can be seen from the emergence of various polluting agents. In fact,
any human being has a share in this. As a result, some specific populations in an
environment become increasingly reduced. Not even rare to extinct. This also
affected the lack of germ plasm in our country.
One example that we can see is invertebrates, especially earthworms.
Sometimes in a given place or area, so a lot of earthworm populations (population
boom), or vice versa where earthworm populations become very small. This
phenomenon is actually very interesting to learn. Besides, because earthworms
are not too difficult to be found so that we do allow this practice, as an
appreciation of the science of animal ecology in general. Or in other words, lab
work on measuring the abundance and distribution of earthworm populations are
expected to represent the application of the science of population estimates in the
field of animal ecology.
Basically, the diversity of living things is an expression that reflects the
variation of different species, appearance, characteristics, or the number of
individuals contained in a living communion on the level of individual organisms
or species and genetic traits. Various exposures above has led us to conduct such
experiments, as well as various literature studies we have done, either in college
or in the form has been the literature. And also to know well the phenomena that
occur in populations of insects in one place.
? " #
The purpose of this experiment is to study the abundance and distribution
of earthworm populations in different habitats.
? # # 
Through this practice is expect to apprentice can learn and know about the
abundance and distribution of earthworm populations in different habitats.
 
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Ecology (from Greek: Ƞ țȠȢ, "house" or "living relations"; -ȜȠȖȓĮ, "study


of") is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the distributions, abundance and
relations of organisms and their interactions with the environment. Ecology is also
the study of ecosystems. Ecosystems describe the web or network of relations among
organisms at different scales of organization. Since ecology refers to any form of
biodiversity, ecologists research everything from tiny bacteria's role in nutrient
recycling to the effects of tropical rain forest on the Earth's atmosphere. The
discipline of ecology emerged from the natural sciences in the late 19th century.
Ecology is not synonymous with environment, environmentalism, or environmental
science. Ecology is closely related to the disciplines of physiology, evolution,
genetics and behavior (Anonyma, 2010).
According begon et al (1990) in order to understand agihan and abundance of
a species is important to know many things, such as the history of the species,
resource needs, birth and death rates and migration of individuals within the species,
intra-specific interaction and inter-specific, and the influence of environmental
conditions. A condition given a definition as an ang abiotic environmental factor
varies in space and time. Beings respond differently to these conditions. Examples
include temperature, relative humidity, pH, salinity, water current velocity of the
river, and the levels of pollutants. A condition can be modified by the presence of
other creatures, such as soil pH can be changed by the presence of vegetation, air
temperature and moisture may change under a canopy of trees in the forest. Unlike
the resource, then follow the conditions can be used or consumed by the creatures or
created such that no more or less can be used by other creatures. Kendeigh (1980)
states that all living beings react to the habitat of animals with their own ways, and
when the creature in the count a lot then the reaction will produce real effects.
Changes in physical and chemical changes in the aquatic environment as a result
because of creatures that live in the environment are given the term akutik water
conditioning. Compared with water that does not have conditioning, so that changes
can be tangible beneficial effects may be intangible or a bad influence for beings that
are left alive in the aquatic environment after original creature is removed from the
environment. Air conditioned homotipik called whenever a change is produced earlier
by the same individual species by species under review and the water was as
conditioned heterotipik if the changes produced by different species (Soetjipta, 1994:
104).
Medium has several functions for animals, namely as a place to live, for
example: fish live in water, sources of materials required for the metabolism of the
body, eg land animals obtain oxygen from the air, throwing the rest of metabolism,
for example remove carbon dioxide, and feces, where reproduce, such as frogs go to
water to mate and lay eggs, spread the seed, for example: the freshwater crab larvae
(megalopa) spread in the river waters after migrating epidermis and the sea to the
river upstream. Mediums have several differences, namely the composition, the heat
propagation speed, the nature of the changes as a result of changes in temperature,
surface tension viscosity, density and pressure. Differences in the nature of its effect
on the properties of ecological habitats. Substrate is the surface where organisms live
or move, or solid objects where the organisms carry out all or part of his life. Every
organism requires a medium, but not all have the substrate. Water animals that are
pelagic (swimming or floating) did not have the substrate. Another difference is the
medium did not change as a result and the activity of the organism, but the substrates
are modified by the activity of the organism, eg the soil is fertile meadows became
customary if used for herding cattle continuously. Important function of the substrate
is a beachhead, the place to build houses, and places to eat. Some kinds of animals
using the substrate as a shelter, because the same color as the color of the body, such
as chameleons and locust wood (Susanto, 2000: 15).
Light is also important for the development and behavior of many plants and
animals ang sensitive to photoperiod, ie the relative lengths of day and night.
Photoperiod is a more reliable indicator ang compared with the temperature, in giving
clues to seasonal events, such as the inflorescence or transfer (migration). Winds
strengthen the influence of environmental temperature on organisms by increasing
heat loss through evaporation (evaporation) and convection (wind-chill factor or
cooling by the wind). The wind also causes the loss of water in organisms by
increasing the evaporation rate in animals and the rate of transpiration in plants. In
addition, wind can cause a fundamental influence on plant growth form, ie by
inhibiting the growth of tree limbs that are on the side of the wind direction, the tree
limbs that are in the opposite direction with the wind direction will grow normally,
which produce an appearance of "wave the flag." Physical structure, pH, and mineral
composition of rocks and soil will limit the spread of plants and animals that eat
them, thereby becoming one of the causes of patterns clustered in certain areas at
random (patchiness) in terrestrial ecosystems that we often see. In the river flow,
substrate composition can affect the chemical factors in water, which in turn will
affect plant and animal inhabitants of aquatic ecosystems. Substrate structure on the
marine environment in the tidal zone (intertidal zone) and determine the type of
seabed organisms that can be attached or meliang in such habitats (Campbell, 2004:
334).
Measurement of population abundance of a species can be done in a way that
diversity. The method is felt to a hewn ocok: for example, it may not ocok for specie:
another animal. Important determinant of choosing a way that is deemed suitable is
the goal and purposes of measurement, body size and mobility of the general
behavior of animals was investigated, as well as time and labor availability and skills
of measurement execution. One method, usual method for estimating the abundance
of various kinds of invertebrate animals is the method, sampling) squared. Procedures
performed by all individuals from sejumIah menca large numbers obtained
mengekstrapolarisasikan squares for the entire area to be investigated. Confidence
level of this method depends on the method depends on three things: (I) squared must
be known with precision. (II) Square sampled Squares represent the whole area
occupied by the population, (III) of the square of the number of individuals with
appropriate tercacah. Earthworm populations in a habitat are largely determined by
the condition of these habitats. The physical properties of soil determine the type of
chemical that can live in this place (Lahay, 2010: 32-33).
Location conditions for earthworms are: Soil as a medium of live worms must
contain a large amount of organic material. Soil organic materials can be derived
from litter (fallen leaves), animal manure or dead plants and animals. Earthworms
like material that is easy to rot because they are more easily digested by the body. For
good growth, earthworms need the soil to neutral or slightly acidic pH of about 6 to
7.2. With this condition, the bacteria in the earthworm body can work optimally for
the conduct of decomposition or fermentation. Optimum moisture for the growth and
proliferation of earthworms is 15-30%. Temperature required for growth of
earthworms and cocoon hatching was about 15-25 ºC or lukewarm. Higher
temperatures from 25 ºC, both the origin there is adequate shade and moisture
optimum. Location rearing earthworms cultivated for easy handling and oversight and
not exposed to direct sunlight, for example, under the shade tree, the house edge or
special subjects (permanent), whose roof is made from materials which do not carry
the light and does not store heat (Anonymb, 2010).
Environment for animals is all biotic and abiotic factors that da around
animals and can influence it. Each animal can only pass live, grow and reproduce in
an environment that provides suitable conditions for him and the resources needed,
and avoid Bari abiotic factors and biotic environment that endanger the survival of
her life. Abiotic environmental factors include animal or subtratum medium (soil,
water), live, and the factors of weather and climate (temperature, moisture, air, light
intensity). Biotic environment includes other animals among animal species, different
species, plants and microbes. The relationship between the animal and its
environment are reciprocal. As already stated above, the success of animal life is
largely determined by the conditions and resources contained in these settings can
also be changed by the presence and impact of the activities of living animals. For
example, the presence of deer in a meadow or forest somber days pointed to the
availability of adequate food and environmental conditions suitable for deer life. And
vice versa, the presence of deer in habitats such as grassland herbivore doing
(grazing), as the organisms are exchanging penafasan gases (O2 and CO2), as animals
that remove organic manure into the soil, will determine the style and condition of the
prairie environment or forest (Dharmawan, 2004: 15).
 
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?  (# )#
Day / date : Wednesday/ May 5th 2010
Time : at 03.00 until 06.00 pm
Place : at Green House and east side at the second floor of FMIPA
Biology Department, Makassar
? ) # )
1.? Tool
a.? 2 squares (plot) size 30 x 30 cm
b.? Soil tester
c.? Terrmometer
d.? Ohauss balance
e.? hoe
2.? Materials
a.? Worm
b.? Serasah
c.? Soil
d.? Plastic bags and big sized
? % "## 
Prepared tools and materials. Put square size of 30 x 30 cm at different
places. Took a leaf litter on the site. Excavated the soil to a depth of ± 30 cm and
took the land on the plot and put into a plastic bag. Retrieved and counted the
earthworms in each plot by hand sorting method. Measured the physical-
chemical conditions are: pH, soil, relative humidity by using soil tester.
Measured soil temperature used thermometers. Considered litter and soil from
each sample in the laboratory, and identified any earthworms found.
 
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1.? In Close area
a.? Measuring physical chemical of soil
Wight of soil
Measuring physical chemical of soil
(gr)
Number
No. Content of
of worm Humidity Temperature
pH litter Wet Dry
(%) (°C)
(gr)
1st - 6 40 26 58,5 255 165
2nd - 5,6 50 26 43,0 188 95
3rd - 5,8 40 26 55,0 210 89
4th 1 5,8 40 26 86,0 250 175
5th - 5,6 50 26 75,0 266 105
6th 4 5,8 30 26 60,0 210 89
7th - 5,6 50 26 80,0 214 71
8th 4 5,8 40 26 58,0 242 143
9th 1 5,8 50 26 69,0 290 180
10th 1 5,9 30 26 74,0 216 80
Sum 11 57,7 520 260 658,5 2341 1192

ß 
Average of pH =   

ß
Average of humidity =   
?

 
Average of temperature =


ß ß
Average of content of litter =  


Average of wet soil =

 

Average of dry soil =   ?

b.? Number of worm
Number of worm

No. Species Species Species Species Species Species Species


A B C D E F G
(3 cm) (6 cm) (8 cm) (9 cm) (10 cm) (12 cm) (14 cm)

1st - - - - - - -

2nd - - - - - - -

3rd - - - - - - -

4th - - - 1 - - -

5th - - - - - - -

6th - 1 1 1 - - 1

7th - - - - - - -

8th 1 - - 1 1 1 -

9th - - - 1 - - -

10th - - - - 1 - -

Sum 1 1 1 4 2 1 1
2.? In open area
a.? Measuring physical chemical of soil
Measuring physical chemical of soil Wight of soil (gr)

Number Content of
No. Humidity Temperature
of worm pH serasah Wet Dry
(%) (°C)
(gr)

1st 1 5,3 50 25 40,5 230,5 136,8


2nd 2 5,4 45 25 42 231 133,1
3rd 2 5,2 50 25 43,8 234,5 136,7
4th 1 5,8 48 25 45,2 220,5 134,6
5th 1 6 48 25 46,1 230,7 134,5
6th 3 6 48 25 35,8 220,8 135,3
7th 1 6,1 49 25 37 223,2 133,8
8th 2 6,1 50 25 30,5 220,5 133,4
9th 1 5,8 50 25 33,2 215,8 135,5
10th 2 5,3 50 25 30 232 134,3
Sum 16 57 488 250 384,1 2259,5 1348

ß
Average of pH =  


Average of humidity =

 
ß
Average of temperature =  

 
Average of content of litter =  

ßß
Average of wet soil =  


Average of dry soil =  ?

b.? Number of worm

Number of worm
No.
Species A Species B Species C Species D Species E
(3 cm) (6 cm) (8 cm) (9 cm) (10 cm)
- - 1 - -
1st
1 - 1 - -
2nd
1 1 - - -
3rd
- - 1 - -
4th
1 - - - -
5th
1 1 - - 1
6th
- - 1 - -
7th
2 - - - -
8th
- - - 1 -
9th
- - 1 1 -
10th
6 2 5 2 1
Sum

 
?    
This experiments in which the experiment is to investigate the abundance
and distribution of earthworm populations in different habitats so he found an
worm populations ranging from samples 1-10 for a place of open area and 4, 6,
and 8-10 for the close area.
1.? Open area
At the open area, samples 1-10 find an worm, the temperature is
25ÛC, pH from 5,3; 5,4; 5,2; 5,8; 6,0; 6,0; 6,1; 6,1; 5,8; and 5,3 , content of
litter each 40,5 gr, 42,0 gr, 43,8 gr, 45,2 gr, 46,1 gr, 35,8 gr, 37,0 gr, 30,5 gr,
33,2 gr, and 30,0 gr. For the wet soil and dry soil is vary with average for wet
soil is 225, 95 gr and average dry soil is 134, 8. These from the data it is
known that the abundance and distribution of earthworm populations enough.
This is actually contrary to the theory, in the light should because have the
abundance and distribution of earthworm populations reduced. This is caused
by characteristic life of their own from the experiments in which the
experiment is to investigate the abundance and distribution of earthworm
populations in different habitats so he found an earthworm populations
ranging from samples 1-10 for a place of open area. Worms maintain body
moisture to facilitate the circulation of O2. Number of earthworm populations
found in bright locations because of the light is found in lots of litter, so that
even if the place of light, but land is under the litter remains moist because it
is protected by litter.
2.? Close area
In the close area, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 not found in worms, the temperature
is 26Û C, pH 6; 5,6; 5,8; 5,6; and 5,6. 40-50 in humidity, each litter containing
58, 5 gr 43,0 gr 55,0 gr 75,0 gr and 80,0. In samples 4, 6, and 8-10 with the
number of earthworms found in each sample were a tail, the temperature is
25Û C, pH 5, 8 and 5, 9, 30-50 humidity, litter samples were each content of
86,0 gr, 60,0 gr 58,0 gr 69,0 gr, and 74,0 gr. These from the data it is known
that the abundance and distribution of earthworm populations is lacking. This
is actually contrary to the theory, because in the close should be found for the
earthworm. Earthworms are in the shade to retain moisture body surface. At
least the population of earthworms found in the shade due to the plot of the
selected environmental conditions less favorable for earthworms. This
condition is seen from the ground very hard and dry place, although not
directly affected by Sunlight.
The presence of worms is highly dependent on local circumstances or
to Depend on abiotic and biotic environmental factors. Abiotic environmental
factors as the basics can be divided by a factor of physical and chemical
factors. Poor physical factors of temperature, water content, porosity, and soil
texture. Chemical factors poor salinity, pH, and organic content, soil, and soil
mineral elements. Abiotic environmental factors determine the will of
community structure of these animals contained in a habitat. Biotic
environment factors for soil animals are another organism that is also found in
habitats poor microflora, plants, and other animal groups. That community in
the types of organisms interacting with one another. The interaction could
some of predation, parasitism, competition, and disease. According to
Anonym (2010), the requirements for the location of earthworm, namely:
a.? Soil as a medium of live worms must contain a large amount of organic
material.
b.? Several cans of organic soil materials derived from litter (fallen leaves),
animal manure or dead plants and animals. Earthworms like material that is
easy to rot because they want are more easily digested by the body.
c.? For good growth, earthworms need the soil to neutral or slightly acidic pH
of about 6 to 7.2. with this condition, the bacteria in the earthworm body
cans work optimally for the conduct of decomposition or Fermentation.
d.? Optimum moisture for the growth and proliferation of earthworms is 15-
30%.
e.? Temperature required for growth of earthworms and cocoons hatching was
around 15-25 °C or lukewarm. Higher temperatures from 25 °C, both the
origin there is adequate shade and moisture optimum.
f.? Location worm¶s maintenance of land cultivated for easy handling and
oversight and not exposed to direct Sunlight, for example, under the shade
tree, the house edge or special subjects (permanent), whose roof is made
from which materials do not carry the light and does not store heat.
 
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?  )  
The conclusion of this observation that is earthworm population
abundance in regions with environmental conditions with temperatures around
25ÛC, humidity 48,8 %, pH 5,7, and with a high content of litter and the
environmental conditions are shaded and not exposed to sunlight.
? !!#   
1.? Ought to the practicing more accurate in done experiment so the result which
we get match with the purpose.
2.? Ought to the laborer prepare equipment and materials so activity can work
well. 
3.? Ought to assistant could give more explanation to their practicing about this
experiment.
 
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Anonyma. 2010.„ . http://www.wikipedia.com. Makassar: accessed at May 8nd


2010.

Anonymb. 2010.?  ? 


? http//:warintek.ristekgo.id/peternakan/budidaya/
cacingtanah. Makassar: accessed at May 8nd 2010.

Campbell, Reece, Mitchell. 2004. ? ??„?. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Dharmawan, Agus. 2004. „? . Malang: Jurusan Biologi FMIPA


Universitas Negeri Malang.

S, Lahay, Jutje. 2010. ? ? ? „?  Makassar: Jurusan


Biologi FMIPA UNM.

Soetjipta. 1994. ?„?. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University


Press.

Susanto, Pudyo. 2000. ? „? . Malang: Proyek Pengembangan


Guru Sekolah Menengah.