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NAME: BEDFORD-EGUNJOBI OLATUNDE T.

MATRIC NO: 111101082

COURSE TITLE: INDUSTRIAL PHARMACY 1

COURSE CODE: PCT 501

ASSIGNMENT TOPIC: POTENTIAL LOCALLY SOURCED

PHARMACEUTICAL RAW MATERIAL

AND

PHARMACEUTICAL RAW MATERIAL FROM PLANT MATERIAL

LECTURER: DR. C.P. AZUBUIKE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Potential locally sourced pharmaceutical raw material

Raw materials of plant origin 3


Raw materials of animal origin 4
Raw materials from clay 5
Raw materials from petrochemicals 6

Pharmaceutical raw material of plant origin

Acacia Gum 7
Sources 8
Pharmaceutical uses 9
Processing methods to obtain pharmaceutical grade 10
Methods of evaluation 13
Commercial brands and manufacturers country 14
References 15

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3
POTENTIAL LOCALLY SOURCED PHARMACEUTICAL RAW
MATERIAL

RAW MATERIALS OF PLANT ORIGIN


RAW SOURCE PHARMACEUTICAL USES COMMERCIAL
MATERIAL BRAND
1. Sucrose Sugar Cane It is used as a sweetener RPI Sucrose
(Saccharum spp) It is used as a diluent
Sugar Beet (Beta It is used as a binder
vulgaris Linn.) It is used as tablet coating
2. Digoxin leaves of Foxglove It is an active pharmaceutical Lanoxin tablets
plant (Digitalis ingredient used in the treatment
Purpurea Linn.) of mild to moderate Congestive
Heart Failure and Atrial
Fibrillation
3. Coconut Oil kernel of the Coconut It is a raw material in the Nutiva Organic
fruit (Cocos nucifera) manufacture of surfactants. Extra Virgin
It is an important base ingredient Coconut Oil
in the manufacture of soap.
4. Tragacanth branches and tap roots It is used as a demulcent in cough Sugarflairtm
Gum of the Tragacanth and cold preparations Superior Grade
plant (Astralagus It is used as a binding agent Gum Tragacanth
gummifer Labill.)
5. Acacia Gum Stem bark of the It is used as a demulcent Heathers Acacia
acacia tree (Acacia It is used topically for healing of Powder
senegal (Linn) Willd.) wounds. It is used as a tablet
binder.
6. Potato Starch Tubers of the potato It is used as a disintegrant Bobs Red Hill All
plant (Solanum It is used as a binding agent Natural Potato
tuberosum Linn.) It is used as a bulking agent. Starch

7. Dextrin Maize And Potato It is used as a thickening and Cluster Dextrin


Starch binding agent.
It is used as an adhesive for
surgical dressings.
It is used as a diluents
8. Arachis Oil Seed Of Groundnut it is used in Ointments and Oils Louana Peanut
Plant (Arachis to treat Constipation. Oil.
hypogaea Linn.) It isapplied directly to the skin for
Arthritis and Joint Pain, and skin
disorders that cause scaling.
9. Ergotamine Leaves of Claviceps It is used in the treatment of Cafergot tablets,
purpurea migraine. Lingraine
It is used to contract the muscle

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of the uterus.
10. Corn Starch Kennel of the maize It is used as a diluents Novaton
cob (Zea Mays Linn.) It is used as a disintegrant Functional Native
It is used as a glidant and a binder Corn Starch

RAW MATERIALS FROM CLAY

S/N RAW SOURCE PHARMACEUTICAL COMMERCIAL


MATERIAL USES BRAND
1. Kaolin China Clay It is used in adhesives to modify kaylene , Moko
rheology. mist. Kal.
It is used to induce blood
clotting in diagnostic
procedures.
It is used to treat diarrhoea.
2. Bentonite Aluminium It is used as a desiccant due to Woodland Herbs
phyllosilicate its adsorption properties. Bentonite Clay,
It is used as a binder. Natural Nigerian
It is used for clarifying various Bentonite Clay
mineral, vegetable and animal
oils.
It is a bulk laxative

3. Calamine Sedimentary Clay It is used as a mild antiseptic. It Calamine lotion


rocks is also used as an antipriritic B.P.
moko calamine
lotion
4. Talc Magnesium It is used primarily as a base for PondsTalcum
sedentary deposits. powders. powder.
It is used as a dissolution
retardant in the development of
controlled-release products.
5. Montmorillonite Bentonite rock It is effective as an adsorptive of Terrasilk
heavy metals Montmorillonite
It is used externally to treat mask.
contact dermatitis.
6. Saponite Colloidal hydrated It is used as a suspending, Veegum
aluminium thickening and stabilizing agent.
magnesium silicate
from clay
7. Sepiolite Complex It can be used to line the walls of Tolsa ,Sepiolita
Magnesium Silicate water reservoirs.
8. Attapulgite Palygorsite-sepiolite It is used as an adsorbent. It is Atasorb-N,
group of mineral used in the treatment of diarrhea. Pharmasorb

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clay
9. Chalk Sedimentary It is used as an antacid. It serves C.H. Hanson
carbonate rock as a mild abrasive in toothpastes. chalk , Bulk
Powders liguid
chalk
10. Fullers earth Hydrous It is used as a filler in adhesives ClaysFullers
Aluminium Silicate and pharmaceuticals. earth.

RAW MATERIALS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN

S/N RAW SOURCE PHARMACEUTICAL COMMERCIAL


MATERIAL USES BRAND
1. Honey Honey Bee (Apis It is used as a topical treatment Great Value
melifica Linn.) for sores and wounds. Clover Honey,
It is used as a sweetening agent. Star Honey
It is used as a humectants
2. Insulin Beta cells of human It is used in the management of Actrapid HM
or bovine pancreas Diabetes mellitus. Mixtard 30
3. Glucagon Alpha cells of the It is used in the acute GlucaGen
pancreas management of severe GlucaGen
hypoglycaemia in diabetic Hypokit
patients treated with insulin
when dministration of glucose is
not feasible.
4. Lactose Animal Milk It is used as a diluent/filler. Pharma grade
It is used as a bulking agent. lactose powder,
It is added to cows milk for NOW lactose
infant feeding. powder
5. Gelatin Collagen of animal It is used as a gelling agent Spring valley
ligament and It constitutes the shells of Gelatin Capsules
tendons, bones and pharmaceutical capsules to make 21st Century
skin them easier to swallow. Gelatin capsules.
6. Pepsin Stomach of It is used to modify vegetable Solgar beta-pepsin
animals. proteins for use in nondiary tablets.
snack items. Intensive Nutrition
It is used in the preparation of Pepsin HCl tablets.
F(ab)2 fragments from
antibodies.
7 Woolfat (lanolin) Sheep(Ovis aries It is used as a raw material for Gold Cross
Linn.) producing cholecalciferol. Anhydrous Lanolin
It is used as a rubifacient. cream.
8. Beeswax Honey Bee (Apis It is used as a glazing agent. Murrays 100%
mellifica Linn.) It is used in the manufacture of Pure Beeswax.

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coatings for tablets and soft
gelatin capsules.
9. Trypsin Small intestine of It is used to digest proteins into Gibco Trypsin-
many vertebrates peptides for mass spectrometry EDTA,
analysis. HyClone Trypsin,
It can be used to dissolve blood ColdZyme
clots in its microbial form
10. Casein Animal Milk It is an emulsifying agent. Six Star Casein
It is a protein supplement. protein,

RAW MATERIALS DERIVED FROM PETROCHEMICALS

RAW SOURCE PHARMACEUTICAL USES COMMERCIAL


MATERIAL BRAND
1. Coal tar Coal It can be used in medicated Denorex
shampoos, soaps and ointments Tegrin
as a treatment for dandruff and T/Gel
psoriasis.
It can also be used to kill and
repel head lice.
2. Ethylene Petroleum It is oxidized to produce ethylene PrestoneExtended
oxide which is a key raw material life coolant
in the production of surfactants
and detergents by ethoxylation.
It is also used along with oxygen,
as an anaesthetic agent.
It is used to force ripening of
fruits.
3. Liquid Paraffin Coal, Crude Oil It is used as an occasional Cremafin
laxative. Care Liquid
It acts as an emollient in the Parrafin B.P
production of lotions, oils,
creams.
It is also used in making
suspensions.
4. Butane Natural Gas, It is used as a propellant for Calor GasButane
Petroleum aerosols.
5. Sulphur Petroleum It is used (as organosulphur DGF Sulphur
compounds) in the manufacture ointment, Moko
of antibiotics Sulphur ointment
It is a part of many bacterial B.P.
defence molecules.
6. Paraffin Wax Petroleum It is used as an additive in Fully Refined

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chewing gums. Paraffin Wax
It is used as a sealant for jars,
cans and bottles.
7. Propane Petroleum, Natural It is used as a propellant for Blue
Gas aerosols. RhinoPropane gas
8. Benzene Crude Oil Small amounts of benzene are MerckBenzene
used to make lubricants, dyes, Abron Chemicals
detergents, drugs, pesticides etc. Benzene
9. Petroleum Jelly Crude Oil It is used as a lubricating and Vaseline
coating agent.
It is used in the manufacture of
skin lotions and cosmetics.
10. Tar Coal, Petroleum It is a general disinfectant. Polytar liquid
It acts as an anti-dandruff agent shampoo, Cinolon
in shampoos. tar

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PHARMACEUTICAL RAW MATERIAL FROM PLANT MATERIAL

Pharmaceutical raw materials are substrates or elements that are used in manufacturing different

pharmaceutical products. They have different sources, either natural or synthetic. Naturally

derived raw materials can be derived from plants, animals, clay or petrochemicals. Theses raw

matrials can be used as excipients i.e. binders, disintegrants, sweeteners, emulsifiers, diluents etc.

They can also be used as drug intermediate. Intermediates are derivatives, substances or

chemical compounds that are further used in the production or manufacture of a pharmaceutical

drug.

ACACIA GUM

Acacia gum also called Gum Arabic is a gummy exudates produced by the stem of Acacia tree.

These are spiny shrubs or small trees, preferring sandy regions, with the climate dry during the

greater part of the year. After the rainy season the tree exudes spontaneously from the trunk but

the flow can also be stimulated by making incisions in the bark (2-3feet in length and 1-3inches

wide). In about 15 days the exudates thickens in the furrow down which it runs, hardening in

exposure to air, usually in the form of round or oval tears, about the size of a pigeons egg. The

colour of the tears is usually white or red or yellowish depending on the colour of the species.

The powder is almost odourless, with a bland and mucilaginous taste.

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SOURCES

Acacia also called gum Arabic is a dried gum obtained from the stem and branches of Acacia

senegal, other species of Acacia of African origin, and Acacia seyal Del. all belonging to the

family Fabaceae. The tree is about 6m high, and is commonly found in Sudan Savannah zones of

of Africa including the Northern regions of Nigeria.

PHARMACEUTICAL USES

Acacia gum has been used in pharmaceuticals as a demulcent or soothing agent. Its demulcent

properties are employed in various cough, diarrhea and throat preparations. It is used topically

for healing wounds and has been shown to inhibit the growth of periodontal bacteria and early

deposition of plaque. It is also used as a supplement in weight loss (evidence shows that taking

10
30grams of powdered acacia gum daily might help in weight loss and is a good source of dietary

fibre.

Acacia gum is used as an emulsifying agent in emulsions. It is also used as a suspending agent. It

is also a pharmaceutical necessity as a binder in lozenges and tablets. It is also used in

combination with tragacanth, chloroform and water for moistening pills before coating.

The British Pharmacopoeia directs acacia gum to be used in troches, various syrups and pastes.

PROCESSING METHODS TO OBTAIN PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE

A pharmaceutical grade form of acacia gum can be octenyl succinic acid (OSA) modified

acacia gum. OSA modified acacia gum is a cold-water soluble hydrocolloid.

The modification of gum arabic involves the introduction of octenylsuccinate

groups to the polysaccharide in gum arabic by controlled esterification

processes.

Structural formula of octenyl succinic acid (OSA)

COOH
|
HOOC-CH2-CH-(CH2)7-CH3

The tears of the gum are collected in leather bags. These Exudates are cracked or pulverized.

Sifting, aspiration and density-table separation are used during this process to remove sand and

vegetable debris to produce the cleanest possible gum. The modified product is made by

an

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esterification reaction involving the addition of octenyl succinic acid

anhydride in

a process analogous to the production of starch sodium octenylsuccinate

(modified food starch,

octenylsuccinate starch). OSA modified acacia gum is produced in aqueous

solution, under the controlled conditions (1-1.5 h, pH 4-6, 38-60C) and

includes processing aids in some of the steps. It is subsequently spray dried

to a powder. In producing spray-dried gum, the gum solution is clarified by centrifugation,

filtered, pasteurized in the case of enzyme-inactivated gum, and then spray-dried, the dried

powder is screened to assure uniformity of particle size.

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METHOD OF EVALUATION

Thermogravimetric analysis: this is performed in a dry inert gas environment at a flow rate of

25ml/min to 100ml/min. the analysis will be run from ambient to 400 0C at a rate of 100C/min

0.1C/min. the reaction temperature and weight loss of acacia sample will then be collected and

plotted against temperature. A transition will be marked with a peak when acacia gum absorbs or

releases energy.

Ultraviolet spectroscopy: gum Arabic sample will give a peak at 210-220nm range. This is

normal for carbonyl-containing organics.

Colour: acacia is usually white or yellowish in colour. The whiter the powder, the purer it is.

Solubility: unlike other gums acacia gum is completely soluble in an equal weight of water. The

solution is slightly acidic. It yields a free-flowing fluid uniform in appearance, no ropiness.

Optical roatation: a solution of acacia gum in water is laevorotatory.

Thin-layer chromatography(TLC): thin layer chromatography can be used to separate the

constituents of the gum into separate entities and the Rf values can then be compared with the

standard values for these constituents.

Chemical tests: shake a 5% solution in water in 0.5ml of dilute hydrogen peroxide solution and

0.5ml of guaiacum tincture and allow to stand for a few minutes, a deep blue or bluish-green

colour develops.

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Specifications for Acacia gum

Bulk density; 0.61g/ml

Tapped density: 0.86g/ml

Angle of repose: 15.869%

Compressibility index: 28.42%

Hausner ratio: 0.79

Carrs index: 20.008%

Moisture content: 15.0% max

Total ash: 4.0% max

Acid-insoluble ash: 0.5% max

COMMERCIAL BRANDS AND MANUFACTURERS COUNTRY

Fooding Gum Arabic, China

ABS Gum Arabic, Singapore

Veken Gum Arabic, China

SbnaaSayedeloued Gum Arabic Grade 3, Sudan

Swanson Acacia Gum, United States of America

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REFERENCES

1. Uzma Farouq, Rishabha Malviya, Vipin Bansal and Pramod Sharma. Department of

Pharmacy, School of Allied Sciences Galgotias University, Torrent Research Centre,

India. Characterization of some Polymers as Pharmaceutical Excipient. Page 2&3.


2. Ivan Stankovic, Ph.D. Chemical and Technical Assessment (CTA). Octenyl Succinic Acid (Osa)

Modified Gum Arabic. Pages 1,3,6.


3. British Pharmaceutical Codex , London, the Pharmaceutical Press, Eleventh Edition, 1979.

Acacia. Pages1-2
4. Acacia senegal (gum arabic tree). Invasive species compendium. Centre for Agriculture

and Biosciences International. Retrieved 24 January 2016.


5. Smolinske, Susan C. (1992). Handbook of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Excipients. p. 7.

ISBN 0-8493-3585-X.s

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