Anda di halaman 1dari 90

ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH WORKBOOK

FOR SMP/MTS
BY USING REVISED BLOOM TAXONOMY

By
Nana Pratiwi
NIM.109014000171

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION


FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
JAKARTA
2015
SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI

Yang bertanda tangan dibawah ini:

Nama : Nana Pratiwi


NIM : 109014000171
Jurusan : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris
Alamat : Gelanggang Tinggi, Kinari, Kec. Bukit Sundi, Kab. Solok,
Sumatera Barat

MENYATAKAN DENGAN SESUNGGUHNYA

Bahwa skripsi yang berjudul Analysis of English Workbook for SMP/MTs by


Using Revised Bloom Taxonomy adalah benar hasil karya sendiri di bawah
bimbingan dosen:

Nama Pembimbing I : Drs. Nasifuddin Djalil, M.Ag


NIP : 19560560 199003 1 002
Nama Pembimbing II : Ummi Kultsum, M.Pd.
NIP : 19790811 200912 2 001

Demikianlah surat pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sesungguhnya dan saya siap
menerima segala konsekuensi apabila terbukti bahwa skripsi ini bukan hasil karya
sendiri.

Jakarta, 2 Maret 2014


Yang menyatakan,

Nana Pratiwi

ii
ABSTRAK

Nana Pratiwi (10901400171). Analysis of English Workbook for SMP/MTs by


Using Revised Bloom Taxonomy. Skripsi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas
Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah
Jakarta, 2014.

Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif kualitatif yang bertujuan untuk


mengetahui kesesuaian konten buku latihan dengan dimensi kognitif Revisi
Taxonomi Bloom dan dimensi kognitif yang dominan dalam Revisi Taxonomi
Bloom.
Penelitian ini difokuskan kepada analisa buku latihan Bahasa Inggris Can Do
2: buku praktik, yang diterbitkan oleh Richmond Publishing. Data dianalisa
menggunakan tabel analisa data untuk mengelompokkan aktivitas yang termasuk
kedalam pertanyaan atau instruksi, berdasarkan dimensi kognitif, mengingat,
memahami, menerapkan, menganalisis, mengevaluasi/menilai, mencipta.
Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan jumlah aktivitas mengingat merupakan
persentase tertinggi di buku latihan ini dengan jumlah 33,2 % atau dengan
frekuensi 131 dari 395 aktifitas. Aktivitas terbanyak kedua level kognitif adalah
memahami dengan persentase 33,2 % atau 131 aktivitas. Frekuensi ketiga
terbanyak adalah menerapkan dengan persentase 28,9 % atau 114 aktivitas. Dan
aspek terendah adalah mengevaluasi dan mencipta dengan presentase masing-
masing 0,2 %. Berdasarkan analisa data, buku latihan Can Do 2 ini dominan pada
proses berfikir tingkat rendah, yakni mengingat, memahami, menerapkan dengan
total persentase 95,3 %. Ini menunjukkan bahwa buku latihan Can Do 2 tidak
sesuai dengan teori dimensi kognitif Revisi Taxonomi Bloom. Penulis buku Can
Do 2 tidak seimbang dalam menyajikan semua dimensi di dalam buku tersebut.
Hanya 4,7 % yang termasuk dalam proses berfikir tingkat tinggi. Penelitian ini
berimplikasi pada sekolah dan guru untuk dapat memilih buku latihan yang tepat
bagi siswa.

iii
ABSTRACT

Nana Pratiwi (109014000171). Analysis of English Workbook for SMP/MTsN by


Using Revised Bloom Taxonomy. Skripsi of English Education at Faculty of
Tarbiyah and Teachers Training of State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah
Jakarta, 2014.

This study is a descriptive qualitative that purposed for knowing the


appropriateness of the workbooks content with the cognitive dimension of
Revised Bloom Taxonomy (RBT) and for knowing the dominant cognitive
dimension of the Revised Bloom Taxonomy (RBT) in the textbook.
This research is focused on analyzing the English Workbook, Can Do: 2
practice book, which is published by Richmond Publishing. The data is analyzed
through data analysis table to categorizing the activity with defined as any one of
the following: a question or instructional activity, based on cognitive dimension
i.e., remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, creating.
This finding implies that the number of activities of remembering is the
highest percentage in this workbook, 33.2 %. The frequency of remembering is
131 of 395 activities. The activities that work on the cognitive level of
understanding rank second with percentage 33.2 % and the frequency is 131 0f
395 activities. The third most frequency is applying with 114 activities or 28.9 %.
And the lowest number cognitive aspect in this textbook are evaluating and
creating with percentages 0.2 %. Based on the data analysis, textbook Can Do 2
placed emphasis on the lower thinking processes; remembering, understanding,
and applying, with percentage 95.3 %. It shows that the workbook of Can Do 2
does not appropriate with the cognitive dimension theory of Bloom Taxonomy. It
didnt cover the entire cognitive dimension because here are many uneven
cognitive dimensions activities. There are only 4.7 % activities dealing with the
high order thinking. This study implies to school and teachers to be selective in
choosing the appropriate workbooks for the student.

iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

All the glory, honor, and praise be to Allah, for His entire, everlasting, and
enormous love and blessings to researcher to finish her skripsi. Peace and blessing
from Him be upon to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his families, his companions
and his followers. In this opportunity, the researcher would like to give my sincere
gratitude to all the people who helped and guided during the study and the completion
of the skripsi. It would like to dedicate this to:
1. Beloved parents, Yusnidar and Nasrul, who always give prayer, devote endless
love and give motivation for the researchers best all the time. my siblings: Dewi
Fitria, Elda Wati, Yohannes Putra, Karmila Putri, Hari Kurniawan, Lisa
Fitriyana, nephews, nieces, and all big families.
2. Drs. Nasifuddin Djalil, M.Ag and Ummi Kultsum, M. Pd, the advisors who have
given guidance, advice, motivation and patience to the researcher in
accomplishing of this skripsi.
3. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd., the Head of Department of English Education and the
academic advisor.
4. All lectures at English Department for teaching the precious knowledge, sharing
the philosophy of live and giving magnificent study experiences.
5. Tarbiyah (a Gods gift) and All of Murobbi (teachers), Liqos sisters, especially
for Izzatunnisa.
6. Sisters and brothers in ASSALAM SUMBAR, LDK, Mahad Dzinnurain, and
the big family of Justice and Prosperity Party.
7. Febriany Nanci, Nabella Habsari,Siti Zahrotul Fajriyah, Habibah, S.Psi who give
the researcher much more helps and motivation.
8. All of friends in Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training and in the English
Education Department, and PPKTs friends.

v
9. Any other persons who give contribution to the researcher and cannot be
mentioned one by one.
Finally the researcher truly realizes that this skripsi cannot be considered as a
perfect masterpiece. Therefore, it is a very precious thing for her to get suggestion
and criticism which can make this better.

Jakarta, 2 March 2015

Nana Pratiwi

vi
TABLE OF CONTENT

ENDORSEMENT SHEET i
SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI . ii
ABSTRAK . iii
ABSTRACT .. iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. v
TABLE OF CONTENT vi
LIST OF TABLES ....... viii
LIST OF APPENDICES ix

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION.. 1
A. Background of the Study.. 1
B. Identification of research problems.. 4
C. Limitation the problem .... 4
D. Formulation of the study 4
E. Objectives of the study.. 4
F. The significance of the study 5
CHAPTER 1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK.. 6
A. Library Study.... 6
1. Workbook .. 6
a. Nature of the Workbook .... 6
b. The Advantages of the Workbook .. 7
c. The Problems of the Workbook... 8
d. How to Use the Workbook .... 8
e. Criteria of the Workbook ..... 9
2. Bloom Taxonomy.. ........... 10
a. Original Bloom Taxonomy ... 10

vi
b. Revised Bloom Taxonomy .... 13
3. Cognitive Dimension Process.. 15
B. Thinking Theory... 22
C. Previous Study..... 23
CHAPTER III RESEARCHMETHODOLOGY... 26
A. Method and Research Design.... 26
B. Time of the Study ..... 26
C. Description of the Data ........ 26
D. Technique of Collecting the Data .... 28
E. Technique of Data Analysis ..... 29
CHAPTER IV FINDING AND DISCUSSION...... 30
A. Findings . 31
B. Discussion . 37
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 39
A. Conclusion . 40
B. Suggestion . 41
REFERENCES .. 43
APPENDICES .... 46

vii
LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Unit and Topic in the workbook Can Do 2........ 27


Table 3.2 Data Analysis Table of Cognitive Dimension of Revised Bloom
Taxonomy....... 28
Table 4.1 Frequencies and Percentages of the Activities in the Six Levels
of the Cognitive Dimensions in the Workbook Can Do 2 .. 30

viii
LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1 : Frequencies and Percentage of the Activities in the Six Levels


of the Cognitive Dimensions in Blooms Taxonomy in the
Workbook Can Do 2 in each units ..... 46
Appendix 2 : Surat Permohonan Pembimbing Skripsi I .... 76

Appendix 3 : Surat Permohonan Pembimbing Skripsi II ...... 77

Appendix 4 : Researcher Profile ..... 78

ix
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

This study presents the general account of the present study. It covers
background of the study, identification of research problem, limitation of the
problem, formulation of study, objective of the study, and significance of the
study.
A. Background of the Study
In teaching and learning process, the teacher has to develop the student
competence. The teacher needs to know the students ability in mastering the
materials given. The teacher also needs to discover which parts of materials that
the students find their strengths and weaknesses. To find out those things, the
teacher has to design the instructional materials and many activities for the
students.
Workbook as one of the instructional materials has the important role in
language teaching and learning. It greatly influences planning, teaching, and
learning in the classroom. Many teachers design the learning activities in the
classroom for the student by using workbook as the source ideas and questions. It
helps the teachers because teachers can save a great deal of time.
Teachers also use workbook as the source exercises for students. It can
develop student competence that supplies many exercises for students. Not only in
the classroom, the students have many chance to practice their ability but also in
the home. There is never enough time to teach the students all the important skills
and concepts in a subject area. In such a way, workbook can assist the teacher to
develop the students ability, because students can develop their ability
autonomously by using the workbook that supplies many ecercises.
Indonesian national education objective is proved by UU No. 20 Tahun 2003
which states: national education serves to develop skills and form the character
and civilization of the nation's dignity in order to achieve the life of the nation,
aimed at developing the potential of students to become a man of faith and fear of
God Almighty, noble, healthy, knowledgeable, skilled, creative, independent, and

1
2

become citizens of a democratic and responsible.1 So, based on the Indonesian


national education objective in that act, teaching learning processes are to develop
students competence or skills.
To achieve the educational objective in teaching-learning processes, teachers
should use an appropriate workbook for students, especially in English. English is
a language that is quite complex to study. Learning English is not only learning
the elements of language such as grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and so on,
but also learning the four skills which consist of reading, listening, writing and
speaking. It is not only explaining the theories, but the most important one is also
developing the students competence. According to the researcher experience, she
found that students just almost remember theory and formulas every day in the
school. They did not matter whether they understood or not. And it was happened
for almost all of students in each education level. Learning English six years in
the school is not successful. They cannot understand and use English in their daily
life.
So, it is important to analysis about the workbook that student or teacher
used, such as the different level of the instruction, the content compatibility, or
language feasibility. Teachers should know the workbook having written
accurately to their social function. And one aspect that should be analyzed in the
workbook is compatibility of the students development level in cognitive
domain.
Cognitive domain in educational objectives makes reference to Bloom
Taxonomy. Bloom Taxonomy is a concept thinking theory that was introduced by
Benjamin S Bloom, an American psychologist.2 It is the hierarchy structure that
identifies the skill ranging from low to high level. The aim of taxonomy is very
simple; it helps the teacher to achieve the education goal. Essentially, the Revised
Bloom Taxonomy is a more authentic tool for curriculum planning, instructional
delivery and assessment.

1
Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Islam Depag RI, UU dan Peraturan Pemerintah RI tentang
Pendidikan, (Jakarta: 2006), p. 8-9
2
Retno Utari, Bloom Taxonomy: Apa dan Bagaimana Menggunakannya? (Widyawara
Pusdiklat KNPK), p.2
3

Bloom Taxonomy divided the educational objective to be three domains that


can be measured to develop student ability. They are the cognitive domain,
affective domain and psychomotor domain. Cognitive domain deals with
intellectual or thinking ability. The second domain is affective domain and
affective domain deals with feelings, attitudes, interest, preferences, values and
emotions. And the third, psychomotor domain deals with feelings attitudes,
interest, preferences, values, and emotions.
The most commonly taught and assessed educational objectives are those in
the cognitive domain.3 Cognitive assessment involves intellectual activities such
as interpreting, problem solving, and thinking critically. Virtually all of the
teachers instruction is usually focused on helping students to attain cognitive
mastery of some content or subject area. A weekly spelling, a unit test of essay, a
worksheet on proper use of lie and lay, and an oral recitation of a poem, all
require cognitive behaviors. It is why the researcher in this study will focus on the
cognitive domain.
Bloom divided six thinking categories in cognitive domain: knowledge,
comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. 4 However, in
1990s, Blooms Taxonomy had been revised, the terminology used in the
cognitive dimension of Revised Blooms Taxonomy had been changed into verb
from noun. The cognitive dimension includes remembering, understanding,
applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating. The use of verb in the terminology
seems more suitable because it shows the thinking process which is the active
process rather than the use of noun. The term knowledge had been revised into
remember because the term knowledge shows the product of thinking rather
than the thinking process. The use of terminology synthesis and evaluation
had also been changed into evaluate and create.5
Based on the explanation above, this research is to analyze the workbook for
Junior High School, by using Cognitive Process Dimension of Revised Blooms

3
Peter W. Airasian, Classroom Assessment. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), p. 67
4
Anthony J Nitko and Susan M. Brookhart, Educational Assesment of Student, (Boston:
2011), p. 25
5
David Krathwohl, Theory into Practise, Vol.41 Number 4 Auntumn, 2002, p. 215.
4

Taxonomy (RBT). In this research, the workbook of Can Do 2is chosen because
it is the English workbook that is used in MTsN Pamulang, a school that where
the researcher have been practiced as a teacher during the Integrated Pre Service
Teaching Profession Practise Praktik Profesi Keguruan Terpadu (PPKT).

B. Identification of Research Problem


Based on the background of this study, the research problems are:
1. Content of the workbook should appropriate with the cognitive
dimension of Revised Bloom Taxonomy (RBT) and critical thinking
theory.
2. The instructional items are viewed in terms of the Revised Bloom
Taxonomy (RBT) cognitive dimension.

C. Limitation of the Problem


Based on the statement of the problems mentioned above, this research will
be focused on the workbook content that appropriates with the Revised Bloom
Taxonomy (RBT) cognitive dimension and critical thinking theory.

D. Formulation of the Problem


The formulations of the study of this research are:
1. Does the workbook content of Can Do 2 appropriate with the cognitive
dimensions of Revised Bloom Taxonomy?
2. What is the most dominant cognitive dimension of Revised Bloom
Taxonomy in the workbook?

E. Objectives of the Study


The result of this study is expected to discover:
1. The appropriateness of workbook Can Do 2 with the cognitive
dimension of Revised Bloom Taxonomy.
2. The most dominant cognitive dimension of Revised Bloom Taxonomy in
the workbook.
5

F. Significance of the Study


The results of the study are worthwhile for both the teacher and the students.
This study is to analyze the book that students are using in learning English. So, It
can encourage the English teachers to be selective in choosing the appropriate
workbook. The appropriate book can develop the students competence and can
make the learning process more effectively. It also can encourage the workbook
publishers to revise the workbook to be more compatible with student cognitive
development level. For compulsory books authors, this study is useful to consider
them in designing the qualified book for the student.
CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Chapter two is the chapter which explains the theoretical framework of this
research. It discusses the main parts of the research, such as a workbook and
bloom taxonomy. And this chapter explains the thinking theory used in this study
that develop the research question.
A. Literature Review
1. Workbook
a. Nature of the Workbook
The workbook is a freestanding manual that addresses materials
considered to be incompletely covered within the text.1 Workbook
provides varied material practices and exercises for teaching and learning
processes. The fundamental principles of language, grammar, and
composition skills involve are not often clearly understood in the
classroom. All kinds of material can cover by the workbook by giving
enough practice.2
The workbook functions in different ways for both teachers and
students. For teachers, exercises in the workbook help teachers to examine
students ability. Workbook also helps the teacher to determine the
learning activity that can improve students comprehension in the
classroom. The teachers lead the students with many exercises in order to
develop the competence.
Many teachers feel difficult to develop the learning activities for
student. Teachers often have a limited time to develop new activities. Used
of the workbook will essential for helping the teacher and student to cover
the problems.

1
Enza Antenos-Conforti and Frank Nuessel, The Workbook in Elementary Italian, Vol. 84,
No. 1 (Spring, American Association of Teachers of Italian, 2007), pp. 42-58
2
Fred G. Walcott, Problems of the Workbook Author, The English Journal,Vol. 22, No. 7
(Sep, 1933), pp. 574

6
7

At the present time, many series of textbooks are supplemented by


such materials to strengthen their teaching program. Good independent
workbooks, designed to accompany no specific textbook. Several types of
workbooks are found, but they are all variations of either a text-workbook
or one which contains only exercises. Some of the newer workbooks are
hybrids, combining both types.
When the possibility of using workbooks is being considered, the
teacher should have clearly in mind exactly which functions to achieve the
workbook to fulfill.
Workbooks should benefit highly motivated or interested students
who, compete themselves. They can also be of benefit to the student who
wants extra practice (not extra credit) with material of graded levels of
difficulty, outside of the classroom or in addition to any possible
conference time.3 Workbooks develop the good study habits and
independence learning of student.

b. Advantages of the Workbook


Workbook and other skill practice pages can be valuable learning and
teaching resources for students and teachers. Teachers can improve upon
workbook pages' effectiveness to make them more than busy work, testing
devices, pupil directed practice, or group assignments.
Teacher could save a great deal of time by having each child's work
within the covers of an individual book.4 . It saves the time and energy of
both teacher and pupil which presents only one problem at a time. The use
of the workbook is advisable.

3
David G. Pugh, Writing Workbooks: Teaching Tragedies? College Composition and
Communication, Vol. 15, No. 3 (Oct., 1964), p. 165
4
Margaret Kerr, Teaching with Workbooks, The Elementary School Journal, Vol. 48, No. 4
(Dec., 1947), pp. 218
8

c. Problems of the Workbook


Much of the workbooks are providing the students the writing part of
language but not the oral communication part of the English.5 This shows
that, there is a lot of opportunity for the teacher to use oral communication
in the classroom to develop listening, reading and speaking skills in the
classroom, which the teacher has to develop through various methods and
modes of instruction. More opportunities should be provided to students
to develop pronunciation, intonation, stress, etc. in the language teaching.
Some teachers believe that workbooks help in developing vocabulary,
in reinforcing and maintaining skills, and in individualizing instruction.
But other teachers argue that workbooks are too expensive. It takes too
long to correct them.
One of the reasons why workbooks have not been successful in many
situations is that little thought or planning was given to their selection and
use.6 Before any workbook is purchased, the teachers should have an
opportunity to examine it in order to determine whether it is designed to
meet the specific purposes which they wish to achieve. Workbooks, like
textbooks, must have their use carefully planned in order to get the most
effective results. No workbook is published with the assumption that will
not require intelligent preparation and presentation by the teacher.

d. How to Use the Workbook


There is a significant influence of workbooks and the way they are
being used in the classroom on the overall development of English
language development in the students. The first step to improving the
effectiveness of work book pages is to establish a purpose for using them.

5
Paul Douglas, Teachers Perception on The Learning Difficulties and Development of
English Language Skills Among High School Students: Influence of Classroom Teaching and
Workbooks. (Http://Www.Aiaer.Net/Ejournal/Vol20108/12.Htm)
6
Margaret Kerr, Teaching with Workbooks, The Elementary School Journal, Vol. 48, No. 4
(Dec., 1947), pp. 218
9

Workbook pages should provide extra practice needed to help a child


master a skill and provide success practice (not trial and error or tests).
Second step to improving the use of workbook pages is to develop
effective methodology for carrying out these purposes. Workbook can
effectively provide practice and success for pupils who need to master
language skills.
A successful program of workbook procedure may be summarized
briefly:7
1) Most of the language exercises should be administered orally, even
though designed apparently to be written.
2) All grammar worksheets should be accompanied by parallel oral drill;
otherwise they will never become functional in oral speech.
3) All punctuation drills should be given simultaneously with written
composition projects, in order that their habituation to the semi
phonetic processes of writing may be effected.
4) Student correction should be employed whenever possible, the teacher
acting only as a mediator when questions arise.

e. Criteria of the Workbook


A suggested list of criteria for workbook selection follows:8
1) Are the exercises included within the workbook appropriate to the
needs of the group (not necessarily to the grade)?
2) Are they reasonable enough in extent so that they will not monopolize
too much time, to the exclusion of other and varied activities?
3) Are they organized according to a repetitive plan, so as to provide
review at ever increasing intervals?
4) Are they organized in series, so as to provide a year-to-year repetition,
in a rudimentary-to-complex progression?
5) To what extent are they self-administering and self-directive?
7
Fred G. Walcott, Problems of the Workbook, The English Journal, Vol. 22, No. 7 (Sep,
1933), pp. 578
8
Ibid.
10

6) Do they include both pretests and follow-up tests by which which


their effectiveness can be measured?

2. Blooms Taxonomy
a. The Original Bloom Taxonomy
The original Blooms Taxonomy was found by Benjamin S. Bloom, an
education psychologist who did many research and development in thinking
behaviors in learning process. Bloom was born on dated February 21, 1913 in
Lansford, Pennsylvania and earned doctorate in education from the
University of Chicago in 1942. He is known as a consultant and international
activists in education and managed to make major changes in the system
education in India. He founded the International Association for the
Evaluation of Educational Achievement, the IEA, developed the
Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistical Analysis (MESA) program at the
University of Chicago.9
At 1950s, in the Conference of American Psychologist Association,
Bloom reported that based on the evaluation of the result study which has
arranged in the school, the most percentage is the question just allowed to
memorize of lessons. Bloom argued that memorizing or remembering is the
lowest hierarchy in the thinking behaviors.10
Finally in 1956, Bloom, Englehart, Furst, Hill, and Krathwoll,
successfully introduced thinking skills framework concept called Bloom's
Taxonomy.11 It is hierarchy structure that identifies the skills ranging from
low level to high level. Of course, to achieve the goal higher, lower level
must be met first.
Taxonomy is derived from two words in the Greek language, they are
12
tassein and nomos. Tassein means classify and nomos means rule. So

9
Elliot W. Eisner, Profiles of Famous Education: Benjamin Bloom 1913 1999, Prospects,
vol. XXX, no. 3, September 2000. p. 1
10
Retno Utari, Taxonomy Bloom: Apa dan Bagaimana Menggunakannya? (Widyawara
Pusdiklat KNPK), p. 2.
11
Ibid
12
ibid
11

taxonomy means classification hierarchy over basic principles or rules. The


term was later used by Benjamin S. Bloom in the teaching learning process.
He proposed taxonomy for thinking based on increasingly complex or
high order categories. This taxonomy has been extremely influential in
education for the past 50 years.13 It had an enormous influence on how
people think of educational goals and on teaching practice.
In framework of this concept, Bloom divided the purpose of education
into three domains of intellectual behaviors.14 They are cognitive, affective,
and psychomotor. The first domain is cognitive domain that deals with
intellectual or thinking ability, the second domain is affective domain, and
affective domain deals with value. Blooms taxonomy is often named by
Blooms cognitive taxonomy because the cognitive domain often applies only
to develop.
The cognitive domain in the original taxonomy is divided into six
categories. They are knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis,
synthesis, and evaluation. 15

No. Cognitive Dimension Definition


1 Knowledge It is how to memorize and recall
information. It involves the recall of
specifics and universals, the recall of a
pattern, structure, or setting. For
measurement purposes, the recall situation
involves little more than bringing to mind
the appropriate material.
2 Comprehension It is how to interpret information in ones
own words. It refers to a type of

13
Dian Musial. et al, Foundation of Meaningful Education Assessment, (New York: McGraw
Hill, 2009), p. 84
14
Peter W. Airasian and Michael K Russell, Classroom Assessment, (New York: Mc-Graw
Hill, 2008), p. 69
15
David Krathwohl, Theory into Practise, Vol. 41, Number 4 auntumn (2002), p. 214.
12

understanding or apprehension such as the


individual knows what is being
communicated and can make use of the
material or idea being communicated without
necessarily relating it to other material or
seeing its fullest implication. It represents the
lowest level of understanding.
3 Application It is how to apply knowledge to new
situations. It involves the use of abstraction in
particular and concrete situation (to solve
new or novel problems). The abstraction may
be in the form of general ideas, rules of
procedure, or generalized methods. The
abstraction may also be technical principles,
ideas, and theories, which must be
remembered and applied.
4 Analysis It is how to breakdown knowledge into parts
and show relationship among parts. It
involves the breakdown of a communication
into its constituent elements or parts such that
the relative hierarchy of ideas is made clear
and/or the relations between the ideas
expressed are made explicit. Such analyses
are intended to clarify the communication, to
indicate how the communication is
organized, and the way in which it manages
to convey its effects, as well as its basis and
arrangements.
5 Synthesis Synthesis is how to bring together parts of
knowledge to form a whole; build
13

relationships for new situations. It involves


the putting together of elements and parts so
as to form a whole. This involves the process
of working with pieces, parts, elements, and
so on, and arranging and combining them in
such a way as to constitute a pattern or
structure not clear before.
6 Evaluation Evaluation is how to make judgments on
basis of criteria. It requires judgments the
value of material and methods for given
purposes, quantitative and qualitative
judgments about the extent to which
materials and methods satisfy criteria, and the
use of a standard of appraisal. The criteria
may be those determined by the student or
given to him.

b. Revised Blooms Taxonomy


In 1990s, Blooms Taxonomy had been revised by Lorin Anderson, one
of the Blooms student. The result of the revised was published at 2001 by the
name of Revised Blooms Taxonomy.16 The revised taxonomy improves the
original by adding a two-dimensional framework. The two dimensions are
Cognitive Process Dimension and Knowledge Dimension.
Cognitive Dimension is very much like the original Blooms Taxonomy.
It includes remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and
creating.17 The terminology used in the Cognitive Dimension of Revised
Blooms Taxonomy had been changed into verb from noun. The use of verb
in the terminology seems more suitable because it shows the thinking process
which is the active process rather than the use of noun. The term

16
David Krathwohl, Theory into Practise, Vol. 41, Number 4 auntumn (2002), p. 211.
17
Ibid., p. 212.
14

knowledge had been revised into remember because the term


knowledge shows the product of thinking rather than the thinking process.
The use of terminology synthesis and evaluation had also been changed
into evaluate and create.18 These changes are also more appropriate
because they reflect better sequence of thinking classification.

Figure 2.1 the Differences of Blooms Taxonomy and Revised Blooms


Taxonomy

BLOOMS REVISED BLOOMS


TAXONOMY TAXONOMY
(Original domain) (New Domain)

Knowledge Remembering
Comprehension Understanding
Application Applying
Analysis Analyzing
Synthesis Evaluating
Evaluation Creating

Knowledge dimension contains the type of content learning targets


refering to: a fact, a concept, a procedure, or a metacognition. It has four
categories. They include factual knowledge, conceptual procedural,
procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge.19
1. Factual Knowledge
This category of learning targets asks students to learn facts.
2. Conceptual Knowledge

18
David Krathwohl, Theory into Practise, Vol.41 Number 4 Auntumn (2002), p. 215.
19
Peter W. Airasian, Classroom Assessment, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), p. 26
15

This category of learning targets asks students to learn ideas,


generalizations, and/or theories.
3. Procedural knowledge
This category of learning targets asks students to demonstrate procedures
or ways of doing things.
4. Metacognitive Knowledge
This category of learning targets asks students to be aware of and understand
what they know. Metacognition encompasses knowledge about ones own
thought processes, self regulation and monitoring what one is doing, why
one is doing it and how one is doing whether helps to solve the problems
(or not). 20
The most commonly taught and assessed educational objectives are those
in the cognitive domain.21 Cognitive assessment involves intellectual
activities such as interpreting, problem solving, and thinking critically.
Virtually all of the tests that students take in the school are intended to
measure one or more of this cognitive activities. Teachers instruction is
usually focused on helping students to attain cognitive mastery of some
content or subject area. A weekly spelling test, a unit test of essay, a
worksheet on proper use of lie and lay, and an oral recitation of poems; all
require cognitive behaviors.

3. The Cognitive Dimension Process


Cognitive levels of Revised Blooms Taxonomy deal with students thinking,
these cognitive levels include low order thinking and high order thinking. The
highest three levels are included in high order thinking. It means the top three of
cognitive processes in Revised Blooms Taxonomy are considered as higher order
thinking skills (analyzing, evaluating, and creating). This also means that the low
order thinking occupies the three lowest levels of Revised Blooms Taxonomy
(Remembering, Understanding, and Applying). This Revised Blooms Taxonomy

20
Daniel Muijs and David Reynolds, Effective teaching, second edition, (London: Sage
publication, Ltd, 2005), p. 122
21
Peter W. Airasian, Classroom Assessment, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), p. 67
16

is often used in formulate the educational objective that we known as C1 until


C6.22

C 1 - Remembering
Categories & Alternative Definition
Cognitive Processes Names
Remember Retrieve knowledge from long-
term memory
Recognizing Identifying Locating knowledge in long-
term memory that is consistent
with presented material
Recalling Retrieving Retrieving relevant knowledge
from long-term memory

C 2 - Understanding
Categories & Alternative Definition
Cognitive Processes Names
Understand Construct meaning from
instructional messages,
including oral, written, and
graphic communication
Interpreting Clarifying Changing from one form of
Paraphrasing representation to another
Representing
Translating
Exemplifying Illustrating Finding a specific example or
Instantiating illustration of a concept or
principle
Classifying Categorizing Determining that something

22
Retno Utari, Taxonomy Bloom: Apa dan Bagaimana Menggunakannya? (Widyaswara
Pusdiklat KNPK), p. 8
17

Subsuming belongs to a category


Summarizing Abstracting Abstracting a general theme or
Generalizing major point(s)
Inferring Concluding Drawing a logical conclusion
Extrapolating from presented information
Interpolating
Predicting
Comparing Contrasting Detecting correspondences
Mapping between two ideas, objects, and
Matching the like
Explaining Constructing Constructing a cause and effect
models model of a system

C 3 Applying
Categories & Alternative Definition
Cognitive Processes Names
Apply Applying a procedure to a
familiar task
Executing Carrying out Applying a procedure to a
familiar task
Implementing Using Applying a procedure to an
unfamiliar task

C 4 Analyzing
Analyze Break material into its
constituent parts and
determine how the parts relate
to one another and to an
overall structure or purpose
Differentiating Discriminating Distinguishing relevant from
18

Distinguishing irrelevant parts or important


Focusing from unimportant parts of
Selecting presented material
Organizing Finding coherence Determining how elements fit or
Integrating function within a structure
Outlining
Parsing
Structuring
Attributing Deconstructing Determine a point of view, bias,
values, or intent underlying
presented material

C 5 Evaluating
Evaluate Make judgments based on
criteria and standards
Checking Coordinating Detecting inconsistencies or
Detecting fallacies within a process or
Monitoring product; determining whether a
Testing process or product has internal
consistency; detecting the
effectiveness of a procedure as it
is being implemented
Critiquing Judging Detecting inconsistencies
between a product and external
criteria; determining whether a
product has external consistency;
detecting the appropriateness of a
procedure for a given problem

C 6 Creating
19

Categories & Alternative Definition


Cognitive Processes Names
Creating Put elements together to form
a coherent or functional whole;
reorganize elements into a new
pattern or structure
Generating Hypothesizing Coming up with alternative
hypotheses based on criteria
Planning Designing Devising a procedure for
accomplishing some task
Producing Constructing Inventing a product

Potential activities; instructional verbs and questioning stems that includes of


each category are:
N Cognitive
Instructional Verbs 23 Questioning Stems
o. Dimension
1 Remembering Memorize Group What happened after...?
Relate Choose How many...?
Show Recite What is...?
Give Review Who was it that...?
example Record Name ...
Reproduce Match Find the definition of
Repeat Select Describe what happened
Label Underline after
Group Cite
Who spoke to...?
Read Listen
Which is true or false...?
Write
Outline
2. Understanding Restate Describe Explain why

23
Denise Tarlinton, Blooms Revised Taxonomy, Presented in Pupil Free Day, 2003,
(www.qacps.schoolwires.net).
20

Identify Report Write in your own


Discuss Recognize words
Retell Review How would you
Research Observe explain?
Translate Interpret Write a brief outline...
Give Give main What do you think could
examples idea have happened next...?
of Who do you think...?
Paraphrase What was the main
Reorganize idea...?
Associate Clarify
Summarizes Illustrate

3 Applying Interpret Change Explain another instance


Make Sequence where
Practice Show Group by characteristics
Apply Solve such as
Operate Collect Which factors would you
Interview Demon- change if?
Discover strate What questions would you
Use ask of?
Draw From the information
given, develop a set of
instructions about

4. Analyzing Distinguish Compare Which events could not


Question Contrast have happened?
Separate Survey If ... happened, what
Inquire Detect might the ending have
Arrange Group been?
21

Investigate Order How is...similar to...?


Research Sequence What do you see as other
Calculate Test possible outcomes?
Criticize Debate Why did...changes occur?
Discrimi- Analyse Explain what must have
nate Diagram happened when...
Relate What are some or the
Categorise problems of...?
Distinguish between...
What were some of the
motives behind..?
What was the turning
point?
What was the problem
with...?

5. Evaluating Judge Choose Judge the value of...


Rate Conclude What do you think
Predict Deduce about...?
Assess Justify Defend your position
Score Recom- about...
Revise mend Do you think...is a good or
Infer Discrimi- bad thing?
Determine nate How would you have
Tell why Appraise handled...?
Compare Probe What changes to would
Evaluate Argue you recommend?
Measure Decide Do you believe...? How
Criticize would you feel if...?
How effective are...?
What are the
22

consequences...?
What influence
will....have on our lives?
What are the pros and
cons of....?
Why is....of value?
What are the alternatives?
Who will gain & who will
lose?
6. Creating Compose Imagine Design a...to...
Organize Generate Devise a possible solution
Compile Predict to...
Improve Devise If you had access to all
Invent Design resources, how would you
Produce Revise deal with...?
Construct Devise your own way to...
Plan What would happen if...?
Prepare How many ways can
Develop you...?
Formulate Create new and unusual
uses for...
Develop a proposal which
would...

B. Thinking Theory
Workbook plays an important role to achieve teaching learning objective.
It can help the student to improve student ability. Bloom taxonomy is a basis of
developing educational objectives. Statements of educational objectives describe
in a relatively specific manner what a student should be able to do or produce, or
what a characteristics are that the student should posses. Bloom taxonomy levels
23

become the classification basis of question difficulty levels, from questions or


activities that examine the students knowledge and ability. Thus, the exercises
represented in the workbook should measure all levels of student thinking process.
Because of its important, it needs to analyze or evaluate the workbook used.
According to National Education Standard Agency (Badan Standar Nasional
Pendidikan/BSNP), the important aspect of workbook to be analyzed is the
compatibility of student cognitive level. In this case the researcher do a study the
appropriateness of textbook Can Do 2 with the cognitive domains of Revised
Bloom Taxonomy and to know the most dominant domain of the cognitive of
Revised Bloom Taxonomy in the workbook.

C. Previous Study
There are three relevants studies that the researcher had read in order to help
her writing this reaseach proposal. The first one is the study with the title An
Analysis on Reading Exercises in the second Grade SMU Textbooks Based on
Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain, which is written by Siti Muslimah, a
student of English Department, Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University
of Jakarta.24 This study focused to the reading exercises in the second grade SMU
textbook in order to be classified based on cognitive Bloom Taxonomy.
Textbooks that were analyzed are Window on the World Book (book I) and
English for Senior high School Book (book II). The result of this study is
comprehension is being the most dominant aspect in book 1 and knowledge is
being the most dominant aspect in the book 2. It has implication for teacher and
authors about the importance of designing exercises based on cognitive Bloom
Taxonomy which touch the whole difficulty levels, not only the low levels but
also the high levels.

24
Siti Muslimah, An Analysis on Reading Exercises in the Second Grade SMU Textbooks
Based on Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain, English Department, Faculty of Languages
and Arts, State University of Jakarta. 2002.
24

Second is the research entitled: A Content Analysis of the Reading and


Listening Activities in the EFL Textbook of Master Class.25 This study dealt with
analysis of the textbook Master Class for 10th-grade students studying English at
the 5-unit level. Content analysis was performed to determine to what extent the
activities in the reading and listening units emphasizing high and low-level
thinking. The study attempted to answer the following questions: 1. to what extent
are the cognitive levels of the activities in the Mastering Reading and Mastering
Listening sections of the textbook Master Class varied? 2. To what extent do the
activities in the two sections of reading and listening of Master Class textbook
lead students towards levels that demand higher thinking such as analysis,
synthesis, and evaluation? Content analysis was conducted for the Mastering
Reading and Mastering Listening sections of each unit. The activities that were
defined as units for analysis were Wh-questions, Yes/No questions, Multiple
Choice questions, Complete the sentence, and statement and request questions.
The activities were collected, listed, and analyzed according to Bloom's
Taxonomy: low order thinking skills: knowledge, comprehension, and
application, and high order thinking skills: analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The
researchers then calculated the percentage and frequencies in which each level of
cognition appeared for each separate unit and for all six units combined. The
results indicated that the research tools used by the two researchers were valid and
reliable. The results showed that 114 activities emphasized levels of cognition
representing lower order thinking skills, while only 59 activities emphasized the
three higher order thinking skills. The activities in the Master Class textbook
place a great deal of emphasis upon comprehension, which is one of the lower
order thinking skills.
The third is Evaluation of Learning Objectives in Iranian High-School and
Pre-University English Textbooks Using Blooms Taxonomy.26 This paper

25
Ibtihal Assaly, Abdul Kareem Igbaria. A Content Analysis of the Reading and Listening
Activities in the EFL Textbook of Master Class, Education Journal. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2014, pp. 24-
38. doi: 10.11648/j.edu.20140302.11
26
A. Mehdi Riazi and Narjes Mosalanejad, The Electronic Journal for English as a Second
Language, March 2010 Volume 13, Number 4.
25

reports a study that investigated the types of learning objectives represented in


Iranian senior high school and pre-university English textbooks using Blooms
taxonomy of learning objectives. Three high-school textbooks and the sole pre-
university textbook were included in the analysis. To codify the learning
objectives, a coding scheme was developed based on Blooms taxonomy of
learning objectives. The exercises and tasks of the textbooks were codified and
the frequencies and percentages of occurrence of different learning objectives
were calculated. Results of the study indicate that in all grades lower-order
cognitive skills were more prevalent than higher order ones. Furthermore, the
difference between the senior high school and the pre-university textbooks in
terms of the levels of the taxonomy were significant insofar as the pre-university
textbook used some degrees of higher-order learning objectives. Results of this
study have implications both for teaching and materials development.
Based on the previous studies, this skripsi is intended to do the research
focused on analysis of the English workbook that used for student at SMP/MTs. It
analyze by using Revised Bloom Taxonomy. Therefore, the title is Analysis of
English Workbook for SMP/MTs by Using Revised Bloom Taxonomy.
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This study discusses about research methodology. It covers method and


research design, time of the study, description of the data, instruments, and
technique of data analysis.

A. Method and Research Design


This research method is qualitative, used the descriptive analytical study
which describe and elaborate the data followed by analyzing. Researcher used
content analysis as the tools. This means that this study analyzes the English
workbook, Can Do 2, by using cognitive domain levels of Revised Bloom
Taxonomy.
The workbook were analyzed according to cognitive level of Revised
Blooms Taxonomy table in order to know which level they comprise:
remembering (C1), understanding (C2), applying (C3), analyzing (C4), evaluating
(C5), or creating (C6). It will be found out the cognitive level of Revised Bloom
Taxonomy that is applied most dominantly, less dominantly, and least dominantly
in the English book.

B. Time of the Study


This research was conducted in May 2014, without being determined the
exact place.

C. Description of the Data


Data used in this study was the document of English workbook for 10th grade
of Junior High School (SMP/MTs). This research is focused on analyzing the
English Workbook, Can Do: 2 practice book, which is published in Indonesia
by PT. Asta Ilmu Sukses. Since originally this book was published by Richmond
Publishing. Richmond Publishing is an English Language Teaching publisher with
publishing centers and companies across the world. It is the publisher company

26
27

that committed to the development of high quality materials in student and


teacher-friendly formats and the provision of additional educational services
relevant to the local needs.1 So, this workbook has customized to Indonesians
needs, alignment with UN, and exam practices.
Richmond and Asta's joint launch of the secondary course Can Do in
Indonesia at 18 February 2012, have three level course for teenagers. They are
Can Do 1, Can Do 2, and Can Do 3. It integrates the specifications of the
CEF and giving students confidence by showing them what they can do in
English.2
This book is written by Michael Downie, David Gray, and Juan Manuel
Jimenez. Can Do has been supervised by Paul Seligson, a highly prestigious ELT
teacher trainer and author of various series. It has been carefully developed to
balance the four skills whilst also providing thorough treatment of grammar and
vocabulary to achieve communicative competency. This book is contained with
14 units, 3 dossiers and 3 stories for evaluation, in 104 pages.

Table 3.1 Unit and Topic in the workbook Can Do 2


Unit Topic
1 You and Me
2 Boys and Girls
My Dossier 1
3 Good Company
4 London Diaries
5 Film Fan
Story 1
6 A Tall Story
7 A Bright Future
My Dossier 2
8 Play safe

1
http://www.richmondelt.com/about-us
2
http://www.richmondelt.com/international/events/indonesialaunch
28

9 Good Friends
10 Sweet Dreams
Story 2
11 Opinions
12 Dont Litter
My Dossier 3
13 Last Minute
14 The Concert
Story 3

Can Do integrates the specifications of The Common European


Framework of Reference for Languages into a fresh new approach to teaching
English to teenagers. Can Do offers:
1. Clear and explicit teaching and learning goals at every stage
2. An action-oriented approach that engages students in fun, effective learning
3. Stimulating evaluation tasks that allow teachers and students to monitor
progress continuously
4. 70 photocopiable worksheets, giving teachers the opportunity to provide
specific reinforcement or extension work as needed
5. Dossiers and Language Passports that encourage creative use of language
and student self-evaluation
A complete set of tests for each level with term and final tests in the format of
the Cambridge KET (Key English Test) and PET (Preliminary English Test)
examination3

D. Technique of Collecting Data


This study is analyzed each unit activity in the Can Do 2, with defined as any
one of the following: a question or instructional activity. It used data analysis

3
http://www.richmondelt.com/spain/english/catalogue/secondary/can_do.htm
29

table to categorizing the activity according the cognitive level of Revised Blooms
Taxonomy.

Table 3.2 Data Analysis Table of Cognitive Dimension of


Revised Bloom Taxonomy

Activities (Instructional Cognitive Level


No. Verbs or Questioning
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
Stems)
The
number Instructional verbs or The appropriate cognitive level of the
of the questioning stems stated on the instructional item based on Revised
test workbook. Blooms Taxonomy
item

E. Technique of Data Analysis


The points of data analysis techniques are given in the followings below:
1. To read the instructional item or questioning stems used.
2. To group the instructional items/ questioning stems according to cognitive
level of Revised Blooms Taxonomy in order to know which level they cover:
remembering (C1), understanding (C2), applying (C3), analyzing (C4),
evaluating (C5), or creating (C6). The data were analyzed per unit or topic.
3. To count the number of the instructional items/questioning stems included in
each category.
4. To interpret the result of data analysis.
CHAPTER IV
FINDING AND DISCUSSION

A. FINDINGS
The classification of instructional items of the workbook according to cognitive
domain was employing some instrument in the form of illustrative verbs and sample
phrase drafts, and data analysis table. The results of this study are shown in the table
4.1 which shows the level of the activity, the frequency, and the percentage in the six
levels of the cognitive dimensions in each of the nineteen units of the workbook Can
Do 2.
Table 4.1 Frequencies and Percentages of the Activities
in the Six Levels of the Cognitive Dimensions in the Workbook Can Do 2

Cognitive Dimensions
No Unit (Theme)
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
Unit 1: You and Me 12 8 7 1 - -
1. 42.9 % 28.6 % 25 % 3.6 %
2. Unit 2: Boys and Girls 14 6 3 - - -
58.3% 26.1 % 12.5 %
3. My Dossier 1 4 - 1 - - -
80 % 20 %
4. Unit 3: Good Company 4 7 9 2 - -
18.2 % 31.8 % 40.9 % 9%
5. Unit 4: London Diaries 10 13 6 1 - -
33.3 % 43.3 % 20 % 3.3 %
6. Unit 5: Film Fan 16 5 7 2 - -
53.3 % 16.7 % 23.3 % 6.7 %
7. Story 1: The Lost Pyramid - 1 5 - - -
16.7 % 83.3 %

30
31

8. Unit 6: A Tall Story 1 8 13 - - -


4.5 % 36.4 % 59.1 %
9. Unit 7: A Bright Future 6 6 7 - - -
31.6 % 31.6 % 36.8 %
10 My Dossier 2 18 3 - - - -
85.7 % 14,3 %
11 Unit 8: Play Safe 2 14 7 2 - -
8% 56 % 28 % 8%
12 Unit 9: Good Friends 2 9 6 2 - -
10.5 % 47.4 % 31.6 % 10.5 %
13 Unit 10: Sweet Dreams 7 6 12 - - -
28 % 24 % 48 %
14 Story 2: Rock n Roll: 4 3 2 1 - -
Never Die 40 % 30 % 20 % 10 %

15 Unit 11: Opinions 5 8 10 - - -


21.7 % 34.8 % 43.5 %
16 Unit 12: Dont Litter 4 9 4 1 - -
22.2 % 50 % 22.2 % 5.6 %
17 My Dossier 3: You and 1 3 - - - 1
Your Environment Project 20 % 60 % 20 %

18 Unit 13: Last Minute 12 11 7 - - -


40 % 36.7 % 23.3 %
19 Unit 14: The Concert 3 7 6 4 1 -
14.3 % 33.3 % 28.6 % 19 % 4.8%
20 Story 3: Hope Mountains 7 3 2 1 - -
53.8 % 23.1 % 15.4 % 7.7 %
Total = 395 132 130 114 17 1 1
33.4 33 28.9 4.3 0.2 0.2
Percentage = 100%
% % % % % %
32

C1: Remembering C3: Applying C5: Evaluating


C2: Understanding C4: Analyzing C6: Creating

The data were analyzed per unit. This study covers 14 unit, 3 my dossier, and 3
story. There are 395 activities analyzed. The activities spread over 132 (33.4 %)
remembering, 131 (33.2 %) understanding, 114 (28.9 %) applying, 17 (4.3 %)
analyzing, 1 (0.25 %) evaluating, and 1(0.25 %) creating.
Table 4.1 indicates the Workbook Can Do 2 do not distribute the activity into
complete cognitive level in each unit. There is a dominant dimension activity of the
cognitive of the Revised Bloom Taxonomy in each unit in the workbook Can Do 2.
This finding implies that the number of activities that call for the cognitive level
of remembering is the highest aspect in this workbook with percentage 33.4 %. The
frequency of remembering is 132 of 395 activities. The activities that work on the
cognitive level of understanding rank second with percentage 33 % and the frequency
is 130 0f 395 activities. This level is one step beyond the simple remembering of
material. The third most frequency is applying with 114 activities or 28.9 %.
And the lowest number cognitive aspect in this workbook are evaluating and
creating. They have same frequencies and percentage that only have 1 of 382
activities with percentages 0.25 %. There is no evaluating activity except in the unit
14. And the creating activity is only in my dossier 3. Whereas the analyzing is more,
there are 17 activities with percentage 4.3 %.
The following explanations are the analysis of workbook Can Do 2 in each unit
as demonstrated in appendix 1.

Unit 1: You and Me


Unit 1 with the theme You and Me has 28 activities. 12 activities are included
of remembering, 6 activities are included of understanding, 8 activities are included
of applying, and 2 activities are included of analyzing. The analyses are:
33

1. The activities of number 7, 8, 9, 10 a, 10 b, 10 c, 10 d, 10 e, 14, 15, 16, and 23


are included to remembering level.
2. The activities of number 3, 6, 7, 17, 21, and 22 are included to understanding
level.
3. The activities of number 1, 2, 4, 5, 13, 15, 19, and 20 are included to applying
level.
4. The activities of number 11 and 12 are included to analyzing level.

Unit 2: Boys and Girls

Unit 2 has 23 activities. The most dominant level is remembering which number
are15 activities. 6 activities in unit 2 are included of understanding and 2 activities are
included of applying. The analyses are:
1. The activities of number 11 and 12 are included to analyzing level.
2. The activities of number 11 and 12 are included to analyzing level.
3. The activities of number 11 and 12 are included to analyzing level.

My Dossier 1
My dossier 1 has 5 activities. 4 activities are presented at remembering level and
1 activity are presented at applying level. The analyses are:
1. The activities of number 1, 2, 3, and 4 are included to remembering level.
2. The activity of number 5 is included to applying level.

Unit 3: Good Company


Unit 3 has 22 activities. 4 activities are included of remembering, 9 activities are
included of understanding, 7 activities are included of applying, and 2 activities are
included of analyzing. The analyses are:
1. The activities of number 3, 10, 15, and 21 are included to remembering level.
2. The activities of number 5, 6, 11, 16, 17, 18, 2, and 23 are included to
understanding level.
3. The activities of number 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, and 14 are included to applying level.
34

4. The activities of number 12, 19, and 22 are included to analyzing level.

Unit 4: London Diaries


Unit 4 has 30 activities. 10 activities are included of remembering, 14 activities
are included of understanding, 5 activities are included of applying, and 1 activity is
included of analyzing. The analyses are:
1. The activities of number 2, 6, 10d, 10e, 10h, and 10i are included to
remembering level.
2. The activities of number 1, 3, 7, 10a, 10b, 10c, 10f, 10g, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21,
and 22 are included to understanding level.
3. The activities of number 4, 5, 8, 12 and 23 are included to applying level.
4. The activity of number 9 is included to analyzing level.

Unit 5: Film Fan


Unit 5 has 30 activities. 16 activities are included of remembering, 5 activities
are included of understanding, 7 activities are included of applying, and 2 activities
are included of analyzing. The analyses are:
1. The activities of number 1, 5, 7, 11a, 11b, 11c, 11d, 11e, 11f, 13, 21a, 21b, 21c,
and 21d are included to remembering level.
2. The activities of number 2, 3, 8, 14, and 16 are included to understanding level.
3. The activities of number 4, 9, 12, 17, 18, 19, and 20 are included to applying
level.
4. The activities of number 6 and 10 are included to analyzing level.

Story 1: The Lost Pyramid


Story 1 has 6 activities. 1 activity is included of understanding and 5 activities
are included of applying. The analyses are:
1. The activity of number 5 is included to understanding level.
2. The activities of number 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 are included to applying level.
35

Unit 6: A Tall Story


Unit 6 has 22 activities. 1 activity is included of remembering, 8 activities are
included of understanding, and 13 activities are included of applying. The analyses
are:
1. The activity of number 12 is included to remembering level.
2. The activities of number 3, 7, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, and 20 are included to
understanding level.
3. The activities of number 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 14, 18, 19, 21 and 22 are included
to applying level.

Unit 7: A Bright Future


Unit 7 has 19 activities. 6 activities are included of remembering, 6 activities are
included of understanding, and 7 activities are included of applying. The analyses are:
1. The activities of number 5, 6, 13, 15, 16, and 19 are included to remembering
level.
2. The activities of number 2, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 14 are included to understanding
level.
3. The activities of number 1, 3, 4, 7, 10, 11, 12, and 14 are included to applying
level.

My Dossier 2
My dossier 2 has 21 activities. 18 activities are included of remembering, 3
activities are included of understanding. The analyses are:
1. The activities of number 1, 2, 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d, 6e, 6f, 6g, 6h, 7a, 7b, 7c, 7d, 7e, 7f,
7g, 7h, are included to applying level.
2. The activities of number 3, 4, and 5 are included to analyzing level.
36

Unit 8: Play Safe


Unit 8 has 25 activities. 2 activities are included of remembering, 14 activities
are included of understanding, 7 activities are included of applying, and 2 activities
are included of analyzing. The analyses are:
1. The activities of number 1and 3 are included to remembering level.
2. The activities of number 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 19, 20, and 25 are
included to understanding level.
3. The activities of number 9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, and 24 are included to applying
level.
4. The activities of number 10 and 15 are included to analyzing level.

Unit 9: Good Friends


Unit 9 has 19 activities. 2 activities are included of remembering, 9 activities are
included of understanding, 6 activities are included of applying, and 2 activities are
included of analyzing. The analyses are:
1. The activities of number 4 and 10 are included to remembering level.
2. The activities of number 1, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 17, and 18 are included to
understanding level.
3. The activities of number 3, 7, 14, 15, 16, and 19 are included to applying level.
4. The activities of number 8 and 14 are included to analyzing level.

Unit 10: Sweet Dreams


Unit 10 has 21 activities. 3 activities are included of remembering, 6 activities
are included of understanding, and 12 activities are included of applying. The
analyses are:
1. The activities of number 1, 11, and 12 are included to remembering level.
2. The activities of number 2, 5, 10, 16, 18, and 21 are included to understanding
level.
3. The activities of number 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, and 20 are included to
applying level.
37

Story 2: Rock n Roll: Never Die


Story 2 has 7 activities. 4 activities are included of understanding, 2 activities are
included of applying, and 1 activity is included of analyzing. The analyses are:
1. The activities of number 1, 4, 5, and 7 are included to understanding level.
2. The activities of number 2 and 6 are included to applying level.
3. The activity of number 3 is included to analyzing level.

Unit 11: Opinions


Unit 11 has 23 activities. 5 activities are included of remembering, 8 activities
are included of understanding, and 10 activities are included of applying. The
analyses are:
1. The activities of number 7, 8, 18, 22, and 23 are included to remembering level.
2. The activities of number 1, 4, 5, 6, 12, 13, 16, and 17 are included to
understanding level.
3. The activities of number 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 19, 20, and 21 are included to
applying level.

Unit 12: Dont Litter


Unit 12 has 18 activities. 4 activities are included of remembering, 9 activities
are included of understanding, 4 activities are included of applying, and 1 activity is
included of analyzing. The analyses are:
1. The activities of number 6, 9, 10, and 15 are included to remembering level.
2. The activities of number 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, 13, 14, 16, and 18 are included to
understanding level.
3. The activities of number 7, 8, 11, and 17 are included to applying level.
4. The activity of number 4 is included to analyzing level.

My Dossier 3: You and Your Environment Project


My dossier 3 has 5 activities. 1 activity is included of remembering, 3 activities
are included of understanding, and 1 activity is included of creating. The analyses are:
38

1. The activity of number 3 is included to remembering level.


2. The activities of number 1, 2, and 4 are included to understanding level.
3. The activity of number 5 is included to creating level.

Unit 13: Last Minute


Unit 13 has 30 activities. 12 activities are included of remembering, 11 activities
are included of understanding, and 7 activities are included of applying. The analyses
are:
1. The activities of number 3, 8, 11 a, 11b, 11c, 11d, 11e, 11f, 11g, 11h, 15, and 23
are included to remembering level.
2. The activities of number 2, 4, 5, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, and 22 are included to
understanding level.
3. The activities of number 1, 4, 7, 9, 19, 20, and 21 are included to applying level.

Unit 14: The Concert


Unit 14 has 21 activities. 12 activities are included of remembering, 6 activities
are included of understanding, 8 activities are included of applying, and 2 activities
are included of analyzing. The analyses are:
1. The activities of number 11a, 11b, and 12 are included to remembering level.
2. The activities of number 2, 3, 4, 10, 13, 14, and 15 are included to understanding
level.
3. The activities of number 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 17 are included to applying level.
4. The activities of number 9, 18, 19, and 20 are included to analyzing level.
5. The activity of number 16 is included to analyzing level.

Story 3: Hope Mountains


Story 3 has 7 activities. 1 activity is included of remembering, 3 activities are
included of understanding, 2 activities are included of applying, and 1 activities are
included of analyzing. The analyses are:
1. The activity of number 4 is included to remembering level.
39

2. The activities of number 1, 2, and 6 are included to understanding level.


3. The activities of number 3 and 7 are included to applying level.
4. The activity of number 5 is included to analyzing level.
It concludes as the following table that demonstrates the frequencies and
percentage the distribution of the cognitive dimension of Revised Bloom taxonomy.

Table 3. Cognitive Dimension Distribution in the Workbook Can Do 2


No. Cognitive Dimension Level Frequencies Percentage
1. Remembering 132 33.2 %
Thinking

2 Understanding 130 33.2 %


Order
Low

3. Applying 114 28.9 %


4. Analyzing 17 4.3 %
Thinking

5. Evaluating 1 0.25 %
Order
High

6. Creating 1 0.25 %
Total 395 100%

As mentioned in chapter II, understanding, remembering, and applying are


included to three low order thinking. And the total number of activities that relate to
low order thinking reach to 94.94 % with the frequency 375 of 395 activities.
Evaluating, creating, and analyzing that include the high order thinking are only
having 5.06 % or 20 activities out of to 395.

B. DISCUSSION
Based on the data analysis toward workbook Can Do 2, there is a tendency that
the most dominant dimensions of the cognitive of Revised Bloom Taxonomy in the
workbook is remembering. It means recalling previously taught material is dominant
in teaching learning process in this workbook. It can be seen from the analysis result
table that has shown 132 activities of 395 activities are remembering. It appeared
most frequently, 33.4 % activities.
40

Understanding level occupies the second position after remembering. 130 of 395
activities or 33 % are included to remembering. It showed that there are 33 %
activities supposed the student to grasp the meaning of material, translate the material,
and interpret the material form one form to another. This is the lowest level of the
material comprehension of the student.
There are 114 activities that included to applying in the workbook Can Do 2. It
means 28.9 % activities supposed student to use and implement their knowledge in
familiar task, to apply their knowledge in appropriate situations, and to execute the
theories.
Whereas there are only few activities that relate to analyzing level, it is only 17
of 395 with percentage 4.3 %. Its total number is underneath applying. Cognitive
dimensions that are not frequently found are evaluating with one activity and creating
with one activity. They are the lowest number of cognitive aspect in the workbook
Can Do 2 with percentage 0.25 % in each. Although these levels implemented in this
book, the amount of them is not sufficient. The limited numbers of the three aspects;
analyzing, evaluating, and creating, show the uneven activities distribution into
complete cognitive aspects. They are varied in each unit.
The result implies that the author of Can Do 2 placed emphasis on the lower
thinking process that the most total number is remembering aspect. This number is
contradicting with the high order thinking. There are so few high orders thinking in
this workbook Can Do 2. It is not give student to develop their thinking skill.
As demonstrated of the data, the workbook of Can Do 2 does not appropriate
with the cognitive dimension theory of Bloom Taxonomy. It didnt cover the entire
cognitive dimension, especially in the three high order thinking, analyzing, evaluating,
and creating. They are only 5.6 % activities.
s
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

In this chapter, the writer attempts to discuss the conclusion of the general
result and some suggestions for students and teachers, the publishers, and workbooks
authors.
A. CONCLUSION
Workbook plays an important role in teaching learning process. It greatly
influences the learning outcome of students. This study attempted to discover the
appropriateness of workbook Can Do 2 with the cognitive dimension of Revised
Bloom Taxonomy and the dominant aspect of the cognitive of revised bloom
taxonomy. The activities that were defined as units for analysis were instructional
verbs and questioning stem. They are collected, listed, and analyzed according to
cognitive dimensions of Revised Blooms Taxonomy.
Based on the data analysis, the conclusion of this study is the workbook does not
appropriate with Revised Bloom Taxonomy. It did not cover the entire cognitive
dimension of the Revised Bloom Taxonomy in each unit. It shows there are uneven
activities distributions in the six level of cognitive dimension. The amount of them is
not sufficient.
Regarding the cognitive dimensions in the workbook, the author of Can Do 2
placed emphasis on the lower thinking processes of remembering. However the total
number of remembering is not too different with understanding and applying. They
are being spread evenly in each dimension level. Especially in applying, it has great
quantities activities which reach 29 % from entire activities. It means the authors
have given more attention to understanding and applying too, although they are
underneath remembering.
Due to this reason, this book is proper for the student in the 8th grade. It is
sufficient to achieve the goals of the teaching and learning process in this grade, that
student could be applying, using, and implementing the knowledge. On the other

41
42

hand, it is a basic of the knowledge. It should be increased the number of the


activities that deal with higher thinking process. It will give the students opportunities
to interact effectively in a variety of situations.

B. SUGGESTION
After doing this research, the writer would like to offer some suggestions:
1. For the school, it will be better for the school to give more attention to the
content compatibility of the cognitive levels of the workbook. It is need to be
selective in choosing the appropriate workbook that can develop students
competence.
2. Through this research, teachers can see which cognitive dimension that has
appropriate and which cognitive dimension that should improved with
compatible activities. Teachers have to revise the existing exercises for
supplementing the insufficient aspect.
3. For the students, it will lead them more directly to rote learning. They have learn
to apply their knowledge in their daily life, not only remembering the lessons, but
also can create something new to make it useful for many people.
4. It also encourages for the readers to not accustom to superficial learning and
thinking, but it can concern with the more complex thinking to develop
immediately their ability.
REFERENCES
Airasian, Peter W. Classroom Assessment. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008
Allington, Richard. Michael Strange, Learning Through Reading in the Content
Areas. Lexington: Dc. Heath and Company. 1980.
Amer, Aly. Reflections on Blooms Revised Taxonomy: Electronic Journal of
Research in Educational Psychology. No 8, Vol 4 (1), 2006.
Antenos-Conforti, Enza., Nuessel, Frank. The Workbook in Elementary Italian,
Vol. 84, No. 1 (Spring, American Association of Teachers of Italian,
2007).
Assaly, Ibtihal., Abdul Kareem Igbaria. A Content Analysis of the Reading and
Listening Activities in the EFL Textbook of Master Class. Education Journal.
Vol. 3, No. 2, 2014, pp. 24-38. doi: 10.11648/j.edu.20140302.11
Nitko, Anthony J and Susan M. Brookhart. Educational Assesment of Student.
Boston. 2011.
Bachman ,Lyle. Interfaces Between Second Language Acquasition and Language
testing research. New York, 1998.
Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Islam Depag R. UU dan Peraturan Pemerintah RI
tentang Pendidikan. Jakarta, 2006.
Douglas, Paul. Teachers Perception on The Learning Difficulties and
Development of English Language Skills Among High School Students:
Influence of Classroom Teaching and Workbooks.
(Http://Www.Aiaer.Net/Ejournal/Vol20108/12.Htm)
Duc, Nguyen Chi. Using Blooms Revised Taxonomy to Design In-Class Reading
Questions for Intermediate Students in The Context of Vietnam. VNU Journal
of Science, Foreign Languages 24. p.175-183, 2008.
Eisner, Elliot W. Profiles of Famous Education: Benjamin Bloom 1913 1999,
Prospects, vol. XXX, no. 3, September 2000.
Fagan, Edward R. Textbook and the Teaching English, The English Journal vol 9
No. 5, 1980.
Fraenkel, Jack R and Norman E. Wallen. How to Design and Evaluate Research
in Education. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2007.

43
Genesee, Fred and John A. Upshur. Classroom-Based Evaluation in Second
Language Education. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Kerr, Margaret. Teaching with Workbooks. The Elementary School Journal, Vol.
48, No. 4 (Dec., 1947).
Krathwohl, David. Theory into Practise, vol.41 number 4 Auntumn, 2002.
Muijs, Daniel and David Reynolds, Effective Teaching, Second Edition. London:
Sage publication Ltd. 2005.
Musiall, Diann. Foundations of Meaningful Educational Assessment. New York:
McGraw-Hill, 2009.
Nitko, Anthony J. Educational Assessment of Student. Boston: Pearson Education,
2011.
Osborn, Jean et.al., Reading Education: Foundation for a Literate America.
Lexington: Dc. Heath and Company. 1985.
Peter W. Airasian. Classroom Assessment. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2008.
Pugh, David G. Writing Workbooks: Teaching Tragedies? College Composition
and Communication. Vol. 15, No. 3 (Oct., 1964).
Rafikah, Nurul. Test of Literature Course and Their Relevance with Revised
Taxonomy Bloom. Jakarta: Universitas Negeri Jakarta, 2011.
Retno Utari, Bloom Taxonomy: Apa dan Bagaimana Menggunakannya?
Widyawara Pusdiklat KNPK.
Riazi, A. Mehdi and Narjes Mosalanejad. The Electronic Journal for English as a
Second Language, March 2010 Volume 13, Number 4.
Senguin, Roger. The Elaboration of the School Textbooks, (UNESCO, 1989).
Swan, Michael. The Textbook: Bridge Wall?, in Roger Browers and Christoper
Brumfit (eds.), Applied Linguistics and English Language Teaching. London:
Mc Millan Publishers Limited. 1994.
Tarlinton, Denise. Blooms Revised Taxonomy, Presented in Pupil Free Day,
Monday,14 July, 2003,
(www.qacps.schoolwires.net/cms/lib02/MD01001006/Centricity/Domain/521/
BloomsPres.ppt). 13 February 2013

44
Walcot, Fred G. Problems of the Workbook. The English Journal, Vol. 22, No. 7
(Sep, 1933)
www.richmondelt.com/about-us. 20, 4 January 2014.
www.richmondelt.com/international/events /indonesialaunch, 4 January 2014.
www.richmondelt.com/spain/english/catalogue/secondary/can_do.htm, 4 January
2014.

45
46

Appendix 1: Frequencies and Percentage of the Activities in the Six levels of the
Cognitive Dimensions in Blooms Taxonomy in the Workbook Can Do 2 in
each units

Unit 1: You and Me


Activities (Instructional Items Cognitive Level
No
or Questioning Stems) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. Complete the sentences. V
2. Read the email and complete the V
dialog
3. Classify with the words in the V
snake
4. Write the question and complete V
the form.
5. Complete the dialogue V
6. Identify the free time activities V
7. Write the questions and answers. V
8. Complete with yes or no. Then V
writes sentences.
9. Read and complete the chart. V
10. Answer the question.
a. Wheres Helena From? V
b. How old is Katsuo V
c. Does Helena like heavy metal? V
d. Does Donna like animals? V
e. What does Helena love? V
11 Who is the best keypal for V
Donna? Why?
47

12 Numbers the steps for the writing V


e-mails. (Sequence the steps)
13 Write a reply to Donna V
14 Listen and make question. Then V
listen again and repeat the
questions.
15 Listen and complete the form. V
16 Listen and answer using Yes, I V
do./No, I dont. Do you like
Maths?
17 Listen and match the pairs V
18 Dictation: Write what you hear in V
your notebook. Are you similar to
the new girl?
19 Complete the question about V
Carla.
20 Write do, dont, does, or doesnt. V
Listen and check your answers.
21 Find and classify the words V
22 Match the words. V
23 Complete the fact file V
Total = 28 items 12 8 7 1 - -

Unit 2: Boys and Girls


Activities (Instructional Items or Categories
No
Questioning Stems) 1 2 3 4 5 6
1. Label the activities. V
2. Write sentences about yourself. V
48

3. Complete the questions. V


4. Answer the question in 3 for V
Lenny.
5. Circle the correct words. V
6. Name the jobs you do at home. V
7. Complete the words and label. V
8. Write sentences with adverbs of V
frequency.
9. Complete the text with the correct V
verbs.
10 Write the interviewers question. V
11 Write about you and your family. V
12 Read the texts and write the V
names.
13 Who does the jobs in your family? V
14 Read the description. Then V
describe your keypal.
15 Look at the pictures and answer V
the questions. When does he get
up?
16 Answer the questions about you. V
What time do you get up on
Sunday?
17 Who does the housework? V
18 What jobs do you do at home? V
19 What does Simon Spaceman do V
every day? Write sentences using
first, next, then, and after that.
49

(interpret the picture and make or


describe it in a sentence)
20 Rewrite with adverbs of frequency V
21 Unscramble the questions. Listen
and check your answers.
22 Match the questions and the V
answers.
23 Answer the questions in activity 4 V
24 Complete the phrases V
Total = 24 items 14 6 3 - - -

My Dossier 1
Activities (Instructional Items Categories
No
or Questioning Stems) 1 2 3 4 5 6
1. What do you know about V
Australia? Do the quiz.
2. Read the text and check your V
answer to the quiz. Then label the
pictures.
3. Order the questions according to V
the order of the answer in the text.
4. Choose an English-speaking V
country and find information to
complete the fact file below.
5. Draw a map of the country. Label V
the capital city and other
important cities. Write a
paragraph including some of the
50

execute information in the fact


file.
Total = 5 items 4 - 1 - - -

Unit 3: Good Company


Activities (Instructional Items or Categories
No
Questioning Stems) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. What are they doing? Find the V
people and complete the
conversation.
2. Write the questions and answers. V
3. Find and label the clothes in the V
shop.
4. Put the verbs in the present V
continues or the present simple.
5. Complete the dialogues. V
6. Match the suggestion and replies. V
7. Complete the suggestions. V
8. Write the suggestions for each V
situation.
9. Make excuses for the suggestions. V
10 Where this text from? V
11 Write the web page titles. V
12 Where can you find these in the V
web zine?
13 Read about Calista Flockhart and V
complete the questions. (make a
question based on the paragraph
51

above)
14 Paste photo of a person in the V
space. Describe what he/she looks
like. Then write he/she is doing.
15 Listen and write their names. V
16 Listen. Does the intonation go up V
or down?
17 Write what you hear in your V
notebook. How many adjectives
can you find in the text?
18 Make present continues sentences. V
Listen and check your answers.
19 Circle and correct the form. V
20 Answer the questions. (based on V
the context, use a simple present
or present continuous)
21 Complete the descriptions. There V
are extra words.
22 Match the suggestions to the V
excuses. Write the verbs in the
present simple or the present
continues.
23 Complete the dialogues. V
Total = 22 4 7 9 2 - -
52

Unit 4: London Diaries


Activities (Instructional Items Cognitive Dimension
No
or Questioning Stems) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. Circles the verbs and write their V
past form.
2. Complete with the past simple. V
3. Correct the false statements. V
4. Complete with was/were. V
5. Describe where you went last V
year.
6. Write the past tense. V
7. Write about life in London in V
1850.
8. Write about a day in the life of V
Troglit, the caveboy. And now
write about a day in your life.
9. Unscramble the questions. Listen V
and check your answers.
10. Answer the question about the
diary:
a. Whos writing the diary? V
b. What do you think shes V
excited and worried?
c. What do you think is going to V
happen?
d. Where is she? V
e. Wheres she staying? V
f. Why is today a big day? V
53

g. Who where the people? V


h. What didnt she win? V
i. How does she feel? V
10 Choose a special occasion in your V
life:
11 Write a diary entry. Write about: V
12 Include answers to these V
questions. (write or make a diary)
13 Listen and correct the false V
statements.
14 Regular Rachel repeats her V
routine every day. Listen and
make sentences.
15 Answer the questions about you. V
16 Find and circles fifteen verbs. V
17 Write the past form of these verbs. V
18 Complete Jakes diary. V
19 Make negative sentences. V
20 Complete the sentences. V
21 Which word/phrase is different? V
Think about meaning and
grammar.
22 Describe your last party. V
Total = 30 10 13 6 1 - -
54

Unit 5: Film Fan


Activities (Instructional Items Cognitive Dimension
No
or Questioning Stems) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. Label the types of film. V
2. Read and complete the table. V
3. Match the question and the V
answer. Listen and check your
answer.
4. Complete with who, which, where v
or what. Do you know the
answers?
5. Read and complete the profile. V
6. Unscramble and answer the V
questions.
7. Write the jobs. V
8. Complete the sentences with the V
words in the box.
9. Complete with verbs in the past V
simple .
10. What happened first? Order in the V
paragraphs.
11 Answer the questions.
a. Why did film companies move V
west? V
b. Who was Charlie Chaplin? V
c. What was The Jazz Singer? V
d. What happened in the 1950s? V
e. Who are Stephen Spielberg and V
55

Martin Scorcese?
f. What are the Oscars? V
12 Complete the text about Carlas V
uncle.
13 Listen and write true (T) or false V
(F).
14 Classify the simple past V
pronunciation. Listen, check and
repeat.
15 Write what you hear in your V
notebook. Where was she born?
16 Complete and match the questions V
and answers.
17 Complete the text in the past V
simple. Match the films and
pictures.
18 Write sentences with was and V
were.
19 Complete and answer the V
questions.
20 Complete the story. V
21 Answer the questions.
a. What was Shrek? V
b. Who did Shrek fall in love V
with?
c. What did he do when she was V
getting married?
d. What happened to Princess V
56

Fiona?
Total = 30 16 5 7 2 - -

Story 1: the Lost Pyramid


Activities (Instructional Items or Cognitive Dimension
No
Questioning Stems) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. Complete the extract from a V
magazine article.
2. A journalist is interviewing V
Brandon. Write her questions.
3. Who is speaking? Who are they V
talking about? Complete the
dialogue.
4. Complete the gaps in this part of V
the script with the verbs in the past
simple.
5. Match the two parts of the V
sentences.
6. Use the prompts to write the V
article.
Total = 6 - 1 5 - - -

Unit 6: A tall Story

Activities (Instructional Items or Cognitive Dimension


No
Questioning Stems) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. Write questions and answer about V
Jake and Carlas day.
57

2. What were you doing yesterday? V


Correct the wrong sentences.
3. Draw a line between the verbs and V
write their ing form in the correct
group.
4. Write what the Witsons were V
doing when the Martians landed.
5 Unscramble the ing form of the V
verbs and complete the sentences.
6 Look at the picture and complete V
the sentences using verbs form the
box.
7 Correct the sentences. Listen and V
check your answers.
8 Read and answers the questions. V
9 Rewrite the sentences with the V
correct form of the verbs.
10 Make sentences. V
11 Read the text. Why did the people V
panic?
12 Read the text again and tick the V
true sentences.
13 Find a word that means the same V
as the words below.
14 Use the picture to write a story. V
15 Listen and answer the questions. V
16 Answer the question about you V
using Yes, I was/No, I wasnt.
58

17 Look at the picture and answer the V


questions. What were they doing
when Susies mother rang?
18 Complete the conversation with V
the verbs in the past continuous.
19 Look at the pictures and fill in the V
blanks.
20 Match the two parts of the V
sentences.
21 Complete the sentences using the V
phrases.
22 Complete the sentences with your V
own ideas.
Total = 22 1 8 13 - - -

Unit 7: A Bright Future


Activities (Instructional Items Cognitive Dimension
No
or Questioning Stems) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. Make the predictions about life in V
2150.
2. Match the predictions and V
reactions.
3. Make more the predictions. V
4. Tick the predictions you think will V
be true for you. Correct any false
predictions.
5. Whos making the predictions? V
6. Match the questions and answers. V
59

7. Write Lennys questions. V


8. Write the question about the V
future.
9. Are you good at making the V
predictions? Try our
questionnaire.
10. Write questions for each category. V
11 Read the text and write these V
sentences in it.
12 Find words with the same V
meaning in the text.
13 Write two predictions that the V
article on page 44 makes about
these topics.
14 Listen and tick what they talk V
about (a-g). then listen again and
write true (T) or false (F) (h-m).
15 Listen and repeat the questions V
and answers.
16 Write what you hear in oyur V
notebook. How many predictions
are mentioned?
17 Complete the interview with will V
and wont.
18 Write the questions. V
19 Answer the question using short V
answers.
Total = 19 6 6 7 - - -
60

My Dossiers 2
Activities (Instructional Items Categories
No
or Questioning Stems) 1 2 3 4 5 6
1. How important are the following V
people to you? Number them from
1-10. (1 = most important)
2. Write the name of the person V
these statements refer to in your
case. You can write more than one
persons.
3. Who is the teenager describing? V
Match the people to the
paragraphs.
4. Find words and phrases in 3 to V
complete the lists.
5. Read the descriptions quickly. V
Tick who the girl is describing.
6 Order the questions according to
the order of the information in 5.
a. Does Vanessa have any V
negative qualities?
b. Where did they meet? V
c. How does she describe V
Vanessas character?
d. What do they do together? V
e. What does she look like? V
f. What is her best friends V
name?
61

g. What type of clothes does V


Vanessa wear?
h. Why is she her best friend? V

7 Answer the question about your


best friend.
a. Does he/she have any negative V
qualities?
b. Where did you meet? V
c. Describe his/her character. V
d. How old is your best friend? V
e. What do you do together? V
f. What does he/she look like? V
g. What is your best friends V
name?
h. What type of clothes does V
he/she wear?
Total = 21 18 3 - - - -

Unit 8: Play Safe


Instructional Items Cognitive Dimension
No
(Illustrative Verbs or Phrases) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. Match the parts of the body. V
2. Complete the chart with parts of V
the body.
3. Tick whats wrong with him. V
4. Match the two columns. V
5. Complete the dialogue. Listen and V
62

check your answers.


6. Circle nine types of sports V
equipment.
7. Classify the sports. V
8. Complete with should or V
shouldnt.
9. Give advice with should. V
10. Choose the last line for each story. V
11 Connect the words, then match V
the pictures.
12 Complete the advice. V
13 Complete the sentences with V
should and shouldnt.
14 Read the instruction and put the V
pictures in order.
15 Order the instruction for using a V
DVD. Then write the instructions.
16 Match the problems and remedies, V
then listen and make the
suggestions.
17 Write the sports you can practice, V
then listen and give advice.
18 Listen and offer ideas. V
19 Listen and order the emergency V
procedure.
20 Whats wrong with them? V
21 Complete the dialogue. V
22 Give the advice about sports. V
63

23 Write the missing parts. V


24 Write five instructions for V
English.
25 Complete the chart. V
Total = 25 2 14 7 2

Unit 9: Good Friends


Instructional Items Cognitive Dimension
No
(Illustrative Verbs or Phrases) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. Match the pictures and the V
requests.
2. Put the dialogues in order. V
3. Write sentences with can you or V
could you.
4. Where are they? There are two V
extra answers.
5. Complete the sentences. V
6. Unscramble the sentences. Listen V
and check your answers.
7. Compare their basketball skills. V
8. Complete the puzzle. Whats the V
secret animal?
9. Write the initial sentences. V
10. Tick the true statements. V
11 Listen and tick the pets you hear. V
Then listen again and complete
the chart.
12 Listen. Is the letter I in the V
64

underlined words silent? Write


yes or no?
13 Write what you hear in your V
notebook. What pets is she
describing?
14 Say no politely and give an V
excuse.
15 Complete the sentences with V
comparatives.
16 Compare the two cities. V
17 Which word does not belong in V
each group?
18 Write why they dont belong. V
19 Write sentences to compare. V
Total = 19 2 9 6 2 - -

Unit 10: Sweet Dreams


Instructional Items Cognitive Dimension
No
(Illustrative Verbs or Phrases) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. Complete the blanks. V
2. Read the interview and complete V
the form on the right for Jake.
3. Write about your abilities. V
4. When could you do these things? V
5. Sayings. Match the actions with V
the results.
6. Write sentences about the V
proverbs and superstitions.
65

7. Write first conditional sentences V


with the correct form of the verbs.
Listen and check your answers.
8. Write and answer question in your V
notebook.
9. Now finish the sentences in a V
suitable way.
10. Read the story and put the
pictures in order.
a. What day was it? V
b. Why is this date special? V
c. Why did John change his suit? V
d. Why was his boss angry? V
e. Why is John superstitious V
now?
11 Answer the questions. V
12 List the things mentioned in the V
text that bring bad luck.
13 Listen and answer the questions V
about yourself using Yes, I can. /
No, I cant.
14 Look, listen and answer the V
questions.
15 Tell a friend how to use Robbie. V
16 Listen to the tape and answer the V
questions.
a. Could you play tennis when
you were five?
66

17 Complete the sentences with can, V


cant, could or couldnt.
18 Match the sentences. V
19 Rewrite the sentences. V
20 What will they do? Complete the V
dialogue.
21 Match the opposite verbs. V
Total = 25 7 6 12 - - -

Story 2: Rock n Roll: Never Die


Instructional Items (Illustrative Cognitive Dimension
No
Verbs or Phrases) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. Put the pictures in the order the V
events happen in the students
book.
2. Complete the captions and match V
them to the pictures in 1.
3. Complete the sentences and put V
them in order.
4. Answer the questions about the
next part of the story.
a. What did the boy do after V
talking to his mother?
b. How did the old man react V
when he saw Jim at his
doorstep?
c. Why does Jim describe the old V
mans as Aladdins cave?
67

d. What did the old man give Jim? V


5. Are these statements true or false V
6. Jim was interviewed after the V
concert. Complete the questions
and answer them.
7. Read the descriptions and match V
them to the guitars.
Total = 10 4 3 2 1 - -

Unit 11: Opinions


Instructional Items Cognitive Dimension
No
(Illustrative Verbs or Phrases) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. Complete the table with make or V
do.
2. What is happening? V
3. Write what you think. Use I agree V
or I dont agree.
4. Read and answer the questions. V
5. Making suggestions. Match the V
suggestions and replies.
6. Find and circle ten types of music. V
7. Crossword puzzle: musical V
instruments.
8. Write your opinions about music. V
9. Complete the text with V
comparatives. Then listen and
check.
10. Make comparisons about music. V
68

11 What do you think? V


12 Read and match the problems and V
the advices. In your opinion,
which problem is the worst?
13 Write yes, I agree. / No, I dont V
agree.
14 Write advice with should or V
shouldnt.
15 Tick the sentences you agree with, V
then listen and speak.
16 Do you agree with the statements? V
Yes, I agree. / No, I dont agree.
17 Underline the stress in the V
adjectives. Then listen and check.
18 Write what you hear in your V
notebook. How many types of
music does he mention?
19 Complete the sentences with the V
correct form of make or do. Listen
and check your answers.
20 Finish the comparisons. V
21 Whats your opinion? Compare V
the items.
22 Make suggestions. V
23 Add three more words to each list. V
Total = 23 5 8 10 - - -
69

Unit 12: Dont Litter


Instructional Items Cognitive Dimension
No
(Illustrative Verbs or Phrases) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. Circle must or mustnt. Then V
match the rules and signs.
2. Match the questions and answers. V
3. Complete the rules with must or V
mustnt and these verbs.
4. Unscramble the sentences. V
5. Find and circle eight containers. V
6. Countable or uncountable? Label V
the items C or U.
7. Complete with a lot, much and V
many. Listen and check your
answers.
8. Write questions and answers. Is V
your diet healthy?
9. Read the rules and answer the V
questions.
10. Read and answer true or false. V
11 Write rules with mustnt and not V
allowed to.
12 Listen to the conversation and V
complete the blanks.
13 Listen to the message and V
complete the missing information.
14 Rewrite with must and mustnt. V
15 Where can you find the signs in V
70

1?
16 Circle the correct word. V
17 Complete with how much/many. V
Answer the questions.
18 Complete the sentences. V
Total = 18 4 9 4 1 - -

My Dossier 3: You and Your Environment Project


Instructional Items Cognitive Dimension
No
(Illustrative Verbs or Phrases) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. How green are you? Do the green V
quiz and find out.
2. Match the sentences to complete V
the messages.
3. Match the pictures with one of the V
sentences you made in 2.
4. Read the text and fill in the V
missing numbers.
5. Take action! Read the texts again V
and complete the chart with your
information.
Total = 5 1 3 -- - - 1

Unit 13: Last Minute


Instructional Items Cognitive Dimension
No
(Illustrative Verbs or Phrases) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. Write replies using Ill + verb. V
2. Underline the correct verb forms. V
71

Listen and check your answers.


3. Complete the Carlas diary. She is V
free on one day.
4. Answer Jakes question for Carla. V
5. Match the problems and offers. V
6. What do they do? Match the jobs V
to the descriptions.
7. Whats going to happen? V
8. Underline the correct verb. V
9. Complete the gaps with in, on, or V
at.
10. Classify the future use of the V
sentences.
11 Read and answer the questions.
a. Where can you listen to hip hop V
music?
b. Where can you listen to an V
interview with Sting?
c. Which is the sports channel? V
d. What link can give you the V
scores of the Premise League?
e. Where can you listen to general V
news headlines?
f. Can you listen to the news in V
Spanish?
g. In how many languages can you V
listen to the news?
h. Where can you listen to an V
72

interview with a very popular


football player?
12 Match the dates and the phrases. V
13 Look at 1, listen and say the dates. V
What dates is tomorrow?
14 Listen and answer the questions. V
Where Johns birthday?
15 Underline what they are going to V
do.
16 Look at 4 and answer the V
questions.
17 Read the rules, then listen and V
repeat.
18 Write what you hear in your V
notebook. When is the girl
meeting her friends?
19 Whats going to happen? Write V
sentences.
20 What is Jake doing next week? V
Look at his diary and write
sentences.
21 Complete the dialogues with will V
or going to.
22 Puzzle. Complete the missing V
dates.
23 Write shorts answer to the V
questions.
Total = 30 12 11 7 - - -
73

Unit 14: The Concert


Instructional Items Cognitive Dimension
No
(Illustrative Verbs or Phrases) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. Put the verbs in the past simple. V
2. Look at 1 and classify the verbs. V
3. Correct the sentences. V
4. Tick the questions that you can V
answer. Then put them in order.
5. Embarrassing moments. Complete V
the sentences using when or
while.
6. Complete the gaps with the verbs V
in brackets.
7. What do you think? V
8. Complete the sentences in a V
suitable way.
9. Unscramble the clauses. V
10. Match the clauses in 4 to make V
conditional sentences.
11 Read the texts below quickly.
a. Which give a positive V
opinion of the CD?
b. Which give a negative V
one?
12 Read the text again. Are these V
statements true or false?
13 Find the words in the texts and V
match them with their definitions.
74

14 Listen and mark the statements V


true or false.
15 What kind of music do you like? v
Why do you like it? What is your
favorite song?
16 Write a review of a CD you have V
listened to recently.
17 Complete the text with the verbs V
in the past simple.
18 Correct the mistakes. V
19 Unscramble the questions and V
answer them about you.
20 Underline the correct verb form. V
Total = 21 3 7 6 4 1 -

Story 3: Hope Mountains


Instructional Items Cognitive Dimension
No
(Illustrative Verbs or Phrases) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1. Match the phrases to form V
complete sentences.
2. Lisa is talking about their trip. V
Label the girls route on the map.
3. Do you remember her Grandads V
advice?
Correct the statements using must
and mustnt.
4. Read the story in the students
book and answer the questions.
75

a. What did the girls hear when V


they were walking up the slope?
b. What did they see on the V
ground?
c. What did they see from the top V
of the slope?
d. Who did they see? V
e. What was he holding? V
f. What did he do? V
g. How did the girls escape? V
5. Unscramble the words in brackets V
and complete the text.
6. Match the verbs in 5 to the V
pictures.
7. Write the story for to newspaper V
headlines.
Total = 13 7 3 2 1 - -
76

Appendix 2: Surat Permohonan Pembimbing Skripsi I


77

Appendix 3: Surat Permohonan Pembimbing Skripsi II


78

Appendix 4: Researcher Profile

Name : Nana Pratiwi


Place and Date of Birth : Solok, 29 Juni 1991
Permanent Address : Gelanggang Tinggi, Kinari,
Kec Bukit Sundi, Kab. Solok,
Sumatera Barat
Nationality : Indonesian
Religion : Muslim
Sex : Female
Ideal : English Teacher and Volunteer
of Education and Social
E-mail : nana7pratiwi@gmail.com