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The magazine for the international power industry September 2015

How to unlock
MENA power investment
Official Media Partner for
POWER-GEN Middle East 2014

SHOW ISSUE

EGYPTS 2.6 GW MEGA ROUND TABLE: NEW


FAST-TRACK PROJECT FUELS FOR GAS ENGINES
GAS TURBINES FOR USE TEST FACILITY PUSHES
IN HARSH CLIMATES THE SOLAR ENVELOPE
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POWER ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL
SEPTEMBER 2015/// VOLUME 23/// ISSUE 8

Contents

2 Industry Highlights

36 Project & Technology Update

39 Ad Index

40 Diary

Bringing 2.6 GW of fast-track power to Egypt


GE Power & Water

Features
24 Gas turbines in challenging conditions
4 How to unlock MENA power investment We highlight the technological developments for
The power sector investment opportunities in the Middle adapting gas turbines to operate in extreme heat,
East and North Africa are huge, but so too is the humidity or altitude.
challenge in releasing that finance. What is the solution?

30 Filtration developments for harsh climates


12 Egypts fast-track mega project Self-cleaning filters can optimize power output and
Tildy Bayar visited the GE Power & Water team as it heat rate for gas turbines operating in harsh, dusty
carried out a 2.6 GW fast-track installation for the Egyptian environments.
government GEs largest project in Egypt to date.

32 Masdar launches Solar Hub test facility


20 Gas engines: New fuels, new challenges UAE-based renewable energy research and development
What is the growth potential for gas engines running on firm Masdar has launched a new test facility for solar
alternative fuels? In a high-level round table discussion, technologies, with the aim of increasing the adoption of
key players came together to debate the challenges and solar power in the Middle East.
opportunities.

On the cover
Picture: IPP3 power plant in Jordan. Courtesy of Wrtsil.

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www.PowerEngineeringInt.com Power Engineering International September 2015 1


Industry Highlights
B
y the time you read this, the winners to renewable energy and energy efficiency
of this years Power Engineering measures, they are, according to Eurelectric,
International Asia Projects of the Year not attracting sufficient private capital and
awards will have carried off their trophies. investment in electricity generation assets and
Awarded at a Gala VIP ceremony at infrastructure.
POWER-GEN Asia in Bangkok earlier this Eurelectric has published a policy
month, the four winners represent the best document in which it outlined actions needed
of project design and innovation in the coal, to unlock secure investments in the MENA
gas, distributed generation and renewables region and you can read its recommendation
arenas (see www.powerengineeringint.com in our article on p4.
for details). Meanwhile, Europe continues to suffer the
The four projects deploy state-of-the-art flip side of the financing coin, and its woes
equipment to meet Asias increasing demand have again been highlighted.
for power. Hildegard Mller, head of the German
However, the winners also represent more Association of Energy and Water Industries
than just the best in technology some also (BDEW), said that the situation for existing
demonstrate innovative financing, which in a power plants is getting worse an ice age is
post-recession market is crucial. looming for the construction of new plants.
For example, the winner of the renewables Every second planned facility is hanging by
project the 150 MW Burgos Wind Farm - is a hair.
a groundbreaking project, being the first wind And Andreas Willi, an analyst at JPMorgan, The Projects of the Year
farm project financing in the Philippines to said recently: Most countries in continental winners represent the
reach financial close, and also the first to be Europe will probably not build new fossil power best in technological
banked under the Philippines new feed-in plants this decade. innovation
tariff regime. Siemens has sold 75 of its top-of-the-range
Another region alive to the potential and H-Class turbines since 2011, but only three in Kelvin Ross
possibilities of power project financing is the Europe, including two in Germany: the rest Editor
www.powerengineeringint.com
Middle East. were primarily in the US, South Korea and
Alex Thursby, chief executive of the National Egypt. Indeed, Egypt is proving to be fertile
bank of Abu Dhabi, says that to meet the ground for energy firms in recent months
energy needs of the Middle East will require GE, Siemens and Ansaldo have all secured
huge levels of investment in projects that massive power contracts in the country. (See
provide additional generation capacity and our focus on GEs 2.6 GW fast-track project on
improve the efficiency of our energy use. p12).
He says that since this will require Siemens chief executive Joe Kaeser said
innovative approaches to financing energy, this summer: The way in which Germanys
we believe it also presents real opportunities energy transition is being handled has
for the regions banking sector. What at first made it impossible for us ever to sell our
appear to be challenges, as the region makes fossil-fuel-related production and solutions in
the transition to a new energy future, can Germany.
become the source of the opportunity, when Bilfinger, the German engineering and
it is recognized that the situation will demand services group, has slashed profit guidance six
innovative responses in technology, industry times since mid-2014. The companys Herbert
and infrastructure all of which need to be Bodner said: The energy transformation in
financed. Germany has led to a completely uncontrolled
European electricity trade group Eurelectric decline in investment in fossil-fuel-based
also believes that a concerted effort is needed electricity generation.
to attract investment in the electricity sector in Uncertainty hinders any willingness to
Follow PEi Magazine on Twitter:
the Middle East and North Africa. invest. Our customers in the power business @PEimagzine
Although many countries in the region segment are in this situation, not only in
Follow me: @kelvinross68
have set ambitious targets to revise their Germany, but in neighbouring countries too.
energy strategies and are increasingly turning German energy policy has been infectious.

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IPP3 power plant in Jordan: a success story of financing and engineering
Project financing Wartsila

How to
How to unlock
unlock MENA
MENA
power investment
power investment
The power sector investment opportunities in the Middle East and North Africa are
huge, but so too is the challenge in releasing that finance. So what is the solution?,
asks Kelvin Ross

E
nergy demand in the Middle the scale of the task facing us all. But, for the provides evidence to convince financiers that
East is expected to increase region, it gives us the opportunity to create the investment opportunities in the regions
threefold in the next 15 years, far solutions for highly efficient energy systems power sector are real, large and happening
outstripping todays supply. that both supply our energy needs locally now.
The Middle East and North and connect to a growing world market in One key recent development being
Africa are forecast to account for energy technology. highlighted is the successful bid at the end
most of the worlds energy demand growth And he adds that since this will require of last year by the Dubai Electricity and Water
well into the 2030s and beyond. But many innovative approaches to financing energy, Authority (DEWA) for 200 MW of solar power
areas of the region face limited investments we believe it also presents real opportunities at $5.98/kWh, a game-changing price that
in new generation capacity and distribution, for the regions banking sector. has set a new world benchmark for utility-
and some countries have restricted or no The bank says that what at first appear scale solar PV costs, putting photovoltaic
supply of indigenous hydrocarbon resources. to be challenges as the region makes technologies on a competitive level with oil
In a report released this year called the transition to a new energy future can and gas.
Financing the Future of Energy, the National become the source of the opportunity, when
bank of Abu Dhabi states that to close the it is recognized that the situation will demand
gap will require huge levels of investment in innovative responses in technology, industry
The investment
projects that provide additional generation and infrastructure all of which need to be
capacity and improve the efficiency of our financed.
opportunities in the
energy use. NBAD believes that existing progress in
regions power sector
The banks chief executive Alex Thursby developing the Middle Easts energy mix are real, large and
stresses that we should not underestimate particularly with regard to renewables happening now

4 Power Engineering International September 2015 www.PowerEngineeringInt.com


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Project financing

Roberto Vigotti, secretary-general of In the document, it put forward eight key


RES4MED, says the DEWA deal is a game recommendations:
changer. Solar in the GCC can compete with
Renewable energy
gas and oil. Make regulatory agencies fit for purpose:
is no longer being
Vigotti adds that renewable energy is no put in place an enabling regulatory driven by climate
longer being driven by climate change its a environment change its a
commercial decision. Heightened political uncertainty and political commercial decision
Paul van Son, RWEs country chairman crises in a number of countries in the region
for MENA and Turkey, says that we have have adversely impacted investor confidence with reasonable electricity prices. All in all,
witnessed a paradigm shift in electricity supply. and foreign direct investment over the past independence represents the essence of
Renewables have become competitive on year. regulators mission, along with the need
their own without subsidy. Reducing this uncertainty is essential for autonomy and accountability in their
This is the first time that the sustainable to ensure that the ambitious investment decision-making process.
power is winning over the non-sustainable challenges can be met. A first prerequisite to While arbitrating fairly between consumers,
power from a market point of view. a stable investment climate is therefore the producers and investors, regulators should
However, realizing the power investment establishment of a capable, independent, put in place clear rules that boost investors
opportunity in the Middle East will, according determined and empowered regulator. confidence in generation and transmission
to NBAD, require collaboration between It is widely agreed that stable, fair, cost- and distribution infrastructure projects.
policymakers and financial institutions. reflective and performance-based regulation To successfully fulfil their role, regulatory
The banking sector has a major part to leads to much lower investment risks and agencies should take care to foster relevant
play, but so too do other financial services hence to larger investments, improved choice capacities and competences.
actors such as insurance companies or of contractors and lower financing costs. In the longer term, regulators of
global institutions. At the same time, a properly functioning neighbouring countries, or of countries
Alongside the financial sector, though, regulator should guarantee that consumers hosting common infrastructure, could work
governments have a continued contribution benefit from sustainable investments, more to harmonize rules, including through the
to make, from establishing power purchase transparency and better quality of service opening of access to infrastructure on a non-
agreements or procurement frameworks that
enable new technologies to be deployed at
scale and drive down costs.
Thus the key contribution of governments
is to provide the longer-term certainty that is a
prerequisite for new project development.
But the bank stresses that making the
transition smoothly requires strategic decisions
in the short term over the next five to ten
years to avoid locking the energy system
into further investments that will need to be
rethought as unavailability of competitively
priced conventional fuel sources mounts and
environmental sustainability becomes an
increasingly important performance criterion.
European electricity trade group Eurelectric
believes that a concerted effort is needed to
attract investment in the electricity sector in
the Middle East and North African region.
It says that although many countries have
set ambitious targets to revise their energy
strategies and are increasingly turning to
renewable energy and energy efficiency
measures, they are not attracting sufficient
private capital and investment in electricity
generation assets and infrastructure.
Eurelectric recently published a
policy document in which it outlined
recommendations on how to secure Roberto Vigotti: DEWA solar deal is a game changer
Credit: Eurelectric
investments in the MENA region.

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Project financing

It is widely agreed
that stable regulation
leads to lower
investment risks
and hence to larger
investments
discriminatory basis, thereby fostering further
investment in upstream resources.

Enable cost-reflective energy prices


remove domestic electricity subsidies
At present, electricity prices across most MENA
countries tend to be too low for investors to
recover the cost of generating electricity.
Electricity subsidies in the MENA region widen
the price gap between the costs of producing
and the price of electricity for consumers.
Eurelectric Secretary-General Hans ten Berge at the launch in Brussels of its MENA investment plan
Unfortunately, most governments continue to Credit: Eurelectric
provide substantial subsidies for fossil fuels,
thus imposing further disadvantages on
other technologies, including in particular become imperative to stimulate investment holistic energy policy strategy that is tailored
renewable energies. in much-needed generation capacity and to the local context and that combines a
Complicating matters further, the true cost grids to attain the growth goals of these sound organization of the market and a
of electricity production using fossil fuels is not countries. This challenge is particularly great supportive regulatory framework with targeted
clearly understood by the general public or, in considering the high population growth and interventions to address market failures.
some instances, by policymakers themselves. unemployment rates, as well as poverty levels Effective national policy is critical to create
This often results in misleading conclusions and social equity concerns in these countries. the kind of markets that financiers will find
due to inappropriate comparisons between Shifting subsidies away from fossil fuels attractive.
end-user tariffs, the cost of subsidized is important, but the short-term impact of Investors need this transparency on
hydrocarbon-based generation and the cost these changes on energy consumers must national energy strategy, the choices made
of renewable energy. be carefully managed to avoid political in this context, and the rationale for those
The existing price levels therefore cannot backlash. Low electricity prices as a support choices.
support new generation investments, either means for vulnerable customers are not an
by attracting private investors or by providing adequate response: they incentivize the Facilitate technical and political co-
domestic utilities with the means to invest on waste of energy and allow those who are not ordination and co-operation on grid
their own. The cost structure of retail energy in need to unnecessarily benefit. investments
prices are also not transparent to customers, Facilitating new regional-scale generation
and do not incentivize responsible customer Formulate sound and transparent energy and transmission projects is seen as the
behaviour, for example with respect to energy policies key investment priority of the MENA region.
efficiency. Eurelectric member companies mention the The construction and financing of new
Phasing out subsidies, ensuring fair prices lack of stimulating investment policies as transmission networks will continue to
that reflect the real cost of electricity products well as the general lack of transparency on act as a barrier as generation capacity
and improving efficient energy use have energy strategies and policies as important increases. New large-scale projects rely on
investment barriers. sufficient transmission components with well-
In some countries, uncertain policies planned financing of grid extensions and
create an ambiguous investment climate. It improvements.
It is urgent is therefore evident that credible policy and Furthermore, it is urgent to develop
to develop maximum market transparency is required interconnectors in the region in order to ensure
interconnectors in to generate private sector interest in this security of supply for interconnected countries
the region in order sector, and the lack of supportive, long-term, and to support economic optimization.

to ensure security of consistent or stable policy regimes constitutes Expanding cross-border trade can indeed
a big barrier to investment. be a cost-effective way to increase reliability
supply Mobilization of financing requires a and affordability, but technical and political

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Project financing

barriers persist. To overcome such barriers, the required by banks. Cost transparency The MENA countries stand to benefit greatly
development of intense technical and political needs to be improved and organization from the EUs energy strategy, certainly with
co-operation is fundamental. Institutions questions regarding market integration the new momentum brought by the Energy
like MEDREG, MEDGRID and MEDTSO are need to be better answered. Union. Whereas most MENA countries were
increasingly involved in developing strong Due to the structure of the energy markets traditionally relevant to the EUs energy market
institutional partnerships at the regional in the region and because energy prices, because of their vast fossil fuel resources, they
and international levels, promoting effective including fuel oil and electricity, are subsidized have recently become increasingly relevant
exchange and leading to further integration for end users, there is an identifiable need because of their substantial renewable
of the regions countries. for well-designed and targeted government energy potential.
Synergy between these organizations is investment incentives and support Within the framework of the Energy Union,
crucial, notably to encourage the adoption of mechanisms in order to develop private there is now a clear opportunity for the EU to
compatible cross-border network codes. investment in renewable energy projects in become more aware of its role and influence
the region. A lack of clarity and coherence in the MENA region and to start thinking
Open market structures, in particular regarding available opportunities currently about long-term engagement. The European
for renewable energy-based generation undermines private sector participation and Commission (EC) has already envisaged
projects competition in most of the countries. the concept of a Mediterranean Energy
Competition should be introduced where MENA governments should therefore Community by 2020. The EC should continue
possible, notably in power generation, design incentives that drive private investment to develop ideas to open a credible window
trade, ancillary services and electricity to take advantage of the private sectors of opportunity for the integration of Southern
supply, provided that a level playing field is financing capacity, to profit from technology Mediterranean energy markets within the EU
established and that national markets are transfers, to optimize their oil and gas trades market.
sufficiently large, or that interconnections exist, and to benefit from positive environmental The main challenge for the EU will be to
giving room to larger regional markets. externalities (e.g., a lower carbon footprint). incentivize its neighbours to strive to adopt
Deregulation within national and regional The most meaningful public finance EU regulations without being able to rely on
energy markets is important to allow free entry programmes employ a package of financing a well-developed institutional framework for
and exit of new players and to create and mechanisms rather than relying on any single energy co-operation and without offering
facilitate competition among providers, in mechanism or fixed set of mechanisms. These them fully-fledged EU membership.
particular for the development of large-scale packages may include lines of credit to local Energy regulation diffusion to other regions
renewable energy generation projects. finance institutions; project debt financing; has, however, proved to be successful in the
loan softening programmes; guarantees to past, for instance with the enlargement of the
Design and implement the right financing mitigate lending risk; grants and contingent Energy Community to countries like Ukraine or
mechanisms to stimulate exploration of grants for project development costs; equity, Moldova.
renewable energy potential quasi-equity and venture capital; or carbon In order to persuade MENA countries to
Despite the substantial economic potential finance facilities. The programmes should join the Energy Community, the institution
of renewable energy across the MENA seek to leverage additional private financing should however be much more supportive
region, a number of factors currently make to the largest possible extent, and adopt to organizing a broad knowledge exchange
such projects economically unviable without a portfolio approach that avoids creating and having a closer look towards the barriers
targeted government support. The main path dependency on any specific set of and weaknesses in implementation of the
barriers include: technologies. Treaty, rather than focusing too much on the
l
Market risks: MENA economies generally legal enforcement aspects.
experience wider fluctuations of Improve education and technology transfer The right way forward for the South will most
macroeconomic indicators, making their Too few incentives exist to encourage the likely be a step-by-step approach that leads
investment climate harder to forecast private sector to hire and train local staff or to to better framework conditions for a possible
for investors. This in turn results in higher create business linkages with local SMEs.There set-up of a Southern Mediterranean Energy
borrowing costs, shorter loans, and higher is a need to shape strategy further by providing Community in the long run. Setting up industry
equity requirements for finance; dedicated training for key energy decision- and regulatory forums and workshops to
l
Technology and capacity risks: The limited makers within the MENA countries in order to enable necessary regulatory and market
expertise and experience (of the labour improve competence and share knowledge reforms and grid infrastructure is a priority first
force) can lead to misjudgments, decrease and information between EU member states step.
anticipated productivity, and unexpectedly and the region, e.g., on network codes, This could be followed by initiating the
increase costs. Relevant knowledge and technical standards, and renewable energy design of a centralized control centre to
capacity is often also limited among project financing. monitor the activities of electricity TSOs in the
relevant public administrations; Mediterranean region.
l
Access to finance: High up-front payment Enhance the EU-MENA Energy Cooperation:
and risks associated with renewable energy extend the Energy Community concept Visit www.PowerEngineeringInt.com
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One site went from flat ground to operational power plant in 11 weeks
Fast-track power Credit: GE Power & Water

Fast-tracking in Egypt
Delivery of a major

U
ndertaken under the auspices 10, and first fire and commissioning took place
power project under of the new Egyptian during week 11, followed by the issuance of
governments Power Boost the construction completion certificate.
severe time constraints
programme, GEs 2.6 GW The unique thing about the TM2500s,
is a huge undertaking, fast-track power project was noted James Rusty Bonnett, EPC and gas
involving hundreds of designed to prepare the turbines project leader, is their ability to move
people, massive amounts country for the heat of the upcoming summer in fast.They are the workhorses of what we do.
of technology and months, as well as the increased energy use And it wasnt just the technology that moved
expected during the month of Ramadan, in fast the working teams did too. PEi visited
tremendous logistics.
beginning in mid-June. Under a contract several of GEs sites in Egypt and spoke with
Tildy Bayar visited the GE signed in mid-December 2014, GE was to the teams on the ground to find out what
Power & Water team as provide, install and commission a total of kinds of challenges they faced during the
they carried out a 46 gas turbines 34 aeroderivative turbines project, and how they dealt with them.
2.6 GW fast-track (14 LM6000 PCs, in the 4350 MW range,
and PFs, at 42-57 MW; and 20 TM2500+, at Working around the clock
project for the Egyptian
2530 MW), plus 12 E-class heavy duty According to GE, the first turbines were on their
government the turbines. These would be installed at multiple way to Egypt within hours of the contracts
businesss largest project sites throughout Egypt, and would need to signing. But even before the deal was finalized,
in Egypt to date. begin coming online in under six months. Bonnett said his team had begun working
For just the TM2500 sites, 500 MW would around the clock to make it happen.
need to be installed in 11 weeks. In GEs Gunnar Berg, LM6000 project director,
time-lapse video document, the customer noted that, in December 2014, a bunch of
selected 10 sites during week one. Week two teams GE, [Spanish EPC contractor] TSK
involved site preparation procedures such as and our other partners were virtually locked
debris clearing and levelling and preparing up in meeting rooms working out detailed
surface areas. During week three, the units equipment breakdown and configuration
were delivered after customs clearance, plans, which were presented to the customer
road assessments and transport logistics were within days of the contract signing. Of the
worked out.The foundations were then poured LM6000 [turbines], said Berg, some were
during week four, and the units arranged starting on liquid fuel, some on gas fuel,
on the foundations in week five. Balance some with water and some without quite a
of plant construction began in week seven configuration to match up. The key success
with the installation of the transformers, fuel factor in delivering the plans to the customer
tanks, cables and so on, and in week nine quickly was the teamwork between our
the turbine assembly began. The units were teams at GE and our partners, he said.
synchronized to the customers grid in week Projects like this get a lot of attention for

12 Power Engineering International September 2015 www.PowerEngineeringInt.com


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Fast-track power

The LM6000 units are modular and quick-connect


Credit: GE Power & Water

their commercial and financial value, he How do we get [a project of this scale] And it wasnt just GEs team that worked
added, but probably even tougher is the done?, he asked, and answered his own flat-out. Berg said GEs Egyptian T&D EPC
executional intensity required to pull this question: Everyone works 24/7. partner, El Sewedy Electric, had completed
through. Progress updates on each Egyptian site its work on a TM2500 site in the greater Cairo
From the top-level project managers to the were posted for the entire company. In April, area in 1.5 months instead of the usual four
construction crews on the ground at each Berg announced in a video update from to six. The teams were competing to have
site, a significant aspect of their work seemed one LM6000 site that four units plus auxiliary their electrical stuff up first, he said, with the
to be keeping in mind at all times that the subsystems were placed on foundations winning group planting the Egyptian flag atop
clock was ticking. Bonnett, for example, set here just two months after breaking ground. the installation.
up a countdown clock for each project on Impressive progress! The fact that the units
his mobile devices, which he shared with were modular and quick-connect, he noted, Making it happen
everyone on his team. eliminated weeks of work. According to Bonnett, the project schedule
ran to some 24 pages, with 50 to 60 tasks listed
on each page, broken down into individual
components: systems, infrastructure, cable
laying, and so on.
Making all of it happen involved an
impressive amount of organization in a short
time, and one of the key steps was finding
the necessary equipment. Bonnett said that,
with multiple engine configurations with
all different systems we had to take stuff
meant for other projects. You cant deliver
14 complete units in 15 days. But he noted
that GEs strategic inventory process allows
for borrowing or allocating different parts
for different projects. For the Egyptian project
the equipment came from around the world:
according to Bonnett, on one LM6000 site
the stacks were from Mexico, the units from
Hungary and the transformers came from
Canada.
We do pride ourselves on having a strong
supply chain to make sure we have the right
parts to do what we need to do, he said,
Challenges included moving an entire plant 150 metres
Credit: GE Power & Water also noting that, in some cases such as the
Egyptian project, we can retrofit certain

14 Power Engineering International September 2015 www.PowerEngineeringInt.com


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Fast-track power

the LM6000 sites, was shown in the midst of


performing a retrofit on a LM6000 PF. While
the engine had originally been set up for
standard dual-fuel, he said, several days is
about how long this engine would be able
to last with the current fuel system. He added
that we developed this system recently for
customers unable to sustain long periods of
gas running.
According to Simmons, customer
representatives had recently toured the facility
and were very pleased with our ability to
gather the material in a timely manner, get it
out here and get it ready for them to produce
power.
Part of the challenge of large, fast-track
projects involves developing a configuration
of gas turbine generator packages that
exactly matches the available local fuel,
Units can be configured in a mix-and-match approach
optimizes the balance of plant equipment
Credit: GE Power & Water
design, and considers the local environment
in which the units will operate. At one site, Berg
gas turbine units with different parts to meet worked on one turbine, it has a better chance noted that the required filtering equipment
customer needs. We also can leverage our of working on another. hadnt been available in enough time due
experience across GEs portfolio to understand In one video update, Jimmy Simmons, a to the tight installation schedule, so the team
how successful certain retrofits will be if it gas turbine operations specialist at one of had taken a mix-and-match approach in

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16 Power Engineering International September 2015 www.PowerEngineeringInt.com


Fast-track power

order to deliver the right technology and configurations on schedule.


His team opted to use cooling water for all of the LM6000s lube oil
systems, providing three water-to-air cooled generators that otherwise
would not have been available for the project. In addition, three
LM6000 units at a six-unit site were equipped with self-cleaning pulse
filter systems, while the other three units used static element air filter
systems.The setup, Berg said,will allow the operator to gain experience
using both technologies.
While most of the units were transported to Egypt via cargo ship,
some of the larger equipment had to be air-freighted on an Antonov
heavy cargo transport plane. The model used, the Antonov an-124
Ruslan, is the biggest serial heavy lifter in the world, according to the
company. Berg noted that scheduling an Antonov delivery was not a
small matter given that its hire is not hours-based like a normal aircraft,
and that it requires more hours on the ground for maintenance. He
explained that GE needed the [Antonov] that was big enough, and
needed to hire it for when it was needed, often at short notice.

The challenges
In addition to being the companys fastest, the Egypt project was also
the most technically complex in terms of engineering, Bonnett noted,
with all of the systems to piece together adding up to one very large
spreadsheet. For an example of the complexity, the LM6000s existed
in two versions for this project, and the auxiliary systems were designed
with different options, he said.
According to Bonnett, equipment configurations needed to be
HIGH PERFORMANCE
detailed with GEs suppliers so that the equipment arrived in Egypt in
the right order to facilitate the necessary work which sometimes
didnt happen, and work would be hung up as a result. Customs Electric actuators for the
clearance was also sometimes challenging, even though the process power plant industry
had been carefully planned and the Armament Authority officials
were ready, thanks to efforts by the government.
Reliable, powerful, precise control. AUMA
Sherif Abdel Moneim, construction co-ordinator for the LM6000 sites, offer a large portfolio of actuator and
said the biggest challenge for his team was getting the equipment
gearbox type ranges.
to the site in accordance with the schedule. He noted that, at times,
work was hung up while youre waiting for a piece of equipment you Automating all types of
need, and that the team eventually had to air-freight most of it on the industrial valves
Antonovs.
The number one issue and the biggest lesson learned, Bonnett
Standardised interface for
said, involved bringing in skilled people. Although he said the various site control systems
Egyptian government was very helpful, entry clearance inevitably took
Plant Asset
additional time. Nevertheless, he noted that the most important aspect
of any project is investing in people who can fix things when they go Management
wrong because they will. functions
Wade Cantwell, site manager for one of the LM6000 installations,
identified an initial challenge as all the equipment arriving within
Service
10 days of each other and having to be unloaded. But his biggest worldwide
challenge, he said, was managing a team that included 19 nationalities
on a single work site. The language, and fitting 19 nationalities into a
team, takes a little while, he said. Discover
The only accident Cantrell could recall at his site was a brake our solutions
failure on a crane.The driver drove it into a foundation to avoid hurting for the
anyone, and bruised his knee, he said. power plant
The need to make sometimes significant adjustments to each site on industry
the fly was another perennial issue. In general, Bonnett said,customers www.auma.com
make decisions very late in the process, so were always trying to set
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www.PowerEngineeringInt.com Power Engineering International September 2015 17


Fast-track power

noted. Finally, restacking six 100,000-litre tanks


at one site due to space restrictions was
another unexpected change. We adjusted
everything the customer needed, Berg said,
noting that every TM2500 site was eventually
changed from its original layout. We listened
to what the customer wanted, and made it
happen, he said.

Moving forward
Work was completed ahead of time on the
TM2500 sites, in time to provide 440 MW for
Ramadan. Work on the LM6000 sites was
completed on schedule in July.
According to analysis firm the Oxford
Business Group, Egypts power generation
capacity needs to be scaled up to 50 GW
by 2025, nearly double todays capacity, to
The team on one work site included 19 nationalities
meet a demand growth of 1012 per cent
Credit: GE Power & Water
per year. In addition to GEs contribution,
Egypt has recently added or contracted
a speed record and he added that any in additional workload and a quick rethinking power capacity using multiple technologies
construction project is a bit of a push-pull. of the site preparation. In addition, the team from a number of companies, including a
Among the adjustments noted by Bonnett and had to change one plant over from gas to $266 million deal signed in June with Ansaldo
Berg were moving the entire Cairo-area plant liquid fuel because gas was unavailable Energia to upgrade two gas-fired power plants
150 metres at the customers request, resulting resulting in three weeks of extra work, Berg with three 265 MW steam turbines; a $9 billion

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Fast-track power

Work on the LM6000 sites was completed in July


Credit: GE Power & Water

deal with Siemens, also signed in June, for energy projects for its inaugural feed-in tariff mobile GEs team will now be on to other
16.4 GW in gas-fired plants and wind power; scheme. projects elsewhere.
a $30 million contract in July with APR Energy With such large-scale infrastructure Bonnett, for one, has worked on large-
for a gas-fired power plant; a memorandum projects in the works and an immediate need scale power projects in a number of countries
of understanding signed last year for the for power, fast-track power is a logical first step. including Algeria, Turkey and Mexico, and
countrys first coal-fired power plant, to be Governments like the TM2500s, says Bonnett, looks forward to finding out where his next
built by an Abu Dhabi-based consortium; a because they can come online quickly and assignment will take him.
preliminary agreement with Russia on building they are mobile they can move further out
a nuclear power plant, signed in February; as theyre replaced with permanent plants. Visit www.PowerEngineeringInt.com
and in January Egypt picked 109 renewable And its not only the technology which is for more information

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Round table panellists debate the future of gas engines running on alternative fuels
Gas engines

New fuels, new challenges:


A round table discussion
What is the growth potential for gas engines running on alternative fuels? In a
round table discussion organized in partnership with ExxonMobil, key players
came together to debate the challenges and opportunities, writes Kelvin Ross

T
he use of gas engines is continually energy sufficiency/efficiency will in future drive In India, she said the needs and
increasing as the capabilities of the market for alternative fuels, the current requirements are very basic: They need
these machines become more biogas market has somewhat slowed down. energy, and they just want to meet demand.
cutting edge. There was talk three to four years ago There is a growing rise in interest in clean
In the new energy landscape about renewables and alternative fuels taking fuels the Indian government is focused on
the buzzword is flexibility, and gas over the market, but the recession put a brake renewable energy.
engines are fulfilling that need, winning new on that. She said that for an emerging market like
devotees because of the speed at which they She said Frost & Sullivan believes that, India which has a desperate need for power,
can be transported and installed compared for the European market, there is 40 GW of the reason for looking to waste gas was
to their gas turbine counterparts. installed capacity, and added that globally a obvious:There is a lot of waste, and they need
One of the key trends of recent years is few pockets are growing Germany, central to use it.
the development of gas engines running on and Eastern Europe, India and China. But she cautioned that the availability of
alternative fuels. Gunjan said that the key drivers of the waste-to-fuel technology comes at a cost. If
I recently moderated a round table market were cost/benefit, regulations, enough subsidies are not provided to help,
discussion which assessed the current and political stability and energy consciousness. they are not going to meet their needs.
future challenges and opportunities that the Of those developing pockets, she said Energy and engine consultant Jacob
alternative fuel gas engine market is facing. Germany is taking a lead because it is a very Klimstra said that the market potential of
Pritil Gunjan, Energy & Environment Industry open-minded country. They are aware that biogas rather depends on just what you
Analyst for Europe at consultancy Frost & greenhouse gases will cause huge havoc mean by biogas: AD, syngas, landfill gas all
Sullivan, began the session by setting the for future generations it is a commendable have different qualities and problems and
scene. She said that while clean energy and thing that the country is doing. challenges.

20 Power Engineering International September 2015 www.PowerEngineeringInt.com


Gas engines

Gunjan: waste-to-fuel technology Boom: highlighted increasing Grtz: spoke about trends
comes at a price maintenance costs for the future

Looking at low electricity prices in Europe lubricant. The stop-start nature of flexible batch that is relatively clean and then the next
at the moment, its very difficult to compete. operations puts more pressure on the lubricant batch could have high levels of impurities
He said that in the Netherlands there were to protect the engine during startup. As the such as siloxanes and sulphides. Its important
a lot of big farmers using biogas from their engine starts up, it takes time for the lubricant to protect engines against these impurities
manure and waste, but the problem was that to be pumped through the system, which can and lubricants are now available which can
the scale was too small only 350500 kW. leave moving parts operating without suitable help mitigate the negative effects to reduce
When you look at the processing of gas to protection. Its therefore important to select scuffing and wear and keep engines running
get it clean enough to put into an engine, it is a lubricant that can enable quick start-ups, for longer.
too expensive. Biogas may be possible on the while offering optimum protection, even when Its also important to make regular
municipal level, but on a smaller scale its very, aggressive gases are being used. maintenance checks used oil analysis is
very difficult to compete in the long run. A key issue for all the panellists was the even more important for engines running on
Dr Tilman Ttken, vice-president of MAN quality of gas from differing sources. aggressive gases such as those from landfill
Diesel & Turbo, was keen to highlight the Andreas Grtz, Director of Sales for Power or farming waste where engine wear can be
German success story of 4000 MW of biogas. Generation at Rolls-Royce Power Systems, accelerated. Developing products that have
We have subsidies, political will, a believes it makes no sense to use farmland to the potential to offer energy efficiencies can
clear environment for subsidies, and it was grow plants for producing biogas or biofuel. I also help extend oil drain intervals and reduce
decentralized, with a lot of smaller engines. spoke to a farmer a couple of days ago and waste. With a thorough process it is possible
But he cautioned that around the world it hes invested in a biogas power station. His to improve the productivity of gas engines
is difficult to get subsidies or financing and the price for corn was 70 ($81) now its 36. running on biogas.
technology challenge of cleaning waste gas However, he said gas from waste makes Klimstra said that gas quality has to be
is very costly. However he is mildly optimistic sense: In Asia theres a huge amount of determined by customers and not by suppliers.
there is a lot of waste were still developing waste, so use it. But he does not believe that By now gas companies have completely
technologies to make it commercially feasible in Germany you can use biogas as backup changed their position. If the gas quality is
but it will take a lot of time. for renewables its not sufficient, you have to variable, you cant guarantee flexibility.
use natural gas. With poor quality you have to start the
Flexibility Paul Jordan, Global Market Sector Head of engine very slowly; with good gas quality,
Frank Grewe, Managing Director at 2G Clean Energy & Power Generation at Ricardo, engines perform very well. With poor quality
Energietechnik, said that currently we see said that landfill feedstock is changing as well, they cant respond so quickly, so the engine
that its getting more and more important as recycling and composting is improved. cant deliver ancillary services.
for us to be flexible with our CHP and power Feedstock is going into scrubbers pre- I asked the panel what is the biggest
generation. pipeline, so there will be challenges around constraint to the growth of gas engines fuelled
2G Energietechnik specializes in heat, not how you standardize that its difficult. Industry by alternative gas policy or technology?
just power generation, especially in the small will have to be aware that what we set today Both, said Gunjan, while Rick Boom,
power range, and here Grewe said that may not be the same as in 20 years time. Director of Product Marketing of Large Engines
flexibility becomes more important. He said it will require flexibility in whatever at Woodward Nederland, said that while the
He listed three main requirements for process, whether pre-pipeline or with a gas technology has to deal with different gas
todays gas engines: To be reliable so theyre engine. qualities, that can be done. Most engines
there if needed, low maintenance costs, and Jarmo Vihersalo, Europe, Africa and Middle today are tuned for a certain gas quality, but
to fit the emissions regulations. East Industrial Marketing Advisor for Energy at with direct feedback from the combustion
Thorsten Hamm, Field Testing Co-ordinator ExxonMobil, said the fluctuation of gas quality chamber you can adapt that, so the
for Europe, Africa and Middle East at has an effect on engine maintenance. technology is available but not on every
ExxonMobil, said that flexible energy supply Variable gas quality puts more pressure engine installed today. But it should not be a
presents unique challenges in terms of the on engine performance. You could have one hurdle.

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com Power Engineering International September 2015 21


Gas engines

an impact on lifetime, so there are higher


maintenance costs. The technology is there
to do it. You can adapt to different fuel quality
cycle-to-cycle.
Grtz added: One trend is to use more
flare gas thats available thats of poorer
quality this is a trend for the future.
In terms of the potential of alternative gas
engines, I asked, which countries offer the
most scope for development?
Hamm: flexible energy presents Vihersalo: We need to keep Jordan said that the UK has done a lot of
unique challenges corrosion out of the engine
study on this, and at the moment about half
of the methane is used out of landfill sites in
Hamm noted that its a question of it can be delivered quickly and efficiently. This the UK. Thats almost all of the economically
investment on the customer side. Flexibility is all comes down to maintenance when the attractive methane from landfill sites, so this
a cost driver, but from a lubricant perspective engine is running the in-service lubricant is has peaked and is in decline.
its challenging. Regular start-stops of a gas protecting components. He said the big opportunities will definitely
engine can result in greater scuffing and wear However, when the engine is not in be in developing countries but its a question
from impurities, which ultimately compromises operation, the aggressive elements are left in of how quickly they get their waste streams
engine longevity and productivity. the engine, increasing the risk of corrosion. So developed.
But that doesnt mean its impossible its we really need to find a solution to optimize Ttken noted that Europe is difficult. Its
about working with our customers to develop operations and reduce this risk. If were only difficult to assess because the regulations
lubricants that match their requirements. Were using biogas for peak energy demand, its are not stable, so every company is making
aware of the challenges in producing power making it much more difficult to protect the a feasibility model based on the availability
from waste and landfill gas and develop our engine. We have to work closely with our of feedstock and the FiT you will get. Its a
lubricants accordingly. customers and OEMs to find the best solution complex evaluation. We have to see other
Jordan raised the potential of energy to this problem. waste conversion there is a lot of talk about
storage. There is a role for energy storage Klimstra added that you also see this with syngas but we will see if it gets to a significant
with gas engines. If you have variability on heat changes. With a condensing system business.
renewable energy and theres variability on there can be sulphur in the exhaust gases. He added that if there is support from
demand, Im sure therell be hybrid situations Even with stainless steel you see a lot of heavy the political system then growth could
where you can run engines at higher capacity metals in the water stream coming from the be EU-wide, but in the past it was always
to maintain optimum efficiency, using the plant, because of standstill and corrosivity of Germany running in the front and the others
excess into storage. Storage then will have liquids from condensation. not following. We will see if the EC will look on
faster response in certain applications as well, I then asked the panel what changes we technology targets or other targets.
which again can help the grid. Were starting can expect to see in engine design. Hamm said that in Europe were driving
to look at this in our field, and its one of the Ttken said that, for low calorific value the technology. Engine builders are leading
areas we think will develop over time. gases, I might foresee more capacity in the market and exporting to other countries.
Grtz said there is an interesting concept fuel pumps and fuel injectors, but not a big We need to continue investing in technology
in Germany: Engines for district heating change. so we can overcome barriers to market and
thermal boiler capacity for storing heat. You Boom said: When you have nasty gases create reliable power generation models.
can use the electricity to heat up the boiler, you have to apply coatings, but the coatings Grtz predicted that biogas wont be a
and can get money from the green energy cost money. Even with the coating it has big trend in Europe There is a small market
ministry and no need for CHP for heating
demand it can feed into the thermal boiler.
Its a very innovative and interesting concept.
Grewe added that power-to-heat is also
happening in the smart power range. It can
be very quick and can go down with the
engine a bit slower. It doesnt destroy energy,
it makes heat.
Vihersalo said that, for the most part, these
types of biogases are being used to make up
the gap at peak energy levels. We therefore
need to find a way to keep corrosion out of Ttken: highlighted the German Klimstra: AD, syngas, landfill all have different
success story of biogas qualities, problems and challenges
the engine, so that when energy is required,

22 Power Engineering International September 2015 www.PowerEngineeringInt.com


Gas engines

for island use but not a big market and Boom and Grewe also
conceded that it is a niche market.
Gunjan said that the problem with landfill is that nobody wants it in
their back yard. Waste-to-energy, if that can be sent out to consumers
at the same cost, there would be support for it. Whether utilities are

YOUR GLOBAL
able to meet that kind of cost demand is something else.
But even the developing countries have their own barriers to
growth. Gunjan said India is too diverse, too decentralized. She said

POWER GENERATION
the key drivers for the sector to grow are proper grid infrastructure and
support mechanisms, not the fact that there is a lot of waste available.
Hamm explained how ExxonMobil keeps pace with, and even

PARTNER
anticipates, future demand and challenges.
We keep in close contact with major OEMs, keep our ear on the
rail to find out whats going on what is the next trend or challenge,
and this feeds into the next product development wed like to do.
Our design department comes up with a new formulation, and
then it goes to lab testing. The variation in gas quality is sometimes
challenging you need 600010,000 hours before you can say the oil
has been proven, so it can take 18 months. Product development is
three years, so we have to be really early on the market.
He said that now everybody is crazy about the efficiency rate, so
we have to manage the oxidation challenge.
Mechanical oil consumption is something everybody is trying
to get down. Making sure the heat exchanger does not receive too High performance components
much ash; we have to find a really good solution, thats whats really
driving development.
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Finally, I asked the panellists what would be the best and the worst Advanced lter cleaning controls
thing that could happen to the sector in the near future.
Hamm said the best thing would be having a solid gas standard Membrane air dryer technology
and quality so that we know what we can expect for the engine.
Lubrication protection systems
Grtz said a real boost would be if there is a solution for power-
to-gas. Im not sure its really feasible, but this would change it a lot
and would be a real economic way of having power with storage to

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Backup power fired by gas is a solution at the moment, but a


booster would be if there was a decent concept for power-to-gas, to
use green energy to produce gas which can then be fired. Maybe
hydrogen, but this is a big question what is the right gas can we
feed it into a normal gas line? This would change the whole world for
us.
Tilmen said that we have power-to-gas for methanization we
need CO2 that is an existing technology: the plants are running.
But, he continued,under the legal framework operators are seen
as consumers and they have to pay EEG fees, so the legal framework
would have to support this concept. We need mid-term storage, more
than pumped storage this would help everybody. Membrane Air Dryer & FluidPro Hover
Jordan said that the worst thing would be uncertainty over
regulation, subsidy, and gas quality variability.The best thing would be
more opportunity in terms of big markets China and India opening PRECISION FILTRATION ON SHOW AT BOOTH J9
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The best thing, he concluded,is opportunity. cleanairsystems.com

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www.PowerEngineeringInt.com Power Engineering International September 2015 23


Stage 1 bucket being coated with thermal barrier coating by an air plasma spray gun
Gas turbine technology Credit: GE

Taking
the heat
Adapting gas turbines for heat, humidity and altitude is a complex equation with
no single solution, writes Penny Hitchin

L
ocation, site and climate can all This reduces the output of the gas turbine and temperature reduces the work of compression
have a substantial impact on the decreases efficiency. and there is more power available at the
efficiency and power output of gas Gas turbine manufacturers specify turbine output shaft.
turbines. In hot climates and or at performance at standard conditions called Three main types of system are available:
high altitude, gas turbines operating ISO ratings. The three standard conditions evaporative cooling, overspray techniques
in single or combined cycle generate specified in the ratings are Ambient (high fogging or wet compression) and chiller
less power than their equivalent counterparts Temperature 15oC, Relative Humidity 60 per technology. In evaporative cooling, water is
operating in a cooler climate or near sea level. cent, and Ambient Pressure at Sea Level. Gas trickled through a porous medium to cool
Seasonal and diurnal weather variations turbine efficiency deteriorates by 1 per cent the air. Evaporative cooling is not effective
also affect turbine performance. With the for every 10-degree rise in temperature above in conditions of high humidity. Water is not
demand for power in the Middle East and ISO conditions. Depending on the gas turbine, injected into the system.
Southeast Asia growing, turbine experts have this translates into a power output reduction of In a fogging system, water droplets are
focused on developing techniques to improve 5 to 10 per cent. sprayed in the air to artificially create colder
the efficiency of turbines operating in hot and conditions. The water evaporates in the air
humid climates. Inlet air cooling systems inlet before reaching the compressor. In wet
Gas turbines are air-breathing machines In the last 20 years in an attempt to compression or inlet fogging, a fine spray of
whose power output is dependent on the compensate for the lower air mass at high demineralized water enters the compressor,
air mass through the compressor. Ambient temperatures, gas turbine (GT) manufacturers where it evaporates. Fogging and overspray
temperature, altitude and humidity all affect have introduced techniques to cool inlet air, systems require more water than evaporative
the density of air. On hot days, when air is thus boosting turbine output in single and cooling. In areas where water is in short supply,
less dense, power output falls off. Hot and combined cycle operations. Feeding cooler other techniques may be more appropriate.
humid air is less dense than dry, cooler air air into the turbine increases mass flow, Air inlet chilling cools the air by refrigeration.
and the density is thinner at high altitudes. resulting in higher output. The power required It is power-hungry but may be economic in
As the density of air decreases, more power to compress air is directly proportional to the cases where off-peak or cheap power can be
is required to compress the same mass of air. temperature of the air, so reducing the inlet air used.

24 Power Engineering International September 2015 www.PowerEngineeringInt.com


Gas turbine technology

Each has advantages and disadvantages lower specific costs than buying or building plant (for example, coating compressors
and it takes site-specific analysis of a number of new capacity. It is important to look at all these with advanced coatings), but it enables
factors to determine the optimum technology details before making a recommendation. the addition of capacity without civil work
or combination of technologies. In the Middle East, ambient temperature is such as adding generators and additional
Turbine expert Sasha Savic of SS&A very high in summer at the time when peak transformers. Once in place, the inputs for wet
Power Consultancy draws on wide-ranging demand (notably for air conditioning) is compression are demineralized water and
experience to carry out the complex process. at its highest. Wet compression is one of the power to run the forwarding pumps. The water
He starts by studying conditions at the site, available techniques for inlet air cooling. It evaporates in the compressor and cannot
including weather patterns and the availability can be retrofitted to existing frames as well be recovered, so the technique is particularly
of water. The next step is to consider the as supplied with new systems. It works best in suited to power plants running alongside
technology installed as, for example, some a very hot dry climate, but is effective in high desalination facilities.
GT technology is more prone to compressor humidity. Zaid Al-Sati specializes in wet compression
erosion than others, in which case it might Wet compression increases the power systems for Siemens Power Generation Services
be necessary to limit the amount of water output of the gas turbine by reducing in Dubai. He says that wet compression is
injected. Then the all-important economic compressor inlet temperatures, inter-cooling perfectly suited to upgrade capacity for
aspects, such as capital investment and the compressor and increasing mass flow baseload machines, especially in Middle East
the added value from investment, must throughout the turbine. areas close to the sea where humidity is high.
be evaluated. It is important to look at the Demineralized water is injected into the The system has many benefits here in the
payback as customers have different tariffs, compressor. It evaporates in the air intake Gulf region. It is very sustainable technology
boundary conditions, capacity and payback and increases the saturation of air, which which is independent of ambient temperature
times. increases the mass flow, leading to additional and of humidity, he says.
Savic says that it is a complex equation capacity. Wet compression systems can be The company performed its first upgrade in
with no one solution. easily switched on and off, enabling a rapid North America in the late 1990s, followed by
You have to understand the behaviour increase of output peak demand. the ME region in 2004.
and ambient conditions for the operating Retrofitting wet compression to existing Operators decisions about plant upgrades
period. Normally cooling technologies have turbines requires some adaptations to the will be based on economic, financial and

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www.PowerEngineeringInt.com Power Engineering International September 2015 25


Gas turbine technology

energy storage, an extension of chilling inlet


air. Chilling inlet air by mechanical chillers or
vapour absorption chillers boosts the output
of the GT by increasing density at the inlet to
the compressor. However, while output goes
up, there is a negative impact on the efficiency
of the combined-cycle plant considering the
auxiliary power consumed by chillers as well
as reduced exhaust energy from the turbine.
Shah sees potential in using thermal
energy storage for peak shaving, a technique
used in a few newly-built combined-cycle
plants in the Middle East and North America.
The concept is to operate the chiller at
night [off peak], store the cold energy in a
significantly sized tank, and use that cold
stored energy during the daytime when
you have higher temperatures and higher
GEs Additive Manufacturing Machines at GEs facility in Greenville in the US
demand, he explains.
Credit: GE
Thermal storage has become popular in
the last few years as operating profiles have
technical considerations. On the technical into account the various extreme climatic changed with the integration of renewables.
side, any power plant being considered for conditions of their potential markets. Thermal storage makes good sense when
upgrades must be individually assessed and In Saudi Arabia and the Gulf countries, plant is required to operate at peak load
a step-by-step check of plant components the gap between summer and winter during the daytime and to operate at part or
carried out. temperatures can be substantial. On a hot minimum load during the night to offset the
Al-Sati describes the detailed process day the density of air entering the compressor increase in wind power.
of assessing suitability for retrofitting wet is less than on a cold day.Thus, during summer
compression technology: days, the compressor has less mass flow The drive for efficiency
First of all, we define the amount of than the gas turbine capable of utilizing. By There are other areas for improving turbine
water which can be sprayed in the unit, installing an oversized compressor, the OEMS performance in hot climates. One is to improve
depending on the frame, the site-specific can design their systems to utilize unused the aerodynamics of compressor technology.
boundary conditions and the history of the capability during hot days. Another involves the overall efficiency in the
unit, including reports from previous outages. Alap Shah, AVP & Turbine Technologies classic turbine technology areas of materials,
We look at casing limitations and condition of Manager with Black and Veatch, explains: coatings and cooling. Improving the ability of
blades and vanes at the last inspection. In that case, if you oversize the compressor turbines to operate at very high temperatures
We check maximum fuel supply you can include variable guide vanes in the drives efficiency and reduces emissions. Work
pressures which can be delivered; check if first few stages of the compressor. Opening the on the combustion system to improve fuel
there are any boiler limitations in terms of guide vanes passes more volume through the flexibility so that fuels such as shale gases and
additional exhaust energy. We look at steam GT and maintains a more or less linear output liquids or unrefined fuels can be burned is
turbines and steam turbine generators and curve. another area where work is underway.
calculate their capability to accommodate This advance may not improve efficiency, Incremental improvements in combined-
the additional capacity generated by wet but it enables more output at a higher cycle technology and operations
compression. We calculate maximum and temperature. have seen
minimum temperatures, and look at the Another feature developed for hot
generator electrical side and transformers to climates is thermal
check that an additional 15 per cent can be
accommodated.
If the plant is suitable, wet compression
technology can be fitted to the unit during a
regular plant outage without affecting outage
duration.

Improving designs
During the design of a new or upgraded GEs 7HA gas turbine
gas turbine model, the major OEMs take Credit: GE

26 Power Engineering International September 2015 www.PowerEngineeringInt.com


Gas turbine technology

Adaptive Brush Seal


overall combined-cycle efficiency rise to a is more valuable than 500 units in the field
current level of more than 61 per cent. Guy running for one year. Solutions for
DeLeonardo, general manager for high Air Preheaters
efficiency gas turbines at GE Power & Water, Add solar, save fuel
believes that over the next decade this figure In the US and Spain, solar thermal power High performance.
can be increased to 63 or 64 per cent, which stations have been generating electricity
will benefit operators in all climates. for years. Concentrating solar power (CSP) Long life.
Advances in materials, additive technology is mainly based on the use of
Sealezes patented brush-based
technologies and manufacturing techniques parabolic trough collectors, concentrating
sealing system delivers reliability and
can all contribute to developments. For the solar radiation, heating up a thermal oil
extended functional service life.
example, 3D printing can reduce the and transferring the thermal energy to a boiler
manufacturing costs of components in the generating steam, which then drives a steam
latest-generation turbines. GE is now using an turbine.
innovative manufacturing machine designed Additionally, a heat storage system with
to produce cooling holes in gas turbine parts molten salt can increase operating time even
using a pioneering laser-cutting method. at night. This can be added to a conventional
An understanding of how turbines power plant by integrating a burner into the
work in specific conditions is key to driving collector field boiler. If there is no solar power
improvements in efficiency and preparing gas (directly or from the storage), the boiler turns
turbines for different conditions. GE is proud of into a conventional one, using any standard
its off-grid, full speed, full load testing facility in fuels for steam production. Visit Us at
le East
en Midd
Greenville, South Carolina that tests its latest In a hybrid integrated solar combined PowerG J21
:
BOOTH
gas turbines beyond real-world conditions. cycle power station (ISCC), the first part of the
The $200 million test facility enables the plant is a standard combined cycle driven by
company to fully validate its turbines at a conventional fuel. For example, in the first
Replace seals less often
ambient ranges of -37oC up to 85oC. More than stage a gas turbine generates the power. In
Lasts 2-5 times longer than
6000 sensors and instruments collect data on the second stage, the exhaust heat is turned
all aspects of operation and components into steam (high temperature and pressure),
standard seals
of the gas turbine during validation and directly used to feed an additional steam Reduces drag, wear and
more than 8000 data streams are captured turbine. At the same time, the steam turbine sudden failures
continuously during testing. GE says that one takes additional steam (with low temperature More effective than other seal
unit running for 200 hours in the test facility and pressure) from a solar field boiler. Hence
Conforms to sealing surface
Flexible flaments conform to
gaps and surface irregularities
for a continuous seal
A high integrity seal is created
by tightly packed flaments that
compress even further under
pressure

For more than 25 years, Sealeze has


helped design and manufacturing
engineers design solutions.

+1 804.743.0982
e-mail: power@sealeze.com
GEs 9HA gas turbine going into the test stand www.sealeze.com
Credit: GE ISO 9001 Certifed

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www.PowerEngineeringInt.com Power Engineering International September 2015 27


Gas turbine technology

the solar collector field directly improves the


CASE STUDY: FUJAIRAH 2 WATER AND POWER PLANT power outputs of the steam turbine and the
whole combined cycle, while storage is also
used.
Development of ISCC is in its infancy. Florida
Power & Lights Martin Next Generation Solar
Energy Centre was the first hybrid combined-
cycle natural gas and CSP power plant to be
developed in the US, and deploys 75 MW of
parabolic trough CSP.
The MENA regions largest SCC
plant is the $554 million Ain Beni
Mathar project in Morocco. The
160 ha site includes a huge solar field
contributing about 20 MW to the total
capacity of 472 MW. Hassi RMel integrated
solar combined cycle power station in
Algeria combines a 25 MW parabolic trough
concentrating solar power array, covering an
area of over 180,000 m2, in conjunction with
a 130 MW combined-cycle gas turbine plant.
Mexicos first ISCC power plant comprises a
464.4 MW combined-cycle power plant and
a 12 MW solar field.
Fujairah City on the Gulf of Oman is the Alstom used its Plant Integrator Karim Saidi of MAN Turbo Machinery,
business and commercial hub for the approach to design a flexible, tailor-made which has provided turbines to Abengoa and
mountainous emirate of Fujairah. dual-fuel solution with in-house core other solar developers, is enthusiastic about
From October to March, daytime components. Three gas turbine combined- the potential for ISCCs. He says that while
temperatures average around 25C, cycle blocks incorporate five gas turbines the technology is not fully market-ready, the
rarely venturing above 30C. Summer and three steam turbines. Power output availability of new materials will drive it forward.
temperatures climb to over 40C. High varies from 40 per cent to 100 per cent. The material to build a solar receiver with
population growth and rapidly expanding All the gas turbines are provided with inlet its storage at 900C is not really available in
urban and industrial sectors have led to air-cooling to raise power under the high the market. Some small developments have
increasing demands for air conditioning ambient temperature conditions frequently been done, but at lower temperature around
and potable water. found at Fujairah. Each gas turbine also 650C700C.
A consortium of ADWEA, International has its own heat recovery steam generator, The objective is to maximize the operating
Power and Marubeni Corporation formed which is fitted with a duct firing to improve time of the solar share of the combined cycle.
the Fujairah Asia Power Company (FAPCO) flexibility by allowing additional steam to Next steps might take another 10 years, but
to develop, own and operate Fujairah (F2) be raised within the steam generator when the development of suitable storage material
as a new IWPP on a Greenfield site next to required. will bring interesting fuel savings, Saidi says.
Fujairah F1 plant at Qidfa near Fujairah on The plant operates on natural gas Especially for the Middle East, where
the Gulf of Oman coast. supplied via pipeline from Qatar while a natural gas is cheap and solar direct radiation
In 2007 a consortium of Alstom 10-day backup supply of oil is held capacity is very high, ISCC solutions could
and Sidem was awarded the offshore as a fallback in case supplies are then be turned into reality, bringing a lot of
$2.1 billion engineering, procurement interrupted. The cooling system uses sea benefits.
and construction (EPC) contract for F2. water. He points out that organizations in the
The consortium also has a 12-year long- Rajashekar Sharma, Head of Product Middle East often look for established solutions,
term supply agreement for operation and Promotion for Gas Turbines at Alstom, told and further development of CSP technology
maintenance. F2 has been designed to PEi that the station at Fujairah 2, which uses is needed to needed to make ISCC hybrids
provide a constant output of potable a combination of evaporative cooling and readily acceptable in the region.
water alongside a demand for power high fogging (wet compression), is one
that rises to 2000 MW in the summer and of the best examples in the region of how Penny Hitchin is a journalist focusing on the
falls during the winter months to around inlet cooling can be used to improve gas energy sector
900 MW. The 2000 MW, 130 MIGD project turbine performance in the hot climate of
started commercial operations in 2011. the Middle East. Visit www.PowerEngineeringInt.com
for more information

28 Power Engineering International September 2015 www.PowerEngineeringInt.com


21-23
JUNE 2016
MICO MILANO
MILAN, ITALY
EUROPE

CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION

CALL FOR PAPERS


Deadline for Abstracts 30 October 2015
Do you want to influence the European power industry?
Share your vision and knowledge with an audience of premier power companies and high-level influencers at Europes
biggest annual energy conference. Submit an abstract for the 2016 POWER-GEN Europe and Renewable Energy World Europe
Conference in Milan next June and make your contribution to Europes energy future.
A full listing of suggested conference topics and themes and how to submit your abstract are included on:
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Take this opportunity to represent your company and network with the power elite.

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A typical high-dust coastal site in the Middle East, where proper filtration
Gas turbine technology is critical to sustained gas turbine performance
Credit: Clarcor

Filtering out
the problems
Self-cleaning filters can

T
o operate efficiently, gas turbines of sand, dust and hydrocarbons that require
optimize power output require the cleanest possible air, filters to have a long life and be self-cleaning.
yet at the same time consume No filter is 100 per cent efficient, so some
and heat rate for gas
vast amounts of it. dust will get through. When a filter is used
turbines operating in Any contaminants within in an environment that is much dustier, a
harsh, dusty environments, this air stream will result in proportionate amount more dust will get
writes Jim Lenox degradation in operating efficiency (output), through the filter, leading to an increased
fuel consumption (heat rate) and differential rate of compressor fouling and a greater
pressure. need for downtime to off-line wash when
The resulting lower MW output and compared to using the same filter in a lower-
increased heat rate come at a huge cost to dust environment.
the power generation sector. Selecting filters designed for optimized
In recent years operators have become efficiency to remove from the airstream those
far more aware of the cost associated with particulates that lead to higher operational
operational compressor degradation and, compressor degradation is critical to the
therefore, solutions to minimize this effect have performance of the turbine.
become essential. An inadequate solution will carry a
Proper air filtration is critical to the overall heavy cost for power plant operators with
health of the compressor and reliability of gas a significant loss in revenue due to lower
turbines. Significant gains in output and heat MW output, increased heat rate and shorter
rate are achieved through the proper use of intervals between water washes.
air filters. These gains, combined with reduced Another environmental element that
maintenance costs of filters and the engine negatively impacts gas turbine performance
itself, mean that selecting the correct air filter is salt. Many gas turbines are located in
solution is a vital decision. coastal regions where salt, mist and fog are
A prime example of the importance of a problem. Sodium in salt will combine with
proper filter selection is dealing with the sulphur in the fuel within the hot section of the
climatic conditions in the Middle East, which turbine to cause accelerated corrosion known
add challenges not experienced in many as sulphidation.
other power generation regions around the There are two types of sulphidation
world. These challenges include high volumes corrosion: Type I takes place where

30 Power Engineering International September 2015 www.PowerEngineeringInt.com


Gas turbine technology

temperatures are above the melting point This can then leave a sticky salt residue advanced media over the past decade.These
of the sulphate (825C950C) and Type II on the compressor blades, which makes advanced media filters have been selected
corrosion occurs between 700C and 800C. them more likely to foul with fine particulate in preference to ePTFE filters on various new
The chemical reaction between the that has passed through the filters and, more unit coastal systems for power generation
sodium sulphate and turbine metal at these importantly, leads to accelerated corrosion. applications.
temperatures attacks the base metal of the The sticky salt will also compromise the Clearcurrent Pro and clearcurrent BP
turbine blades and can cause catastrophic blade aerodynamics, leading to operational NanoPleat are new gas turbine inlet air
turbine failure. degradation including lower MW output and filtration products from Clarcor Industrial Air,
The lower-temperature Type II hot corrosion increased heat rate. specifically designed for power generation
is characterized by pitting, but the higher- Some suppliers are introducing new, applications, which offer two solutions for
temperature Type I sulphidation corrosion high-efficiency technology such as ePTFE varying harsh environmental conditions.
produces a devastating accelerated attack membrane filters into power generation The clearcurrent Pro filters are engineered
on turbine metals. applications, but those filters have been to remove particulates from the air
This is a particular concern in coastal developed for installation environments stream that are most likely to adhere to a
Middle East regions where much of the found in areas such as HVAC and the compressor blade. BP NanoPleat is nanofibre
fuel used is sour fuel that has high sulphur pharmaceutical sector. technology engineered through optimized
content. The mean time between failures in Therefore, the robustness of ePTFE in-house nanofibre capabilities specifically
these conditions is highly dependent on the solutions has proved unsuitable for the harsh for the power generation sector. The resulting
corrosion level, which is directly related to the environments and demanding operating proprietary nanofibre medium has smaller
protection that is provided to prevent salt from conditions of the power generation sector, pores for more efficient filtration and is more
entering the gas turbine inlet. where hydrocarbon contaminants and durable than ordinary nanofibre media. These
Salt can freely change between dry moisture are real challenges that lead to improvements lead to better filter cleaning
particulate and liquid depending upon the unexpectedly high pressure losses and and longer life compared with traditional
relative humidity. In the Middle East, airborne unplanned turbine shutdowns. alternatives.
salt will most often be in dry particulate form This industry sector requires filters with Clarcor Industrial Airs comprehensive
and, therefore, will be filtered by traditional dust proven media technology that are very robust, range of final filters covers efficiency ratings from
filters. However, when the humidity is high, such very strong in terms of rated airflow, and are F8 to E12. Extensive field trials of clearcurrent
as during the frequent fogs that are present assembled in such a way that will last for years technology show significant reductions in gas
in many Middle Eastern coastal locations, salt despite harsh conditions. turbine degradation between compressor
can turn to liquid and migrate through the Advanced glass-fibre media and properly washes, leading to significant operational
filter and into the engine of the turbine. engineered nanofibre which has been utilized benefits with greater overall generated output
within the industry for many years provides and increased time between offline washes.
efficiency, proven-through-life performance Comprehensive studies with several of these
and hydrophobic properties equivalent to, new filters in high-moisture, high-salt coastal
and in many instances better than, ePTFE sites also show significant improvements in
membrane without sensitivity to moisture, mist, turbine output and heat rate compared to
fog and hydrocarbon fouling. using conventional filters on the same sites.
Clarcor Industrial Air has supplied in The variance in the requirements and
excess of 200,000 gas turbine operating conditions of each gas turbine
filters with this installation means that one filtration solution
does not fit all. In many power generation
installations a mixture of dust, salt and moisture
leaves turbines vulnerable to degradation
that will reduce efficiency and availability
while increasing risk of failure.
The cost of an ideal gas turbine inlet
filtration solution needs to be assessed against
all lifetime operational and maintenance costs
as well as lost power output from reduced
efficiency and unscheduled downtime.

Jim Lenox is Senior Product Manager at

Utilizing clearcurrent Pro and BP NanoPleat technology, cartridge filters from Clarcor
Clarcor Industrial Air
Industrial Air help ensure proper gas turbine filtration in harsh environmental conditions for increased
power output and heat rate
Visit www.PowerEngineeringInt.com
Credit: Clarcor
for more information

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com Power Engineering International September 2015 31


Solar radiation typically exceeds 6 kWh/m2 per day in the Middle East
Solar power Credit: Masdar

Advancing solar
technology in the
Middle East
UAE-based renewable

R
ecently launched in Masdar City testing for PV modules, coatings and related
energy research and in Abu Dhabi, UAE, the Masdar equipment; a concentrating photovoltaic
Solar Hub is a state-of-the art (CPV) test centre, which is a joint initiative with
development firm Masdar
solar testing and R&D hub for Spains Instituto de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos de
has launched a new photovoltaic (PV) and solar Concentracin (ISFOC) and offers testing of
test facility for solar thermal technology, and the first CPV systems under Abu Dhabis environmental
technologies, with the facility of its kind in the region. conditions; and the research, development
aim of increasing the The Solar Hub will offer testing, evaluation and demonstration-focused Masdar Institute
and certification of solar technologies and Solar Platform (MISP), which will explore
adoption of solar power
systems, Masdar says, as well as consulting solar thermal technologies such as CSP and
in the Middle East, and information services. It is a key addition thermal energy storage.
writes Tildy Bayar to Masdars growing solar portfolio, which The Hubs planned activities include long-
includes the worlds largest concentrating term outdoor exposure testing of PV and CPV
solar power (CSP) plant, the 100 MW Shams modules and CSP components; testing of
1 in Abu Dhabi; Mauritanias first utility-scale solar thermal equipment and solar receivers;
PV plant, at 15 MW; a microgrid-connected PV indoor testing of PV modules, and testing
plant on the Tongan island of Vavau; and a of thermal energy storage systems. Testing
500 kW PV plant on Murawah Island off the UAE facilities are also planned for battery, flywheel
coast. Torresol Energy, Masdars joint venture and other types of energy storage solutions.
with Spanish engineering and construction The MISP is built around a 100 kWth solar
firm Sener, has resulted in three CSP plants in thermal plant, which features a beam down
Spain: the 20 MW Gemasolar plant and Valle concentrating tower and its solar field, a hot-
1 and 2, each 50 MW. oil loop and thermal energy storage system,
Alexander Ritschel, senior manager a solar irradiometer platform, a compact
at Masdars Special Projects project linear Fresnel reflector and other solar thermal
management and consulting arm, plays a systems connected to a double effect
key role in managing the Solar Hub project. PEi absorption chiller.
spoke with him about the facility, why it was The beam down concentrating tower is
necessary, and what it aims to accomplish. a pretty unique thing its not the only one
in the world, but for sure there are not more
The facility than 10 globally, Ritschel says. The 20-metre
The Solar Hub is made up of three main high tower is surrounded by a parabolic field
facilities: a photovoltaic test centre, which of 22 heliostat mirrors in three concentric
offers performance, reliability and durability rings, which adjust their angle to track the

32 Power Engineering International September 2015 www.PowerEngineeringInt.com


Solar power

sun as it moves across the sky, and direct the


reflected light at the tower. Lining the tower
is a 45-mirror array which redirects the light
from the heliostats toward a receiver at the
towers base. The installation can be used to
test reflectors, absorber tubes, heat transfer
fluids a variety of components used in the
CSP industry, says Ritschel.
In conventional CSP, he continues, the
towers have the concentration to the top. This
is maybe good for a commercial facility, but
for research its not useful because how do
you experiment always on top of the tower?
Having the beam reaching the ground offers
the flexibility to constantly modify and test.
At the moment the tower is used for thermal
energy storage testing in collaboration with
Masdar City, with solar panels
Norways New Energy Storage (NEST), which Credit: Kelvin Ross
has developed a storage system based on
a concrete material with special thermal
properties, called HeatCrete. We put a technologies to work in the UAEs climatic and timings time of day, etc has some
concrete block under the beam, heat it up, conditions was the main driver for the effect.
and run charging/discharging experiments, establishment of the Solar Hub, Ritschel said: Another important factor is the heat,
Ritschel says, then analyze the process I would not have phrased it in such a way. I he added, and also high humidity, another
parameters, and maybe change to another would not agree to the statement that solar climatic factor often causing corrosion unless
thermal storage system afterwards. NEST technologies as they are sold today are not you protect [the solar installation].
hopes that the two-year,1 MWth demonstration suitable for the region. You can buy a solar However, he emphasized that I would
project, which uses oil heated to 400oC as panel and install it in Abu Dhabi or Dubai and not want to say that, because of all these
a transfer fluid to move the solar heat to the it will work very nicely. He noted that Masdar environmental conditions, solar PV is not
HeatCrete, will lead to commercialization of Citys electricity needs are supplied by a suitable; that would too dramatic. All of these
the technology as early as 2016. 10 MW solar power plant, which produces negative side effects are overcompensated
excess power that is fed to the public grid, as by the Middle Easts very high irradiance, so
Why was it needed? well as a building-mounted solar array. this makes it possible to come up to a levelized
When solar energy players think of the Middle However, he continued, there is some cost of energy (LCOE) of below $0.06/kWh,
East, they think first of its solar resource. In truth in the statement. Dust and sand, he said, which is phenomenal. But it can be even
the UAE, the direct normal irradiance (DNI) are not conducive to the technology, and better if some targeted solutions can be
has been estimated at between 1600 and can cause penalties, while the solutions that developed to deal with these factors high
2000 kWh/m2 per year, with the typical work for Germany, Japan or the US may not ambient temperatures, humidity, soiling, dust,
daily average solar radiation exceeding work the same way in the UAE. High ambient sand and then we can improve on the
6 kWh/m2 and skies that are 8090 per cent temperatures reduce solar panels conversion current state of the art.
clear throughout the year. efficiency, and the accumulation of sand and Given solar powers increased
However, this resource is coupled dust atop a panel reduces the amount of light competitiveness with fossil fuels, Ritschel
with a harsh environment that includes that hits it. There is indeed a need to study says the main barriers left to widespread
temperatures of up to 45oC (and higher in a these effects and to come up with solutions adoption in the Middle East have to do with
built environment that features asphalt and that are cost-effective to deal with them, he project development. I would not say that
concrete structures), as well as blowing sand said, although these solutions are maybe schemes like feed-in tariffs are needed, he
and dust storms. While the UAE is committed some way out. says, because already just the cost is good.
to diversifying its energy portfolio, with targets Plans for the Solar Hub include working But there are still so many procedural things
such as Abu Dhabis aim to generate 7 per with PV panel manufacturers to develop new that need to be addressed: how to deal
cent of its power from renewable sources by solutions, such as coating the panels with with utilities to get a permit, how to get grid
2020 and Dubais target of 5 per cent solar dust repellent, cleaning technologies or a interconnection these are elements that can
generation by 2030, many solar technologies combination of the two. Coating may not delay projects or make them expensive and
currently on the market were designed in totally obviate the need for cleaning, Ritschel difficult. These elements should be addressed
Europe or North America, where conditions on noted, but it may make it less frequent. A now by utilities and governments. In Dubai, for
the ground are significantly different. combination of coatings, advanced cleaning example, now there is a kind of feed-in tariff or
When asked whether adapting solar systems and different cleaning procedures net metering, so that could also help.

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com Power Engineering International September 2015 33


Solar power

the country that are not perfectly known,


or at least there is no reference for them in
the country. So the facility will help to build
confidence in those technologies, and by
building confidence we hope it will lower
the barriers to introducing them, and lower
associated costs.
If you introduce a new technology,
then you should showcase how it works, he
added, and thats what we wish to do, in a
manner whereby experts are monitoring and
analyzing it. Work at the Solar Hub is planned
to include collaboration with German testing,
inspection and certification firm TV, with the
testing equipment selected jointly and the
testing and analysis procedures developed
with TV Rhineland.
Ultimately, the Hub will offer information to
The Solar Hubs photovoltaic test centre
Credit: Masdar UAE utilities, Ritschel said, so that before they
grant a permit to build, say, a 100 MW plant
with a particular solar module, they can come
If you look into the details you will see that costs of both PV panels and the production to us to see if weve tested it. On the other side,
these mechanisms are now being introduced, of solar power; the lack of operational solar we can also give information to other end
so I think it will most likely be a success, he power installations in the UAE despite the users to a commercial-sector company that
concludes. significant solar resource; and the way solar wishes to install, for example, a rooftop solar
installations function under the Emirates facility. We can advise them how to do this.
Aims of the project climatic conditions. Ritschel explained that The Hub also aims to work with solar
The facilities that make up the Solar Hub current low costs create a huge opportunity manufacturers to install and compare
have been established for several years, for solar power to develop on a significant products to determine which versions work
Ritschel said, but it was only recently at the scale in the UAE and other countries. So this best under the UAEs climatic conditions,
beginning of 2015 that we had the idea to also triggered us to develop an infrastructure he noted, as well as offering performance
consolidate the existing pieces in terms of at Masdar that facilitates this market guarantees for their products, which can lead
infrastructure and expertise into an umbrella: deployment and development. to lower insurance premiums and significant
a solar hub. Also to integrate those activities Right now we have very, very little solar cost savings.
into a new hub, and then to expand it. energy in the UAE, he noted, so all of the All this, we hope, will help accelerate
Drivers for the project included the falling new projects will introduce technologies to the deployment of solar technologies in the
region while reducing uncertainty and risk, he
added.
Finally, the Solar Hub is planned to take
an educational role, to make the population
more aware of the opportunities, Ritschel
said. Students at the Masdar Institute will
have the opportunity to work with the latest
technologies at the R&D facility so that its
graduates are up to date with developments
in the industry.
We hope it will be a facility that is not
only dedicated to the testing of products,
but will also have a research perspective,
an educational role and a role in facilitating
deployment, Ritschel said, and maybe even
facilitating startup companies in the UAE.

The beam down concentrating tower Visit www.PowerEngineeringInt.com


Credit: Masdar
for more information

34 Power Engineering International September 2015 www.PowerEngineeringInt.com


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Project Update
RWE launches power-to-gas plant in Germany
RWE has launched a state-of-the-art power-to- Neuhaus added: Our electricity grid will 150 kW and creates hydrogen under 14-bar
gas plant in Germany. have to perform at an even higher level than pressure.
RWE Deutschland believes that the plants before to achieve this. Dr Joachim Schneider, chief technology
energy storage technology will become Under these changed conditions, the officer of RWE Deutschland, said: In order
an essential element of our future electricity power-to-gas technology will be an exemplary to be able to pick up excess electricity from
system, while MEP Markus Pieper said the solution, as it makes it possible for us to renewable sources onto our grid, we need
plant is a further key step on the road to respond immediately to fluctuating volumes alternatives to conventional grid expansion
transformation of the European energy of incoming power. methods.
industry. A central element of the power-to-gas This was the driving force behind our
The plant, located in Ibbenbren in the plant is an electrolyser the size of a shipping decision to embrace this new technology.
state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), is part container, which was built by the UK firm ITM The hydrogen that is created by electrolysis
of new system that links together the supply Power. can be stored and later used to generate
of local electricity, natural gas and district The electrolyser converts into hydrogen power. The benefit of this form of electricity
heating. any power from renewable sources such storage is the enormous infrastructure already
Any superfluous electricity from renewables as solar panels or wind turbines that is not offered by the natural gas network which has
is converted into hydrogen so it can be stored immediately required. It is then mixed into huge storage capacity and a high-performing
within the natural gas network. From there the natural gas network via a gas pressure network.
it can later be recalled for use in electricity regulation station where the waste heat of the Schneider added that with a utilization
production. electrolyser is also utilized. rate of 86 per cent, this power-to-gas plant is
RWE said that the power-to-gas process In times of low renewable power the most efficient of its kind in Germany.
is one of the key technologies for tomorrows production, the previously stored natural gas NRW Minister of Economics Garrelt Duin
energy supply. can be siphoned off from the storage facility said: This ultra-modern power-to-gas plant is
Dr Arndt Neuhaus, chief executive of and used in a cogeneration plant within the further evidence of the fact that NRW is the
RWE Deutschland, said that energy storage RWE district heating network in Ibbenbren to number one energy region in Germany.
solutions will become an essential element of generate power. The option of storing excess eco-power
our future electricity system, where, according RWE said that the combined heat and locally and later using it when it is needed is
to German government plans, in fifteen years power generation system used there also an innovative and technological feat of the
time, renewable energy sources will cover leads to much better power utilization thanks highest order. This process has potential to
50 per cent of the countrys power needs or to the new system solution. play a key role in the transformation of the
almost double the current rate. The plant has a rated power output of energy industry.

Martifer to build solar quartet in Jordan


Portugal-based Martifer Solar is to build a operation and maintenance for them. The
57 MW portfolio of solar PV projects in Jordan. firms chief executive, Henrique Rodrigues,
Four projects have been awarded with said: Jordan currently imports 95 per cent of
power purchase agreements under Round 1 its power needs, which costs approximately a
of Jordans National Renewable Energy Plan. fifth of the countrys GDP, and the development
Of the 57 MW portfolio, there are three and construction of renewable energy
projects with an individual capacity of 11 MW, projects such as these will be essential for its
located near the city of Maan in south-central future.
Jordan Al Ward Al Joury, Al Zahrat Al Salam The International Finance Corporation
and Al Zanbaq. The fourth project, Jordan acted as the lead arranger for the funding
Solar One, will have a capacity of 24 MW and of the projects, together with a syndicate of
will be built near the northern town of Mafraq. other financers including Bahrains Arab Bank,
Martifer Solar will provide the EPC services the European Arab Bank, FMO, FinnFund and
for the projects and perform all subsequent OPECs Fund for International Development.

36 Power Engineering International September 2015 www.PowerEngineeringInt.com


Project Update
Emerson automates China hydropower project
Emerson Process Management is automating
the Shehong Liushu hydropower project in
Chinas Sichuan province.
Hydropower development, particularly
small hydropower, has been gaining traction
in China as a clean energy source that can
supplement thermal power sources and
electrify rural areas.
This project by Tuopai Power Development
consists of three 16 MW units to help meet the
growing energy needs of the Shehong region
in southwest Sichuan.
The first unit is expected to be operational
in March 2016.
Emerson will provide its Ovation control and
SCADA technology to manage hydropower
operations.
Tuopai Power Development is among the
first hydropower generators in China to adopt grid synchronization, enhanced cybersecurity perform automatic voltage regulation, and
distributed control system technology that and more efficient operator deployment. manage information from the 24 spillways.
provides tighter overall control, enhanced Ovation technology will directly control Emerson will also supply its Rosemount
diagnostics, improved plant efficiency, reliable primary plant equipment and processes, pressure and level transmitters.

GE in biggest Jenbacher sale to groundbreaking energy transition plant


A power plant at Kiel in Germany is to take The new gas-fired thermal power plant The Jenbacher J920 FleXtra gas engines
delivery of 20 Jenbacher J920 Flextra gas in Kiel is a groundbreaking example for the can be called up to their full capacity in just
engines with a power output of 190 MW, which successful realization of the energy transition a few minutes.
represents the largest sale in the history of the plan by employing highly efficient combined The initial project involves the planning and
Jenbacher company, according to GE. heat and power generation, said Gerrit Koll, construction of the pump house to connect to
The gas-fired power plant is to serve business unit leader, energy and power plant the district heating system, the electrode boiler
a district heating system in Kiel. General technology at KAM. and heat storage as well as scheduling and
contractor Kraftanlagen Mnchen (KAM) The greatest possible flexibility was a obtaining operating approval for the entire
will build the plant on behalf of municipal primary requirement of the new Stadtwerke system, including gas engines. The second
utility Stadtwerke Kiel. The new power plant Kiel plant, said GE. phase of the project, including construction of
will replace the existing coal-fired community Due to the high proportion of wind- the gas engine power plant, is scheduled to
power plant. generated electricity in the regional grid, the be underway starting in May 2016.
The company said that balancing power plant has to be able to feed full power
energy and the integration of an electrode into the local electrical grid within a short
boiler (power-to-heat) during periods of period in order to offset the volatility of the
low electricity prices provide a flexible and wind level, thus
economical solution. This ensures not only e n s u r i n g
the regional supply, but also guarantees stability of
operational cost-effectiveness. Compared the grid.
with the previous coal-fired power plant, CO2
emissions are reduced from 1.8 million tonnes
to approximately 540 000 tonnes.

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com Power Engineering International September 2015 37


Project Update
AkzoNobel in coatings deal for new German plant
AkzoNobels performance coatings business litres of high-performance coatings from its forward to making a further contribution to the
is working with Siemens to provide coatings International range for the plants structural protection of these important assets.
and corrosion protection for the expansion of steel and pipework. Mario Leitsch, Siemens project engineer,
a major power plant in Germany. Gerard de Vries, business director for North added: To protect our plants from corrosion,
Siemens is the EPC contractor for the new Europe at AkzoNobels protective coatings we need to ensure that only the highest
Fortuna Block of the Lausward Power Plant in business, said: Being able to provide the quality coating products and fit-for-purpose
Dusseldorf, which is due to start operations corrosion protection and aesthetic coating systems are used and installed. We are very
next year. system for this new cutting-edge facility is satisfied with AkzoNobels quality and ongoing
AkzoNobel will supply several thousand something we are very proud of and we look support.

Alstom wins Vietnam CFB boiler deal


Alstom has been awarded a contract to national power grid annually. Thang
design and supply two 300 MW circulating Long is being developed
fluidized bed (CFB) boilers for the Thang Long by Thang Long
thermal power plant. Power Plant JSC,
Once installed, Alstom says that the CFB a local power
boilers will be the largest of their kind in generation
Vietnam. c o m p a n y
The boilers will burn local anthracite, which based in Hanoi.
Alstom says will help to reach the regulatory The turnkey
limits for NOx and SOx emissions without contractor is
the need for additional back-end flue gas Chinas Wuhan
treatment such as SCR or FGD systems. Kaidi Electric
Once operational, the plant is expected to Power Engineering
contribute over 4000 GWh of electricity to the Co.

CWind wins London Array vessel contract


CWind, which provides integrated services
to the wind industry, has been awarded a
contract for the supply of two crew transfer
vessels to the London Array offshore wind farm
in the UK.
London Array is located 20 km off the Kent
coast in the outer Thames Estuary. Both vessels
the CWind Alliance and CWind Artimus
will be used for supporting operation and
maintenance activities.
Bruce Clements, business development
manager at CWind, said: We are delighted
to have won this contract following a
challenging competitive tender process and
we look forward to working with London Array
and its partners over the coming years.

38 Power Engineering International September 2015 www.PowerEngineeringInt.com


Technology Update
Appointments Appointments

Vestas appoints EthosEnergy names new


new Central Europe power solutions president
EthosEnergy has appointed Kevin Taylor as He added that Taylors excellent industry
President President of Power Solutions. knowledge and wealth of experience will
Danish wind power company Vestas has He will have responsibility for leading position us well to deliver on our vision of
appointed a new group senior vice-president. the strategic direction of engineering, materially increasing the lifecycle value of our
Nils de Baar is currently vice-president for procurement and construction activities customers assets.
global customer accounts at Swedish and expanding the companys fast-track
communication company Ericsson. equipment solutions and services.
He will join Vestas on 1 September, when he Taylor joins EthosEnergy from North
will also become president of Vestas Central American Energy Services (NAES) where was
Europe. senior vice-president of engineering and
Vestas chief sales officer Juan Araluce said construction.
that de Baars solid commercial background EthosEnergy chief executive Mark Dobler
and extensive international experience would said Taylors appointment represents both
develop and strengthen our competitive a confirmation of our customers need for
position. flexible, fast-track power generation EPC as
De Baar succeeds Christoph Vogel, who well as our commitment to offer true lifecycle
has left Vestas for personal reasons. capability.

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www.PowerEngineeringInt.com Power Engineering International September 2015 39


Diary
October November December
POWER-GEN Middle East Power Nigeria POWER-GEN International
46 October 34 November 810 December
Abu Dhabi, UAE Lagos, Nigeria Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
www.power-gen-middleeast.com www.power-nigeria.com www.power-gen.com

International Conference on The Energy Summit 2015 Nuclear Power International


Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems 45 November 810 December
48 October London, UK Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
Istanbul, Turkey www.economist.com/events- www.nuclearpowerinternational.com
http://icenes2015.org conferences/emea/energy-
summit-2015 COAL-GEN
RenewableUK 810 December
68 October Nuclear Power Plant Life Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
Liverpool, UK Management & Extension www.coal-gen.com
www.renewableuk.com/en/events/ 45 November
conferences-and-exhibitions/ Paris, France
renewableuk-2015 www.niauk.org/images/Events/
ENL1%20MKTG%20Agenda.pdf 2016
Cogeneration Days 2015 World Future Energy Summit
1314 October International Solar Energy Society
1821 January 2016
Prague, Czech Republic Solar World Congress 2015
Abu Dhabi, UAE
www.cogen.cz 812 November
www.worldfutureenergysummit.com
Daegu, South Korea
India Nuclear Energy 2015 http://swc2015.org Energy Storage 2016
1516 October 34 February 2016
Mumbai, India Energy Storage Summit Japan Paris, France
www.ubmindia.in/ 1112 November www.wplgroup.com
indianuclearenergy/home Tokyo, Japan
http://enstor.messe-dus.co.jp/en/ POWER-GEN Russia
Ocean Energy Europe energy_storage_summit_japan 1921 April 2016
2021 October Moscow, Russian Federation
Dublin, Ireland International Gas Turbine Congress www.powergen-russia.com
http://oceanenergy-europe.eu 2015
1520 November POWER-GEN India & Central Asia
Tokyo, Japan 1921 May 2016
Visit www.PowerEngineeringInt.com www.gtsj.org/english/igtc/ New Delhi, India
IGTC2015 www.power-genindia.com
for more information

European Wind Energy Association


2015
1721 November 2015
Paris, France
www.ewea.org/annual2015

2nd International Coal Conference


& Expo
2729 November
Dubai, UAE
http://icc.muet.edu.pk

40 Power Engineering International September 2015 www.PowerEngineeringInt.com


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