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COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIAL

Sector: Information and Communications Technology

Qualification Title: 2D Digital Animation NC III

Unit of Competency: Use mathematical concept and techniques

Module Title: Using mathematical concept and techniques

GABRIEL TABORIN COLLEGE OF DAVAO


FOUNDATION, INC.
Lasang, Davao City

HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIAL

This unit of competency, Use mathematical concept and techniques, is


one of the competencies of 2D Digital Animation NC III, a course which
comprises the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for a TVET trainee to
possess.
This module, Use mathematical concept and techniques , contains training
materials and activities related to applying basic syntax and layout; applying
basic object-oriented principles in the target language; debugging code;
documenting activities; and testing code.
In this module, you are required to go through a series of learning
activities in order to complete each learning outcome. In each leaning outcome
are Information Sheets, Self-Checks, Operation Sheets, Task Sheets, and Job
Sheets. Follow and perform the activities on your own. If you have questions, do
not hesitate to ask for assistance from your facilitator.
Remember to:
Read the Information Sheets and complete the Self-Checks
Perform the Task Sheets, Operation Sheets and Job Sheets until
you are confident that your outputs conform to the Performance
Criteria Checklists that follow the said work sheets.
Submit outputs of the Task Sheets, Operation Sheets and Job
Sheets to your facilitator for evaluation and recording in the
Achievement Chart. Outputs shall serve as your portfolio during
the Institutional Competency Evaluation. When you feel
confident that you have had sufficient practice, ask your trainer
to evaluate you. The results of your assessment will be recorded
in your Achievement Chart and Progress Chart.
You must pass the Institutional Competency Evaluation for this
competency before moving to another competency. A Certificate of Achievement
will be awarded to you after passing the evaluation.
You need to complete this module in order to go through the next
module.

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2D DIGITAL ANIMATION NC III
COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIALS

LIST OF COMMON COMPETENCIES

No Unit of Competency Module Title Code


.
1 Leading Workplace Participating in Workplace 500311105
Communication Communication

2 Lead small team Leading small team 500311106

3 Develop and practicing Developing and practicing 500311107


negotiation skills negotiation skills

4 Solve workplace problem Solving workplace problem 500311108


related to work activity related to work activity

5 Use mathematical Using mathematical 50031110


concept and techniques concept and techniques 9
6 Use relevant technologies Using relevant technologies 500311110

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MODULE CONTENT

UNIT OF COMPETENCY : Use mathematical concept and technique

MODULE TITLE : Using mathematical concept and technique

MODULE DESCRIPTOR:

This module contains information and suggested learning activities on


2D Digital Animation NC III. Module covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes
required in the application of mathematical concepts and techniques.

It consists of 3 learning outcomes. Each learning outcome contains


learning activities supported by each instructional sheet. Upon completion of
this module, report to your trainer to assess your achievement of knowledge
and skills requirement of this module. If you pass the assessment, you will be
given a certificate of completion.

Nominal Duration: 16 hours

At the end of this module, you MUST be able to:

1. Identify mathematical tools and techniques to solve problems


2. Apply mathematical procedure/solution.
3. Analyse results.

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COMPETENCY SUMMARY

Qualification Title : 2d Digital Animation NC III

Unit of Competency : Use mathematical concept and technique

Module Title : Using mathematical concept and technique

Introduction

This module covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required in the

application of mathematical concepts and techniques.

Learning Outcomes:

Upon completion of this module, you MUST be able to:

1. Identify mathematical tools and techniques to solve problems.


2. Apply mathematical procedure/solution.
3. Analyze result

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
1 . Problem areas based on given condition are identified.

2. Mathematical techniques based on the given problem are selected.

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LEARNING OUTCOME # 1 Identify mathematical tools and techniques

CONTENTS:
Four fundamental operations
Steps in solving a problem
Standard formulas
Conversion
Measurement
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
1 . Problem areas based on given condition are identified.
2. Mathematical techniques based on the given problem are selected.
CONDITIONS:
The student/trainee must be provided with the following:
Manuals
Hand-outs
Problem set
Conversion table
Table of formulas
Measuring tools

ASSESSMENT METHODS:

Written
Demonstration

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LEARNING EXPERIENCES

Learning Outcome 1

Identify mathematical tools and techniques

Learning Activities Special Instructions


Read Information Sheet 5.1-1 This Learning Outcome deals with the
Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, selection of the program logic
Division, and Fraction approach design approach which

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Answer Self-Check 5.1-1 trainees need as a founding
knowledge, skills and attitude in
designing program logic.

Go through the learning activities


outlined for you on the left column to
gain the necessary information or
knowledge before doing the tasks to
practice on performing the
requirements of the evaluation tool.

The output of this LO is a complete


Institutional Competency Evaluation
Package for one Competency of 2d
Digital Animation NC III. Your output
shall serve as one of your portfolio for
your Institutional Competency
Evaluation for Using mathematical
concept and techniques
.
Feel free to show your outputs to your
trainer as you accomplish them for
guidance and evaluation.

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Information Sheet 5.1-1

Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, and Fraction

Addition

What is addition?

Addition is the math function that lets you know how much you have when
you combine two or more numbers. Every time you put money into your bank
account, you are adding to your balance. At the grocery store, you add items to
your cart.

This addition lesson will help you learn basic addition rules, and give you
practice:

Using place values

Adding numbers with the stack and add technique

Carrying when you are adding whole numbers

Whole Numbers and Place Values


As you work with numbers, you'll realize that each number has its own special
qualities. This lesson deals with adding whole numbers (0 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 etc.)
based on their place values.

The place of a digit in a number determines its value. Some whole numbers,
such as 632, have three digits. Each digit represents a different value.

In the number 632:

the 2 is in the ones digit place 632

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the 3 is in the tens digit place 632

the 6 is in the hundreds digit place 632

So, there are two ones (2), three tens (30) and six hundreds (600) in the
number 632. Knowing the value of digits in a number is important as you learn
about addition.

Think of place values like this:

What is Addition?

Addition is the combining of two or more numbers to get a sum. For example,
if you have 3 lemons, and you go to the store and buy 2 more, you have a sum
of 5 lemons.

Let's look at it on a number line, beginning at 3 and moving over two places:

You might write 3 + 2 = 5 which means 3 plus 2 equals 5 The plus sign is
used when you add.

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You can use addition when totaling your bills or on the job when you need to
add two or more quantities together.

Stacking and Adding Numbers


You've learned that you can write addition as a number plus another number:
3 + 4. An easy way to add numbers is to stack them in their value places.

To stack numbers:

Place the numbers you want to add on top of each other in their value
places.

Place the plus sign,+, on the left of the stack

Draw a line at the bottom.

Suppose you want to add 12 and 3.

To add the numbers:

First, add the 3 and 2 in the ones place to get 5.

Since there is nothing in the tens place to the left of 3, bring down the 1.

The sum is 15. Place it below the line in the addition problem.

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When doing addition, try using a sheet of lined paper turned sideways to
help you put numbers in their value places.

Carrying Numbers
If you want to add 16 and 18, the steps are a little different because you'll need
to carry a number to the next place value. You carry when the numbers in a
place value add up to more than 9. This is an important skill you'll need to
learn in order to do some addition.

To add 16 and 18:

First, add 6 and 8 in the ones place: 6 + 8 = 14.

The number 14 has a 4 in the ones place and a 1 in the tens place.

Put the 4 in the ones place of your sum.

Next, place the remaining 1 over the ones in the tens place in your
problem. This is called carrying to the next place value.

Add all the ones.

Place 3 in the tens place of your sum.

The sum of 16 plus 18 is 34.

Paying Attention to Place Values


Remember, a good way to add numbers is to stack them. It doesn't matter
what order you stack them in as long as you put them in their place values:

To add 144 + 20 + 6, you could stack the numbers in several ways including:

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They all add up to 170!

Grouping 10s
It's important to learn how to add numbers mentally in order to do daily tasks.
For example, you may want to keep track of the cost of items in your grocery
cart so you don't go over $30.

There's a quick way to add some numbers in your head: Use groups of 10.

Suppose you're in charge of collecting money from your co-workers to buy a gift
for the boss. You know that Aaron plans to give $10, Maria will give $12, David
will contribute $5 and you will give $11.

Find out how much money you will have to spend, by making groups of 10.
Think about the numbers 10, 12, 5, and 11, like this:

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Three 10s plus 8 ones equals 38.

So, $30 + $8 = $38.

Calculating Numbers
Suppose you're working with many large numbers, and just thinking about
adding them in your head causes a headache. Consider using a calculator.

A calculator is a tool you can use to add numbers and do other math. You can
use a hand-held calculator, find one online or use one that comes with your
computer's operating system. For example, pictured below is the calculator
from the Windows XP operating system.

Suppose you want to add 1,179 + 3,485 + 2,130.

To calculate these numbers with an onscreen calculator:

Use the numeric keypad on the right side of your keyboard, or click the
numbers on the onscreen calculator, and enter the first number you
want to calculate: 1179.

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Click or Press +

Enter the next number: 3485

Click or Press +

Enter the remaining number(s): 2130

After entering the last number, click or press =.

The calculator will display the answer: 6794.

When using a calculator, press or click CE (C or AC) to clear numbers from


your calculator display. Be aware that most calculators don't enter or display
commas.

To operate the onscreen calculator using the numeric keypad on your


keyboard, check to see that Num Lock key has been pressed.

Subtraction
In math, subtraction is the method used to find the difference between two
numbers. It's the opposite of addition. When you take an item off the shelf at
the grocery store, you are subtracting it from the stores inventory. When you
withdraw money from your bank account, the bank subtracts the amount from
your balance.

This basic subtraction lesson shows you how easy it can be to subtract
numbers when you:

use the stack and subtract method

borrow when you are subtracting numbers

check your answer using addition


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What's the Difference?
Subtraction is the method used to find the difference between two numbers.
It's the opposite of addition.

For example, the difference between 9 and 4 is 5. Suppose you have nine
lemons and you give four away. Think of four lemons taken away from a group
of nine lemons and five lemons remain.

Stacking Numbers and Subtracting


When you want to subtract one number from another number, it's a good idea
to stack them based on their place values:

To stack the numbers for subtraction:

Stack the numbers, placing the number you want to take away on the
bottom.

Stack the numbers according to their place values

Place the minus sign, -, on the left side of the stack.

To subtract 6 from 18:

First, subtract 6 from 8 in the ones place to get 2.

Since there is nothing in the tens place to the left of 6, bring down the 1.

The answer is 12. Place it below the line in the subtraction problem.

Borrowing
When you subtract numbers, you sometimes borrow. You borrow from the tens
place when you can't subtract from a digit in the ones place.

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To subtract 5 from 24:

Since you can't take 5 from 4, you must borrow to make 14.

When you borrow 1 from the tens places, you are actually taking 10 and
adding it to the 4 in the ones place to get 14.

Fourteen minus five equal nine. (14 - 5 = 9.)

Since there's nothing to subtract from the 1 remaining in the tens place,
you bring down the 1 to get the answer: 19.

Now you know the difference: 24 - 5 = 19.

Subtracting Larger Numbers


When borrowing, keep track of what is left in the digit place that you borrow
from.

To subtract 14 from 32:

Since you can't take 4 from 2, borrow 1 from the 3 in the tens place to
make 12.

(When you borrow 1 from the tens place, you are actually taking 10 and
adding it to the 2 in the ones place to get 12).

Twelve minus four equals eight. (12 - 4 = 8.)

Since you borrowed 1 from the tens place in the top number, a 2 is left.
Two minus one equals one (2 - 1 = 1).

The answer is 18.

Now you know the difference: 32 - 14 = 18.

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Checking Subtraction
Since subtraction is the opposite of addition, check your subtraction by adding.
Not sure that 24 - 5 = 19?

Add 19 + 5 and the sum should be 24. (If you don't get that sum, try redoing
your subtraction).

Subtracting in Parts
Here's a subtraction shortcut: subtract numbers in parts.

For example, your boss tells you to take $80 in cash to buy a paper shredder.
You find one on sale for $63. To find out how much money will be leftover,
subtract 80 - 63 using the subtract in parts method.

To subtract 63 from 80 in parts:

Break 60 into 60 + 3.

It's easy to subtract 60 from 80. You get 20.

Next, subtract 3 from 20 to get 17.

By breaking the number into parts, you quickly figure out that 80 - 63 =
17.

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Using a Calculator to Subtract
Sometimes you may not want to subtract in your head or on a paper, especially
if dealing with large numbers.

For example, suppose you earn $27,500 a year and you plan to apply for a job
that pays $34,000. How much more money would you earn if you get the job?
Use a handheld calculator, find one online or use the calculator that comes
with your operating system. The Windows XP calculator is pictured below:

To use an onscreen calculator to subtract:

Use the numeric keypad on the right side of your keyboard, or click the
numbers on the onscreen calculator, and enter the first number you
want to subtract. 34000)

Click or Press -

Enter the next number. 27500)

Click or Press =

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The answer is 6500

When using a calculator, press or click CE (C or AC) to clear numbers from


your calculator display. Be aware that most calculators don't enter or display
commas.

To operate the onscreen calculator using the numeric keypad on your


keyboard, check to see that Num Lock key has been pressed.

Multiplication and Times Tables


Multiplication is a quick way of adding the same number many times. For
example, a lemonade recipe calls for the same number of lemons each time you
make one pitcher. If you need to make several pitchers of lemonade, how will
you know how many lemons to buy at the store? By multiplying numbers!

One of the easiest ways to learn multiplication is to use the times table. But
you probably wont have a multiplication chart with you each time you need it.
So how can you memorize the numbers in the times table?

This lesson will explain how to easily multiply numbers. It gives you tips,
several practice opportunities, and specifically shows you:

how to read a multiplication table

how easy it is multiplying numbers by zero or one

that skip counting by twos, threes, fours, fives, and tens can make
multiplication easy

What is Multiplication?
Multiplication is related to addition. It's a quick way of adding the same
number many times. If you have four numbers that are the same, such as 3 +
3 + 3 + 3, you can multiply them.
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So, 4 multiplied by 3 means 4 times 3. You are adding the 3 4 times.

Setting Up Numbers to Multiply


When you multiply, you can write the numbers a couple of ways using the
times sign: X.

When multiplying small numbers you can write them on the same line with the
X in the middle: 6 X 4

However, you'll want to stack when multiplying with larger numbers:

Factors and Product


The two numbers that you are multiplying are factors.

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The result is the product.

Tips for Learning Times Tables


The easiest way to learn multiplication is to memorize the multiplication
table. Some people refer to this as learning your times tables.

First, memorize the 0's and the 1's.

Multiplying by 0 is easy because any number times zero is zero:

Multiplying by 1 is also easy because any number multiplied by one equals


itself:

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Now, that you know the 0's and 1's of the multiplication table, a good way to
remember the 2's is to count by 2's:

2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24

If you can count by 2s, it's easier to remember that 2 X 1 = 2, 2 X 2= 4, 2 X 3 =


6, 2 X 4 = 8 etc.

You can get to know the threes in a similar way: count by 3s.

3, 6, 9, 12,15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36

This makes it easier to remember that 3 X 1 = 3, 3 X 2 = 6, 3 X 3 = 9 etc

More Tips for Learning the Times Tables


Here are some more tips for mastering the multiplication table:

Learn to count by 5 for the 5s times tables: 5,10,15,20, 25, 30, 35, 40,
45,50 etc.

Learn the 10s by counting by 10: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, etc.

Learn the times that rhyme: 6 x 6 = 36, 6 x 4 = 24, 6 x 8 = 48.

Say the times tables out loud. You'll remember them better.

Multiplication with Larger Numbers

Multiplying
Memorizing the multiplication table makes multiplying small numbers easy.
When multiplying with larger numbers, make sure you stack the numbers in
their digit places (value places).

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Multiplying with larger numbers take a little more time since you're working
with more numbers.

Let's multiply 5 X 43:

First, Multiply 5 x 3.

You get the partial product: 15.

Place 5 in the ones place of the product and carry the 1.

Now, multiply 5 X 4 to get 20:

Add 20 and the 1 that you carried to get the final product: 215.

Multiplying with Larger Numbers


When you multiply larger numbers, be sure to carry and, then add the
appropriate numbers.

143 x 5 =

First, Multiply 5 x 3.

You get the partial product: 15.

Place 5 in the ones place of the product and carry the 1.

Now, multiply 5 X 4 to get 20.

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Add 20 and the 1 that you carried to get 21.

Place the 1 in the tens place and carry the 2.

Next, multiply 5 X 1 to get 5.

Add 5 and the 2 that you carried to get 7.

Place the 7 in the hundreds place to get the final product: 715.

More Multiplication
When you multiply with even larger numbers, you need to do some more
addition to get your product. As you multiply, stack and add the partial
products to get your product. Remember to keep the partial products in the
correct value places.

To multiply 15 X 143:

First, Multiply 5 x 143 to get 715.

Be sure that the 5 in 715 occupies the ones place on the line below the
problem.

Next, multiply 1 X 143 to get 143.

Since the 1 occupied the tens place in the problem, be sure to place the
3 in 143 in the tens place.

the final step is to add the partial products (715 and 143 togather) to get
your final answer.

Multiplication Tips
There will be times you need to multiply quickly, without a multiplication chart
and without pencil and paper. Certain multiplication shortcuts can help you do
that. And they may even make math fun!
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This lesson will help you practice using multiplication shortcuts, including:

Magic Eleven to multiply by 11

Divine Nines to multiply by 9

Nine and Zero Delight to multiply by 9

A calculator

Magic Eleven
Here are some math shortcuts you can use when multiplying by the number
11:

To multiply a two-digit number by 11: Add the two digits and write the sum
between them.

For example, to find the product of 23 X 11:


The two-digit number you are multiplying by 11 is 23, so:

Add the two digits, which are the 2 and the 3.


The sum of 2 + 3 is 5.

Place the 5 between the 2 and the 3 to get the correct answer: 253.

So, 23 X 11 = 253.

Now, if the sum of the two-digits add up to more than 9, don't use the Magic
Eleven shortcut.

If you find the Magic Eleven shortcut easy to follow, great. If not, try practicing.
It may take a while to get used to it. Remember, use the Magic Eleven shortcut
when mutiplying 11 times a two-digit number that doesn't add up to more
than 9. Otherwise, it can get tricky.
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Divine Nines
If you haven't yet mastered the nine times tables, here's a shortcut to
multiplying by 9 with single-digit numbers.

To multiply 9 X 7 using the Divine Nines shortcut:

Take whatever number you are multiplying by 9 and subtract 1 from it.
This new number becomes the first digit in the solution.

In this example, you are multiplying 9 by 7, so 7-1=6. 6 is the first digit in


the solution.

To get the second digit in the solution, subtract the new number from
nine.

In this example, 9-6 is 3. 3 is the second digit in the solution.

Then, write the two digits together to get the final solution.

The first digit in the solution was 6, the second digit in the solution was 3.
Write them together as 63. Here's the answer: 9 X 7 = 63.

Nine and Zero Delight


Here's another multiplication shortcut. It's called Nine and Zero Delight and it's
also useful for multiplying single-digit numbers by nine.

For example, to multiply 9 X 8 using the Nine and Zero Delight shortcut:

Take the single-digit number you are multiplying by 9 and place a 0 after
it:

In this example, you are multiplying 8 and 9, so put a 0 after the 8 to make
80.

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Next, subtract the original number from this new number:

80 is the number you just made, and 8 is the the original number you are
multiplying. So for this example, you have 80 - 8 which equals 72.

Now you've got the solution: 9 X 8 = 72.

Here's a rhyme to help you remember this shortcut for multiplying single
digits by 9:

Nine and Zero Delight

Place a zero on the right

Subtract the digit

Don't forget it

Using a Calculator to Multiply


Sometimes you may not want to multiply in your head or on a paper, especially
if dealing with large numbers.

Suppose you need to get a general idea of the cost of 12 new computers for your
company. The machines cost $2,199. How much money will the company likely
end up spending?

Use a handheld calculator, one that you find online or use the calculator that
comes with your operating system. Pictured below is the Windows XP
calculator.

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To use an onscreen calculator to multiply:

Use the numeric keypad on the right side of your keyboard, or click the
numbers on the onscreen calculator, and enter the first number you
want to calculate. (In this case, 2199).

Click or Press *

Enter the next number. (In this case, 12)

Click or Press =

The answer is 26388.

So, the company will probably spend about $26,388 for new computers.

When using a calculator, press or click CE (C or AC) to clear numbers from


your calculator display. Be aware that most calculators don't enter or display
commas.

To operate the onscreen calculator using the numeric keypad on your


keyboard, check to see that Num Lock key has been pressed.
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Division
What comes after multiplication in math? Division. Division is the opposite of
multiplication. Instead of combining groups many times (like you do when you
multiply), when you divide numbers, you are splitting them into smaller, equal
groups. But you wont always have equal groups when you are dividing
numbers or items sometimes, you may have items left over. What do you do
then?

This lesson will help you figure that out by:

explaining the concept of dividing numbers

giving you division practice

helping you divide numbers that have remainders

showing you how to check your division

What is Division?
Division is the opposite of multiplication. It's a method of making equal
groups.

Suppose you have 12 flowers and you want to divide them among 4 family
members. If you divide the flowers equally, how many flowers will each person
get?

You could write the problem llke this: 12 / 4 = . The slash, / , means "divided
by".

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Or, you could write the problem using the division symbol which looks like a
small, horizontal line with a dot above and below the line. 12 4

Either way you write it, each person gets three roses. Since 3 X 4 = 12, you
can see the connection between multiplication and division. Knowing the
multiplication table can help you when you do division.

Remember factors from the lesson on Multiplication? A good rule to


remember is that a number (For example, 12) is always divisible by its factors.
(1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12). That means you can divide 12 equally by 1, 2 ,4 ,6 and
12.

Quotient, Dividend and Divisor


When you divide a number, the answer you get is the quotient.

The number that you're dividing is the dividend.

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The number that you're dividing by is the divisor.

Knowing these terms will help as you learn more about division later in this
lesson. Take some time to review and become familiar with them.

Dividing Numbers
When dividing numbers you can set them up in three ways:

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To divide a two-digit number:

Work on one digit at a time, beginning on the left: In this case, divide 2
by the 2 in the tens place of 24. (2 / 2 =1) Place a 1 in the ten's place of
the quotient. It's important to place the numbers in the correct digit
places of your quotient.

Next, Subtract. (In this case, subtract 2 - 2)

Bring down the remaining number 4.

Next divide 4 by 2. (Place your answer, 2, on top in your quotient and


subtract 4 below).

Once you get a 0 at the bottom and there are no more numbers to divide,
stop. Look at the top to get your answer or quotient. (In this case, 12).

Remainder
While division is a process of making equal groups, not all numbers divide
equally. The remainder is the number after you divide.

Suppose you want to divide 38 notepads equally among 12 people: 38 / 12 = ?.

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Since you may recall from the times tables that 3 X 12 = 36, put a 3 in
the one's place of the quotient.

Next, subtract. (In this case, subtract 38 - 36)

You get a remainder of 2. So, if you have 38 file notepads that you need to
divide among 12 people, each would get 3 and you'd have two left over.

The remainder is always less than the divisor. If you get a remainder that is
greater than the divisor, check your division!

Checking Your Division


For 38 / 12, you got a quotient of 3 and a remainder of 2. Remember 38 is the
dividend and 12 is the divisor.

Check your division by multiplying. Be sure to put the numbers in their


correct digit places.

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Since you may recall from the times tables that 3 X 12 = 36, put a 3 in
the one's place of the quotient.

Next, subtract. (In this case, subtract 38 - 36)

You get a remainder of 2. So, if you have 38 file notepads that you need to
divide among 12 people, each would get 3 and you'd have two left over.

Division Tips
Sometimes, you will need to divide numbers quickly. If you are at dinner and
splitting the bill evenly with some friends, you need to know your portion of the
bill. You probably wont want to write it out on the napkin, even if you did have
a pen.

So, can it be quick and easy to perform division? Practice by completing this
lesson. It will provide you with tricks to make dividing numbers easier for you.
Some of these tips include:

Checking to see if the number is evenly divisible by 3, 4, 5 or 10

Using division tables

Using a calculator to divide numbers

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Is it Divisible?
How can you tell if a number is divisible by another? In other words, how can
you tell if a number can be equally divided by another? Here are some tips for
dividing by 3, 4, 5 and 10.

Dividing by 3:
Add up the digits. If you can divide the sum by three, the number is divisible
by three.

For example, you want to divide 75 by 3:

Check by adding 7 + 5.

You get 12

Is 12 divisible by 3? Yes.

So, now you know you can get equal groups of 3 out of 75. In fact, if you
divide 75 by 3, you get 25.

Dividing by 4:
Look at the last two digits. If they are divisible by 4, the number is as well.

144 is divisible by 4 and so is 39312.

More Division Tips


Here are some tips for dividing by 5 and 10.

Dividing by 5:
If the last digit is a five or a zero, then the number is divisible by 5.

40, 100, 945 and 1,235 are all divisible by 5.

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Dividing by 10:
If the number ends in 0, then it's divisible by 10.

40, 190 and 1,330 are all divisible by 10.

Division Tables
By now, you know that multiplication tables can help you master the basics of
both multiplication and division. You can also use division tables to help you
learn basic division.

Here are some examples from the 2s division table.

2/2=1

4/2=2

6/2=3

8/2=4

Using a Calculator to Divide


Sometimes you may not want to divide in your head or on a paper, especially if
dealing with large numbers.

Suppose you need to divide 2,112 cartons of supplies equally among 32


schools. How many cartons will each school get?

Use a handheld calculator, one you find online or a calculator that comes with
your computer. The calculator pictured below is part of the Windows XP
operating system.

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To use an onscreen calculator to divide:

To use the Windows calculator to divide:

Use the numerick keypad on the right side of your keyboard, or click the
numbers on the onscreen calculator, and enter the number you want to
divide. (In this case, 2,112).

Click or Press /

Enter the next number. (In this case, 32)

Click or Press =

The answer is 66.

To operate the onscreen calculator using the numeric keypad on your


keyboard, check to see that Num Lock key has been pressed.

Fractions
What is a fraction? In math, fractions are a way to represent parts of a whole
number. Imagine you have a pizza for dinner. That pizza can be cut into any

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number of pieces so that everyone at dinner can have a piece. Each slice is a
part, or fraction, of the whole pizza.

You can add fractions if your friend had two slices of pizza and then has
another. You can subtract them, too if there are two slices left and you take
one.

But adding fractions and subtracting them can be challenging. There are
certain steps you have to do to make sure you get the correct answer. This
lesson will walk you through those steps and show you that:

Anyone can read and write fractions

Adding fractions is easy if they have common denominators

Subtracting fractions with common denominators is a snap

Working with improper fractions and mixed numbers doesnt have to be


scary

What is a Fraction?
A fraction is a number that is part of a whole.

Suppose you cut an apple pie into 8 slices. You and your friends eat 7 slices.
The 1 slice that remains is a fraction of the whole pie: 1/8

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A fraction can refer to a certain part of a group of items. For example, one of
your neighbors has 3 pets: 1 dog and 2 cats.

1/3 of the pets (group) are dogs.

2/3 of the pets (group) are cats.

Numerators and Denominators


A fraction has two parts: a numerator and a denominator.

The denominator is the number of equal parts into which a whole is divided.
It"s written at the bottom (below the line of the fraction).

The numerator names a certain number of those parts. It's written on top
(above the line in a fraction).

Reading and Writing Fractions


When you read or write fractions, you use regular number words for the
numerator. However, you use special words for the denominator.
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For example, 1/3 is read "one third".

However, if the numerator is more than 1, then the denominator is plural.

For example, 2/3 is read "two thirds".

Here's a short list of some of the words used to describe denominators:

2 half

3 third

4 fourth

5 fifth

6 sixth

7 seventh

8 eighth

9 ninth

10 tenth

11 eleventh

12 twelfth

For more numbers, a good rule to remember is to add a "th" as in 13 thirteenth


to 100 hundredth.

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Reducing Fractions
To reduce fractions, you will need to find the greatest common factor (GCF) of
the two numbers. The greatest common factor, or GCF, is the greatest factor
that divides two numbers.

Reduce a Fraction:

Reduce 48/60 to its simplest form.

Find the greatest common factor of both numbers.

The greatest common factor is 12.

Divide the numerator and the denominator by the GCF (greatest common
factor).

48 / 12 = 4

60 / 12 = 5

The reduced fraction is 4/5.

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Adding or Subtracting Fractions with Common Denominators
To add or subtract fractions, you need common denominators -
denominators that are the same. Add or subtract the numerators and place
the result over the common denominator.

To add 1/5 and 2/5:

First, add the numerators: 1 plus 2 to get 3.

Bring over the common denominator of 5.

Place the 3 over the common denominator.

The answer is 3/5

Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers


Typically the numerator of a fraction is less than the denominator. However,
sometimes you may encounter improper factions where the numerator is larger
than the denominator. In that case, you can divide the numerator by the
denominator to get a mixed number: a whole number and a fraction.

Suppose you combine 3/5 of a gallon of ginger ale with 4/5 of a gallon of
orange/pineapple juice to make punch. You would get an improper fraction of
7/5.

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To get a mixed number out of 7/5:

Divide 7 by 5.

Get the whole number 1 with a remainder of 2.

The 2 becomes the numerator in your fraction.

Place the 2 above the denominator to get 2/5.

Your answer is 1 2/5

So, by combining the ginger ale and juice, you get 1 2/5 gallons of punch.

Any fraction with the same number for its numerator and its
denominator is equal to 1 because a number divided by itself equals 1.

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Decimals
In math, decimals are just another way to show fractions. The decimal
numbers youre probably most familiar with are money. One US dollar is
sometimes written as $1.00. Four quarters equal one US dollar. A quarter is
of a dollar, and it is written $0.25. 0.25 is the written decimal for fraction .
Easy, huh? It will get even easier with practice!

This lesson will help you understand the decimal. Practice activities include:

Reading and writing decimals

Adding decimals

Subtracting decimals

Converting decimals to fractions

Using a calculator with decimals

What is a Decimal?
A decimal is another way of describing a fraction. Decimals and fractions are
names for part of a whole.

Decimals are commonly used when dealing with any type of money, whether
it's pesos, yen, lira or dollars. For example, if you have eight dollars and fifteen
cents, it's written as a decimal:

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This means that you have eight whole dollars and 15 parts of a dollar.

Decimals are written using a decimal point that looks like a period.

Reading and Writing Decimals


Decimals are fractions with special denominators. You write decimals as
tenths, hundredths and thousandths because the place value of decimals tells
you the value of each digit.

Decimals, unlike whole numbers, have place values to the right of the
decimal point.

The illustration below shows the place values for 12.935

This number can be read or written as twelve and nine hundred thirty-five
thousandths. Notice that you read the place value of the last digit.

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The decimal point can also be read as "point" and the digits read separately:
"twelve point nine three five."

Fractions as Decimals
Remember, decimals are another way of showing fractions. Let's look at how
some fractions convert into decimals: 8/10 is the same as 0.8 or 8 tenths

If a fraction has a denominator of 10, 100 or 1000 you can easily find the
decimal equivalent by looking at the numerator and counting over the correct
number of places.

For example, to convert 23/100 into a decimal:

Start at the right of the 23 in the numerator and move two places to the
left.

Place a decimal point to the left of the 23 to show .23 or twenty three
hundredths.

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For other fractions, you can divide to find the decimal equivalent. For example,
if you use a calculator to divide 1/8 (1 divided by 8) you get .125

For help with converting decimals to fractions, visit the Resources page at
the end of this lesson.

Adding or Subtracting Decimals


Here are some tips to keep in mind when working with decimals:

Add or subtract decimals in their place values.

You can estimate the sum or result when adding or subtracting decimals.

Suppose you decide to pay for a friend's to lunch. Your meal costs 6.54 while
your friend's meal is 5.95, how much will you spend for both meals.

To estimate the total the bill, think of it this way:

.95 (in 5.95) is close to whole number 1 so, 5.95 is close to 6

.54 (in 6.54) is close to .50 so 6.54 is close to 6.50.

If you combine 6 and 6.50 you get an estimate of: $12.50

Using a Calculator to Add or Subtract Decimals


If you don't want to add a series of decimal numbers such as 15.38 + 29.39 +
124.25 in your head or on paper, use a calculator. You can also easily subtract
decimals using this tool.

Familiarize yourself with the location of the decimal point on your calculator
since you will use it a lot when working with decimals.

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To use an onscreen calculator to multiply:

Use the numeric keypad on the right side of your keyboard, or click the
numbers on the onscreen calculator, and enter the first number you
want to calculate. (In this case, 15.38).

Click or Press +

Enter the next number. (In this case, 29.39)

Click or Press +

Enter the next number. (In this case, 124.25)

Click or Press =

The answer is 169.02

To operate the onscreen calculator using the numeric keypad on your


keyboard, check to see that Num Lock key has been pressed. You may opt to
use a handheld calculator.

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Percentages
Every time you go shopping, you are dealing with decimals and percents. But
what is a percentage?

You must have seen signs that say Sale Today 25% off! 25% tells you that
youre getting a good deal you will save twenty five percent, or twenty five
cents for each dollar that the item costs. The actual amount of money you dont
have to spend on the item is the percentage youve saved.

This lesson will teach you more about how percents are related to decimals and
fractions. It will also give you the chance to practice:

Changing percents to decimals

Figuring percentages using sale prices

Dealing with percentages

Math can be fun, when youre shopping!

What is a Percent?
Fractions, decimals, and percents are related. A percent is another way to
identify part of a whole. In fact, a percent is fraction where the denominator is
100.

For example, 15 percent is equal to 15/100 or .15

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The gold shaded areas in the picture below represents 15 percent.

You write percent using the % sign as in 15%.

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Some situations in which you might deal with percents: taxes, interest, store
sales and tips.

Changing Percents to Decimals


Sometimes, you may need to change a percent to a decimal. The decimal point
in a percent doesn't appear but it's understood to be at the right of the whole
number. For example, in 75%, the "invisible" decimal point is at the right of the
5: 75.

To change a percent to a decimal:

Move the decimal point two places to the left . (If the percent doesn't have
two places to the left, add a zero to the left to create two decimal places)

Drop the percent sign

Remove any zeroes in the tenths place of a decimal (see chart below)

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Changing Decimals to Percents
You've learned how to change percents to decimals. Now, let's learn how to
change decimals to percents.

To change a decimal to a percent:

Move the decimal point two places to the right

Remove the decimal point

Add a percent sign

Figuring Out Percentages and Sale Prices


How often have you seen items on sale in a store for 10 % or 15% off? Learn
about percentages so you'll be able to quickly figure out potential savings on
merchandise.

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A percentage is a given percent of another number. For example, 50 percent of
40 is 20. The percentage is 20.

To calculate a percentage:

Change the percent to a decimal. (Since 50 percent equals .50 you can
drop the zero: .5)

Multiply the decimal by the whole number you are dealing with. (.5 X 40)

Remember, when multiplying by a decimal count over the same number


of decimal places in your answer. (.5 X 40 = 20.0 or 20.)

So, 50% of a $40 is $20.

Knowing how to calculate percentages can be helpful when you are trying to
determine the sale price of an item. For example, Lynn found a suit on sale for
30% off. The suit regularly costs $50. What is the sale price?

To find the sale price of an item:

First, find out what the percentage is by changing the percent into a
decimal and multiplying: (.3 X 50 = 15.)

To find the sale price of an item, subtract the percentage. (50 - 15 = 35).

The $50 suit, at discount, is $35.

You can also think of it this way: The suit is 30% off. This means Lynn can pay
70% of the total $50 cost: $35.

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Tips for Dealing with Percents
Occasionally you may need to change a fraction to a percent. Here's a quick
way to do it:

Multiply the fraction by 100/1

Simplify if possible and divide

Add the percent sign

For example, 1/4 X 100/1 = 100/4. Divide 100 by 4 and get 25. or 25 %

Need to figure out 10% of a number? Move the "understood" decimal point one
place over to the left. For example, 10 percent of 20 is 2 and 10 percent of 85 is
8.5

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Self-Check 5.1-1

Self Test

(Addition Part 1)

1. You want to buy a microwave oven for $205 and a casserole dish set for
$39. Add 205 + 39 to find out much the microwave oven and the
casserole dish set will cost. Stack the numbers and don't forget to carry!

2. Stack and add 22 + 23.

3. Stack and add 88 + 24.

4. Stack and add 245 + 35.

5. You have put together 35 information packets and your co-worker has
done 29. How many packets have you both completed altogether?

6. Donna needs to sendletters to people on different mailing lists. One list


contains 18 names and the other list contains 23 names. How many
letters will she need to produce?

7. Stack and add 42 + 104.

8. You're planning a small outdoor party. If you have 8 lawn chairs and your
neighbors say they will loan you 12 lawn chairs, how many chairs will
you have altogether?

9. Stack and add 123 + 8.

10. Stack and add 14 + 62.

(Addition Part 2)
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1. Group 32 into 10s.

2. Group 28 into 10s.

3. Tonya plans to buy three pizzas: a small one for $12, a medium for $15
and a large for $20. Think in groups of 10 to figure out how much she
will spend for each pizza.

4. Add these numbers in your head: 10 + 10 + 6 + 1.

5. Add these numbers in your head: 10 + 10 + 10 + 8 + 2

6. Using a calculator, add 134 + 286 + 304.

7. Using a calculator, add 1,450 + 355.

8. You have to pay four bills: $32, $45, $186 and $205. Use a calculator to
figure out how much money will you spend on these bills.

9. Janet and the staff are decorating a ballroom for a party. They need
2,450 white balloons, 1,250 gold balloons and 1,250 black balloons.
Use a calculator to figure out how many balloons they need altogether.

10. Use a calculator to add 3,528 + 1,245.

(Subtraction Part 1)

1. Sharon had 8 decorative plants in her yard. She gave her neighbor 3 of
them. How many plants does she have left?

2. Wesley has $52. If he spends $25 on groceries how much money will he
have left?

3. Carol has delivered 4 of the 12 packages in her truck. How many more
packages does she have to deliver?
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4. Subtract 12 from 44

5. What's the answer to 125 - 16?

6. What's the answer to 220 - 10?

7. Joe loaded 12 bales of hay onto his truck but 3 fell off when he hit a
bump. How many bales did he have when he arrived home?

8. Denise brought 24 hotdogs to the picnic. The guests ate 18. How many
hotdogs were left?

9. Subtract 4 from 62.

10. What's the answer to 122 - 8?

(Subtraction Part 2)

1. Break 30 - 21 into parts and subtract.

2. Break 20 - 12 into parts and subtract.

3. Break 70 - 62 into parts and subtract.

4. Lewis spent $2,143 of the $3,000 he budgeted for a new computer and
software. Use a calculator to find out how much money does he have left?

5. Last year, 3,283 people attended the festival. This year, 3,188 attended.
Use a calculator to find out the difference in attendance.

6. The computer learning center served 1,428 students last year and this
year it served 2,083. Use a calculator to determine the difference in the
number of people served.

7. Using a calculator, subtract 5,496 - 4,450.

2D Digital Date Developed: Document No. GTCD-2D ANIM -05


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8. Using a calculator, subtract 9,500 - 4,655.

9. Dan reserved an auditorium that seats 2,000 people. By the time the
program started, 1,587 people had been seated. How many empty seats
were in the auditorium?

10. Julia plans to travel 1,220 miles by the time her trip is over. So, far
she has traveled 884 miles. How many more miles does she have to
travel?

(Multiplication Part 1)

1. Using the multiplication table in this lesson, find the answer to 8 X 9.

2. Use the table in this lesson to figure out 7 X 12.

3. Barbara bought 3 cartons of eggs to cook breakfast for some guests.


Each carton contains 12 eggs. How many eggs does she have? Use the
table to find out.

4. Barbara also plans to bake 2 pans of blueberry muffins. Each pan will
hold 9 muffins. How many muffins will she bake? Use the table to find
out.

5. Think about this in your head and answer, what's 2 X 4?

6. Think about this in your hand and answer, what's 2 X 5?

7. Count by twos up to the number 12

8. Count by threes up to the number 15

9. Count by fives up to the number 30

10. Count by tens up to the number 70


2D Digital Date Developed: Document No. GTCD-2D ANIM -05
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(Multiplication Part 2)

1. Multiply 5 X 82

2. Multiply 6 X 48

3. Multiply 12 X 185

4. Robert wants to buy 3 pairs of pants at a cost of $23 . How much will he
spend?

5. Anna buys 6 boxes of printer paper at a cost of $25 per box. How much
does she spend?

6. Multiply 14 X 32

7. Multiply 15 X 102

8. Ed leases storage space for $90 per month. How much does he pay to
lease it for 12 months?

9. Multiply 16 X 180

10. Multiply 9 X 104

(Multiplication Part 3)

1. To use the Magic Eleven shortcut to multiply 24 X 11, you should first
add 2 + ___.

2. To use the Nine and Zero shortcut to multiply 9 X 7, place the 0 to the
right of ____.

3. To use the Nine and Zero shortcut to multiply 9 X 4, subtract 4, from


____ to get the answer.

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4. Use a calculator to multiply 12 X 1,286.

5. Use a calculator to multiply 16 X 2,825.

6. Use a calculator to multiply 40 X 1,250.

7. Karen earns 2,400 per month. Use a calculator to figure out how much
she earns in 12 months.

8. William has a monthly mortgage payment of $1,200. Use a calculator to


figure out how much money will he pay in 12 months?

9. Use a calculator to multiply 18 X 1,444.

10. Use a calculator to multiply 15 X 1,876.

(Division Part 1)

1. Doug and three friends earned 184 doing yardwork. Divide 184 by 4 to
find out what each person earned

2. Jason and Greg have to make 34 deliveries. If they divide by 2, how many
deliveries will each person do?.

3. 84 / 5 =

4. 256 /12 =

5. 44 / 20 =

6. Divide 52 by 7

7. Divide 336 by 3

8. 456 / 8 =

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9. If you have 240 boxes of books to divide among 10 schools. How many
boxes does each school get?

10. The company has 275 account which 5 represenatatives handle


equally. How many accounts does each representative handle?

(Division Part 2)

1. Is 45 equally divisible by 3?

2. Is 64 equally divisible by 4?

3. Is 220 equally divisible by 4?

4. Is 95 ually divisible by 5?

5. Is 1,937 equally divisible by 5?

6. Is 2,440 equally divisible by 10?

7. Is 3,432 equaly divisible by 10?

8. Using a calculator divide 4,432 by 8.

9. Using a calculator divide 1,872 by 12

10. Using a calculator divide 12,192 by 48

(Fraction)

1. John shared his birthday cake with some friends. The birthday cake was
sliced into 10 pieces and 7 pieces were eaten. What fraction of the cake
was eaten?

2. When Kenneth and family decided to go out to eat, 5 out of 7 family


members wanted Chinese food. What fraction wanted Chinese food?.

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3. Add 4/8 and 1/8.

4. Jessica adds 3/4 cup of water to 1/4 cup of water. How much water does
she have?

5. Change this improper fraction into a mixed number: 14/3.

6. Change this improper fraction into a mixed number: 13/9.

7. You would write the fraction 1/4 as ________.

8. You would write the fraction 4/5 as ________.

9. One sixth can be written as the fraction ________.

10. Seven tenths can be written as the fraction ________.

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Answer to Self-Check 5.1-1

(Addition Part 1)

(1) 244 (2) 45 (3)112 (4) 280 (5) 64 (6) 41 (7) 146 (8) 20 (9) 131 (10) 76.

(Addition Part 2)

(1) 10 + 10 + 10 + 2 (2) 10 + 10 + 8 (3)10 + 2; 10 + 5; 10 + 10 (4) 27 (5) 40


(6) 724 (7) 1805 (8) 468 (9) 4950 (10) 4773

(Subtraction Part 1)

(1) 5 (2) 27 (3) 8 (4) 32 (5) 109 (6) 210 (7) 9 (8) 6 (9) 58 (10)114

(Subtraction Part 2)

(1) 30 - 1 = 29, 29 - 20 = 9 or 30 - 20 = 10. 10 - 1 = 9 (2) 20 - 10 =10, 10 - 2


= 8 (3) 70 - 60 = 10, 10 - 2 = 8 (4) $857 (5) 95 people (6) 655 people (7) 1046
(8) 4845 (9) 413 seats (10) 336 miles

(Multiplication Part 1)

(1) 72 (2) 84 (3) 36 eggs (4) 18 blueberry muffins (5) 8 (6)10 (7)2, 4, 6, 8, 10 ,
12 (8)3, 6, 9 , 12 , 15 (9) 5, 10 , 15, 20 , 25, 30 (10) 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 , 60,
70

(Multiplication Part 2)

(1) 410 (2) 288 (3) 2220 (4) $69 (5) $150 (6) 448 (7) 1,530 (8) $1,080 (9)
2,880 (10) 936

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(Multiplication Part 3)

(1)4 (2) 7 (3)40 (4) 15432 (5) 45200 (6) 50000 (7)$28,800 (8) $14,400 (9)
25992 (10) 28140

(Division Part 1)

(1) 46 (2) 17 (3) 16 r 4 (4) 21 r 4 (5) 2 r 4 (6) 7 r 3 (7) 112 (8) 57 (9) 24 (10) 55
acounts

(Division Part 2)

(1)Yes (2)Yes (3)Yes (4) Yes (5)No (6) Yes (7)No (8)554 (9) 156 (10) 254

(Fraction)

1) 7/10 (2) 5/7 (3) 5/8 (4) 4/4 or 1 cup (5) 4 2/3 (6) 1 4/9 (7) one fourth (8)
four fifths (9) 1/6 (10) 7/10

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FEEDBACK FORM

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Competency Assessment Tools

EVIDENCE PLAN

Unit of Competency Use mathematical concept and techniques


Module Title Using mathematical concept and techniques

Demonstration
Ways in which evidence will be collected:

Written
[tick the column]

The evidence must show that the candidate


Evidence requirement (criteria for judging the competency of
the trainee. These are written in the competency standards.
Critical aspect of competency should be marked with an
asterisk (*). Refer to the CS for the identification of the critical
aspects of competency

Identified mathematical tools and techniques to solves*


X X

Produced solution
X

Analyze Result
X

NOTE: *Critical aspects of competency

Prepared by: Bryan N. Lumantas Date:

Checked by: Date:

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