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The inflationary theory: An answer to early universe

Denise Andrade,1 Eduardo Lopez,2 and Danny Jerez2

Department of Physics,
Yachat Tech University
Department of Physics,
Yachay Tech University
(Dated: October 22, 2016)
Inflationary theory rise to answer some questions about the big bang theory, between this, are the
flatness and horizon problems. Nevertheless, this theory is very important in physics and cosmology,
because allowing to develop a new answer to solve for an understanding of the universe. This work
will be treated since origins of the inflationary theory, then it defines what is this theory and finally,
some consequences will be described in order to understand the evidence that this theory shows us.
The discussion about of theory turnaround of the consequences of this input to the science. First
the new evidence about gravitational waves related with inflationary theory. This relationship could
generate greatest changes to future, for this reason, have a lot of importance in cosmology.

THE ORIGIN OF THE THEORY it is not important the initial curvature of the universe.
In a universe with acceleration expansion makes in small
The universe is uncertain and their functioning is one scales possible the perception of flatness. For example
of the greatest mysteries for the humans. By 1930 in in differential calculus a curve surface in small scale is
scientific community rises a new theory. After of that plane. The horizon problem is solved because the ar-
Edwin Hubble discover the expansion of the universe eas were considered without relation or contact between
through their observations of red-shift and blue shift, them, but, actually the areas are connected. Due to ac-
George Lemaitre proposes that is the universe is in ex- celerated expansion, the areas once joined, they started
pansion, it must have begun at one point. The scientists to separate distances which are unmeasureable . Then
work in this theory and they call as big bang theory, the temperature is the same because at the beginning
nevertheless nowadays the theory is not finished, it have these were in thermodynamic equilibrium.
several questions without answers. The inflationary theory is adaptable to the theories of the
Some problems about the big bang theory was solved cosmology. This theory have a lot importance because
by Alan Guth, physics and cosmologist, in 1981. He pro- explain some phenomena of the universe and it allows
pose a theory that allows to solve the horizon and flat- the reaching of answers and new questions that can rise
ness problems. Guth aims an inflationary universe that about the universe.
claim in the origins of the universe happened by a pro-
cess of quick expansion. This idea could be very simple
and complex at the same time, although look simple this INFLATIONARY THEORY AND
theory brought some amazing implications around field CONSEQUENCES
of physics and cosmology.
Is necessary explain the problems of horizon and flat- The cosmology inflationary theory in short words is re-
ness in order to interpret the resolution of this questions. lated to an expansion of universe after the big bang event.
In a nutshell the explanations of this problems are the This theory say us that the universe at its origins had a
next. The horizon problem of the universe is related with very very quick expansion, this phenomena causes the in-
homogeneity. Despite of all things in the universe this is crease of volume at a very short time. At beginning was
very homogeneous, however background radiation shows the vacuum, the nothing. The quantum theory mention
different areas with the same temperature. The distance that the vacuum has interactions and fluctuations where
between this areas is unimaginable, not even a photon particles are made and destroyed, so the vacuum is not
could share energy between these, then how is possible something inertial. In fact, exist two kind of vacuums,
that have the same temperature. The flatness problem which are the virtual vacuum and real vacuum. The vir-
of the universe is related with tridimensional spaces. So, tual vacuum do not have particles and fields either, but
this have some curvature, also exist a special case with- its energy is not the lowest possible. In the other hand,
out curvature a flat space. According to modern sciences the real vacuum has particles, but its energy is the lowest
the universe is very near to be a flat space. The problem possible.
is the probability about flatness, in all possibilities the According to researches, the universe originated be-
universe have a special case in their space shape. cause its state was the virtual vacuum. Furthermore, ev-
The inflationary theory aims the following solutions of ery system tend to its lowest energy, thus the transition
this problems. The flatness problem is solved because from virtual vacuum to real vacuum occurs. During this

process appears a field which produces a greater gravity diation [3].

repulsive event, and it produce the enormous expansion
of universe. This is the origin of the inflationary theory.
Summarizing, the idea behind the inflationary theory is Primordial helium and hydrogen formation
that a repulsive form of gravity caused the expansion of
universe [1]. In order to create a repulsive gravitational At the beginning protons and neutrons collided with
field is needed a material with negative pressure which each other and could occasionally form deuterium nu-
was predicted by general relativity. cleus, also known as heavy hydrogen. The deuterium
In one hand, there is a negative pressure will creates a nucleus consisting of a proton and a neutron colliding
repulsive gravitational field and a positive pressure cre- with other protons and neutrons could form a helium
ates an attractive gravitational field. Also, in the other nucleus. Following the inflationary theory at the first
hand, according to particle physics there are some mate- three minutes of the universes existence, it has approx-
rials with a negative pressure which are able to construct imately 107 Kelvin grades and it allowed this process to
out of fields. During the inflation at the early universe, occur[4]. Above this temperature protons and neutrons
while the energy of matter increase, the energy of the have too much energy and destroy when colliding with
gravitational field becomes more negative to compensate. another nucleus. At lower temperatures the deuterium
The total energy tends to be constant and very small, and nuclei, which have positive electric charge, cannot over-
could even exactly zero. Conservation of energy places come their electrical repulsion so it is impossible to form
no limit on how much the universe can inflate, as there a heavier nucleus. The abundance of primordial helium is
is no limit to the amount of negative energy that can be calculated from astronomical observations and the result
stored in the gravitational field. [2] agrees with theoretical predictions.
Inflationary theory is not only a explanation of what
causes the expansion of universe, but also the origin of
the all matter in the universe at the same time. A multiverse

Initially the universe was vacuum. In quantum physics,

Consequences of the universe expansion at the vacuum is not something inert, it has fluctuation where
beginning of the universe create and destroy particles. Our universe where in a
state of false vacuum, that has energy but not the less
Formation of background radiation energy possible. Every system tends to his state of less
energy. In this way the false vacuum became a true vac-
The background Radiation received in earth has a uum producing the universes expansion. Some theories
much interesting trip from the beginning of the uni- said that during the extreme expansion of the universe
verse to the present day. This process will be describe in a very small time after the Big bang, some parts of
in this section in order to explain how the inflationary the false vacuum did not disappear at the same time and
theory explains his existence. The first three minutes this could create bubbles. Those could develop lots of
before the big bang, the universe contained principally universes connected among them with diferent laws and
hydrogen nucleus, a helium nucleus, electrons, neutri- diferent values of the fundamental constants.[5] Its hard
nos, anti-neutrinos, and photons. Neutrinos and anti- to build models of inflation that dont lead to a multi-
neutrinos didnt interact with the other particles because verse Alan Guth.
they didnt have enough energy and the other particles
formed ionized gas. Before of this, for a while, nothing
happened, except that temperature dropped out over the Present consequences of the universe expansion
time while universe expanded.
When the universe reached the 5000 K of temperature, Galaxies receding
then the electrons and the ionized gas begin to combine
with the atomic nucleus and formed the first elements of Edwin Hubble observations of the universe told us
the universe. The matter was not a gas and free electrons about the expansion of the universe. Those observation
anymore and photons stopped interacting with matter. also found that the majority of galaxies therefore ap-
In this way, light and matter have continued evolving but peared to be moving away from our own galaxy. The
in separated ways. Before millions of years, the earth still way the universe is expanding bring us an obvious con-
received those photons of the beginning of the universe sequence, de distance between two points in space is in-
that were emitted as visible and infrared light because creasing, even if the points did not move. It happens
of the temperature. Since the expansion of space causes quicker while they are farther. A prediction about the
their wavelength to increase over time they had decreased future can be made just considering a lot of factors, but
his energy and the planet receives just as background ra- principal which of the models of the inflation a person

want to choose. Thinking in a big Chill, Fred Adams, of space-time- is predicted by the theory of inflation.
and Gregory Laughlin have made a prediction that con- Preexisting fluctuations in the strength of gravity on a
sists of five steps in their book The five ages of the Uni- microscopic scale, Guth says, would have been stretched
verse(1999). Beginning with The Primordial Era and the out by inflation, producing macroscopic waves.[7]. The
Stelliferous Era, which include the beginning and the existence of gravitational waves is a proof of the infla-
present day, Degenerate Era where the celestial bodies tionary theory because gravitational waves are a cloth of
will have burnt out and just exist white dwarfs, neutron the universe, so returned to the beginning of universe is
stars, and black holes, then the Black Hole Era where possible through of the gravitational network.
other astronomical objects will be destroyed by proton The inflation of universe is a theory which try to ex-
decay, and Finally the Dark Era where even black holes plain what happened few seconds after big bang event,
have disappeared. The final of our universe will have to be exactly at 1036 seconds, also it tries to explain
just photons, leptons, and dilute gas remaining. If a per- how the forces or interactions were in the early universe.
son accepts as true the theory of the big crunch we will Furthermore, the inflationary theory explains why the
expect to have a universe that at some point will begin universe is isotropic homogeneous, that means the same
to contract into a hot dense state. Those are just two temperature at any point of the universe. In fact, infla-
ways to see the expansion of the universe. For sure there tionary theory purpose a solution why the universe is the
are a lot of theories that try to explain our possible ulti- same at anywhere but at the same time why is not the
mate fate, but while there is any proof, everything is just same, for instance why one galaxy is more accelerated
assumptions FIG. 1. than other ones.


The supports the some of the phenomenons which were

predicted by scientists. For instance, the new evidence to
proof the gravitational waves through LIGO experiment,
also generate sustainable evidence to inflationary theory.
This concept are related between them because represent
evidence in both ways. In other words the assumption
about one of them can derivate in the general idea of an-
other proposals. Also, the theory revels some aspects of
the origin of the universe. Inflationary theory implica-
tions are in every aspect of our lives, our past, and our
future. This theory allows us to fix several problems pre-
sented by one of the most accepted theories about the
FIG. 1. Theories and models of possible expansion of uni- beginning of the universe, the Big Bang Theory. Also,
verses help us to understand the first minutes of the existence
and also some phenomena that we can perceive in the
present days. Thinking in the future, the theory can also
DISCUSSION help us to predict some aspect of the final days of our
universe. The future of the universe is unpredictable but
The inflationary theory and general relativity have with application of discovery of new theories we can be
same arguments in common, and they are complemen- able to understand the whole universe. Finally, in the
tary between them. In the theory of general relativity, future the proposals around the Big Bang theory will
Albert Einstein proposed that gravitational waves are un- change the establish paradigms because now in possible
dulations in the space time that travel out from source. research about where is the origin of the universe.
Recent evidence affirm have found gravitational waves.
In 2016, LIGO (Laser interferometer gravitational wave
observatory) have registered two events of gravitational
wave, one of this was a collision between two black holes
with 29 and 36 time the mass of sun[6]. Then, almost one
century before an experiment confirm the theory general
relativity of Einstein. In journal Smithsonian the article,
A new cosmic discovery could be the closest weve come
to the beginning of time, said presence of detectable grav-
itational waves - often referred to as ripples in the fabric


Primordial helium abundance and the primordial fireball,
542 (1966).
[5] S. Robles-Perez, A. Alonso Serrano, C. Bastos, O. Berto-
Vacuum decay in an interacting multiverse 4, 5 (2015).
[6] M. Kramer, S. Writer
[1] Edge Gravitational Waves: The Big Bangs Smoking Gun, ,
The Inflationary Universe,, October 22, (2016).
2016. [7] Joseph Stromberg
[2] Alan Guth A New Cosmic Discovery Could Be The Closest Weve
Inflation and the new era of high-precision cosmology, 30, Come to the Beginning of Time, (2014).
31 (2002). [8] A. Guth
[3] J. Baker Infiationary universe: A possible solution to the horizon
Cosmic microwave background, 225, (2014). and flatness problems, (1981).
[9] F. Adams, G. Laughlin
The five ages of the universe, (1999).