40
SABS
ISBN 0626124972
01001*
*This standard references other standards
Edition 2.2
2000
Code of practice
Part 1: Design
Published by
THE SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS Gr 20
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
CODE OF PRACTICE
PART 1: DESIGN
COPYRIGHT RESERVED
Notice
 This part of SABS 0100 was approved in accordance with SABS procedures on 13 August 1992.
 Amendment No. 2 was approved in accordance with SABS procedures on 31 March 2000.
Amdt 2, March 2000
NOTE 1 In terms of the Standards Act, 1993 (Act 29 of 1993), no person shall claim or declare that he or any other
person complied with an SABS standard unless
a) such claim or declaration is true and accurate in all material respects, and
b) the identity of the person on whose authority such claim or declaration is made, is clear.
NOTE 2 It is recommended that authorities who wish to incorporate any part of this standard into any legislation in the
manner intended by section 31 of the Act consult the SABS regarding the implications.
This part of SABS 0100 will be revised when necessary in order to keep abreast of progress. Comment
will be welcome and will be considered when this part of SABS 0100 is revised.
Foreword
 Edition 2.2 cancels and replaces all previous editions Amdt 2, March 2000
Annex A (Methods of checking for compliance with serviceability criteria by direct calculation), annex B
(Movement joints), annex C (Elastic deformation of concrete), annex D (The design of deep beams)
and annex E (Bibliography) are for information only.
SABS 0100 consists of the following parts, under the general title The structural use of concrete:
 Part 1: Design
A vertical line in the margin shows where the text has been modified by amendment Nos. 1 and 2.
Introduction
The Council of the South African Bureau of Standards decided that the South African code of practice
for the structural use of concrete should be based on the British Standards Institution codes of practice
BS 81101:1985 and BS 81102:1985. It should be emphasized, however, that the South African code
uses different loading procedures (compatible with section 4 of SABS 0160:1989) and introduces a few
minor changes on account of South African conditions.
ISBN 0626124972
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Contents
Page
Notice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x
1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.1.1 Basis of limit states design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.1.2 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.1.3 Durability and fire resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.1.4 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.1.5 Strength of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.1.6 Other considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.2 Analysis of structures and structural frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.2.1 Analysis of complete structures and complete structural frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.2.2 Analysis of structural frames supporting vertical loads only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.2.3 Analysis of structural frames supporting vertical and lateral loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.2.4 Redistribution of moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.2.5 Column and beam construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.3 Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.3.2 Continuous beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
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6 Precast, composite and plain concrete constructions (design and detailing) . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Annexes
A Methods of checking for compliance with serviceability criteria by direct calculation . . . . . . 173
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E Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Tables
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32 Conditions at the ultimate limit state for rectangular beams with pretensioned tendons or
with posttensioned tendons having an effective bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
33 Conditions at the ultimate limit state for posttensioned rectangular beams
having unbonded tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
34 Values of Vco /bh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
35 Shrinkage of concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
36 Transmission lengths for small diameter strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
37 Design bursting tensile forces in end blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
38 Nominal cover to all steel to meet specified periods of fire resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
39 Minimum cover to curved ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
40 Minimum distance between centrelines of ducts in plane of curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
41 Deleted by amendment No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
42 Design ultimate horizontal shear stresses at interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
43 Fire resistance of reinforced concrete beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
44 Fire resistance of prestressed concrete beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
45 Fire resistance of reinforced concrete floors (siliceous or calcareous aggregate) . . . . . . . . 167
46 Fire resistance of prestressed concrete floors (siliceous or calcareous aggregate) . . . . . . . 168
47 Effect of soffit treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
48 Fire resistance of concrete columns (all faces exposed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
49 Fire resistance of concrete columns (one face exposed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
50 Fire resistance of siliceous aggregate concrete walls containing at least
1,0 % of vertical reinforcement and exposed to fire on one face only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Figures
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Committee
CSIR
Division of Building Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BG Lunt
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CODE OF PRACTICE SABS 01001
Edition 2.2
Part 1:
Design
1 Scope
1.1 This part of SABS 0100 establishes principles for the structural use of concrete under the
following stipulations:
a) method of design: limit states classified as ultimate limit state and serviceability limit states;
b) material: ordinary concrete of normal and low density, used in reinforced, prestressed and precast
structures or elements and in plain concrete walls;
c) types of structures: buildings and structures in which all loadbearing elements (e.g. slabs,
columns, walls, etc.) are of concrete.
NOTE The rules for stability (see clause 3) also apply to structures in which concrete elements such as floor slabs and
walls are used in conjunction with loadbearing elements made of other materials.
1.2 This part of SABS 0100 does not cover the structural use of concrete for structures that are the
subject of specialist literature (shells, folded plates, bridges, tunnels, retaining walls, waterretaining
structures, chimneys, and other specialized elements).
2 Normative references
The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions
of this part of SABS 0100. All standards are subject to revision and, since any reference to a standard
is deemed to be a reference to the latest edition of that standard, parties to agreements based on this
part of SABS 0100 are encouraged to take steps to ensure the use of the most recent editions of the
standards indicated below. Information on currently valid national and international standards may be
obtained from the South African Bureau of Standards.
SABS 82, Bending dimensions and scheduling of steel reinforcement for concrete.
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SABS 01002, The structural use of concrete  Part 2: Materials and execution of work.
SABS 0160 (as amended), The general procedures and loadings to be adopted in the design of
buildings.
The objective of design by the limit states method is to achieve reasonable probabilities that the
structure being designed will not reach a limit state (i.e. will not become unfit for use) and that the
structure will be durable. To achieve this objective, the factors given below should be taken into
consideration.
3.1.1 The characteristic values of strengths and the nominal values of loads should be considered
in the initial stages of design, in order to take into account the variations in the strengths and properties
of the materials to be used and the variations in the loads to be supported. Where the necessary data
are available, the values should be based on statistical evidence (characteristic values) and where the
data are not available, the values should be based on an appraisal of experience (nominal values).
3.1.2 Two sorts of partial safety factors are to be used, one for material strength and the other for
loads. In the absence of special considerations, these partial safety factors should have the values
given in 3.3, appropriate to the limit state being considered, the type of loading and the material being
used.
3.2.1 General
All relevant limit states should be considered in the initial stages of the design so as to ensure an
adequate degree of safety and serviceability. The general rule, however, will be to design on the basis
of the expected critical limit state and then to check that the remaining limit states will not be reached.
3.2.2.1 General
Ultimate limit states are those concerning safety, and they correspond to the maximum loadcarrying
capacity of a structure. An ultimate limit state is reached when the structure is not strong enough to
withstand the design loads, i.e. when the resistance of a critical section (or sections) to compression,
tension, shear or torsion is insufficient. This will result in loss of equilibrium of the whole or of a part
of the structure regarded as a rigid body, with the following symptoms being likely to occur:
a) the rupture of one or more critical sections (due to overloading, fatigue, fire or deformation);
b) overturning or buckling caused by elastic or plastic instability, sway, wind flutter or ponding; and
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3.2.2.2 Stability
Structures should be so designed that adequate means exist to transmit the design ultimate selfweight
load, wind load and imposed loads safely from the highest supported level to the foundations. The
layout of the structure and the interaction between the structural elements should be such as to ensure
a stable design. The engineer responsible for the overall stability of the structure should ensure the
compatibility of the design and details of parts and components, even where all or part of the design
and details thereof were undertaken by someone else.
3.2.2.3 Robustness
Structures should be so designed that they are not unreasonably susceptible to the effects of
accidents. In particular, situations should be avoided where damage to a small area of a structure or
failure of a single element could lead to the collapse of major sections of the structure. In general, if
any failure were to occur, it should be in the beams and not in the columns. Unreasonable susceptibility
to the effects of accidents may generally be prevented if the factors given below are taken into
consideration.
3.2.2.3.1 Structures should be capable of safely resisting the design ultimate horizontal load, as given
in 4.1.2, applied at each floor or roof level simultaneously.
b) internally, and
3.2.2.3.3 The layout of buildings of five storeys or more should be checked to identify any key
elements whose failure would cause the collapse of more than a limited portion close to these key
elements. Where such elements are identified and the layout cannot be revised to avoid them, the
design should take their importance into account. The likely consequences of a failure of a key element
should be considered when appropriate design loads are chosen. In all cases, an element and its
connections should be capable of withstanding a design ultimate load of 34 kN/m2 (to which no partial
safety factor should be applied) from any direction. The area to which this load is applied will be the
projected area of the element (i.e. the area of the face presented to the load). A horizontal element,
or part of a horizontal element that provides lateral supports vital to the stability of a vertical key
element, should also be considered a key element.
3.2.2.3.4 Buildings of five storeys or more should be so detailed that any vertical loadbearing element
other than a key element can be removed without causing the collapse of more than a limited portion
close to that element. This is generally achieved by providing vertical ties (see 4.11.9) in addition to
satisfying 3.2.2.3.1 to 3.2.2.3.3. There may, however, be cases where it is inappropriate or impossible
to provide effective vertical ties in all or even in some of the vertical loadbearing elements.
When this occurs, the removal of each such loadbearing element should be considered, in turn, and
the elements normally supported by such loadbearing element should be designed to "bridge" the gap,
possibly with the use of catenary action or nonlinear deflection effects, and allowing for considerable
deflection.
In designing a structure to support loads occurring in the course of normal function, ensure that there
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is a reasonable probability that the structure will not collapse disastrously as a result of misuse or
accident.
Consider whether, due to the nature of a particular occupancy or use of a structure (e.g. flour mill,
chemical plant, etc.), it will be necessary in the design concept or during a design reappraisal to
consider the effect of a particular hazard, to ensure that, in the event of an accident, there is a
reasonable probability that the structure will withstand the accident, even if damage does occur. In
such cases, partial safety factors greater than those given in 3.3.1.2 may be required.
NOTE  No structure can be expected to withstand the excessive loads or forces that could arise owing to an extreme
cause (such as an explosion), but the structure should not be damaged to an extent that is disproportionate to the original
cause.
Use the design strength of materials and the design loads appropriate for the ultimate limit state
(see 3.3).
3.2.3.1 General
e) corrosion.
The above effects are likely to impair the normal use, occupancy, appearance or durability of the
structure or of its structural or nonstructural elements, or they might affect the operation of equipment.
Effects such as temperature, creep, shrinkage, sway, settlement, and cyclic loading should be
considered, when relevant.
The design strength of materials and the design loads appropriate for serviceability limit states should
be used (see 3.3).
3.2.3.2 Deflection
3.2.3.2.1 The deflection of the structure or of any part thereof should not exceed the permissible
value. Permissible values of deflection should comply with the requirements of the particular structure,
taking the efficient functioning of the structure, possible damage to adjacent structures or aesthetic
considerations into account.
3.2.3.2.1.1 The final deflection (including the effects of temperature, creep and shrinkage), measured
below the ascast level of the support of floors, roofs and all other horizontal members, should not
exceed span/250.
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3.2.3.2.1.2 Partitions and finishes will be affected only by that part of the deflection (including the
effects of temperature, creep and shrinkage) that takes place after the construction of the partitions
or the application of the finishes. Information is lacking, but it is suggested that such deflection in the
case of flexible partitions (e.g. drywall) be limited to the lesser of span/350 or 20 mm. In the case of
rigid brick walls or other brittle partitions, this deflection should be limited to the lesser of span/500 or
10 mm. Investigation is required in more complicated cases.
3.2.3.2.1.3 If finishes are to be applied to prestressed concrete elements, the total upward deflection
of the elements should not exceed span/300, unless uniformity of camber between adjacent elements
can be ensured.
3.2.3.2.2 Consider the effects of lateral deflections, particularly for tall slender structures. The
acceleration associated with the deflections may be more critical than the deflection itself (see 3.2.3.4).
3.2.3.2.3 In any calculation of deflections, take the design strength of materials and the design loads
given in 3.3, as appropriate for a serviceability limit state.
3.2.3.3 Cracking
3.2.3.3.1 The permissible width of cracks should be determined taking into account the requirements
(e.g. tightness, aesthetic appearance, etc.) of the particular structure.
An assessment of the likely behaviour of a reinforced concrete structure enables identification of the
sections where the effect of cracking should be considered. In general, the surface width of cracks
should not exceed 0,3 mm. Where elements are exposed to particularly aggressive environments (see
SABS 01002), the surface width of cracks at points nearest the main reinforcement should not, in
general, exceed 0,004 times the nominal cover to the main reinforcement. In a reinforced concrete
structure under the effects of load and environment, the actual widths of cracks will vary considerably;
the prediction of an absolute maximum width is therefore not possible, since the possibility of some
cracks being even wider must be accepted unless special precautions are taken.
In the assessment of the likely behaviour of a prestressed concrete structure, the flexural tensile stress
for structures of different classes should be limited as follows:
 class 3: tensile stresses, but surface width of cracks do not exceed 0,1 mm for elements exposed
to a particularly aggressive environment (see SABS 01002) and do not exceed 0,2 mm for all other
elements.
3.2.3.3.2 In either tall or long buildings, the effects of temperature, creep and shrinkage could, unless
otherwise catered for, require the provision of movement joints both within the structure and between
the structure and the cladding.
3.2.3.3.3 In any calculations of crack widths (see annex A), take the design strength of the materials
and the design loads given in 3.3, as appropriate for a serviceability limit state.
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3.2.3.4 Vibration
Where a structure is likely to be subjected to vibration from causes such as wind forces or machinery,
take measures to prevent discomfort or alarm, damage to the structure, or interference with its proper
function. (Limits to the level of vibration that may be acceptable are described in specialist literature.)
NOTE  In certain circumstances, it could be necessary to isolate the source of vibration or, alternatively, to isolate a part
or the whole of the structure. Special consideration could be necessary for flexible elements of structure.
Ensure that structures designed for unusual or special functions comply with any relevant additional
limit states considered necessary by the engineer.
3.2.4.1 Fatigue
When the imposed load on a structure is predominantly cyclic in character, take the effects of fatigue
into consideration in satisfying limit state requirements.
3.2.4.2 Durability
The recommendations in this part of SABS 0100 regarding concrete cover to the reinforcement and
acceptable crack widths (see 3.2.3.3) in association with the cement content and cement/water ratios
specified in SABS 01002, are intended to meet the durability requirements of almost all structures.
Where exceptionally severe environments are encountered, consider any additional precautions that
may be necessary and consult specialist literature with respect to each particular environment.
Consider the following three conditions for structural elements that may be subjected to fire:
NOTE  The minimum requirements for different elements for various periods of fire resistance are given in clause 7.
3.2.4.4 Lightning
Reinforcement may be used as part of a lightning protection system, but safeguards such as the
provision of bonding and the use of a resistance check after the completion of the building are
required.
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3.3.1 Loads
a) nominal selfweight load Gn (i.e the weight of the structure complete with finishes, fixtures and
partitions);
The nominal load values should be taken as defined in and calculated in accordance with SABS 0160.
The design load for a given type of limit state and loading is obtained from:
where f is the appropriate partial safety factor for load, which is introduced to take account of
a) possible unusual increases in load beyond those considered in the derivation of the nominal loads,
The loading conditions during erection and construction should be considered in design and should
be such that the structure's subsequent compliance with the limit state requirements is not impaired.
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c) the ultimate strength of a prestressing tendon fpu below which not more than 5 % of the test results
fall.
For the analysis of sections, the design strength for a given material and limit state is derived from the
characteristic strength divided by m, where m is the appropriate partial safety factor for material
strength given in 3.3.3 and 3.3.4. Factor m takes account of
3.3.3 Values for the ultimate limit state (loads and materials)
3.3.3.1 Design loads
3.3.3.1.1 Take the design loads for the ultimate limit state (referred to in clauses 4 and 5 as the
ultimate loads) in accordance with clause 4 of SABS 0160 (as amended).
3.3.3.1.2 The design load effect may be adjusted, at the discretion of the designer, by multiplying the
design load as in 3.3.3.1.1 by an importance factor c to allow for the consequences of failure. In the
case of critical structural elements for structures in which large crowds gather and where there would
be very serious consequences in the event of a failure, a value of c in the range 1,1 to 1,2 should be
used. For structures with a very low degree of hazard to life and with less serious consequences of
failure, a value of c of 0,9 would be appropriate.
3.3.3.1.3 In assessing the effect of loads on the whole structure or on any part of the structure, so
arrange the loads as to cause the most severe stresses. It will only be necessary to use the factor 0,9
if the selfweight load is an essential factor in the stability, e.g. for cantilevers or for wind forces. If a
critical stability condition results in the case of selfweight and wind loads combined and when (on
selected parts of the structure) the selfweight load is increased, adopt the higher figure for the
selfweight load, i.e. 1,2 Gn. Generally, in the case of selfweight, imposed and wind loads combined,
assume that no variations in f factors need be considered.
3.3.3.1.4 Since the design of the whole or of any part of a structure may be controlled by any of the
load combinations, consider each in design, and adopt the most severe.
3.3.3.1.5 If the probable effect of excessive loads caused by misuse or accident has to be considered
in the design, take the f factor for the overload as 1,05, and consider this only in conjunction with the
sustained loads at the ULS. When considering the continued stability of the structure after it has
sustained localized damage, consider only the sustained portion of the loads at the ULS.
NOTE  In general, the effect of creep, shrinkage and temperature will be of secondary importance for the ULS, and no
specific calculations will be necessary.
3.3.3.2 Materials
When assessing the strength of a structure or of any part thereof, take the appropriate values of m
as follows:
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a) reinforcement: m = 1,15
c) shear strength without shear reinforcement and shear taken by concrete in combination with shear
reinforcement: m = 1,40
NOTE  When considering the effects of excessive loads or localized damage, take values of m as 1,3 for concrete and
1,0 for steel.
3.3.4.1.1 Take the design loads for SLS in accordance with clause 4 of SABS 0160 (as amended).
3.3.4.1.2 When assessing the deflection of a structure or of any part thereof, so arrange the imposed
load as to cause the largest deflection.
3.3.4.1.3 The design loads given above apply when the immediate deflections of a structure
(see 3.2.3.2) are being estimated, but in most cases it is also necessary to estimate the additional
timedependent deflections due to creep, shrinkage and temperature.
3.3.4.1.4 The deflection due to creep depends on the selfweight load and those imposed loads of
long duration. Where the full imposed load is unlikely to be permanent, calculate the deflection due
to creep on the assumption that only the selfweight load and that part of the imposed load likely to
be permanent are effective. This deflection could be upward. Consider the effects of temperature,
including temperature gradients within the elements, when these effects exceed those known from
experience to be inconsequential.
3.3.4.1.5 When an imposed load is predominantly cyclic in character, give special attention to the
assessment of the deflections.
3.3.4.1.6 When assessing crack widths (see 3.2.3.3) or other forms of local damage in a structure
subjected to temperature, creep or shrinkage effects exceeding those known from experience to be
inconsequential, consider the resulting internal forces and their effect on the structure as a whole.
3.3.4.2 Materials
When assessing the deflections of a structure or of any part thereof, take the appropriate values of
m as 1,0 for both concrete and steel. Thus, take the properties of the materials relevant to deflection
assessment, i.e. moduli of elasticity, creep, shrinkage, etc., as those associated with the characteristic
strength of the materials (see 3.4.2.2 to 3.4.2.4). When assessing the cracking strength of prestressed
concrete elements by tensile stress criteria, m should be taken as 1,3 for concrete in tension due to
flexure and 1,0 for steel.
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3.4 Analysis
3.4.1 General
The analysis that is carried out to justify a design may be divided into two stages, as follows:
b) analysis of crosssections.
When the structure or any part thereof is being analysed to determine force distributions within the
structure, the properties of materials should be assumed to be those associated with their characteristic
strength, irrespective of which limit state is being considered.
In the analysis of any crosssection within the structure, the properties of the materials should be
assumed to be those associated with their design strength, appropriate to the limit state being
considered. Base the methods of analysis used on a representation of the behaviour of the structure
that is as accurate as is reasonably practicable. The methods and assumptions given in this clause are
generally adequate.
In certain cases, advantages may result from the use of more fundamental approaches in assessing
the behaviour of the structure under load. (Specific guidance on assumptions and methods that may
be used for the serviceability limit states is given in annex A.)
3.4.2.1.1 Unless better information is available for normal density concrete, use the relevant
shortterm modulus of elasticity given in table 1, appropriate to the serviceability limit states.
1 2
MPa GPa
20 25
25 26
30 28
40 31
50 34
60 36
For concrete of low density aggregate that has a density in the range 1 400 kg/m 3 to 2 300 kg/m3,
Dc2
multiply the values given in table 1 by , where Dc is the density of the low density aggregate
2 300
concrete, in kilograms per cubic metre.
10
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
3.4.2.1.2 Concrete made from certain aggregates (such as certain sandstones, limestones and
granites) could have a modulus of elasticity significantly lower than the values given in table 1. Test
such aggregates in order to obtain an appropriate modulus of elasticity for use in design calculations.
(Further information on the modulus of elasticity of concrete is given in annex C.)
3.4.2.1.3 For sustained loading conditions, make appropriate allowance for shrinkage and creep.
For reinforcement, take the modulus of elasticity for all types of loading as E, = 200 GPa. For
prestressing tendons, take the shortterm modulus of elasticity as
For information on creep and drying shrinkage, consult specialist literature. (But see also annex C.)
The primary objective of structural analysis is to obtain a set of internal forces and moments
throughout the structure that are in equilibrium with the design loads for the required loading
combination. A redistribution of the calculated forces may be made if the members concerned possess
adequate ductility. Generally, it will be satisfactory to determine envelopes of forces and moments by
linear elastic analysis of the structure or of any part thereof and to allow for redistribution and possible
buckling effects, using the methods described in clauses 4 and 5. When slabs are being considered,
the yield line or other appropriate plastic theory may be used.
When linear elastic analysis is used, base the relative stiffnesses of the elements throughout on the
properties of any one of the following sections:
a) the concrete section: the entire concrete crosssection, ignoring the reinforcement;
b) the gross section: the entire concrete crosssection, including the reinforcement on the basis of
modular ratio; and
c) the transformed section: the compression area of the concrete crosssection combined with the
reinforcement on the basis of modular ratio. (But see 4.2.4(e).)
The strength of a crosssection at the ULS, under both shortterm and longterm loading, may be taken
from the shortterm design stress strain curves, as follows:
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
a) for normal density concrete, from figure 1 with m having the relevant value given in 3.3.3.2;
b) for reinforcement, from figure 2 with m having the relevant value given in 3.3.3.2;
c) for prestressing reinforcement, from figure 3, with m having the relevant value given in 3.3.3.2.
The strain distribution in concrete and the strains in reinforcement are derived from the assumption
that plain sections remain plain. The tensile strength of concrete is ignored.
For prestressing tendons, make appropriate allowance for relaxation; for concrete, make appropriate
allowance for shrinkage and creep.
When elastic analysis is used to determine force distribution throughout the structure, base the relative
stiffness on the concrete section, the gross section or the transformed section (see 3.4.3.1).
When assessing the deflections of a structure, calculate the curvature at any section, taking into
account the influence of creep, shrinkage and cracking.
Deem a design to be satisfactory on the basis of satisfactory results from an appropriate model test
coupled with the use of model analysis to predict the behaviour of the actual structure, provided the
work has been carried out by engineers with the relevant experience and using suitable equipment.
Deem a design to be satisfactory if the analytical or empirical basis of the design has been justified
by development testing of prototype units and structures, relevant to the particular design under
consideration.
12
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
NOTES
1 The coefficient 0,67 takes into account the difference between laboratory and site strength of concrete.
2 fcu is in megapascals.
13
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2




















 Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
NOTE fy is in megapascals.
14
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.1 General
This clause gives methods of analysis and design that will, in general, ensure that for reinforced
concrete structures, the objectives set out in clause 3 are achieved. Other methods may be used,
provided that they can be shown to be satisfactory for the type of structure or element under
consideration. In certain cases, the assumptions made in this clause may be inappropriate and the
engineer will have to adopt a more suitable method, bearing in mind the nature of the structure in
question.
This subclause follows the limit states principles set out in clause 3. It is assumed that for reinforced
concrete structures, the critical limit state will be the ultimate limit state (see 3.2.2). The design
methods therefore take into account the partial safety factors appropriate to the ultimate limit state,
and are followed by recommendations to ensure that the serviceability limit states of deflection,
cracking or vibration are not reached. The serviceability limit states of deflection and cracking will not
normally be reached if the recommendations given for span/effective depth ratios and reinforcement
spacings are followed. The engineer may alternatively calculate deflections and crack width to prove
compliance with clause 3. (Suitable methods are described in annex A.)
4.1.2 Stability
Apart from the considerations given in 3.2.2, cognizance should also be taken of those given below:
All structures should be capable of resisting an ultimate horizontal load applied at each floor and roof
level simultaneously, of at least 1,5 % of the nominal selfweight of the structure between midheight
of the storey below and either midheight of the storey above or the roof surface. This force could be
shared by the parts of the structure, depending on their stiffness and strength.
In order to obviate the possibility of vehicles running into and damaging or destroying vital loadbearing
elements in the ground floor of a structure, the provision of elements such as bollards, walls and
retaining earthbanks should be considered.
In structures where all loadbearing elements are of concrete, horizontal and vertical ties should be
provided in accordance with 4.11.9.
The durability and the fire resistance of reinforced concrete depend on the amount of concrete cover
to reinforcement. Guidance on the minimum cover to reinforcement that is necessary to ensure
durability is given in 4.11.2. Fire test results or other evidence may be used to ascertain the fire
resistance of an element or, alternatively, reference could be made to clause 7.
15
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.1.4 Loads
In this clause, the design load for the ultimate limit state is referred to as the ultimate load or the
maximum design load, to avoid confusion with the service load, which is the design load for the
serviceability limit states.
In design, use the values of the ultimate loads given in 3.3.3.1, and the values of the service loads
given in 3.3.4.1.
In this clause, the design strengths of materials for the ultimate limit state are expressed (in all the
tables and equations) in terms of the characteristic strength of the material. Unless specifically stated
otherwise, all equations and tables include allowances for m, the partial safety factor for material
strength.
The values of the 28 d characteristic strength of concrete, fcu, and the required strength of concrete
at ages exceeding 28 d, for various grades of concrete, are given in table 2.
1 2 3 4 5
Characteristic MPa
strength, fcu
Grade Age
MPa months
3 6 12
20 20,0 23 24 25
25 25,0 29 30 31
30 30,0 34 35 36
35 35,0 39 40 42
40 40,0 44 46 48
45 45,0 49 51 53
50 50,0 54 56 58
Design consideration should be based on the characteristic strength fcu, or, if relevant, on the
appropriate strength given in table 2 for the age at loading.
For reinforced concrete, the lowest grade that should be used is 20 for concrete made with
normalweight aggregates and 15 for concrete made with lightweight aggregates.
Base the design on the appropriate characteristic strength of reinforcement given in table 3. (If
necessary, a lower design stress may be used to help control deflection or cracking, and possibly a
different grade of reinforcement may be used.)
16
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
1 2 3
Designation of reinforcement Nominal sizes Characteristic strength f,
mm MPa
For recommendations concerning vibration or other limit states, refer to clause 3. For comment on the
deterioration of concrete as a result of chemical aggresion, refer to SABS 01002.
Analysis may be in accordance with 3.4.3 or, when appropriate, by the methods given in 4.2.2.
NOTE In the case of frame structures, ensure that if failure were to occur in critical conditions, it would occur in the
beams and not in the columns.
When a frame supporting vertical loads only is assumed, the moments, loads and shear forces to be
used in the design of individual columns and beams may be derived from an elastic analysis of a
series of subframes (but see 4.2.4 concerning redistribution of moments). Each subframe may be
taken to consist of the beams at one level together with the columns above and below. The ends of
the columns remote from the beams may generally be assumed to be fixed, unless the assumption
of a pinned end is clearly more reasonable (for example where a foundation detail is considered unable
to develop moment restraint).
It will normally be sufficient to consider the following critical arrangements of vertical load:
all spans loaded with ultimate selfweight load (1,2Gn) and alternate spans loaded with
ultimate imposed load (1,6Q,).
As an alternative to 4.2.2.1, the moments and forces in each individual beam may be found by
considering a simplified subframe consisting only of that beam, the columns attached to the ends of
the beam and the beams on either side, if any. The column ends and the beam ends remote from the
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
beam under consideration may generally be assumed to be fixed, unless the assumption of pinned
ends is clearly more reasonable. The stiffness of the beams on either side of the beam under
consideration should be taken as half their actual stiffness values if they are taken to be fixed at their
outer ends.
 all spans loaded with ultimate selfweight load (1,2Gn) and alternate spans loaded with ultimate
 imposed load (1,6Qn). Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
The moments in an individual column may also be found from this simplified subframe, provided that
the subframe has at its central beam the longer of the two spans framing into the column under
consideration.
As a more conservative alternative to the preceding subframe arrangements, the moments and shear
forces in the beams at one level may also be obtained by regarding the beams as a continuous beam
over supports providing no restraint to rotation. The critical loading arrangements should be in
accordance with 4.2.2.1.
4.2.2.4 Asymmetrically loaded columns where a beam has been analysed in accordance with
4.2.2.3
In these columns, the ultimate moments may be calculated by simple moment distribution procedures,
on the assumption that the columns and beam ends remote from the junction under consideration are
fixed and that the beams possess half their actual stiffness. The arrangement of the design ultimate
imposed load should be such as to cause the maximum moment in the column.
4.2.3.1 When a frame provides lateral stability to the structure as a whole, it will be necessary to
consider the effect of lateral loads. In addition, if the columns are slender (see 4.7.1.4), it may be
necessary to consider additional moments (e.g. from eccentricity) that may be imposed on beams at
beam column junctions.
4.2.3.2 In most cases, the design of individual beams and columns may be based either on the
moments, loads and shears obtained by considering vertical loads only (as in 4.2.2) or on those
obtained by considering both vertical and lateral loads. If the moments, loads and shears obtained by
considering both types of loads are greater than those obtained by considering vertical loads only, then
the design should be based on the sum of those obtained from 4.2.3.2.1 and 4.2.3.2.2.
4.2.3.2.1 An elastic analysis of a series of subframes, each consisting of the beams at one level
together with the columns above and below. The ends of the columns remote from the beams may
generally be assumed to be fixed, unless the assumption of pinned ends is clearly more reasonable.
NOTE  Lateral loads should be ignored and all beams should be considered to be loaded as in 4.2.2.
4.2.3.2.2 An analysis of the complete frame, assuming points of contraflexure at the centres of all
beams and columns, ignoring selfweight and imposed loads and considering only the design wind load
on the structure. If more realistic, instead of assuming points of contraflexure at the centres of ground
floor columns, the feet should be considered pinned.
18
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Redistribution of the moments obtained by elastic analysis or by the simplified methods given in 4.2.2
and 4.2.3 may be carried out, provided the following conditions are satisfied:
a) condition 1: equilibrium between internal and external forces is maintained under all appropriate
combinations of ultimate load.
b) condition 2: where the design ultimate resistance moment of the crosssection subjected to the
largest moment within each region of hogging or sagging is reduced, the neutral axis depth x
should not exceed
(b0,4)d
where
NOTE  Unless the column axial load is small, condition 2 will generally rule out reduction in column moment.
c) condition 3: the ultimate resistance moment at any section of an element complies with the
appropriate value obtained from the final envelope of redistributed elastic moments on the element,
and the ultimate resistance moment at any section is at least 75 % or 80 %, as relevant, of the
elastic moment at that particular section, obtained from elastic maximum moment diagrams
covering all appropriate combinations of ultimate loads. The value of 75 % is applicable in the case
of uniform elements (the crosssection considered does not change along the element). The value
of 80 % is applicable in the case of nonuniform elements.
d) condition 4: in structures exceeding four storeys and in which the structural frame provides the
lateral stability, the redistribution of moments is limited to 10 % and the value given in condition 3
reads 90 %.
e) condition 5: in the case of linear elastic analysis being used, the relative stiffness of the elements
is not based on the transformed sections.
Any structural frame in a building provided with lateral stability by walls or bracing designed to resist
all lateral forces may be considered to consist of continuous beams (see 4.3) and columns (see 4.7),
and the simplified but more conservative methods given in the appropriate subsections may be used
in design as an alternative to the methods given in 4.2.2.
19
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.3 Beams
4.3.1 General
Beams of normal proportions are the subject of this subclause. In the case of beams of depth
exceeding half of their clear span, specialist literature should be consulted.
The effective span of a continuous beam is the distance between the centres of supports. In the case
of an embedded end, the centre of action of support should be taken to be half the effective depth from
the face of the support.
The effective length of a cantilever should be taken as its length to the face of the support plus half
the effective depth. If a cantilever forms the end of a continuous beam, the effective span should be
taken as its clear length plus the distance to the centre of the support.
In the absence of a more accurate determination, ensure that the effective flange width
a) for a Tbeam does not exceed the lesser of
1) the web width plus L z /5 and
2) the actual width of the flange, and
b) for an Lbeam does not exceed the lesser of
1) the web width plus L z /10 and
2) the actual width of the flange,
where L z is the distance between points of zero moment (considering the bending moment envelope
on spans). For a continuous beam, L z may be taken as 0,7 times the effective span.
To ensure lateral stability, the clear distance between lateral restraints should not exceed the following:
20
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
where
For parapet beams, lateral restraint may be assumed to be provided by slabs attached to the tension
zone, provided that the slab thickness is at least onetenth of the effective depth of the parapet beam
and the parapet beams themselves do not project above the slab by more than ten times their width.
For the relationship between slenderness limits for beams and the strength of concrete to be used,
specialist literature should be consulted.
Continuous beams may be analysed in accordance with either clause 3 (general recommendations),
4.3.2.1 or4.3.2.2.
4.3.2.1 .'lThe maximum elastic moments and shear forces at any section of a continuous beam may
be obtained by regarding the beam either as part of a frame in accordance with 4.2.2, or as continuous
over its supports and capable of free rotation about them.
4.3.2.q.2 In the latter case (see 4.3.2.1.1), make an elastic analysis considering the following
arrangements of load:
all spans loaded with ultimate selfweight load (1,2Gn) and alternate spans loaded with ultimate
imposed load (1,6Qn).
4.3.2.1.3 Redistribution of the moments obtained by the methods described above may be carried out
within the limits recommended in 4.2.4.
4.3.2.1.4 For continuous beams over supports, the design hogging moment need not be taken as
greater than the moment at a distance d 12 from the face of the support, i.e. if the support is wide, the
moment at the centre of the support need not be used.
4.3.2.2 Continuous beams: moments and shear forces (uniform loading and approximately
equal spans)
Provided that the ratio of the characteristic imposed load to the characteristic selfweight load does
not exceed 1,25 for beams that support substantially uniformly distributed loads over three or more
spans that do not differ by more than 15 % from the longest span, the ultimate bending moments and
shear forces used in design may be obtained from table 4.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
1 2 3
When a crosssection of a beam is being analysed to determine its ultimate moment of resistance, the
following assumptions should be made:
a) the strain distribution in the concrete in compression and the strains in the reinforcement, whether
in tension or in compression, are derived from the assumption that plane sections remain plane;
b) the simplified stress diagram of concrete in compression is as shown in figure 4; alternatively, the
stresses in the concrete in compression may be derived from the stress strain curve shown in
figure 1, taking m as 1,5; in both cases,
d) the stress in the reinforcement is derived from the stress strain curve shown in figure 2, taking
m as 1,15;
e) where the beam is designed to resist flexure only, the lever arm is assumed not to exceed 0,95
times the effective depth. In the analysis of a crosssection of a beam that has to resist a small axial
thrust, the effect of the ultimate force may be ignored if the force does not exceed the value of 0,1fcu
multiplied by the crosssectional area.
In the actual design, in order to find the amount of reinforcement required, either the design formulae
given in 4.3.3.4, or strain compatibility together with the assumption of plane strain (in the case of
nonrectangular beams) may be used.
22
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.3.3.3 Symbols
As area of compression reinforcement Amdt 1, Apr. 1994 
z lever arm
23
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2

























 Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
NOTE The material factor m for concrete differs from m for steel.
4.3.3.4.1 In the case of a rectangular beam, flanged beam, solid slab, ribbed slab or voided slab when
the neutral axis lies within the flange, use the following equations based on figure 4:
K is 0,156 when redistribution of bending moments does not exceed 10 % (the neutral axis depth
is limited to d/2);
K= M
bd 2 fcu
k
 z =d 0,5 0,25 < 0,95d Tech. corr. 1, Sep. 1994
0,9
x = (d  z)/0,45
As = M/0,87fyz;
24
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
z = d 0,5 K
8
0,25 @ Amdt 1, Apr. 1994 
0,9
x = (d  z)/0,45
K f cu bd 2 As f yc
As Amdt 1, Apr. 1994 
0,87 f yz 0,87f y
d f
If > 1 ) yc , the compression stress will be less than fyc and should be obtained from figure 2. 
x 700
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
4.3.3.4.2 In the case of a flanged beam where the neutral axis lies below the flange, the required steel
area may be calculated from the following equation:
a) hf < 0,45d;
b) the design ultimate moment is less than f fcu bd 2 (f being as given in table 5 below);
c) not more than 10 % of redistribution has been carried out (the neutral axis depth is limited to d/2).
25
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
f
b/bw d/hf
2 3 4 5 6
1 0,15 0,15 0,15 0,15 0,15 0,15
2 0,15 0,14 0,12 0,12 0,11 0,08
4 0,15 0,13 0,11 0,10 0,09 0,04
4.3.3.4.3 The ultimate design moment of resistance of a flanged beam where the neutral axis lies
below the flange may be taken as the lesser of the values given by the following equations:
h
Mu = 0,87f y As d f
2
h
Mu = 0,45f cu b hf d f (1)
2
Where it is necessary for the moment of resistance to exceed the value given by equation (1), analyse
the section in accordance with 4.3.3.1.
4.3.4.1.1 The design shear stress v at any crosssection of a beam should in no case exceed a value
of the lesser of 0,75 f cu or 4,75 MPa, regardless of any shear reinforcement provided.
V
v =
bd
where
V is the design shear force due to design maximum loads for ultimate limit state;
b is the width of section (for a flanged beam, should be taken as the rib width); and
4.3.4.1.2 Where the shear stress exceeds vc as calculated from equation (2), provide shear
reinforcement in the form of links or links combined with bentup bars (but see 4.11.4.5 for minimum
area of links).
Do not space bentup bars at more than 1,5 times the effective depth of the beam.
26
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Calculate vc from:
where
100 As
should not be taken as greater than 3,
bv d
where
As is the area of properly anchored tension reinforcement (in the case of prestressed concrete
the stressed and unstressed reinforcement should be considered), and
bv is the width of section (for a flanged beam this should be taken as average width of the rib
below the flange),
Table 6 provides values of vc for 25 MPa concrete, for a typical range of steel contents and effective
depths.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
Maximum design shear stress of concrete, vc 

MPa 
100 As 
bv d Effective depth, d 

mm 
125 150 175 200 225 250 300 400 500 800 
0,15 0,38 0,36 0,35 0,34 0,33 0,32 0,31 0,28 0,27 0,24 
0,25 0,45 0,43 0,41 0,40 0,39 0,38 0,36 0,34 0,32 0,28 
0,50 0,57 0,54 0,52 0,51 0,49 0,48 0,46 0,43 0,40 0,36 
0,75 0,66 0,62 0,60 0,58 0,56 0,55 0,52 0,49 0,46 0,41 
1,00 0,72 0,68 0,66 0,64 0,62 0,60 0,58 0,54 0,51 0,45 
1,50 0,82 0,78 0,75 0,73 0,71 0,69 0,66 0,61 0,58 0,52 
2,00 0,90 0,86 0,83 0,80 0,78 0,76 0,73 0,67 0,64 0,57 
3,00 1,03 0,99 0,95 0,92 0,89 0,87 0,83 0,77 0,73 0,65 
NOTE ) Allowance has been made in these figures for a m of 1,40. 
Amdt 2, Mar. 2000
27
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.3.4.1.3 When links are used for shear reinforcement, ensure that the spacings of the legs (in the
direction of the span and at right angles to it) do not exceed 0,75 d and that the following condition
is satisfied:
where
f, is the characteristic strength of link reinforcement (but not exceeding 450 MPa);
4.3.4.1.4 Up to 50 % of the shear reinforcement may be in the form of bentup bars, which are
assumed to form the tension members of one or more single systems of lattice girders in which the
concrete forms the compression members. The maximum stress in any bar should be taken as 0,87f,.
The shear resistance in any vertical section is the sum of the vertical components of the tension and
compression forces cut by the section.
The shear resistance of a single system of bentup bars with the bars inclined at 45" or more, may be
calculated from the following equation:
d  d'
sin a cot P) 
v, = A,, 0,87f, (cos a +
Sb
where
A,, is the crosssectional area of bentup bars within the length of that part of a beam traversed
by a shear failure plane;
I ,f is the characteristic strength of bentup bars (but not exceeding 450 MPa);
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
a$ are the angles as in figure 5; and
Account may be taken of the enhancement in any situation where the section or concentrated load
under consideration is closer to the face of a support than twice the effective depth d. This
enhancement is particularly useful for corbels (see 6.2.4.2) or pile caps (see 4.10.4).
Shear failure at sections of beams and cantilevers without shear reinforcement will normally occur on
a plane inclined at an angle of about 30 to the horizontal. If the angle of failure plane is forced to be
inclined more steeply than this (because the section under consideration (xx in figure 6) is close to
a support, or for other reasons), the shear force required to produce failure is increased.
This enhancement of shear strength may be taken into account in the design of sections near a support
by increasing the design concrete shear stress vc, to vc 2d /av (d is the effective depth and av is as
shown in figure 6), provided that v at the face of the support remains less than the lesser of 0,7 f cu
and 4 MPa (this limit includes a m of 1,4).
29
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
I SABS 01001
Drq.12030EC/000L I
Figure 6  Shear failure near supports
b, is the width of section (for a flanged beam, this should be taken as average width of the rib
below the flange);
f is the characteristic strength of the link reinforcement (but not exceeding 450 MPa).
This reinforcement should be provided within the middle threequarters of a, . Where a, is less than
d, horizontal shear reinforcement will be more effective than will vertical, and both should be used.
The procedures given in 4.3.4.2.1 and 4.3.4.2.2 may be used for all beams. However, for beams
carrying a generally uniform load or where the principal load is located further than 2d from the face
of support, the shear stress may be calculated at a section a distance dfrorn the face of the support.
The value of v, is calculated in accordance with 4.3.4.1, and the appropriate shear reinforcement
assessed. If this amount of shear reinforcement is provided at sections closer to the support, no further
check for shear at such sections is required.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Where load is applied through the side face below the neutral axis of a beam or the bottom of a beam,
sufficient vertical reinforcement to carry the load up to the top face of the beam should be provided 
in addition to any reinforcement required to resist shear. Amdt 2, Mar. 2000
NVh
vc vc 0,6 (2(a))
AcM
where
vc is the design shear stress of concrete (see 4.3.4.1), which should not be adjusted in
accordance with 4.3.4.2;
Ac is the gross area of concrete section. (N/Ac is intended to be the average stress in the
concrete, acting at the centroid of the section); and
Where it is considered necessary to avoid shear cracking prior to the ultimate limit state, the shear
stress should be limited to the value given by equation 2(b):
If v exceeds vc , shear reinforcement should be provided as in 4.3.4.1 but using vc instead of of vc.
The value of v should not exceed the limiting values given in 4.3.4.1.1.
4.3.5.1 General
31
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
If the torsional resistance or stiffness of beams has to be taken into account in the analysis of a frame,
the torsional rigidity (G x C) of a beam may be calculated by assuming that the shear modulus G is
equal to 0,4 times the modulus of elasticity of the concrete and the torsional constant C is equal to half
the St. Venant value C ) calculated for the plain concrete section.
The St. Venant torsional stiffness of a rectangular section may be calculated from the following
equation:
C ) = h3min hmax
where
is the coefficient depending on the ratio h/b (overall depth of beam divided by the width),
see table 7;
1 2
hmax
hmin
1 0,14
1,5 0,20
2 0,23
3 0,26
5 0,29
>5 0,33
The St. Venant torsional stiffness of a nonrectangular section may be obtained by dividing the section
into a series of rectangles and summing the torsional stiffness of these rectangles. The division of the
section should be so arranged as to maximize the calculated stiffness. (This will generally be achieved
if the widest rectangle is made as long as possible.)
The torsional shear stress vt at any section should be calculated assuming a plastic stress distribution
and may be calculated from the following equation:
32
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
2T
vt =
hmin
hmax
2
hmin
3
where
T is the torsional moment due to design loads for the ultimate limit state;
T, L or Isections may be treated by dividing them into their component rectangles; these are chosen
in such a way as to maximize h3min x hmax, which will generally be achieved if the widest rectangle is
made as long as possible.
Then 4.3.5.3.1 should be followed, bearing in mind that each of these component rectangles is
subjected to a torsional moment as follows:
3
hmin hmax
T T
(hmin
3
hmax)
Box sections in which wall thicknesses exceed onequarter of the overall thickness of the beam in the
direction of measurement may be treated as solid rectangular sections. In the case of other sections,
consult specialist literature.
Where the torsion shear stress vt exceeds the value vt,min in table 8, reinforcement should be provided.
In no case may the sum of the shear stresses resulting from shear force and torsion (v + vt) exceed
the value vtu in table 8 nor, in the case of small sections (y1 < 550 mm), shall the torsion shear stress
vt exceed vtu y1/550, where y1 is the larger centretocentre dimension of a link.
33
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
1 2 3
NOTES
Recommendations for reinforcement for combinations of shear and torsion are given in table 9.
1 2 3
Torsional reinforcement should consist of rectangular closed links together with longitudinal
reinforcement. This reinforcement is additional to any requirements for shear and bending and should
be such that
Asv T
sv 0,8 x1 y1 (0,87 f yv)
34
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
where
Asv is the area of two legs of closed links at a section (in a section reinforced with multiple links,
the area of the legs lying closest to the outside of the section should be used);
fyv is the characteristic strength of links (but not exceeding 450 MPa);
fy is the characteristic strength of longitudinal reinforcement (but not exceeding 450 MPa);
The spacing of the links sv should not exceed the least of x1, y1/2 and 200 mm. The links should be of
a closed type similar to code 74 links of SABS 82.
Longitudinal torsional reinforcement should be distributed evenly round the inside perimeter of the
links. The clear distance between these bars should not exceed 300 mm, and at least four bars, one
in each corner of the links, should be used. Additional longitudinal reinforcement required at the level
of the tension or compression reinforcement may be provided by using larger bars than those required
for bending only. The torsional reinforcement should extend for a distance at least equal to the largest
dimension of the section beyond where it theoretically ceases to be required.
In the component rectangles, the reinforcement cages should be so detailed that they interlock and
tie the component rectangles of the section together. Where the torsional shear stress in a minor
component rectangle is less than vt,min, no torsional reinforcement need be provided in that rectangle.
4.3.6.1 General
Deflection may be calculated (see annex A) and compared with the serviceability requirements given
in 3.2.3.2, but in all normal cases, the deflection of a beam will not be excessive if the ratio of its span
to its effective depth does not exceed the appropriate ratio obtained from 4.3.6.2 or 4.3.6.3. When
appropriate, use the modification factors given in tables 11 and 12 to modify the ratios given in
table 10.
4.3.6.2.1 The basic span/effective depth ratios for rectangular beams are given in table 10. These are
based on limiting the deflection to span/250 and this should normally prevent damage to finishes and
35
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
partitions for beams of span up to 10 m (see 3.2.3.2). For cantilevers, add or subtract, as appropriate,
the support rotation times the cantilever span.
1 2
4.3.6.2.2 Table 10 may be used for spans exceeding 10 m but only when it is not necessary to limit
the increase in deflection after the construction of partitions and finishes. Otherwise, in order to prevent
damage to finishes and partitions, the values given in table 10 should be multiplied by 10/span, except
for cantilevers, where the design should be justified by calculation.
Since deflection is influenced by the amount of tension reinforcement and its stresses, it is necessary
 to modify the span/effective depth ratios according to the ultimate design moment and the service
 stress at the centre of the span (or at the support in the case of a cantilever). Therefore, values of
span/effective depth ratio obtained from table 10 should be multiplied by the appropriate factor
obtained from table 11. Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
36
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 5,5 6,0
300 1,60 1,33 1,16 1,06 0,98 0,93 0,89 0,85 0,82 0,80 0,78 0,76
290 1,66 1,37 1,20 1,09 1,01 0,95 0,90 0,87 0,84 0,81 0,79 0,78
280 1,72 1,41 1,23 1,12 1,03 0,97 0,92 0,89 0,85 0,83 0,81 0,79
270 1,78 1,46 1,27 1,14 1,06 0,99 0,94 0,90 0,87 0,84 0,82 0,80
260 1,84 1,50 1,30 1,17 1,08 1,01 0,96 0,92 0,88 0,86 0,83 0,81
250 1,90 1,55 1,34 1,20 1,11 1,04 0,98 0,94 0,90 0,87 0,85 0,82
240 1,96 1,59 1,37 1,23 1,13 1,06 1,00 0,95 0,92 0,88 0,86 0,84
230 2,00 1,63 1,41 1,26 1,16 1,08 1,02 0,97 0,93 0,90 0,87 0,85
220 2,00 1,68 1,44 1,29 1,18 1,10 1,04 0,99 0,95 0,91 0,88 0,86
210 2,00 1,72 1,48 1,32 1,20 1,12 1,06 1,00 0,96 0,93 0,90 0,87
200 2,00 1,76 1,51 1,35 1,23 1,14 1,07 1,02 0,98 0,94 0,91 0,88
190 2,00 1,81 1,55 1,37 1,25 1,16 1,09 1,04 0,99 0,96 0,92 0,90
180 2,00 1,85 1,58 1,40 1,28 1,18 1,11 1,06 1,01 0,97 0,94 0,91
170 2,00 1,90 1,62 1,43 1,30 1,21 1,13 1,07 1,02 0,98 0,95 0,92
160 2,00 1,94 1,65 1,46 1,33 1,23 1,15 1,09 1,04 1,00 0,96 0,93
150 2,00 1,98 1,69 1,49 1,35 1,25 1,17 1,11 1,05 1,01 0,98 0,94
140 2,00 2,00 1,72 1,52 1,38 1,27 1,19 1,12 1,07 1,03 0,99 0,96
130 2,00 2,00 1,75 1,55 1,40 1,29 1,21 1,14 1,09 1,04 1,00 0,97
120 2,00 2,00 1,79 1,58 1,43 1,31 1,23 1,16 1,10 1,05 1,01 0,98
NOTES
(477 f s)
Modification factor = 0,55 + < 2,0
M
120 0,9
bd 2
where
M is the design ultimate moment at the centre of the span or, for cantilevers, at the support;
b is the width of section;
d is the effective depth of section; and
fs is the design estimate service stress in tension reinforcement.
3 Span considered is smaller span for 2way slabs, larger for flat slabs.
37
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
The design service stress in the tension reinforcement in a beam may be estimated from the following
equation:
1 % 2 As,req 1
 fs = 0,87 f y x x x Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
3 % 4 As,prov b
where
As,req is the area of tension reinforcement required at midspan to resist moment due to ultimate
loads (at the support in the case of a cantilever);
As,prov is the area of tension reinforcement provided at midspan (at the support in the case of
a cantilever); and
If the percentage of redistribution is not known but the design ultimate moment of midspan is clearly
the same or exceeds the elastic ultimate moment, the stress fs given in table 11 may be calculated
from the above equation where b = 1,0.
Because compression reinforcement also influences deflection, the value of the span/effective depth
ratio modified in accordance with table 11 may be multiplied by a further factor obtained from table 12.
38
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
1 2
100As
Factor*)
bd
0,15 1,05
0,25 1,08
0,35 1,10
0,50 1,14
0,75 1,20
1,00 1,25
1,25 1,29
1,50 1,33
1,75 1,37
2,00 1,40
2,50 1,45
> 3,00 1,50
The area of compression reinforcement at midspan As) used in table 12 may comprise all bars in the compression zone,
including those not effectively tied with links.
Permissible span/effective depth ratios obtained from tables 9 to 11 take account of normal creep and
shrinkage deflection. If it is expected that creep or shrinkage of the concrete might be particularly high
(concrete of very poor quality and workmanship, high longterm loadings), i.e. the free shrinkage stress
exceeds 0,000 75 or the creep coefficient exceeds 4, the permissible span/effective depth ratio should
be reduced. A reduction of more than 15 % is unlikely to be required.
For a flanged beam, the span/effective depth ratio may be determined as in 4.3.6.2 but, when the web
width is less than 0,3 times the effective flange width, multiply the final ratio obtained by 0,8. For
values of web width to effective flange width that exceed 0,3, this factor may be increased linearly
from 0,8 to 1,0 as the ratio of web width to effective flange width increases to unity.
In the case of inverted flanged beams with the flange in tension, the tension reinforcement within the
width of the web must be taken into consideration.
The compression reinforcement (as in table 12) should be that within the effective width of the flange.
In general, compliance with the reinforcement spacing rules given in 4.11.8 will be an acceptable
method of controlling flexural cracking in beams, but in certain cases, particularly where groups of bars
are used, advantage may be gained from calculating crack widths (see annex A) and comparing them
with the recommended values given in clause 3.
39
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
In general, the recommendations given in 4.3 for beams will apply also to solid slabs, but take 4.4.2
to 4.4.7 into account.
4.4.2.1 General
In solid slabs, the moments and shear forces resulting from both distributed and concentrated loads
may be found as for beams. They may also be determined by elastic analyses such as those of
Pigeaud and Westergaard. Alternatively, Johansen's yieldline method or Hillerborg's strip method may
be used, provided that the ratios between support and span moments are similar to those obtained by
the use of the elastic theory. Values in the range 1,0 to 1,5 are recommended.
The ultimate moment of resistance of a crosssection in a solid slab may be determined by using the
methods given in 4.3.3 for beams.
A continuous slab will be able to withstand the most unfavourable arrangements of design loads if it
is designed to resist the moments and forces arising from the singleload case of maximum design
load on all spans. The following conditions are to be met:
NOTE  In this context, a bay is a strip across the full width of a structure and supported on two sides (see figure 7).
40
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
b) the ratio of the characteristic imposed load to the characteristic selfweight load does not exceed
1,25.
c) the characteristic imposed load does not exceed 5 kN/m2, excluding partitions.
When analysis is carried out for the singleload case of maximum design load on all spans, the
resulting support moments, except those at the support of cantilevers, should be reduced by 20 %, with
a resultant increase in the span moments (see 4.2.4). When a span is adjacent to a cantilever of length
exceeding onethird of the span of the slab, the other possibility of loading arrangement should be
considered, i.e. the case of slab unloaded and the cantilever loaded.
d) steel curtailment complies with the simplified rules for curtailment given in 4.11.7.3.
If a slab is simply supported on two opposite edges and carries one or more concentrated loads in a
line in the direction of the span, the maximum bending moments may be assumed to be resisted by
an effective width of slab (measured parallel to the supports), given below.
4.4.2.4.1 For solid slabs, the effective width may be taken as the sum of the load width plus
2,4x(1 x/l) where x is the distance from the nearer support to the section under consideration and l is
the span. For cantilever slabs the equivalent value is 2,4x.
4.4.2.4.2 For slabs other than solid slabs, the effective width will depend on the ratio of the transverse
and longitudinal flexural rigidities of the slab. The minimum value to be taken, however, is the load
width plus 4 x/l (1 x/l) metres where x and l are as defined in 4.4.2.4.1, such that, for a section at
midspan, the effective width is equal to 1 m plus the load width.
4.4.2.4.3 Where the concentrated load is near an unsupported edge of a slab, the effective width
should not exceed the value given in 4.4.2.4.1 or 4.4.2.4.2, as appropriate, nor half that value plus the
distance of the centre of the load from the unsupported edge (see figure 8).
41
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Where the length of the longer side of a slab exceeds three times the length of the shorter side, so
design the slab as to span one way only.
When the conditions of 4.4.2.3 are met, the moments and shears in continuous oneway spanning
slabs may be calculated using the coefficients given in table 13.
Table 13  Ultimate bending moments and shear forces in oneway spanning slabs
1 2 3
Allowance has been made in these coefficients for 20 % redistribution. No further redistribution should
be carried out. (See also 4.2.4 (d).)
42
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
The curtailment of reinforcement designed in accordance with table 13 may be carried out in
accordance with the rules given in 4.11.7.3.
4.4.4 Solid slabs spanning in two directions at right angles (uniformly distributed
loads)
In addition to other methods, the methods given in 4.4.4.1 to 4.4.4.3 may be used for the design of
slabs spanning in two directions at right angles and supporting uniformly distributed loads.
When simply supported rectangular slabs do not have adequate provision to resist torsion at the
corners and to prevent the corners from lifting, the maximum moments per unit width are given by the
following equations:
Msx= sxnl
2
x
2
Msy= synl x
where
Msx, Msy are the maximum bending moments at midspan on strips of unit width spanning lx and
ly, respectively;
n is the total ultimate load per unit area (1,2 gn + 1,6 qn);
Extend to the supports at least 50 % of the tension reinforcement provided at midspan. Extend the
remaining part of the reinforcement to within 0,1l x or 0,1l y of the support, as appropriate.
43
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
1 2 3
ly
sx sy
lx
Both in continuous and in discontinuous slabs where the corners are prevented from lifting and
provision for torsion is made, the maximum moments per unit width are given by the following
equations:
where
Msx, Msy are the maximum bending moments at midspan on strips of unit width spanning lx and
ly, respectively;
n is the total ultimate load per unit area (1,2 gn + 1,6 qn);
44
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Shortspan coefficients sx
Longspan
Type of panel and coefficients, sy
Case Values of ly/lx
moments considered for all values of
ly/lx
1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,75 2,0
1 Interior panels
Negative moment at continuous
edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,031 0,037 0,042 0,046 0,050 0,053 0,059 0,063 0,032
Positive moment at midspan . . . 0,024 0,028 0,032 0,036 0,039 0,041 0,045 0,049 0,024
Where these equations are used, the conditions given below apply.
The nominal selfweight and imposed loads on adjacent slabs should be approximately the same as
those on the slab under consideration, and the spans of all adjacent slabs should be approximately the
same in each of the two directions of the lines of the supports. (See also 4.4.4.2.2.)
Regard slabs as divided in each direction into middle strips and edge strips as shown in figure 9, the
middle strip being threequarters of the width and each edge strip oneeighth of the width;
The maximum moments calculated as in 4.4.4.2 apply to the middle strips only and no redistribution
is permitted.
45
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
b) tension reinforcement over the continuous edges: extend at least 50 % of the tension
reinforcement provided in the upper part of a middle strip to a distance 0,3l from the face of the
support; extend the remaining part of the reinforcement to a distance of 0,15l from the face of the
support;
d) tension reinforcement in an edge strip, parallel to the edge: the reinforcement need not exceed
the minimum given in 4.11.4 and the minimum given in the rules for torsional reinforcement given
in (e), (f) and (g) below;
e) torsional reinforcement at any corner where the slab is simply supported on both edges
meeting at that corner: the reinforcement should comprise top and bottom reinforcement, each
with layers of bars placed parallel to the sides of the slab and extending from the external faces of
the edges a minimum distance of onefifth of the shorter span; the area of reinforcement in each
of these four layers should be threequarters of the area required for the maximum midspan
moment in the slab;
f) torsional reinforcement at any corner contained by edges over only one of which the slab
is continuous: reinforcement equal to half of that described in (e) above should be provided;
g) torsional reinforcement need not be provided at any corner contained by edges over both
of which the slab is continuous: where ly /lx exceeds 3, so design slabs as to span one way only.
46
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.4.4.2.3 In the case of a restrained slab with unequal conditions at adjacent panels
If the support moments for adjacent panels (calculated using table 15) differ significantly, they may
be adjusted as follows:
a) calculate the sum of the moments at midspan and supports (ignoring signs);
c) distribute these fixed end moments across the supports according to the relative stiffness of
adjacent spans, giving new support moments;
d) adjust the midspan moment; this should be such that when it is added to the support moments as
in (c) above (ignoring signs), the total should equal that obtained in (a) above;
if, for a given panel, the resulting support moments now significantly exceed the values given by
equations (3) and (4), the tension steel over the supports will need to be extended beyond the
provisions of 4.11.7.3. The procedure is as follows:
1) the span moment is taken as parabolic between supports; its maximum value is as found in (d)
above;
2) the points of contraflexure of the new support moments (as in (c) above) and the span moment
(as in (1) above) are determined;
3) at each end, half the support tension steel is extended to at least an effective depth or 12 bar
diameters beyond the nearest point of contraflexure; and
4) at each end, the full area of the support tension steel is extended to half the distance obtained
in (3) above.
The design loads on beams supporting solid slabs spanning in two directions at right angles and
supporting uniformly distributed loads may be assumed to be in accordance with figure 10. If the edges
of two slabs having the same support meet at a corner, the dividing angle is 45. If a fully restrained
edge meets a freely supported edge, the dividing angle on the restrained side is 60. With partial
restraint, the angles may be assumed to lie between 45 and 60 (see figure 10(b)).
47
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
The design shear stress v at any crosssection in a solid slab should be compared with the allowable
shear stress vc and in no case should it exceed the lesser of 0,75 f cu or 4,75 MPa, whatever
reinforcement is provided.
Calculate v from:
V
v ' (5)
bd
where
v is the design shear stress;
V is the shear force due to design maximum loads;
b is the width of slab under consideration (usually 1 000 mm); and
d is the effective depth;
and the allowable stress vc is the maximum design shear stress in concrete without shear
reinforcement (obtainable from 4.3.4.1).
When the design shear stress v is less than the allowable shear stress vc, no shear reinforcement is
needed.
When v exceeds vc, shear reinforcement should be provided in accordance with the appropriate rules
for beams (see 4.3.4). When links are used in slabs less than 200 mm thick, the partial loss of
efficiency of the links should be taken into consideration unless structural steel shear heads are
provided that have been designed in accordance with specialist literature. It may be assumed that
every 10 mm reduction in the slab thickness reduces the links' efficiency by 10 %.
48
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
The enhancement in design shear strength close to supports (as described in 4.3.4.2) may also be
applied to solid slabs.
4.4.5.2.1 The following terms specific to perimeters are used in this subclause:
a) perimeter: a boundary of the smallest rectangle (or square) that can be drawn around a loaded
area and that nowhere comes closer to the edges of the loaded area than some specified distance
lp (a multiple of 0,75d) (see figure 11).
b) failure zone: an area of slab bounded by perimeters 1,5d apart (see figure 12);
c) effective length of a perimeter: the length of the perimeter reduced, where appropriate, for the
effects of openings or external edges;
d) effective depth d: the average effective depth for all effective reinforcement passing through a
perimeter; and
e) effective steel area: the total area of all tension reinforcement that passes through a zone and that
extends at least one effective depth (see above) or 12 times the bar size beyond the zone on either
side.
NOTE  The reinforcement percentage used to calculate the design ultimate shear stress vc is given by:
where
49
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.4.5.2.2 The maximum design shear stress vmax resulting from the concentrated load and calculated
V
vmax (6)
uo d
where
 The maximum shear capacity may also be limited by the provisions of 4.4.5.2.6. Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
 4.4.5.2.3 The shear capacity of punching shear zones is checked first on a perimeter 1,5 d from the
 face of the loaded area. If the calculated shear stress does not exceed vc, then no further checks are
 needed. Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
50
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
If shear reinforcement is required, then it should be provided on at least two perimeters within the zone
indicated in figure 12. The first perimeter of reinforcement should be located at approximately 0,5d
from the face of the loaded area and should contain not less than 40 % of the calculated area of
reinforcement.
The spacing of perimeters of reinforcement should not exceed 0,75d and the spacing of the shear
reinforcement around any perimeter should not exceed 1,5d. The shear reinforcement should be
anchored round at least one layer of tension reinforcement. The shear stress should then be checked
on successive perimeters at 0,75d intervals until a perimeter is reached which does not require shear
reinforcement.
In the provision of reinforcement for the shear calculated on the second and subsequent perimeters,
the reinforcement provided for the shear on previous perimeters and that lies within the zone shown
in figure 12 should be taken into account.
4.4.5.2.4 The nominal design shear stress v, appropriate to a particular perimeter, is calculated from:
V
v ' (7) 
ud
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
where
4.4.5.2.5 No shear reinforcement is required when the stress v is less than vc as calculated in 4.3.4.1. 
The value of 100 As/bvd to be used in 4.3.4.1 may be taken as the average for the two directions. 
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
In the case of zone 1, As in each direction should include all the tension reinforcement within a strip
of width bv equal to the width of the loaded area plus three times the effective depth of slab on either
side of the loaded area. Amdt 1, Apr. 1994 
The enhancement of vc permitted in 4.3.4.2 should not be applied to the shear strength of perimeters
at a distance of 1,5d or more from the face of the loaded area. Where it is desired to check perimeters
closer to the loaded area than 1,5d, vc may be increased by a factor 1,5 d/av (up to 4 MPa), where av
is the distance from the edge of the loaded area to the perimeter considered.
4.4.5.2.6 The use of shear reinforcement other than links is not covered specifically by this code and 
should be justified separately. Amdt 1, Apr. 1994 
In slabs over 200 mm, if vc <v <2vc, shear reinforcement may be provided in accordance with equation
7(a) or 7(b), as relevant:
For cases where vc <v <1,6vc, shear reinforcement should be provided in accordance with
(v & vc )ud
ASV >
(7(a))
0,87f yv
For cases where 1,6vc <v <2vc, shear reinforcement should be provided in accordance with
5( 0,7v & vc ) ud
ASV >
(7(b))
0,87f yv
51
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Equations 7(a) and 7(b) should not be applied where the shear stress v exceeds 2vc.
Where v>2vc and a reinforcing system is provided to increase the shear resistance, justification should
be provided to demonstrate the validity of the design.
fyv is the characteristic strength of shear reinforcement (but not exceeding 450 MPa);
52
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2






















































Amdt 1, Apr. 1994 
NOTE d is the average effective depth for all effective reinforcement passing through a perimeter.
53
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.4.5.2.7 When openings in slabs and footings (see figure 13) are located at a distance of less than
six times the thickness of the slab from the edge of a concentrated load or reaction, then that part of
the periphery of the critical section that is enclosed by radial projections of the openings to the centroid
of the loaded area is to be considered ineffective.
Where an opening is adjacent to the loaded area and its greatest width is less than the lesser of one
quarter of the loaded area side or onehalf of the slab depth, its presence may be ignored.
4.4.5.2.8 Where a concentrated load is located close to a free edge, the effective length of a
perimeter should be taken as the lesser of the two illustrated in figure 14. The same principle may be
adopted for corner columns.
54
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Deflections may be calculated and compared with the serviceability provisions given in 3.2.3.2 but,
in all normal cases, it will be sufficient to restrict the span/effective depth ratio. The appropriate ratio
for a solid slab may be obtained from table 10, modified by tables 11 and 12. The reinforcement at the
middle of the span in the width of the slab under consideration should be considered to influence
deflection.
In the case of a twoway spanning slab, the ratio should be based on the shorter span and its amount
of reinforcement in that direction.
In general, compliance with the reinforcement spacing rules given in 4.11.8 will be an acceptable
method of controlling flexural cracking in slabs but, in certain cases, advantage may be gained from
calculating crack widths (see annex A) and comparing them with the recommended values given in
clause 3.
4.5.1 General
4.5.1.1 Construction
This subclause refers to insitu slabs constructed in one of the following ways:
1) as a series of concrete ribs cast in situ between blocks that remain part of the completed
structure; the tops of the ribs are connected by a topping of concrete of the same strength as that
used in the ribs;
2) as a series of concrete ribs with topping cast on forms that may be removed after the concrete
has set;
3) with a continuous top and bottom face but containing voids of rectangular, oval or other shape.
When a topping is used to contribute to the structural strength, ensure that its thickness, after any
necessary allowance has been made for wear, is at least
a) 30 mm for slabs that have permanent blocks as described in 4.5.1.4 and have a clear distance of
not more than 500 mm between the ribs;
b) 25 mm for slabs as in (a) above but with each row of blocks jointed in mortar having a cementsand
mixture not weaker than 1:3, or having a cube strength of 11 MPa;
c) the greater of 40 mm or onetenth of the clear distance between the ribs, for all other slabs
55
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
d) the greater of 50 mm or onetenth of the clear distance between the ribs, for all other slabs without
permanent blocks.
The minimum width of ribs, whether they are rectangular or tapered, should be at least 65 mm and
their depth, excluding any topping, should not exceed four times their width.
Insitu ribs should be spaced at centres not exceeding 1,5 m and the edge rib that bears along its
length on a beam or wall shall be at least as wide as the bearing, i.e. the block or void shall not be on
the bearing.
4.5.1.4.1 Blocks and formers may be of any suitable material but, when required to contribute to the
structural strength of a slab, they should be made of
a) concrete or burnt clay and have a crushing strength of at least 14 MPa measured on the net section
when axially loaded in the direction of compressive stress in the slab, or
4.5.1.4.2 When a slab is constructed in accordance with 4.5.1.2(a) but the topping is not used to
contribute to structural strength, the blocks should comply with 4.5.1.4.1(a) or (b). In addition, the
thickness of the block material above its void shall be the greater of at least 20 mm or onetenth of the
clear distance between the ribs. The overall thickness of the block and topping (if any) should be not
less than onefifth of the clear distance between the ribs.
The moments and forces due to ultimate loads on continuous slabs may be obtained by any of the
methods given in 4.4.2 for solid slabs. Alternatively, the slabs may be designed as a series of simply
supported spans, provided that they will not be exposed to weather or corrosive conditions. Wide
cracks may develop at the supports and the engineer shall satisfy himself that these will not impair
finishes or lead to corrosion of the reinforcement.
The methods given in 4.3.3 for determining the ultimate moment of resistance of beams may be used.
When sections are being analysed, the stresses in burnt clay blocks in the compression zone may be
taken as 0,25 times the strength as determined in 4.5.1.4.1(a). However, when evidence is available
to show that not more than 5 % of the blocks have a strength below a specified crushing strength, the
stress may be taken as 0,3 times that strength.
4.5.4 Shear
In oneway or twoway spanning slabs, the design shear stress v should be calculated from the
following equation:
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V
v '
bv d
where
V is the design shear force due to design ultimate loads on a width of slab equal to the
centretocentre distance between ribs;
In the determination of bv, the following shear contribution cases should be taken into consideration:
a) shear contribution by hollow blocks: bv may be increased by the wall thickness of the block, on
one side of the rib;
b) shear contribution by solid blocks: when blocks comply with 4.5.1.4, bv may be increased by
onehalf of the rib depth, on each side of the rib;
c) shear contribution by joints between narrow precast units: bv may be increased by the width
of the mortar or concrete joint.
When v is less than vc, where vc is obtained from 4.3.4.1, no shear reinforcement need be provided.
Where v exceeds vc, reinforcement should be provided in accordance with 4.3.4; ensure that v will not
exceed the lesser of 0,75 f cu or 4,75 MPa (whatever the reinforcement provided).
Where a critical perimeter (see 4.4.5.2) cuts any ribs, they should each be designed to resist an equal
proportion of the applied effective design force. Shear links in the ribs should continue for a distance
of at least d into the solid area.
4.5.5 Deflection
The provisions given in 4.4.6 in respect of solid slabs may be applied to the ribs of ribbed slabs. The
span/effective depth ratios given in 4.3.6.5 for a flanged beam are applicable, but when the final
reduction factor for web width is calculated, the rib width for hollow block slabs may be assumed to
include the walls of the blocks on both sides of the rib. For slabs with voids and slabs constructed of
boxsection or Isection units, calculate an effective rib width by assuming that all material below the
upper flange of the unit is concentrated in a rectangular rib having the same crosssectional area
and depth.
4.5.6.1 The provisions given in 4.11.8.2 in respect of maximum distance between bars apply to areas
of solid concrete in this form of construction.
4.5.6.2 The curtailment and anchorage of the reinforcement should be as given below.
4.5.6.2.1 Whether the slab has been designed as simply supported or continuous, at least 50 % of the
main tension bottom reinforcement should be carried through to the bearing and anchored in
accordance with 4.11.7. The tension reinforcement being curtailed in the span will depend on how the
moments have been determined, i.e. by analysis or by complying with simplified rules.
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If a slab has been designed as simply supported but is continuous over supports, the reinforcement
provided in the top of the slab should be at least onequarter of that required in the middle of adjoining
spans. This reinforcement shall extend by at least onetenth of the clear span into adjoining spans.
4.5.6.2.2 A single layer of mesh should be provided in the topping of all ribbed and hollow block slabs.
The mesh should have a crosssectional area in each direction of at least 0,12 % of the topping. The
spacing of wires should not exceed half the centretocentre distance between ribs.
The side cover to reinforcement in slabs that have permanent blocks shall be at least 10 mm .
Similarly, for slabs that have slip tiles under the ribs at least 10 mm thick, the cover to the bars shall
be at least 10 mm above the tiles. In all other cases, provide cover in accordance with 4.11.2.
4.6.1 General
4.6.1.1 Construction
A flat slab is a reinforced concrete slab with or without drops and supported, generally without beams,
by a rectangular arrangement of columns with or without flared column heads (see figure 15). A flat
slab may be solid or may have recesses formed on the soffit such that the soffit comprises a series
of ribs in two directions.
A panel is the area within the lines joining the centres of the columns.
4.6.1.2 Symbols
For the purposes of 4.6.1 to 4.6.5 (inclusive), the following symbols apply:
l1 panel length, measured from centres of columns, in direction of span under consideration
l2 panel width, measured from centres of columns at right angles to direction of span under
consideration
lm average of l1 and l2
hc diameter of column or of column head (see figure 15) (which shall be taken as the diameter of a
circle of the same area as the crosssection of the head (see 4.6.1.3))
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Ensure that where column heads are provided, the heads of interior columns and such portions of the
heads of exterior columns as will lie within the structure, meet with the following conditions:
a) the angle of greatest slope of the head, for the purposes of analysis, does not exceed 45 from
the vertical; and
b) the diameter of the column head hc is taken as its diameter measured at a distance of 40 mm
below the soffit of the slab (or the soffit of the drop, where provided), as shown in figure 15, but
does not exceed 0,25lm.
Flat slab panels should be assumed to be divided into column strips and middle strips (see figure 16),
as follows:
a) take the width of the column strip as onehalf of the width of the panel, except that where drops
are used, the width may be taken as the width of the drop; and
b) take the width of the middle strip as the difference between the width of the panel and that of the
column strip.
Drops should be ignored if their smaller dimension is less than onethird of the shorter span of the
surrounding panels. Smaller drops may still be taken into account in assessing the resistance to
punching shear.
In the case of unalike panels: if there is a support common to two panels that are of such dimensions
that the strips in one panel do not match those in the other, the division of the panels over the region
of the common support should be taken as that calculated for the panel giving the wider column strip.
The thickness of the slab will generally be controlled by considerations of deflection (see 4.6.3). In no
case, however, should the thickness of the slab be less than 125 mm.
The minimum thickness required when shear reinforcement is provided, is 150 mm.
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Figure 16 Division of flat slab panels into columns and middle strips
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Openings, excluding those that comply with the conditions given in 4.6.1.6.1 to 4.6.1.6.3, shall be
completely framed on all sides by beams that carry the loads to the columns, and an opening shall not
encroach upon a column head. (But see also 4.4.5.2.)
The greatest dimension in a direction parallel to a centreline of the panel should not exceed 0,4l, and
the total positive and negative moments specified in 4.6.5.1 or 4.6.5.2 should be redistributed between
the remaining principle design sections to meet the changed conditions.
Aggregate length and aggregate width should not exceed onetenth of the width of the column strip;
the reduced sections should be capable of resisting the appropriate moments specified in 4.6.5.1 or
4.6.5.2, and the perimeter for calculating shear stress should be reduced as appropriate (see 4.4.5.2).
4.6.1.6.3 Openings in the area common to one column strip and one middle strip
Aggregate length and aggregate width should not exceed onequarter of the width of the column strip,
and the reduced sections should be capable of resisting the appropriate moments specified in 4.6.5.1
or 4.6.5.2.
4.6.2.1 General
Punching shear around the columns is the critical consideration for shear in flat slab structures. The
design effective shear force should be found in the subclauses given below and then the procedure
 given in 4.4.5.2 should be followed. For flat slabs between 150 mm and 200 mm thick, the allowable
 stress in the shear reinforcement should be reduced from the full value at 200 mm of thickness to zero
at 150 mm of thickness, with intermediate values being interpolated linearly. Edges of the drop should
be considered the consecutive perimeter on which the shear stress is to be checked (see figure 17).
If the ratio of spans exceeds 2, specialist literature should be consulted. Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
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4.6.2.2.1 In the case of structures in which stability is provided by shear walls or other bracing
designed to resist lateral forces, and where the ratio between adjacent spans does not exceed 1,25,
the design effective shear force at the perimeter may be calculated on the assumption that the
maximum design load is applied to all panels adjacent to the column under consideration. It will be
satisfactory then to take a value of
Veff = 1,15Vt
where
Veff is the design effective shear including allowance for moment transfer; and
4.6.2.2.2 In other cases, i.e. braced frames where the ratio between adjacent spans exceeds 1,25, or
in the case of an unbraced frame, the shear force should be calculated as the greater of the following:
1,5 Mt
Veff = Vt 1 % or (8)
Vt x
Veff = 1,15Vt
where
Veff is as in 4.6.2.2.1;
Vt is the design shear for a particular loading arrangement transferred to column (see figure 18);
Mt is the sum of design moments in column above and below slab for a particular loading
arrangement (see 4.6.5.1 and 4.6.5.2); and
Equation (8) should be used independently for the moments and shear forces about both axes of the
column and the design checked for the worst case.
NOTE ) Mt may be reduced by 30 % where the equivalent frame method has been used and analysis has been based
on pattern loads.
At corner columns and at edge columns that are bent at right angles to the edge, the design effective
shear force may be calculated from Veff = 1,25 Vt, where Vt is the design shear force transferred to the
column (see figure 18).
For edge columns that are bent in a direction parallel to the edge and where the structure has
approximately equal spans, the shear force may be calculated from:
Veff = 1,40 Vt
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For other cases of edge columns that are bent in a direction parallel to the edge, the design effective
shear should be calculated from the following:
1,5 Mt
Veff = Vt 1,25
Vt x
where
NOTE Mt may be reduced by 30 % where the equivalent frame method has been used and analysis has been based
on pattern loads.
The maximum design shear stress at the column face should not exceed the lesser of 0,8 f cu or 
5,0 MPa, when assessed by means of equation (6) or (7), as appropriate, on a perimeter equal to the 
perimeter of the column or column head (this includes an allowance for m of 1,40).
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
The provisions given in 4.4.5.2 for shear stresses in solid slabs under concentrated load should be
followed.
For slabs with drops of total width in both directions equal to at least onethird of the respective spans,
follow the provisions given in 4.4.6. In other cases, multiply the span/effective depth ratios obtained
from 4.3.6.2 by 0,9.
In general, compliance with the reinforcement spacing rules given in 4.11.8 will be an acceptable
method of controlling flexural cracking in panels but, in certain cases, advantage may be gained from
calculating crack widths (see annex A) and comparing them with the required values.
4.6.5.1.1.1 The structure may be divided longitudinally and transversely into frames consisting of
columns and strips of slab. The width of slab used to define the effective stiffness of the slab may, for
vertical loads, be taken as the distance between the centres of the panels, and for horizontal loads it
will be half this value.
The torsional flexibility of the connection of the slab to the column may be taken into account.
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4.6.5.1.1.2 Each frame may be analysed in its entirety by the Hardy Cross method or other suitable
elastic methods. Alternatively, the following simplified subframes may be considered:
a) each strip of floor or roof under vertical load only may be analysed as a separate frame with the
columns above and below fixed in position and direction at their extremities (see 4.2.2.1); or
In either case, the analysis should be carried out for the appropriate design ultimate loads on each
span calculated for a strip of slab of width equal to the distance between centrelines of the panels on
each side of the column.
4.6.5.1.1.3 When the relative stiffness of the slabs and columns is being calculated, the gross
crosssection of the concrete alone should be considered. In the case of a recessed or coffered slab
that is made solid in the region of the columns, the stiffening effect may be ignored, provided that the
solid part of the slab does not extend more than 0,15l into the span, measured from the centreline of
the columns.
b) all spans loaded with ultimate selfweight load (1,2Gn) and even spans loaded with ultimate imposed
load (1,6Qn); and
c) all spans loaded with ultimate selfweight load (1,2Gn) and odd spans loaded with ultimate imposed
load (1,6Qn).
Negative moments exceeding those at a distance hc /2 from the centreline of the column may be
ignored, provided that the sum of the maximum positive design moment and the average of the
negative design moments in any one span of the slab for the whole panel width is at least:
n l2 2hc 2
l1 &
8 3
When the above condition is not satisfied, increase the negative moments by the difference between
the two values under comparison.
In addition to the methods given in 4.6.5.1, the simplified method of determining moments may be
used for flat slab structures in which lateral stability does not depend on slab/column connections.
Table 16 may be used if the following conditions are met:
a) the design is based on a singleload case of all spans loaded with the maximum design ultimate
load, i.e. the conditions as in 4.4.2.3 are satisfied;
b) there are at least three rows of panels of approximately equal span in the direction under
consideration;
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c) the column stiffness EI/l of the columns is not less than the EI/l of the slab, or the detailing rules in
4.6.5.4 are followed; and
d) the hogging moments are reduced by 20 % and the sagging moments increased to maintain
equilibrium.
Table 16 Bending moments and shear force coefficients for flat slabs
of three or more equal spans
1 2 3 4
Total
Position Moment Shear column
moment
Outer support:
Column 0,040Fl*) 0,045F 0,04Fl
Wall 0,020Fl 0,40F 
Near middle of end span 0,083Fl*)  
At first interior support 0,063Fl 0,60F 0,022Fl
NOTES
4.6.5.3.1 Internal and edge slabs should be designed for the moments obtained as in 4.6.5.1 (with
limitations of negative moments taken into account) or as in 4.6.5.2. The moments should be divided
between the column strip and the middle strip in the proportions given in table 17.
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1 2 3
Negative 75 25
Positive 55 45
4.6.5.3.2 Design moments transferable between a slab and the edge or corner columns will only be
able to be transferred by a column strip considerably narrower than in the case of an internal column.
The breadth of this strip be for various typical cases is shown in figure 19. The value of be should never
be taken as exceeding the column strip width appropriate for an internal panel. The maximum design
moment Mt,max that can be transferred to a column by the appropriate strip may be calculated from the
following equation:
where
d is the effective depth for the top reinforcement in the column strip; and
The value of Mt,max should exceed half the design moment obtained from an equivalent frame analysis
or it should exceed 70 % of the design moment if a grillage or finite element analysis has been used.
If the value of Mt,max is less than this, the structural arrangements should be changed.
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4.6.5.3.3 Where analysis of the structure indicates a design column moment that exceeds Mt,max, the
design edge moment in the slab should be reduced to a value not exceeding Mt,max and the positive
design moments in the span should be adjusted accordingly. The normal limitations on redistributions
and neutral axis depth may be ignored in this case. Moments in excess of Mt,max may only be
transferred to a column if an edge beam or strip of slab along the free edge is so reinforced as to carry
the extra moment into the column by torsion. In the absence of an edge beam, an appropriate breadth
of slab may be assessed using the principles illustrated by figure 19. Alternatively, the method of
taking the stiffness of edge columns into account may be used.
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In general, twothirds of the amount of reinforcement required to resist the negative design moment
in the column strip should be placed in a width equal to half that of the column strip and central to the
column.
Half the bottom reinforcement should be extended 20 diameters beyond the centreline of supports.
When the simplified method given in 4.6.5.2 is used and the columns are relatively flexible (with the
stiffness EI/l of smaller order than the stiffness EI/l of the slab), at least 50 % of the top reinforcement
shall extend a distance of 0,3l from the face of supports.
Otherwise the reinforcement should be arranged and bars curtailed in accordance with 4.11.7.
Where the slab is supported by a marginal beam of depth exceeding 1,5 times the thickness of the
slab, or by a wall, ensure that
a) the total load to be carried by the beam or wall comprises the direct load on the beam or wall plus
a uniformly distributed load equal to onequarter of the total load on the panel; and
b) the moments on the halfcolumn strip adjacent to the beam or wall are onequarter of the moments
given in 4.6.5.1 and 4.6.5.2.
4.7 Columns
4.7.1 General
NOTE The provisions of this subclause relate to columns whose greater overall crosssectional dimension does not
exceed four times its smaller dimension. While the provisions relate primarily to rectangular crosssections, the principles
adopted may be applied to other shapes, where appropriate.
4.7.1.1 Symbols
au deflection at ultimate limit state for each column, calculated from equation (10)
d effective depth
m material factor
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Mi initial design ultimate moment in a column before allowance for additional design moments
arising out of slenderness
Mbal bending moment corresponding to balanced conditions (for symmetrically reinforced rectangular
sections, it may be taken as 0,87fy Asc (d  d )/2 +0,046 fcu bd 2)
Nbal design axial load capacity of a balanced section, i.e. with a compressive strain of 0,003 5 in the
concrete and a tensile strain equal to 0,002 in the outermost layer of reinforcement (for
symmetrically reinforced rectangular sections, it may be taken as 0,25 fcubd)
Nuz design ultimate capacity of a section when subjected to axial load only
4.7.1.2.1 The size of a column and the position of the reinforcement in it may be affected by the
requirements for durability and fire resistance. Consider these, therefore, before commencing with the
design.
4.7.1.2.2 For the minimum crosssectional area of longitudinal reinforcement, see table 23.
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4.7.1.2.3 If a column has a large enough section to withstand the design maximum loads without the
addition of reinforcement, it may be designed in the same way as a plain concrete wall (see 6.5).
A column may be considered braced in a given plane if lateral stability to the structure as a whole is
provided by walls, bracing or buttressing designed to resist all lateral forces in that plane. It should
otherwise be considered unbraced. If the degree of lateral restraint is in doubt, the stiffness of the
bracing system should be evaluated from the ratio Sb/Su. If the ratio exceeds 5, the frame can be
considered fully braced.
A column may be considered slender in a particular plane if its slenderness ratio in that plane (lex/h or
ley/b) exceeds 10 for unbraced columns and 177M1/M2 for braced columns. It should otherwise be
considered short. It is therefore possible that a column may be slender in one plane and short in the
other plane and it should be treated accordingly.
If, in any given plane, one end of an unbraced column is unrestrained (e.g. a cantilever column), its
clear height lo should satisfy the following:
For unbraced columns, the considerations of deflection (see 4.7.5) may introduce further limitations.
The effective height le of a column in a given plane may be obtained from the following equation:
le = lo
Values of are given in tables 18 and 19 (for braced and unbraced columns, respectively) as a
function of the end conditions of the column. Figure 20 may be used to obtain an approximate
assessment of the effective height, if desired. It should be noted that the effective height of a column
in the two plane directions may be different.
In tables 18 and 19, the end conditions are defined in terms of a scale of 1 to 4. An increase in this
scale corresponds to a decrease in end fixity. An appropriate value can be assessed from the following
four end conditions:
a) end condition 1: the end of the column is connected monolithically to beams on either side that
are at least as deep as the overall dimension of the column in the plane under consideration. Where
the column is connected to a foundation structure, this should be of a form specifically designed to
carry moment.
b) end condition 2: the end of the column is connected monolithically to beams or slabs on either side
that are shallower than the overall dimensions of the column in the plane under consideration.
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c) end condition 3: the end of the column is connected to members that, while not specifically
designed to provide restraint to rotation of the column, will nevertheless provide some nominal
restraint.
d) end condition 4: the end of the column is unrestrained against both lateral movement and rotation
(e.g. the free end of a cantilever column in an unbraced structure).
1 2 3 4
End condition
End condition at bottom
at top
1 2 3
1 2 3 4
End condition
End condition at bottom
at top
1 2 3
For a framed structure, effective height may be obtained from the following equations:
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The stiffness of a member should be obtained by dividing the second moment of area of its
concrete section by its actual length, which is the distance centretocentre of restraints. When c
is being calculated, only elements properly framed into the end of the column in the appropriate
plane of bending should be considered. In cases of relative stiffness, the following simplifying
assumptions may be made:
1) flat slab construction: the stiffness of an equivalent beam that has the width and thickness of
the slab forming the column strip should be assumed; (For edge columns, see 4.6.5.3.2.)
2) simply supported beams framing into a column: c may be taken as 10;
3) connection between column and base design to resist nominal moment only: c may be
taken as 10;
4) connection between column and base design to resist column moment: c may be taken
as 1,0.
In the absence of more detailed information, the recommended practical stiffness ratios at the base
are:
Where ideal conditions prevail, the ratio as above can be obtained as equal to infinity and as zero
respectively but should be justified by analysis.
It is recommended that calculations be based on I/l for columns and 0,5 times I/l for beams, where I
may be based on the concrete section only and l is the distance between centres of restraints. To
account for different far end conditions of beams, a further factor can be applied to the beam stiffness
as follows:
Braced column
Unbraced column
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Where end conditions and stiffnesses of columns in a storey of an unbraced structure vary
considerably, an equivalent storey effective height leg should be used. The use of an average effective
height will be increasingly conservative the more dissimilar the columns are.
n
leq = lo (9)
M ( )
n i
2
1 i i
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where
lo is the clear height of reference column; clear storey height in regular frameworks;
i is the effective height divided by clear height of individual columns in storey;
i is the ratio of individual clear column height to clear column height of reference column;
i is the ratio of individual column stiffness to stiffness of reference column; (EI)i/(EI) o; and
n is the number of columns resisting sideways in storey.
For equal column height in storey and similar crosssections but different end conditions, equation (9)
reduces to
n
leq = lo
M 1
n
2
1 i
When a column is axially loaded or the axial force dominates, as in the case of columns supporting
symmetrical arrangements of beams, only the design ultimate axial force need be considered in design
apart from a nominal allowance for eccentricity equal to that recommended in 4.7.2.3.
4.7.2.2 Additional moments induced by deflections at ULS
In slender columns, additional moments induced by deflections at ULS should also be considered. An
approximate allowance for them is made in the design provisions for slender columns (see 4.7.3). The
bases or other members connected to the ends of such slender columns should also be designed to
resist these additional moments at ULS. Subsection 4.7.3.3 gives further guidance on the design of
these moments.
Alternatively, for unbraced frames, a suitable secondorder elastic analysis may be undertaken that
gives results including these additional moments. Such an analysis is compulsory if any of the
stipulated slenderness limits are exceeded.
4.7.2.3 Minimum eccentricity
At no section in a column should the design moment be taken as less than that produced by regarding
the design ultimate axial load as acting at a minimum eccentricity emin equal to 0,05 times the overall
dimension of the column in the plane of bending under consideration. It should not, however, be more
than 20 mm. Each column shall therefore be able to resist at least this nominal eccentricity moment
about each axis separately. Where biaxial bending is considered, it is also only necessary to ensure
that the nominal eccentricity moment is exceeded about one axis at a time.
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au a Kh (10)
In this equation, a has the value obtained from table 20 or, alternatively, from equation (12) from
which the table is derived. K is the reduction factor that corrects the deflection to allow for the influence
of axial load. It is derived from the following equations:
Nuz N
K (11)
Nuz Nbal
and if the factor K in equation (11) exceeds 1,0, i.e. N is less than Nbal, then:
Mi
K
Mbal
In equation (11), Nuz = 0,45 fcuAc + 0,75 fy Asc (this includes an allowance for m).
Table 20 Values of a
1 2
le/h a
10 0,05
12 0,07
15 0,11
20 0,20
25 0,31
30 0,45
35 0,61
40 0,80
45 1,01
50 1,25
55 1,51
60 1,80
The appropriate values of K may be found iteratively, taking an initial value of 1,0. Alternatively, it
would always be conservative to assume that K = 1,0.
2
1 le
a (12)
2 000 h
If a column is slender about both axes, it must be designed to resist the relevant primary moment and
additional moment about each axis separately. If a column is slender about one axis only, the
additional moment need only be considered in one plane.
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If calculations show that the primary moment in one or both planes is less than the nominal eccentricity
moment (see 4.7.2.3), the primary moment in the relevant plane(s) should be based on the eccentricity
moment.
The critical section is designed to withstand the design ultimate axial load N, plus the total design
moment in either of the two directions.
Figure 21 shows the distribution of moments assumed over the height of a typical braced column. It
may be assumed that the initial moment at the point of maximum additional moment (i.e. near
midheight of the column) is given by:
Mi = 0,4 M1 + 0,6 M2
where
M1 is the smaller initial end moment due to design ultimate vertical loads; and
M2 is the larger initial end moment due to design ultimate vertical loads.
Assuming the column is bent in double curvature, M1 should be taken as negative and M2 as positive.
If a column is bent in a single curvature, both terms are assumed positive.
It can be seen from figure 21 that the maximum design moment will be the greatest of (a), (b) or (c)
below.
a) M2;
b) Mi + Madd; and
c) eminN.
The distribution of moments assumed over the height of an unbraced column is indicated in figure 22.
The additional moment referred to in 4.7.3.1 may be assumed to occur at whichever end of the column
has the stiffer joint (i.e. where the largest primary moment occurs).
The additional moment is to be based on the unbraced effective length. The additional moment at the
other end of the column may be reduced in proportion to the ratio of the joint stiffness. The moment
will act in a direction such that it increases the absolute magnitude at the critical section. The
maximum design moment for the column will therefore be the greater of (a) and (b) below.
where M1 and M2 are the smaller and larger column end moment respectively, after including for the
sway effect as illustrated in figure 22, and Madd, braced from equation (13), using the braced effective
length.
If calculations show that the total primary moments at both ends Mv + MH are less than the nominal
eccentricity moment eminN, MH shall be taken as eminN about each axis separately.
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Where le/h exceeds 10 for unbraced columns and 177M1/M2 for braced columns in one or both
principal planes, members monolithically connected to such columns at either end should be designed
to withstand the additional design moments in the plane(s) where the slenderness limits are exceeded,
in addition to those moments calculated using normal analytical methods. Where there are columns
both above and below a joint, the beams or slabs should be designed to withstand the sum of the
additional design moments at the ends of the two columns.
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In the analysis of the crosssection of a column to determine its design ultimate resistance to moment
and to axial force, the same assumptions should be made as when a beam is being analysed
(see 4.3.3.1).
Suitable design charts for symmetrically reinforced columns, based on the relevant material properties
and partial safety factors, may be used in the design of column sections.
Where, owing to the nature of the structure, a short column cannot be subjected to significant
moments, its maximum ultimate axial design load in the presence of the nominal eccentricity moment
given in 4.7.2.3 may be taken as
When it is necessary to consider biaxial bending, and in the absence of a more accurate calculation,
symmetrically reinforced rectangular sections may be designed to withstand an increased moment
about one axis (given by the following equations), together with the original moment about the other
axis.
h
a) for Mx /h > My /b, M Mx b My
x b
b
b) for Mx /h < My /b, M My b Mx
y h
where
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1 2
N b
bhfcu
0,000 0,50
0,075 0,60
0,150 0,70
0,250 0,70
0,300 0,65
0,400 0,53
0,500 0,42
>0,600 0,30
The design shear strength of columns may be checked in accordance with the provisions relevant to
beam shear. For rectangular sections, no check is required where M/N is less than 0,75h, provided that
the shear stress does not exceed the lesser of 0,7 f cu of 4 MPa.
a) braced columns: if the column is within the recommended limits of slenderness (see 4.7.1.5);
b) unbraced columns: if, in the direction and at the level under consideration, the average value of
le /h or leq /h (see 4.7.1.6.4) for all columns is not more than 30;
NOTE If checks are needed, a secondorder elastic analysis suitable for such purpose should be used.
Cracks due to bending in a column designed for an ultimate axial load exceeding 0,2 fcuAc for a
particular load case are unlikely to occur, and therefore no check is required. For the purposes of crack
control, a more lightly loaded column subjected to coexistent bending should be regarded as a beam.
If additive in their orientation, creep and shrinkage will magnify the additional bending moment. A
typical amount of deferred strain (0,000 75) has been incorporated in equation (10). If special
conditions prevail, the following equation may be used to account for these:
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2
1 le
a = [0,005 % Jcsu (1 %)]
11,5 h
where csu is the concrete flexural compressive strain due to sustained load and a creep related
factor, which, if set equal to the creep factor, will give good results for the combined creep and
shrinkage effect.
4.8.1.1 wall: A vertical loadbearing member whose length exceeds four times its thickness.
4.8.1.2 reinforced wall: A concrete wall containing at least the minimum quantities of reinforcement
given in 4.11.4. (For plain concrete walls, see 6.5.)
4.8.1.3 braced wall: A wall where the reactions to lateral forces are provided by lateral support. (At
right angles to the plane of that wall, lateral stability to the structure as a whole is provided by walls
or other suitable bracing design to resist all lateral forces.)
4.8.1.5 short wall: A wall may be considered short where the ratio of its effective height to its
thickness (le/h) does not exceed 15 (braced) or 10 (unbraced).
4.8.1.6 slender wall: A wall other than a short wall. (For limits of slenderness, see 4.8.5.2.)
4.8.1.7.1 For a reinforced wall that is constructed monolithically with the adjacent construction, the
effective height le should be assessed as though the wall were a column being bent at right angles to
the plane of the wall. The procedure given in 4.7.1.6 should be followed.
4.8.1.7.2 Where the construction that transmits load to the reinforced wall is, or is assumed to be,
simply supported, assess the effective height as for a plain wall (see 6.5.3.2).
The elements of construction that provide lateral stability to the structure as a whole need not be
designed to support the forces transmitted by lateral supports (see 4.8.2.3) in addition to the other
design loads and forces.
The overall stability of a multistorey building should not, in any direction, depend on unbraced walls
alone.
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4.8.2.3.1 A lateral support is an element (a prop, a buttress, a floor, crosswall or other vertical or
horizontal element) able to transmit lateral forces from a braced wall to the principal structural bracing
or to the foundations.
4.8.2.3.2 The forces that lateral supports should be able to transmit are assumed to be equal in
magnitude to the sum of the following:
a) the simple static reactions to the sum of the applied maximum design horizontal forces at the point
of lateral support; and
b) 2,5 % of the total maximum design vertical load that the wall or column is designed to carry at the
point of lateral support.
Resistance of lateral supports to rotation should only be considered to exist in the following cases:
a) where both the lateral support and the braced wall are concrete walls that are adequately detailed
to provide bending restraint; or
b) where precast or insitu concrete floors (irrespective of the direction of span) have a bearing on at
least twothirds of the thickness of the wall, or where there is a connection that provides adequate
bending restraint.
The axial force in a reinforced wall may be calculated on the assumption that the beams and slabs that
transmit force into the wall are simply supported.
4.8.3.2.1 Design transverse moments, where derived from beams or other constructions designed to
frame monolithically at right angles into the wall, should be calculated using elastic analysis.
4.8.3.2.2 When a construction is designed to be simply supported by a wall, the eccentricity may be
assessed as for plain walls (see 6.5.3.5) and the resultant moment calculated. Except for shortbraced
walls (see 4.8.4.1 and 4.8.4.2) that are loaded almost symmetrically, the moment per unit length in the
direction at right angles to a wall should be taken as the greater of 0,05nw x h, or nw x 15 mm, where
nw is the axial load per unit length and h is the thickness of the wall.
4.8.3.2.3 In a slender wall, significant additional moments may be induced by lateral deflections of
the wall under load. To make appropriate allowance for this, such a wall may be considered a slender
column bent about the minor axis (see 4.7.3.2), except that where a wall is reinforced with only one
central layer of reinforcement, the additional moments should be doubled.
4.8.3.3 Design inplane moments
Moments in the plane of a single wall, due to horizontal forces, can be calculated from statics. When
a horizontal force is resisted by several walls, the proportion allocated to each wall should be
proportional to its stiffness. When a shear connection is assumed between vertical edges of adjacent
walls, an appropriate elastic analysis may be used, provided the shear connection is designed to
withstand the design force.
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Short braced axially loaded reinforced walls that by the nature of the structure cannot be subjected
to significant moments, may be designed in the presence of the nominal eccentricity moment by the
following equation:
where
N is the total design axial load on the wall due to maximum design loads;
fcu is the characteristic strength of concrete;
Ac is the net crosssectional area of concrete in wall;
Asc is the area of vertical reinforcement; and
fy is the characteristic strength of compression reinforcement.
4.8.4.2 Walls subjected to transverse moments and to uniformly distributed axial forces
When the only eccentricity of force derives from the transverse moments, the design axial load may
be assumed to be distributed uniformly along the length of the wall. The crosssection of the wall
should be designed to resist the appropriate design ultimate axial load and transverse moment. The
assumptions made in the analysis of beam sections apply (see 4.3.3).
The crosssection of the wall should be designed by application of the assumptions given in 4.3.3.
4.8.4.4 Walls subjected to axial forces and to significant transverse and inplane moments
a) inplane moments and axial forces: the distribution of force along the wall is calculated by elastic
analysis, assuming no tension in the concrete (see 4.8.3.3);
At various points along the wall, effects (a) and (b) above are combined and checked, using the
assumptions given in 4.3.3.
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a) inplane moments and axial forces: the distribution of force along the wall is calculated by elastic
analysis, assuming no tension in the concrete (see 4.8.3.3);
At various points along the wall, effects (a) and (b) above are combined and checked, using the
assumptions given in 4.7.4.
The slenderness ratio is the ratio of the effective height of the wall le to its thickness h. The following
limitations of the slenderness ratio shall be observed:
a) in the case of a braced wall reinforced as in 4.11.4 but less than 1 %, the ratio le/h shall not exceed
40;
b) in the case of a braced wall reinforced as in 4.11.4 but exceeding 1 %, the ratio le/h sha ll not exceed
45;
c) in the case of an unbraced wall reinforced as in 4.11.4, the ratio le/h shall not exceed 30.
The deflection of a reinforced concrete wall will be within reasonable limits if the preceding provisions
are followed and if, in the case of a cantilever shear wall, the total height of the wall does not exceed
12 times its length.
Cracks in a reinforced concrete wall will be within reasonable limits if the reinforcement is arranged
in two layers and each layer complies with the bar spacing rules given in 4.11.8.2.
4.9 Staircases
4.9.1 General
4.9.1.1.1 Assume the ultimate load to be uniformly distributed over the plan area of the staircase.
When, however, staircases surrounding open wells include two spans that intersect at right angles, the
load on the areas common to both spans may be assumed to be divided equally between the two
spans.
4.9.1.1.2 When staircases or landings that span in the direction of the flight are built at least 110 mm
into walls along part or all of their length, a 150 mm strip adjacent to the wall may be deducted from
the loaded area.
Take the effective width of a staircase without stringer beams as the actual width of the staircase.
When a staircase is built into a wall along part or all of its span, include twothirds of the embedded
width up to a maximum of 80 mm, in the effective width.
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4.9.1.3.2 When a staircase without stringer beams is simply supported, take the effective span as the
horizontal distance between the centrelines of the supports.
4.9.1.3.3 For the purposes of this subclause, a staircase may be taken to include a section of landing
spanning in the same direction and continuous with the stair flight.
Take the depth of the section as the minimum thickness perpendicular to the soffit of the staircase.
4.9.2.1 Loading
Staircases should be designed to support the ultimate design load in accordance with the load
arrangements given in 3.3.3.1.
The provisions given in 4.3 and 4.4 for beams and slabs may be used except for the span/effective
depth ratio of a staircase without stringer beams, where 4.9.2.3 applies.
4.9.2.3 Permissible span/effective depth ratio for staircases without stringer beams
Provided the stair flight occupies at least 60 % of the span, the ratio calculated in accordance with
4.3.6.2 may be increased by 15 %.
4.10 Bases
4.10.1 General
This subclause covers the design of pad footings and pile caps.
4.10.2.1 Except where the reactions to the applied design ultimate loads and moments are derived
by more accurate methods, e.g. an elastic analysis of a pile group or the application of established
principles of soil mechanics, make the following assumptions:
a) when the base is axially loaded, assume the reactions to ultimate design loads to be uniformly
distributed per unit area or per pile; and
b) when the base is eccentrically loaded, assume the reactions to vary linearly across the base or
across the pile system.
4.10.2.2 The critical section for bending moment in the design of an isolated base may be taken at
the face of the column or wall.
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4.10.2.3 The design moment on a vertical section passing completely across a base should be taken
as the moment due to reactions to all design ultimate loads on one side of this section. No
redistribution of moments should be made.
4.10.2.4 When the flexural and shear strengths of sections are being calculated, account should be
taken of pockets for precast members unless they are to be subsequently grouted with a cement
mortar of compressive strength at least equal to that of the concrete in the base.
4.10.2.5 When the resistance to bending is being calculated, bases may be regarded as beams or
solid slabs, as appropriate.
See 4.10.2.
The reinforcement considered in this subclause is that at right angles to the concrete section. The
reinforcement required in the shorter crosssection of a rectangular base should be placed evenly
across the section. If any reinforcement is required in the longer section of a rectangular base in order
to resist the bending moment, it should be distributed as follows:
2
a) the amount equal to As of reinforcement should be spread over a band centred on the
1 % 1
column or support and of width equal to the dimension of the short side of the base;
As is the total area of reinforcement required and 1 is the ratio of the longer to the shorter side.
b) the remaining reinforcement should be spread evenly over the outer parts of the section.
Where there are two or more columns and lc is the greater of half the spacing between them or the
distance to the edge of the pad, then the following should be considered:
When lc exceeds (3c/4 + 9d/4), where c is the column width and d is the effective depth of a pad
footing, twothirds of the required reinforcement should be concentrated within a zone from the
centreline of the column to a distance 1,5d from the face of the column; otherwise the reinforcement
should be uniformly distributed over lc.
4.10.3.3 Shear
4.10.3.3.1 The design shear force is the algebraic sum of all the ultimate vertical loads and reactions
acting on one side or outside the periphery of the critical section.
4.10.3.3.2 The shear strength of bases in the vicinity of concentrated loads or reactions is governed
by the more severe of the following two conditions:
a) shear along a vertical section that extends across the full width of the base (for pad footings, this
section may be considered at 1,5 times the effective depth from the face of the loaded area and
the provisions given in 4.3.4.1 will apply); and
b) punching shear around the loaded area, where the provisions given in 4.4.5.2 will apply.
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The provisions given in 4.11.8.2 concerning the maximum distance between bars in tension apply to
bases, but reinforcement need not be provided in the side of bases to control cracking.
4.10.4.1 General
Pile caps are designed either by the bending theory or by truss analogy; if the latter is used, the truss
should be of triangulated form, with a node at the centre of the loaded area.
The lower nodes of the truss lie at the intersections of the centrelines of the piles with the tensile
reinforcement.
The design shear strength of a pile cap is normally determined by the shear along a vertical
crosssection of the full width of the cap. Critical sections for the shear should be assumed to be
located at 20 % of the diameter of the pile inside the face of the pile, as indicated in figure 23. The
whole of the force from the piles with centres lying outside this line should be considered to be applied
outside this line.
The design shear resistance of pile caps may be determined in accordance with 4.4.5, subject to the 
limitations given below. Amdt 1, Apr. 1994 
4.10.4.3.1 Where the spacing of the piles is less than or equal to 3 pile diameters, the enhancement
of the shear strength may be applied over the whole of the critical section.
Where the spacing is greater, the enhancement may only be applied to strips of width equal to 3 pile
diameters, centred on each pile. Minimum stirrups are not required in pile caps where v < vc (enhanced
if appropriate).
4.10.4.3.2 The tension reinforcement should be provided with a full anchorage, in accordance with
4.11.6.
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The design shear stress calculated at the perimeter of the column should not exceed the maximum
value of shear stress (see 4.3.4.1).
In addition, if the spacing of the piles exceeds 3 pile diameters, punching shear should be checked in
accordance with 4.6.2 on a perimeter as indicated in figure 23.
 The maximum shear capacity may also be limited by the provisions of 4.4.5.2.6. Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
When deciding on the nominal overall size of a reinforced concrete element, take account of the
principles of dimensional coordination. Bear in mind that absolute accuracy exists only in theory and
that tolerable degrees of inaccuracy have to be accepted in practice. Specify as large a degree of
tolerance as possible, without rendering the finished structure or any part thereof unacceptable for the
purpose for which it is intended.
The partial safety factor for loads will, on a design based on nominal dimensions, provide for all normal
tolerances. However, when large tolerances are being specified for small highly stressed elements,
it may, in exceptional cases, be necessary to base the design on net dimensions after making
allowance for the maximum specified tolerance.
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4.11.1.3.1 In all normal cases, the design may be based on the assumption that the reinforcement is
in its nominal position. However, when reinforcement is located in relation to more than one face of
an element (e.g. a link in a beam in which the nominal cover for all sides is given), the actual concrete
cover on one side may be greater and can be derived from consideration of certain other tolerances
appropriate to
a) dimensions and spacing of cover blocks, spacers or chairs or both (including the compressibility of
these items and the surfaces they bear on);
b) stiffness, straightness, and accuracy of cutting, bending and fixing of bars or reinforcement cage;
c) accuracy of formwork in both dimension and plan (this includes permanent forms such as blinding
or brickwork); and
d) the size of the structural part and the relative size of the bars or reinforcement cage.
4.11.1.3.2 In certain cases where bars or reinforcement cages are positioned accurately on one face
of a structural element, this may lead to an accumulation of tolerances affecting the position of highly
stressed reinforcement at the opposite face of the element. The consequent possible reduction in
effective depth to this reinforcement may exceed the percentage allowed for in the normal value of
the partial safety factor for loads. In the design of a particularly critical element, therefore, appropriate
adjustment to the effective depth assumed may be necessary.
The number of construction joints should be kept to the necessary minimum. Their exact location
should be indicated on a drawing or agreed on with the contractor. Generally, construction joints should
be at right angles to the direction of the element.
The concrete at the joint should be bonded with the concrete subsequently placed against it to such
degree that the loadbearing capacity of the concrete in the area of the joint is not impaired. If it is
necessary for a joint to transfer tensile or shear stresses, the surface of the first pour should be
roughened to increase the bond strength and to provide aggregate interlock. (For details, see
SABS 01002.)
Movement joints are those specifically designed and provided to allow relative movement of adjacent
parts of an element or structure to occur without impairment of the functional integrity of the element
or structure. They may also act as connection joints between several parts of an element or structure,
or they may be provided solely to permit translocation or rotation or both.
Careful consideration should be given to the location of movement joints and their position should be
clearly indicated on the drawings, both for the individual elements and for the structure as a whole. In
general, movement joints in the structure should pass through the whole structure in one plane. If
special preparation of the joint faces is required, this should be specified.
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4.11.2.4 Always make the nominal cover at least equal to the diameter of the bar and, in the case of
bundles of three or more bars, equal to the diameter of a single bar of equivalent area.
4.11.2.5 Concrete cover to all reinforcement, including links, should be at least equal to the maximum
nominal size of the aggregate.
4.11.2.6 Where a surface treatment (such as bush hammering) cuts into the face of the concrete, add
the expected depth of treatment to the nominal cover.
4.11.2.7 Where, owing to its particular situation, an element is required to resist the action of fire for
a specified period, the nominal cover may need to be increased or, alternatively, the concrete cover
to the main bars may need to be reinforced to prevent premature spalling.
4.11.2.8 Take special care in conditions of extreme exposure or where low density or porous
aggregates are used. (See the appropriate clause of SABS 01002, and 4.12.2.)
4.11.2.9 Take account of possible deviations in reinforcement fitting between two concrete faces
(see 4.11.3.2).
4.11.2.10 Minimum concrete cover for reinforcement is given in SABS 01002. For fireresistant
covering, see clause 7.
Bars may be arranged in pairs in contact or in groups of threebar or fourbar bundles in contact. Each
pair or bundle should be treated as a single bar of equivalent area for all the purposes of clause 4.
Terminate bars in a bundle at different points spaced at least 40 times the bar size apart except for
bundles that stop at a support. Laps may be made to one bar in a bundle at a time. Never, even at
laps, should more than four bars be arranged in contact.
4.11.3.2.2 Where reinforcement is to fit between two concrete faces, determine the dimensions of the
reinforcement on the bending schedule as the nominal dimension of the concrete less the nominal
cover on each face and less the total deduction for tolerance on element size and on bending given
in table 22.
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1 2 3
Distance between Total
concrete faces deduction
Type of bar
m mm
01 Links and other bent bars 10
12 Links and other bent bars 15
Over 2 Links and other bent bars 20
Any length Straight bars 40
4.11.3.2.3 These deductions will apply to most reinforced concrete constructions but if the tolerance
on element size for the four categories in table 22 exceeds 5 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm and 10 mm
respectively, make larger deductions or increase the cover.
4.11.4.1 Symbols
b width of section
bw width or effective width of the rib (for a box, Tsection or Isection, bw is taken as the average
width of the concrete below the flange)
hf depth of flange
l span of beam
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4.11.4.2.1 The minimum percentages of main reinforcement appropriate for various conditions of
loading and types of member are given in table 23.
4.11.4.2.2 Ensure that the minimum number of longitudinal bars provided in a column is four in
rectangular columns and six in circular columns and that the diameter of the bars is at least 12 mm.
Ensure that the total crosssectional area of these bars will be at least 0,4 % of the crosssectional area
of the column.
4.11.4.2.3 A wall cannot be regarded as a reinforced concrete wall unless the percentage of vertical
reinforcement provided is at least 0,4 % of the gross crosssectional area. This vertical reinforcement
may be in one or two layers.
4.11.4.2.4 For purposes of fire resistance, a wall containing less than 1,0 % of vertical reinforcement
is classed as a plain concrete wall.
4.11.4.3.1 For a solid concrete suspended slab, the amount of reinforcement provided at right angles
to the main reinforcement is given in table 23. The distance between bars of the secondary
reinforcement shall not exceed five times the effective depth of the slab.
4.11.4.3.2 Where the main vertical reinforcement in a wall is used to resist compression or to provide
horizontal reinforcement, the amount of reinforcement provided, expressed as a percentage of the
gross crosssection, shall be at least 0,25 % in the case of highyield steel or 0,3 % in the case of mild
steel. The reinforcement shall be of diameter at least 6 mm or at least onequarter of the diameter of
the vertical bars. It may also be necessary to provide links in the thickness of the wall (see 4.11.4.5).
4.11.4.4 Minimum size of bars near side faces of beams of overall depth exceeding 750 mm
In order to control cracking, bars provided near side faces of beams should be of diameter at least
 s bb /f y , where sb is the bar spacing and b the width of the section at the point considered (or 500 mm,
whichever is the smaller). The bars should be distributed at a spacing not exceeding 250 mm near the
side faces of the beam and the distribution should be done over a distance of twothirds of the overall
depth of the beam, measured from its tension face. Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
4.11.4.5.1 In a beam or column, where part or all of the main reinforcement is required to resist
compression, provide links or ties of diameter at least onequarter of the diameter of the largest
compression bar at a maximum spacing of twelve times the diameter of the smallest compression bar.
So arrange links that every corner bar and alternate bar or group in an outer layer of reinforcement is
supported by a link passing round the bar and having an included angle of not more than 135. Ensure
that all other bars or groups within a compression zone are within 150 mm of a restrained bar. In the
case of circular columns, where the longitudinal reinforcement is located round the periphery of a
circle, provide adequate lateral support by using a circular tie that passes round the bars or groups.
4.11.4.5.2 In a wall, where the percentage of vertical reinforcement used to resist compression
exceeds 2 %, provide links of diameter at least 6 mm (or at least onequarter of the diameter of the
largest compression bar) throughout the thickness of the wall. Ensure that the spacing of these links
does not exceed twice the wall thickness in either the horizontal or the vertical direction and, in the
vertical direction, does not exceed 16 times the bar diameter.
Ensure that any vertical compression bar not enclosed by a link is within 200 mm of a restrained bar.
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Table 23 Minimum percentage of reinforcement Amdt l,
Apr. 1994 1
4.11.4.5.3 In all beams except those of minor structural importance (e.g. lintels) or where the
maximum shear stress, calculated in accordance with 4.3.4, is less than half the recommended value,
provide nominal links throughout the span such that
Asv
0,0012 bt
Sv
Asv
0,002 bt
Sv
where
bt is the width of the beam at the level of the tension reinforcement; and
4.11.4.5.4 The spacing of links shall not exceed 0,75 times the effective depth of the beam, and the
lateral spacing of the individual legs of the links shall not exceed this value. Links shall enclose all
tension reinforcement.
4.11.5.1 Beams
Neither the area of tension reinforcement nor the area of compression reinforcement should exceed
4 % of the gross crosssectional area of the concrete.
4.11.5.2 Columns
The amount of longitudinal reinforcement should not exceed 6 % of the gross crosssectional area of
the column in vertically cast columns or 8 % in horizontally cast columns, except that it may be 10 %
at laps in both types of column.
4.11.5.3 Walls
The area of vertical reinforcement should not exceed 4 % (including laps) of the gross crosssectional
area of the concrete.
At both sides of any crosssection, the force in each bar should develop as a result of an appropriate
embedment length or end anchorage. Provided this happens, local bond stress may be ignored.
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Anchorage bond stress is assumed to be constant over the effective anchorage length. It may be
calculated as the force in the bar divided by its effective surface anchorage area (see 4.11.6.3). It
should not exceed the values for ultimate anchorage bond stress fbu given in table 24. In beams where
minimum links in accordance with 4.3.4 have not been provided, the anchorage bond stresses used
should be those appropriate to plain bars, irrespective of the type of bar provided. This does not apply
to slabs.
1 2 3 4 5
MPa
Concrete grade
20 25 30 40 or more
NOTE  Reduce the values by 30 % for deformed top bars and by 50 % for plain
top bars in elements of depth exceeding 300 mm.
The design anchorage bond stress is assumed to be constant over the anchorage length and is given
by the following equation:
where
e is the effective bar diameter (for a single bar, the actual bar diameter and for a group
of bars in contact, equal to the diameter of a bar of equal total area); and
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a) it passes round another bar of at least its own diameter, through an angle of 90, and continues for
a minimum length of eight times its own diameter; or
b) it passes round another bar of at least its own diameter, through an angle of 180, and continues
for a minimum length of four times its own diameter.
The compression bond stresses that develop on starter bars within bases or pile caps do not need to
be checked, provided that
b) the base or pile cap has been designed for moments and shears in accordance with 4.10.
4.11.6.6.1 General
Connections transferring stress may be lapped, welded, or joined by mechanical devices. They should,
if possible, occur away from points of high stress and should, preferably, be staggered. Do not use
welded joints where the imposed load is predominantly cyclic in nature.
The minimum lap length for bar reinforcement should be at least the greater of 15 times the bar
diameter or 300 mm, and for mesh reinforcement should be at least 250 mm.
The lap length for a tension lap should be at least equal to the design tension anchorage length
(see 4.11.6.2). The lap length for bars (or wires in fabric) of unequal diameter may be based upon the
smaller bar (or wire). The following should also apply:
a) where a lap occurs at the top of a section as cast and the minimum cover is less than twice the size
of the lapped reinforcement, the lap length should be increased by a factor of 1,4;
b) where a lap occurs at a corner of a section and the minimum cover to either face is less than twice
the size of the lapped reinforcement or, where the clear distance between adjacent laps is less than
the greater of 75 mm or six times the size of the lapped reinforcement, the lap length should be
increased by a factor of 1,4; and
c) in cases where both preceding conditions apply, the lap length should be increased by a factor of
2,0.
The lap length for a compression lap should exceed the compression anchorage length (see 4.11.6.3)
by at least 25 %. Lap length for bars (or wires in fabric) of unequal diameter may be based upon the
smaller bar (or wire).
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Where the diameter of both bars at a lap exceed 20 mm and the cover is less than 1,5 times the
diameter of the smaller bar, transverse links should be provided throughout the lap length. At the lap,
the diameter of the links should be at least onequarter of the diameter of the smaller bar and the
spacing should not exceed 200 mm.
At laps, the sum of the reinforcement diameters in a particular layer should not exceed 40 % of the
width of the section at that level.
Where the stress in a bar at a joint is entirely compressive, the load may be transferred by an end
bearing of squaresawn ends held in concentric contact by a suitable sleeve or mechanical device
(see 6.3.2.3). The concrete cover for the sleeve should be at least that specified for normal
reinforcement.
4.11.6.7.2 Ensure that welded joints do not occur at bends in reinforcement. Where possible, stagger
joints in parallel bars of the principal tensile reinforcement in the longitudinal direction.
NOTE  Joints may be considered staggered if the distance between them is not less than the end anchorage length for
the bar. (See also the appropriate clause of SABS 01002.)
4.11.6.7.3 Where the strength of the weld has been proved by tests to be at least equal to that of the
parent bar, the strength of joints may be based on 80 % of the specified characteristic strength of the
joined bars for joints in tension and 100 % for joints in compression, divided, in each case, by the
appropriate m factor. However, the strength of welded joints in tension may be based on 100 % of the
specified characteristic strength of the bars if the welding operations are carried out under strict
supervision and if, at any crosssection of the element, not more than 20 % of the tensile
reinforcement is welded.
4.11.6.7.4 In the welds of a lapped joint, take the shear strength of the filler material as 0,38 times its
yield or proof stress. Make the length of weld sufficient to transmit the design load in the bar, i.e. make
the bar crosssectional area times 0,87 fy equal to the effective length of weld times the throat
thickness times the shear strength of filler material. Ensure that the length of a run of weld does not
exceed five times the diameter of the bar. If a longer length of weld is required, divide it into sections
and make the space between runs at least five times the diameter of the bar.
4.11.6.8.1 General
Reinforcement end anchorages such as hooks and bends should be so formed, dimensioned and
arranged as to avoid overstressing the concrete and should only be used to meet specific design
requirements as specified in SABS 82.
99
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
The effective anchorage length of a hook or bend is measured from the start of the bend to a point four
times the bar diameter beyond the end of the bend. This effective anchorage length may be taken as
follows:
a) in the case of a 180E hook: the greater of either eight times the internal radius of the hook with
a maximum of 24 times the bar diameter, or the actual length of bar in the hook including the
straight portion;
b) in the case of a 90E bend: the greater of either four times the internal radius of the bend with a
maximum of 12 times the bar diameter, or the actual length of the bar. Any length of bar in excess
of four bar diameters beyond the end of the bend and that lies within the concrete to which the bar
is to be anchored may also be included for effective anchorage. (But see 4.11.6.9 for limits to
bearing stresses within bends.)
Ensure that in no case is the radius of any bend less than twice the radius of the test bend guaranteed
by the manufacturer of the bar and, in addition, ensure that the bearing stress at the midpoint of the
curve does not exceed the value given in 4.11.6.9.
4.11.6.9.1 In the following cases, the design bearing stress within bends need not be checked:
a) where the bar does not extend beyond the point four bar diameters past the end of the bend; or
b) where the bar is assumed not to be stressed beyond the point four times the bar diameter past the
end of the bend at the ultimate limit state.
4.11.6.9.2 In any other bar, the design bearing stress should be calculated from the following equation:
F bt 2 f cu
Bearing stress = <
r 1 % 2 / ab
where
Fbt is the tensile force due to maximum design loads in a bar or group of bars in contact at
the start of a bend;
is the diameter of bar (or, for a group of bars in contact, the diameter of a bar of
equivalent area);
ab is, for a given bar (or group of bars in contact), the centretocentre distance between bars
(or groups of bars) perpendicular to the plane of the bend (for a bar or group of bars
adjacent to the face of the element, ab should be taken as the cover plus ).
NOTE The equation includes an allowance for m.
100
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.11.7.1.1 In any element subject to bending, extend every bar, except at end supports, beyond the
point at which it is no longer needed, for a distance equal to the greater of the effective depth of the
elements or 12 times the diameter of the bar. A point at which a bar is no longer required is where the
resistance moment of the section, considering only the continuing bars, is equal to the required
moment. In addition, do not stop any bar in a tension zone unless one of the following conditions is
satisfied:
a) the bar extends an anchorage length appropriate to its design strength (0,87 fy) from the point at
which it is no longer required to resist bending; or
b) the shear capacity at the section where the bar stops exceeds twice the shear force actually
present; or
c) the continuing bars at the section where the bar stops provide double the area required to resist
the moment at that section.
NOTE  Satisfy any one of these conditions for all arrangements of ultimate load considered.
4.11.7.1.2 At a simply supported end of an element, anchor each tension bar by one of the following:
a) an effective anchorage length equivalent to 12 times the bar diameter beyond the centreline of
the support; no bend or hook should begin before the centre of the support;
b) an effective anchorage length equivalent to 12 times the bar diameter plus d/2 from the face of
the support, where d is the effective depth of element; no bend or hook should begin before d/2
from the face of the support; or
c) for slabs, provided that the design ultimate shear stress at the face of the support is less than half
the appropriate value vc given in 4.3.4, a straight length of bar beyond the centreline of the
support equal to the greater of onethird of the support width or 30 mm.
4.11.7.1.3 As curtailment of substantial areas of reinforcement at a single section can lead to the
development of large cracks at that point, in the case of curtailment of a large number of bars, it is
advisable to stagger the curtailment points in heavily reinforced elements.
4.11.7.1.4 Where a cantilever forms an extension beyond the end support of a continuous beam or
slab, the top steel in the adjacent span should be extended beyond the point of contraflexure.
4.11.7.1.5 To satisfy the requirements for ties, the provisions of 4.11.9 should be observed in addition
to the rules given in this clause.
In the case of beams that support substantially uniformly distributed loads, the simplified rules given
below may be applied as an alternative to the provisions given in 4.11.7.1. (See also figure 24.) The
rules do not apply to doubly reinforced elements or haunched elements.
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SABS 01001
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Extend at least 50 % of the tension reinforcement provided at midspan to the supports and give it an
effective anchorage of 12 past the centre of the support. Extend the remaining part of the
reinforcement to within 0,08l of the centre of the support.
Extend at least 50 % of the tension reinforcement provided at the support to the end of the cantilever.
Extend the remaining part of the reinforcement a distance of the greater of l/2 or 45 times the bar
diameter from the face of the support.
a) top reinforcement: make at least 20 % of the reinforcement in tension over the supports
effectively continuous through the spans; of the remainder, extend half to a point at least 0,25l
from the face of the support, and the other half to a point at least 0,15l from the face of the
support, but do not stop any bar at a point less than 45 times its own diameter from the face of the
support;
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SABS 01001
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103
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
In the case of solid slabs spanning one way and that support substantially uniformly distributed loads,
the following simplified rules given below may be applied as an alternative to the provisions given in
4.11.7.1. (See also figure 25.)
For bottom reinforcement, extend at least 50 % of the tension reinforcement provided at midspan to
the supports and give it an effective anchorage of 12 past the centre of the supports. Extend the
remaining part of the reinforcement to within 0,08l of the supports.
Extend at least 50 % of the tension reinforcement provided at the support to the end of the cantilever.
Extend the remaining part of the reinforcement a distance of the greater of l/2 or 45 times the bar
diameter, from the face of the support.
a) top reinforcement: extend all tension reinforcement over supports a distance of the greater of
0,15l or 45 times the bar diameter, from the face of the support, and extend at least 50 % of the
reinforcement a distance of 0,3l from the face of the support into the spans.
b) bottom reinforcement: extend the tension reinforcement provided at midspan of a slab to within
0,2l from the centre of the internal support and to within 0,1l from the centre of the external
support, and extend at least 40 % into the support.
c) where, at an end support, there is a monolithic connection between the slab and its
supporting beam or wall: make provision for the negative moment that may arise. The negative
moment to be assumed in this case depends on the degree of fixity, but it will generally be
sufficient to provide tension reinforcement equal to half that provided at midspan, extending a
distance of the greater of 0,1l or 45 times the bar diameter, from the face of the support into the
span.
d) for solid slabs spanning in two directions at right angles: see 4.4.4, where simplified rules
for curtailment are given in connection with the simplified methods of analysis used. When other
methods of analysis are used to obtain the moments in slabs, base the detailing of the
reinforcement on similar principles.
NOTE  Recommendations for the arrangement of reinforcement in flat slabs are given in 4.6 and for that in ribbed slabs
(with solid or hollow blocks or with voids) in 4.5.
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105
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.11.8.1.1 When the diameter of a bar exceeds the maximum size of coarse aggregate by more than
5 mm, a spacing smaller than the bar diameter should be avoided. A pair of bars in contact or a bundle
of three or four bars in contact should be regarded as a single bar of equivalent area when the spacing
is being assessed.
4.11.8.1.2 The spacing of bars should be made suitable for the proper compaction of concrete, and
when an internal vibrator is likely to be used, adequate spacing should be provided in the
reinforcement to enable the vibrator to be inserted. Minimum reinforcement spacing is best determined
by experience or proper work tests, but in the absence of better information, the distances given below
may be used.
Except where bars form part of a pair or bundle (see 4.11.8.1.2.2 and 4.11.8.1.2.3), the horizontal
distance between bars should be at least (hagg + 5) mm, where hagg is the maximum size of the coarse
aggregate. Where there are two or more rows,
a) the gaps between corresponding bars in each row should be vertically in line; and
Bars may be arranged in pairs either touching or closer than in 4.11.8.1.2.1, in which case
a) the gaps between corresponding pairs in each row should be vertically in line and of width at least
(hagg + 5) mm;
b) when the bars forming the pair are one above the other, the vertical distance between pairs should
be at least 2/3hagg; and
c) when the bars forming the pair are side by side, the vertical distance between pairs should be at
least (hagg + 5) mm.
Horizontal and vertical distances between bundles should be at least (hagg + 15) mm and the gaps
between the rows or bundles should be vertically in line.
4.11.8.2.1 Beams
4.11.8.2.1.1 The rules given below for beams may apply in normal internal or external conditions of
exposure (but see 4.11.8.2.1.6) where a crack width limited to 0,3 mm is appropriate, unless the
calculations of crack width (see A.3 in annex A) show that greater spacing is acceptable.
4.11.8.2.1.2 In the application of these rules in the case of bars of mixed sizes, any bar of diameter
less than 0,45 times the diameter of the maximum bar in the section should be ignored, except when
those near the side faces of beams are being considered.
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Ed. 2.2
4.11.8.2.1.3 Bars placed near the side faces of beams to control cracking should comply with 4.11.4.4.
4.11.8.2.1.4 The clear horizontal distance between adjacent bars or groups near the tension face of
a beam should not exceed the value given in table 25, depending on the amount of redistribution
carried out in analysis and the characteristic strength of reinforcement. Instead of using the values
given in table 25, assess the clear spacing from the following relationship:
47 000
300 > clear spacing <
fs
where fs is the design service stress in the reinforcement, which may be obtained from 4.3.6.3.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
250 215 230 245 260 275 300 300 300 300 300 300
450 120 130 135 145 155 170 185 195 205 210 220
485 110 120 125 135 140 155 170 180 190 195 205
4.11.8.2.1.5 The clear distance from a corner of a beam to the surface of the nearest longitudinal bar
should not exceed half the clear distance given in table 25.
4.11.8.2.1.6 The above rules are not applicable to beams subjected to particularly aggressive
environments unless, in the calculation of the resistance moment, fy has been limited to 300 MPa.
4.11.8.2.2 Slabs
The clear spacing between main bars should not exceed the lesser of three times the effective depth
or 750 mm. In normal internal or external conditions, unless crack widths are checked by direct
calculations, the additional rules given below ensure adequate control of cracking.
a) grade 250 steel is used and the slab depth does not exceed 250 mm;
b) grade 450 steel is used and the slab depth does not exceed 200 mm; or
a) where the reinforcement percentage is more than 1 %, the bar spacing should be limited to the
values given in table 25; and
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Ed. 2.2
b) where the reinforcement percentage is less than 1 %, the bar spacing should be limited to the
values given in table 25, divided by this percentage of reinforcement.
4.11.8.2.2.3 When table 25 is used for slabs and the amount of redistribution is unknown (e.g. table 15
is used), a value of 15 % may be assumed for support moments and a value of zero may be
assumed for span moments.
4.11.9 Ties
4.11.9.1 General
Ties provide the interaction that is necessary between elements of the structure to ensure that all
forces are distributed evenly throughout the structure. All structures are provided with the following
types of tie:
a) peripheral ties;
b) internal ties;
In the design of ties, it may be assumed that the reinforcement acts at its characteristic strength and
that there are no forces, other than those mentioned in 4.11.9.4 to 4.11.9.6. Reinforcement provided
for other purposes may be regarded as forming part of, or the whole of, these ties.
Bars should be lapped, welded or mechanically joined, in accordance with 4.11.6.6. A tie may be
considered anchored to another tie at right angles if the bars of the first tie extend
a) 12 times the bar diameter or an equivalent anchorage beyond all the bars of the other tie, or
b) an effective anchorage length (based on the force in the bars) beyond the centreline of the bars
of the other tie. At reentrant corners or at substantial changes in construction, ensure that the ties
are adequately anchored or otherwise made effective.
Where a structure is divided into structurally separated sections by means of expansion joints, there
should not be any form of tie between such sections.
At each floor and roof level, an effectively uninterrupted peripheral tie should be provided, capable of
resisting a tensile force of 1,0Ft (in kilonewtons), located within 1,2 m of the edge of the structure or
in the perimeter wall; the value of Ft is the lesser of Ft = 60 and the value obtained from
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SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Ft = (20 + 4 ns)
In addition to the peripheral tie, internal ties should be provided at each floor and roof level in two
directions approximately at right angles such that the ties will be effectively uninterrupted throughout
their length and will be anchored to the peripheral tie at both ends unless they continue as column and
wall ties. Some or all of the internal ties may be spread evenly over the width of the structure or may
be grouped at beams or walls, or at other appropriate intervals, but at spacings generally not
exceeding 1,5lr , where lr is the greater of the distances between the centres of the columns, walls or
frames supporting any two adjacent floor spans in the direction of the tie under consideration. Ties in
a wall should be located within 0,5 m of the top or bottom of the floor slab.
Ft is as in 4.11.9.4;
gn + qn is the sum of average nominal selfweight and imposed floor loads (in kilonewtons per
square metre); and
lr is as defined above.
Where the vertical loadbearing elements are walls that, on plan, occur in one direction only
(crosswall or spinewall construction), the ties parallel to the walls should be capable of resisting a
tensile force of Ft kilonewtons per metre of width.
Each external column and each metre length of external wall should be anchored or tied horizontally
into the structure at each floor and roof level with a tie capable of developing a force equal to the
greater of the forces given in (a) and (b) below.
b) 3 % of the total ultimate vertical load carried by the column or wall at that level.
Where the peripheral tie is located within the wall, only such horizontal tying as is required to anchor
the internal ties to the peripheral ties need be provided (see 4.11.9.5).
Corner columns should be tied into the structure at each floor and roof level in each of two directions
approximately at right angles, with ties capable of developing a force equal to the greater of the forces
given in (a) and (b) above.
Column and wall ties may be provided partly or wholly with the same reinforcement as that provided
for the peripheral or internal ties.
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Ed. 2.2
Each column and each wall that bears a vertical load should be tied continuously from the foundations
to the roof level. The tie should be capable of resisting a tensile force equal to the maximum design
ultimate selfweight plus imposed loads transferred to the column or wall from any one storey or from
the roof.
4.12.1 General
Low density aggregate concrete may generally be designed in accordance with the provisions given
in clause 3 and 4.1 to 4.11. Subclauses 4.12.2 to 4.12.12 relate specifically to reinforced low density
aggregate concrete of grade 20 or higher.
The structural use of concretes of grades lower than grade 20 should be limited to plain walls. In
considering low density aggregate concrete, obtain specific data direct from the aggregate producer.
The maximum free cement/water ratios and minimum cement contents (with specified nominal cover
to reinforcement) for concretes for use in specified conditions of exposure are given in SABS 01002.
When low density aggregate concrete of a grade lower than grade 20 is used, make the nominal cover
to all reinforcement (including links) 25 mm for internal noncorrosive conditions. For fire resistance,
see clause 7 unless appropriate test results are available.
Values of characteristic strength of low density aggregate concrete should be chosen correctly. When
all aggregate in the concrete is fly ash, the related cube strength at other ages may be obtained from
table 2. In the case of grade 15 concrete, reduce the values given in table 2 for grade 20 concrete by
25 %. These values apply to most other types of aggregate, but the manufacturer of the particular
material under consideration should be consulted. With some aggregates used in rich mixes, there
may be little increase in strength beyond that attained at 28 d.
Establish the shear resistance and shear reinforcement for low density aggregate concrete beams in
accordance with 4.3.4.1 and 4.3.4.2, using table 26.
The shear stress v should never exceed the lesser of 0,55 f cu or 3,5 MPa, whatever reinforcement
is provided.
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Ed. 2.2
1 2 3
100 As MPa
bd
Concrete grade
20 25 or higher
Establish the torsional resistance and torsional reinforcement for low density aggregate concrete
beams in accordance with 4.3.5, using table 27 in place of table 8.
1 2 3
Concrete grade Minimum torsional shear stress, Vt Ultimate torsional shear stress, Vtu
25 0,23 2,86
30 0,27 3,12
> 40 0,29 3,57
Deflection of low density aggregate concrete beams may be calculated using a value of Ec as
described in 3.4.2.1. Alternatively, span/effective depth ratios may be obtained from 4.3.6.2 and
4.3.6.3 and multiplied by a factor of 0,85.
Establish the shear resistance and shear reinforcement for lightweight aggregate concrete slabs in
accordance with 4.4.5, 4.5.4 or 4.6.2, using table 26. The shear stress v should never exceed the value
of the lesser of 0,55 f cu or 3,5 MPa, whatever shear reinforcement is provided (if any).
111
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Ed. 2.2
Deflection of low density aggregate concrete slabs may be calculated using a value of Ec as described
in 3.4.2.1. Alternatively, the provisions given in 4.4.6, 4.5.5 or 4.6.3 may be used for any slab subject
to a nominal imposed load of 4 kN/m2 or less. For slabs supporting a higher nominal imposed load,
multiply the span/effective depth ratios obtained from 4.4.6, 4.5.5 or 4.6.3 by a factor of 0,85.
4.12.9 Columns
The recommendations of 4.7 apply to lightweight aggregate concrete columns, subject to the following:
a) short columns: a column of reinforced low density aggregate concrete may be considered short
when the ratios lex/h and ley/b (see 4.7.1.4) are less than 10; all other columns are slender.
b) slender columns: in 4.7.3.1, the divisor 2 000 in equation (12) should be replaced by the divisor
1 200. Values of a in table 20 should be altered accordingly.
4.12.10 Walls
The recommendations of 4.8 and 6.5 apply to low density aggregate concrete walls, subject to the
following:
a) short walls: a wall of low density aggregate concrete may be considered short when le/h
(see 4.7.1.1) does not exceed 10; all other walls are slender;
b) slender walls: in 4.8.5, slender reinforced walls, when regarded as slender columns, require the
use of the equations given in 4.7.3, modified as described in 4.12.9(b).
For plain slender walls in 6.5.3, take the additional eccentricity due to deflection ea used in
equation (21) as l 2e /1 700.
4.12.11.1 Establish local bond stress, anchorage bond stress, and lap lengths in reinforcement for low
density aggregate concrete elements in accordance with 4.11.6, except that the bond stresses shall
not exceed 80 % of those given in 4.11.6.2.
4.12.11.2 For foamed slag or similar aggregates, it may be necessary both to ensure that bond
stresses are kept well below the above maximum values for reinforcement that is in a horizontal
position during casting and to obtain the advice of the manufacturer.
The recommendations of 4.11.6.9 apply to low density aggregate concrete, except that the bearing
4f cu
stress shall not exceed
2 )
3(1 %
ab
112
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
5.1 General
This subclause gives methods of analysis and design that will in general ensure that, for prestressed
concrete structures of classes 1, 2, and 3 as given in 3.2.3.3.1.2, the criteria set out in clause 3 are
met. Other methods may be used provided that they can be shown to be satisfactory for the type of
structure or element under consideration. In certain cases, the assumptions made in this clause may
be inappropriate and the engineer will have to adopt a more suitable method, having regard to the
nature of the structure in question.
For low density aggregate concrete, the prestress losses will in general exceed those for dense
aggregate concrete, and specialist literature should be consulted.
When structures are to be erected in seismic areas, the effect of adverse bending of the prestressed
elements should be considered.
5.1.1.1 This subclause follows the limit states philosophy set out in clause 3, but since it is not possible
to assume that a particular limit state will always be the critical one, design methods are given for the
ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit states.
5.1.1.2 In general, the design of class 1 and class 2 elements is determined by the concrete tension
limitations for service load conditions, but check the ultimate strength in flexure, shear and torsion.
5.1.1.3 The design of class 3 elements is usually determined by ultimate strength conditions, or by
deflection or by cracking or by both.
For guidance on the minimum cover to reinforcement and prestressing tendons that have to be
provided to ensure durability, see 5.9.3. Use the results of fire tests or other evidence to ascertain the
fire resistance of an element or, alternatively, refer to clause 7.
For recommendations concerning such considerations as vibration and stability, refer to the general
provisions of clauses 3 and 4.
5.1.4 Loads
The values of the design ultimate loads are those given in 3.3.3.1 and 3.3.4.1. The design loads to be
used for the serviceability limit states are given in 3.3.4. (See also 5.3.2.)
In general, when assessing any particular effect of loading, ensure that the arrangement of loads is
the one that causes the most severe effect. Consider the secondary effects due to both the
construction sequence and the prestress, particularly for the serviceability limit states.
113
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The characteristic strengths of concrete that may be specified for prestressed concrete are given in
table 28 together with their required strengths at other ages. The minimum grades recommended are
those that have characteristic compression strengths of 30 MPa and 40 MPa for posttensioning and
pretensioning, respectively. The concrete strength at transfer should be at least 18 MPa for unbonded
systems and 25 MPa for bonded systems.
1 2 3 4 5
Characteristic strength*)
Characteristic MPa
strength, fcu Age,
Grade
months
MPa
3 6 12
30 30,0 34 35 36
40 40,0 44 46 48
50 50,0 54 56 58
60 60,0 64 66 68
*)These increased strengths due to age should only be used if it has been
demonstrated to the satisfaction of the engineer that the materials to be used are
capable of producing these higher strengths.
The design should be based on the 28 d characteristic strength or, if appropriate, on the required
strength given in table 28 for the age at loading.
The specified characteristics of prestressing tendons and wires are not covered by this code. The
characteristic strengths of reinforcement are those given in 4.1.5.2.
Complete structures and structural frames may be analysed in accordance with 3.4.3 but, when
appropriate, the methods given in 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5 may be used for individual elements.
Base the relative stiffness of elements on the concrete section as described in 3.4.3.1.
5.2.2.1 The moments obtained by elastic analysis, for the ultimate limit state only, may be distributed,
provided that the following conditions are satisfied:
a) equilibrium between the internal forces and the external loads under each appropriate combination
of ultimate loads is maintained;
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Ed. 2.2
b) the ultimate resistance moment provided at any section of an element is at least 80 % of the
moment at that section, obtained from an elastic maximum moments diagram covering all
appropriate combinations of ultimate load;
c) in structures exceeding four storeys, in which the structural frame provides the lateral stability, the
reduction in moment allowed by condition (b) above is not more than 10 %; and
d) where, as a result of redistribution, the ultimate resistance moment at a section is reduced, the
neutral axis depth x of the section resisting the reduced moment does not exceed
x = (red  0,5)d
where
5.2.2.2 In general, condition 5.2.2.1(d) will limit or prevent redistribution in rectangular elements of
class 1 and class 2 (see 3.2.3.3.1.2), unless the prestress is small. Redistribution with a reduction of
moment in columns will generally be ruled out, unless the design ultimate axial load and the prestress
in the column are small.
5.3 Beams
5.3.1 General
5.3.1.1 Definitions
The definitions and limitations of the geometric properties of prestressed beams are as given for
reinforced concrete beams in 4.3.1.
In addition to limiting the slenderness of a beam (see 4.3.1.6) when under load in its final position, the
possible instability of a prestressed beam during erection should be considered (see the appropriate
clause of SABS 01002). Elements may collapse by tilting about a longitudinal axis through the lifting
points. This initial tilting, which may be due to imperfections in beam geometry and in locating the
lifting points, could cause lateral bending moments and these moments, if too high, could result in
lateral instability.
c) method of lifting, e.g. inclined or vertical slings, type of connection between the beam and the
slings; and
It may be necessary to assess the design stresses due to the combined effects of lateral bending,
selfweight load and prestress; if cracking is possible, the method of lifting should provide adequate
lateral support.
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Ed. 2.2
Carry out an elastic analysis with the following arrangements of load (see 3.3.3.1 and 3.3.4.1):
a) only alternate spans loaded with the maximum design load; and
The moments obtained by this method may be redistributed, for the ultimate limit state only, within the
conditions and limits recommended in 5.2.2.
The following assumptions may be made when service loads are considered:
b) for class 1 and class 2 elements (see 3.2.3.3.1.2), elastic behaviour of the concrete exists up to
stresses given in 5.3.2.2 and 5.3.2.3; for class 3 elements, elastic behaviour is deemed to exist up
to the hypothetical stresses given in 5.3.2.2 and 5.3.2.3. The modulus of elasticity may be taken
as given in 3.4.2.1;
c) in general, it may only be necessary to calculate the stresses due to the load combinations as in
3.3.3.1 immediately after the transfer of prestress and after all losses of prestress have occurred;
in both cases, the effects of selfweight load and imposed load on the strain and force in the
tendons may be ignored.
Ensure that the compressive stresses in the concrete do not exceed the values given in table 29.
1 2
Ensure that the flexural tensile stresses do not exceed the values below for the given classes of
element. These stresses are appropriate for an element or a structure that is monolithic, but tension
is not allowed at mortar or concrete joints of members made up of precast units.
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Ed. 2.2
b) class 2 elements:
1) ensure that the tensile stresses do not exceed the flexural tensile stresses given in table 30;
1 2 3 4 5
MPa
Type of element
Concrete grade
30 40 50 60
2) the stress obtained from table 30 may be increased by up to 1,7 MPa, provided that it is shown
by tests that such enhanced stress does not exceed threequarters of the tensile stress
calculated from the loading in the performance test corresponding to the appearance of the first
crack; where such increase is used, ensure that the stress in the concrete due to prestress after
losses will be at least 8,0 MPa; distribute pretensioned tendons well throughout the tension
zone of the section and supplement posttensioned tendons, if necessary, with unstressed
reinforcement located near the tension face of the member;
3) where a service load is of a temporary nature and is exceptionally high in comparison with the
load normally carried, a higher calculated tensile stress is allowable, provided that under normal
service conditions the stress is compressive enough to ensure that any cracks that might have
occurred, close up; ensure that this increase in stress will not exceed 1,0 MPa;
c) class 3 elements: although cracking is allowed in the case of class 3 elements (see 3.2.3.3.1.2),
it may be assumed that the concrete section is uncracked but that hypothetical tensile stresses exist
at the maximum size of cracks defined in 3.2.3.3; the interrelationship between the hypothetical
tensile stress and the crack width for elements with pretensioned or grouted posttensioned tendons
is represented by equation (14) and modified by table 31.
ft
w ' 0,012 5 100 A s
(14)
bh
where
ft is the maximum extreme fibre tension stress due to prestress and all other loads (after all 
losses), in megapascals; Amdt 2, Mar. 2000
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 As is the area of bonded prestressed reinforcement in the tension zone and the area of
 unstressed reinforcement in the tension zone, in square millimetres; Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
b is the width of section in tension zone, in millimetres (For sections with a flange in tension
zone, b is the width of equivalent tension zone area, assuming a neutral axis depth of h/3.);
and
For deflection and cracking of class 3 elements, see the methods described in annex A.
1 2
800 0,8
> 1 000 0,7
Design compressive stresses in the concrete at transfer should not exceed 0,45fci at the extreme fibre
(in the case of triangular or near triangular distribution of prestress) or 0,3fci for near uniform
distribution of prestress, where fci is the concrete strength at transfer.
Design tensile stresses in flexure in the concrete at transfer should not exceed the values given below:
a) class 1 elements: ensure that at transfer, the tensile stress does not exceed the value of 1 MPa;
b) class 2 elements: ensure that the tensile stress does not exceed the value appropriate to the
concrete strength at transfer given in table 30; ensure that elements with pretensioned tendons
have some tendons or unstressed reinforcement well distributed throughout the tensile zone of the
section and elements with posttensioned tendons have unstressed reinforcement located near the
tension face of the element;
c) class 3 elements (see also annex A): the tensile stress should, in general, not exceed the
appropriate value for a class 2 element; where this stress is exceeded, regard the section in design
as cracked.
When analysing sections under maximum design loads, make the following assumptions:
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a) the strain distribution in the concrete in compression is derived from the assumption that plane
sections remain plane;
b) the stresses in the concrete in compression are either derived from the stress strain curve given
in figure 1, with a m of 1,5, or are taken as equal to 0,45fcu over the whole compression zone (see
figure 4); in both cases, the strain at the outermost compression fibre is taken as 0,0035;
d) the strains in bonded prestressing tendons and in any unstressed reinforcement, whether in tension
or in compression, are derived from the assumption that plane sections remain plane;
e) the stresses in bonded prestressing tendons, whether initially tensioned or untensioned, and in
unstressed reinforcement are derived from the appropriate stress/strain curves;
NOTE  The stress/strain curves for prestressing reinforcement are given in figure 3 and those for reinforcement are given
in figure 2. An empirical approach towards obtaining the stress in the tendons at failure is given in 5.3.3.2.
f) in posttensioned elements where the tendons are unbonded, the stress in the tendons does not
exceed the values given in table 33 unless a higher stress can be justified on the basis of tests.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5.3.3.2.1 In the absence of an analysis based on the assumptions given in 5.3.3.1, the moment of
resistance of any shape of beam may be obtained from the following equation:
Mu = fpbAps(ddn)
where
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5.3.3.2.2 For rectangular beams, and for flanged beams in which the compression block lies within
the flange, dn = 0,45x, where x is the neutral axis depth.
5.3.3.2.3 Values for fpb and x may be derived from table 32 for pretensioned elements and for
posttensioned elements with effective bond between the concrete and tendons. The effective
prestress after all losses shall be at least 0,45fpu. Ignore prestressing tendons and unstressed
reinforcement in the compression zone in strength calculations when using this method.
5.3.3.2.4 For rectangular beams, and for flanged beams in which the neutral axis lies within the
flange, the stress in the tendons at failure may be derived from table 33 for unbonded tendons.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
a) the effective prestress after all losses have occurred (fpe) does not exceed 0,6fpu;
c) either the tendons are in ducts or, if they are free (as in hollow beams), diaphragms are provided
to prevent a reduction of the effective depth; and
d) the effective depth is determined by assuming that the tendons are in contact with the top of the
duct or with the soffit of the diaphragms.
5.3.3.2.6 In addition, for unbonded tendons, values of f pb and x may be obtained from equations (15)
and (16). (The value of fpb should not be taken as exceeding 0,7fpu.)
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7 000 f pu Aps
fpb = fpe + 1 & 1,7 (15)
le /d f cu bd
f pu Aps f pb
x = 2,47 d (16)
f cu bd f pu
where
fpe is the design effective prestress in tendons after all losses have occurred;
b is the width or effective width of the section or flange in compression zone; and
Equation (15) has been derived by taking the length of the zone of inelasticity within the concrete as
10x. The length le should normally be taken as the length of the tendons between end anchorages. In
the case of continuous multispan beams, this length may be determined as in figure 26.
Figure 26 Determination of le
Nonrectangular sections may be analysed using the assumptions given in 5.3.3.1 or the design
formulae given in 5.3.3.2.
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In the absence of a rigorous analysis, the area of reinforcement As may be replaced by an equivalent
area of prestressing tendons Asfy /fpu.
Calculation for shear resistance is only required for the ultimate limit state. The provisions of this
subclause apply to class 1, class 2, and class 3 prestressed concrete elements. Consider the ultimate
shear resistance of the concrete alone, Vc, at both sections, uncracked (see 5.3.4.2) and cracked
(see 5.3.4.3) in flexure. Take the lower value and, if necessary, provide shear reinforcement
(see 5.3.4.4).
Under no circumstances should the maximum design shear stress v exceed the lesser of 0,75 f cu
5.3.4.2.1 The ultimate shear resistance of a section uncracked in flexure, Vco, corresponds to the
occurrence of a maximum design principal tensile stress at the centroidal axis of the section
ft = 0,23 f cu
5.3.4.2.2 In the calculation of Vco, take the value of prestress at the centroidal axis as 0,8fcp. The value
of Vco is given by
where
fcp is the design compressive stress at the centroidal axis due to prestress, taken as positive;
b is the width of beam, which, for Tbeams, Ibeams and Lbeams, is replaced by the width
of rib, bw; and
Table 34 gives values of Vco /bh obtained from equation (17) for different concrete grades and
applicable values of fcp.
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1 2 3 4 5
Vco /bh
fcp MPa
30 40 50 60
5.3.4.2.3 In flanged beams where the centroidal axis occurs in the flange, limit the principal tensile
stress ft to 0,23 f cu at the intersection of the flange and web. When calculating Vco, use 0,8 of
the 
stress due to prestress at this intersection. Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
5.3.4.2.4 For a section uncracked in flexure and with inclined tendons or compression zones, the
component of prestressing force or that of compression force normal to the longitudinal axis of the
beam may be added to Vco.
5.3.4.2.5 In a pretensioned beam, the critical section should be taken at a distance from the edge of
the bearing equal to the height of the centroid of the section above the soffit. Where this section occurs
within the prestressed development length, the compressive stress at the centroidal axis due to
prestress to be used in equation 17 may be calculated from the following relationship:
x x
fcpx = 2 & fcp
lp lp
where
fcp is the design stress at the end of the prestress development length lp.
The prestress development length lp should be taken as the greater of the transmission length (see
5.8.4) or the overall depth of the element.
5.3.4.3.1 Calculate the design ultimate shear resistance Vcr of a section cracked in flexure, using the
following equation:
fp e V
Vc r ' 1 & 0,55 vc bd % Mo (18)
f pu M
where
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d is the distance from extreme compression fibre to centroid of steel area (Aps + As) in tension
zone;
Mo is the moment necessary to produce zero stress in concrete at the extreme tension fibre;
and
Mo is equal to 0,8 f pt ;
Yt
where
Yt is the distance from the centroid of the concrete section to the extreme tension fibre;
fpt is the stress at the extreme tension fibre due to prestress only;
fpe is the design effective prestress in tendons after all losses have occurred (should not be
taken as exceeding 0,6 fpu).
NOTE ) Where the steel area in the tension zone consists of tendons and reinforcement, fpe may be taken as the value
obtained by dividing the effective prestressing force by an equivalent area of tendons equal to
fy
Aps % As
f pu
where
vc is the maximum design shear resistance of the concrete (the value obtainable from 4.3.4);
V and M are the design shear force and bending moment, respectively, at the section under consideration, and due
to the particular ultimate load condition; and
b is the width or effective width of rectangular section or the width of the rib.
5.3.4.3.3 For a section cracked in flexure and with inclined tendons or compression cords, the design
shear forces produced should be combined with the external design load effects where these effects
are increased.
5.3.4.4.1 When V, the shear force due to the design ultimate loads, is less that Vc, which is the shear
force that can be carried by the concrete, shear reinforcement need not be provided in the following
cases:
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c) where tests carried out in accordance with 3.4.5 have shown that shear reinforcement is not
required.
5.3.4.4.2 In all cases except those in 5.3.4.4.1, minimum shear reinforcement in the form of links
should be provided such that
Asv 0,4b
sv 0,87 f yv
where
fyv is the characteristic strength of the reinforcement (but not more than 450 MPa);
b is as in equation (18);
5.3.4.4.3 When V, the shear force due to the design ultimate loads, exceeds Vc, ensure that the shear
reinforcement provided in addition is such that
Asv V Vc
sv 0,87 f yv dt
where dt is taken as the depth from the extreme compression fibre, to the greater of either the
longitudinal bars (tendons, group of tendons) or the centroid of the tendons.
5.3.4.5.1 In rectangular beams, at both corners in the tensile zone, a link should pass round a
longitudinal bar, a tendon or a group of tendons having a diameter not less than the link diameter. A
link should extend as close to the tension or compression faces as possible, with due regard to cover.
Ensure that the links provided at a crosssection enclose all the tendons and unstressed reinforcement
provided at the crosssection and that they are adequately anchored (see 4.11.6.4).
5.3.4.5.2 Ensure that the spacing of links along a beam does not exceed 0,75dt or four times the web
thickness for flanged beams. When V exceeds 1,8Vc, reduce the maximum spacing to 0,5dt. Ensure
that the lateral spacing of the individual legs of the links provided at a crosssection does not exceed
0,75dt.
In general, when it is considered that torsional resistance or stiffness of beams need not be taken into
account in the analysis of the structure, no specific calculations for torsion will be necessary, adequate
control of any torsional cracking being provided by the required nominal shear reinforcement.
Calculations are required when torsional resistance is necessary for equilibrium or when significant
torsional stresses may occur. The method for reinforced concrete beams given in 4.3.5 may generally
be used.
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5.3.6.1.1 The instantaneous deflection due to service loads may be calculated with the use of elastic
analysis based on the concrete section properties and on the value for the modulus of elasticity given
in 3.4.2.1.
5.3.6.1.2 The total longterm deflection due to the prestressing force, selfweight load and any
sustained imposed load may be calculated with the use of elastic analysis based on the concrete
section properties and on an effective modulus of elasticity based on the creep of the concrete per unit
length for unit applied stress after the period under consideration (specific creep). The values for
specific creep given in 5.8.2.5 may in general be used unless a more accurate assessment is required.
Make due allowance for the loss of prestress after the period under consideration. Ensure that the
deflections comply with the limits given in 3.2.3.2.
Where the permanent load is less than or equal to 25 % of the imposed load, the deflection of class 3
elements may be calculated in accordance with 5.3.6.1. Where the permanent load exceeds 25 % of
the imposed load, the basic span/effective depth ratios given in 4.3.6 and table 10 should be complied
with unless more rigorous calculations based on the moment curvature relationship are made.
5.4 Slabs
The provisions given in 5.3 for beams apply also to slabs. The methods of analysis given in 4.4.2 and
4.5.2 are appropriate for the ultimate limit state. Elastic analysis should be used for the serviceability
limit states.
The design for shear should be in accordance with 5.3.4 except that shear reinforcement need not be
provided if v is less than vc.
The analysis and design of flat slabs should be carried out in accordance with appropriate specialist
literature.
5.5 Columns
Prestressed concrete columns in framed structures, where the mean stress in the concrete section
imposed by the tendons is less than 2,5 MPa, may be analysed as reinforced columns in accordance
with 4.7.
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5.8 Prestressing
5.8.1.1 The jacking force should not normally exceed 75 % of the characteristic strength of the tendon
but may be increased to 80 %, provided that additional consideration is given to safety, to the
stress/strain characteristics of the tendon, and to the assessment of the friction losses.
5.8.1.2 In the determination of the jacking force to be used, consideration should also be given to the
gripping efficiency of the anchorage.
5.8.1.3 When deflected tendons are used in pretensioning, consideration should, in the determination
of the maximum initial prestress, be given to the possible influence of the size of the deflector on the
strength of the tendons. (See the appropriate clause of SABS 01002.)
Attention should also be paid to the effect of any frictional forces that may occur.
5.8.2.1 General
When calculating the forces in tendons at the various stages considered in design, make allowance
for the appropriate losses of prestress resulting from
b) the elastic deformation and subsequent shrinkage and creep of the concrete,
d) other causes in special circumstances, for example when steam curing is used with pretensioning.
If experimental evidence on performance is not available, take the properties of the steel and of the
concrete into account when calculating the losses of prestress from these causes. The provisions given
in the following subclauses are applicable to a wide range of structures, especially buildings. It must
be recognized, however, that these recommendations are necessarily general and approximate.
5.8.2.2.1 Ensure that the loss of force in the tendon allowed for in the design is double the maximum
relaxation after 1 000 h duration, for a jacking force equal to that imposed at transfer.
5.8.2.2.2 When there is no experimental evidence available, the relaxation loss for normal
stressrelieved wire or strand may be assumed to decrease linearly from 10 % for an initial prestress
of 80 %, to 3 % for an initial prestress of 50 %. This would apply when the estimated total creep and
shrinkage strain of the concrete is less than 500 x 106. When the creep plus shrinkage strain exceeds
500 x 106, the loss for an initial stress of 80 % should be reduced to 8,5 %. Losses for lowrelaxation
tendons may be assumed to be half the above values.
5.8.2.2.3 Make no reduction in the value of the relaxation loss for a tendon when a load equal to or
exceeding the relevant jacking force has been applied for a short time prior to the anchoring of the
tendon.
5.8.2.2.4 In special cases, such as tendons exposed to high temperatures or subjected to large lateral
loads, greater relaxation losses will occur. Consult specialist literature in these cases.
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5.8.2.3.1 Calculation of the immediate loss of force in the tendons due to elastic deformation of the
concrete at transfer may be based on the values for the modulus of elasticity of the concrete given in
table 1 when the actual experimental values are not available (see annex C). The modulus of elasticity
of the tendons may be obtained from 3.4.2.3.
5.8.2.3.2 For pretensioning, calculate the loss of prestress in the tendons at transfer on a modular
ratio basis, using the stress in the adjacent concrete.
5.8.2.3.3 For elements with posttensioning tendons that are not stressed simultaneously, there is a
progressive loss of prestress during transfer, due to the gradual application of the prestressing force.
Calculate the resulting loss of prestress in the tendons on the basis of half the product of the modular
ratio and the stress in the concrete adjacent to the tendons averaged along their length; alternatively,
the loss of prestress may be accurately calculated by basing it on the sequence of tensioning.
5.8.2.3.4 In making these calculations, it may usually be assumed that the tendons are located at their
centroid.
5.8.2.4.2 The loss of prestress in the tendons due to shrinkage of the concrete may be calculated as
the product of the shrinkage per unit length of the concrete (see table 35) and the modulus of elasticity
of the tendons (as in 3.4.2.3).
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1 2 3 4
Relative humidity
80 % 60 % 35 %
System
e.g. coastal e.g. most e.g. environments of
towns inland areas unusually low
relative humidity
such as Windhoek
and Upington
Pretensioning
Transfer at 3 d to 5 d
after concreting 180 x 106 310 x 106 420 x 106
Posttensioning
Transfer at 7 d to 14 d
after concreting 140 x 106 250 x 106 350 x 106
5.8.2.4.3 Some adjustment to the figures in table 35 will be necessary for other ages of concrete at
transfer, for other conditions of exposure, or for massive structures, in which cases specialist literature
should be consulted.
5.8.2.4.4 When it is necessary to determine the loss of prestress and the deformation of the concrete
at some stage before the total shrinkage is reached, it may be assumed that half the total shrinkage
takes place during the first month after transfer and that threequarters of the total shrinkage takes
place within the first 6 months after transfer.
5.8.2.4.5 In certain regions of South Africa, the aggregate may exhibit abnormally high shrinkage
characteristics. The finegrained shales and sandstones of the Beaufort group of the Karoo sequence
are those most likely to lead to high dimensional changes in concrete. Seek advice when these
aggregates or others of a similar type are to be used.
5.8.2.5.1 The loss of prestress in the tendons may be calculated on the assumption that creep is
proportional to the stress in the concrete (see 5.8.2.5.4). The loss of prestress is obtained as the
product of the creep per unit length of the concrete adjacent to the tendons and the modulus of
elasticity of the tendons (see 3.4.2.3). When calculating this loss, it is usually sufficient to assume that
the tendons are located at their centroid.
5.8.2.5.2 For pretensioning at between 3 d and 5 d after concreting and for humid or dry conditions
of exposure where the required cube strength at transfer exceeds 40,0 MPa, take the creep of the
concrete per unit length as 48 x 106 per megapascal. For lower values of cube strength at transfer,
assume the creep per unit length to be 48 x 106 x 40,0/fci per megapascal, where fci is the concrete
strength at transfer.
5.8.2.5.3 For posttensioning at between 7 d and 14 d after concreting and for humid or dry conditions
of exposure where the required cube strength at transfer exceeds 40,0 MPa, take the creep of the
concrete per unit length as 36 x 106 per megapascal. For lower values of cube strength at transfer,
take the creep per unit length as 36 x 106 x 40,0/fci per megapascal.
5.8.2.5.4 The values as in 5.8.2.5.2 and 5.8.2.5.3 are applicable when the maximum stress anywhere
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Ed. 2.2
in the section at transfer is less than onethird of the cube strength of concrete. Where the maximum
stress anywhere in the section at transfer exceeds onethird of the cube strength of the concrete, the
value for the creep per unit length should be increased up to the maximum value equal to 1,25 times
the values given in 5.8.2.5.2 and 5.8.2.5.3, as relevant. This maximum value is applicable when the
maximum stress at transfer is half the cube strength. For intermediate stresses, the values for the
creep per unit length should be interpolated linearly.
5.8.2.5.5 The values in the preceding subclauses relate to the ultimate creep after a period of years.
When it is necessary to determine the deformation of the concrete due to creep at some earlier stage,
it may be assumed that half the total creep takes place in the first month after transfer and that three
quarters of the total creep takes place in the first 6 months after transfer.
5.8.2.5.6 When applying the provisions given above, which are necessarily general, consult specialist
literature for more detailed information on the factors affecting creep, particularly those such as
aggregates used, original water content, effective age at transfer, effective section thickness, ambient
relative humidity and ambient temperature. Care should be taken when using Reef quartzite,
aggregates of the Beaufort group of the Karoo sequence and the Lesotho basalts, since the values
may be three times bigger. (See also figure C.1.)
In posttensioning systems, make allowance for any movement of the tendon at the anchorage when
the prestressing force is transferred from the tensioning equipment to the anchorage. The loss due to
this movement is particularly important in short elements and for such elements check, on site, the
allowance made by the designer.
Where steam curing is used in the manufacture of prestressed concrete elements, consider changes
in the behaviour of the material at temperatures higher than normal.
5.8.3.1 General
5.8.3.1.1 In posttensioning systems, there will be movement of the greater part of the tendon relative
to the surrounding duct during the tensioning operation and, if the tendon is in contact with either the
duct or any spacers provided, friction will cause a reduction in the prestressing force as the distance
from the jack increases. In addition, a certain amount of friction will be developed in the jack itself and
in the anchorage through which the tendon passes.
5.8.3.1.2 In the absence of evidence established to the satisfaction of the engineer, assess, in
accordance with 5.8.3.2 to 5.8.3.4, the stress variation likely to be expected along the design profile
in order to obtain the prestressing force at the critical sections considered in design. Calculate the
extension of the tendon, allowing for the variation in tension along its length.
This will vary considerably between systems and should be ascertained for the type of jack and the
anchorage system to be used.
5.8.3.3 Friction in the duct due to unintentional variation from the specified profile
Whether the desired duct profile is straight or curved or a combination of both, there will be slight
variations in the actual line of the duct, which may cause additional points of contact between the
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Ed. 2.2
tendon and the sides of the duct, and so produce friction. Calculate the prestressing force Px at any
distance x from the jack, from the following equation:
Px = PoeKx
where
K is the constant depending on the type of duct or sheath employed, the nature of its inside
surface, the method of forming it, and the degree of vibration employed in placing the
concrete.
Take the value of K per metre of length in the above formula as at least 33 x 104 but
a) K = 17 x 104 where strong rigid sheaths or duct formers are used so closely supported that they are
not displaced during the concreting operation; and
Other values may be used, provided they have been established by tests to the satisfaction of the
engineer.
5.8.3.4.1 When a tendon is curved, the loss of tension due to friction is dependent on the angle the
tendon is turned through and on the coefficient of friction between the tendon and its supports.
5.8.3.4.2 Calculate the prestressing force Px at any distance x along the curve from the tangent point
from the following equation:
x/rps
Px = Poe
where
Po is the prestressing force in the tendons at tangent point near jacking end;
e is as defined in 5.8.3.3.
b) 0,30 for lightly rusted strand or wire running in a lightly rusted steel duct;
d) 0,17 for pulledthrough oversized duct oiled with watersoluble oil; and
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5.8.4.1 The transmission length is defined as the length of the element required to transmit the initial
prestressing force in a tendon to the concrete.
5.8.4.2 The transmission length depends on a number of variables, the most important being
d) the deformation, e.g. crimp of the tendon and surface condition of the tendon.
5.8.4.3 The transmission length can vary a great deal for different factory or site conditions, for
example it has been shown that the transmission length for wire can vary between 50 and 160 wire
diameters. As far as possible, therefore, the engineer should base the transmission length on
experimental evidence for known site or factory conditions.
5.8.4.4 Consider the following general provisions, based on research, in relation to the known site or
factory conditions:
a) for factoryproduced units where plain or indented wire with a small offset crimp (e.g. 0,3 mm offset,
40 mm pitch) is used, a transmission length of 100 wire diameters may be assumed when the ends
of the units are fully compacted and the cube strength of the concrete at transfer is at least 35 MPa;
b) for units where wire of a considerable crimp (e.g. 1,0 mm offset, 40 mm pitch) is used, a
transmission length of 65 wire diameters may be assumed when the ends of the units are fully
compacted and the cube strength of the concrete at transfer is at least 35 MPa;
c) the development of stress from the end of the unit to the point of maximum stress is such that it
may be assumed that 80 % of the maximum stress is developed in a length of 70 wire diameters
for the conditions described in (a) above, and in a length of 54 wire diameters for the conditions
described in (b) above;
d) when the cube strength of the concrete at transfer is less than 35 MPa, the transmission lengths
may be greater;
e) the transmission length for tendons near the top of a beam may exceed that for identical tendons
placed lower in the beam, since the concrete near the top is less likely to be as well compacted;
f) since the sudden release of tendons leads to a great increase in the transmission lengths in the
units near the releasing end of the bed, tendons shall be so cut as not to cause a sudden shock to
the concrete;
g) from the available experimental data, the transmission length for small diameter strand is not
proportional to the diameter of the tendon, nor is the scatter of results as great as it is for wire;
table 36 gives values for the transmission lengths for small diameter strand; in the absence of more
exact data, these values may be used in design.
h) if the tendons are prevented from bonding to the concrete near the ends of the elements by the use
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Ed. 2.2
of sleeves or tape, the values given in table 36 for the transmission length may be used, the
assumption being that the transmission zone starts at the point where the debonding process has been
stopped.
1 2
9,3 465
12,5 625
15,0 750
5.8.4.5 Alternatively, for calculating the transmission length lt, in the absence of experimental
evidence, the following equation may be used for initial prestressing forces of up to 75 % of the
characteristic strength of the tendon, when the ends of the elements are fully compacted:
lt =
Kt
f ci
where
a) plain or indented wire (including crimped wire with a small wave height): Kt = 600;
5.8.5.1 General
a) reinforcement shall be provided where required in tendon anchorage zones to resist bursting,
splitting, and spalling forces induced by tendon anchorages. Regions of abrupt change in section
shall be adequately reinforced;
b) end blocks shall be provided where required for support bearing or for distribution of concentrated
prestressing forces;
c) posttensioning anchorages and supporting concrete shall be designed to resist the maximum
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Ed. 2.2
jacking force for the strength of concrete at the time of prestressing; and
d) posttensioning anchorage zones shall be designed to develop the guaranteed ultimate strength of
the lesser of prestressing anchorages or prestressing tendons.
5.8.5.2.1 The bursting forces round individual anchorages should be assessed in the end blocks on
the basis of the tendon jacking load (for serviceability limit state) or the nominal tendon force (for
ultimate limit state). The latter is necessary only in the case of elements with unbonded tendons. For
elements with rectangular anchorages and for rectangular end blocks, the bursting tensile force Fbst
may be calculated from table 37 in relation to the value of Ypo/Yo for each direction,
where
1 2
Ypo/Yo Fbst/Pk
0,2 0,23
0,3 0,23
0,4 0,20
0,5 0,17
0,6 0,14
0,7 0,11
5.8.5.2.2 This force, Fbst, will be distributed in a region extending from 0,2 Yo to 2,0 Yo from the loaded
face and should be resisted by reinforcement in the form of spirals or closed links, uniformly distributed
thoughout this region. The reinforcement should act at a stress of 200 MPa (in the case of
serviceability limit state) or at its design strength, i.e. 0,87fy (in the case of ultimate limit state). When
the concrete cover to the reinforcement is less than 50 mm, the stress shall be limited to a value
corresponding to a strain of 0,001.
5.8.5.2.3 Where groups of anchorages or bearing plates are used, the end block should be divided
into a series of symmetrically loaded prisms, and each prism should be treated in the above manner.
However, additional reinforcement will be required round the groups of anchorages to ensure overall
equilibrium of the end block.
5.8.5.2.4 Special attention should also be paid to end blocks having a crosssection different in shape
from that of the general crosssection of the beam. Specialist literature should be consulted.
5.8.5.2.5 Compliance with the above requirements will generallly ensure that bursting tensile forces
along the load axis are provided for. Alternative methods of design that make allowance for the tensile
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strength of the concrete may be used, in which case specialist literature should be consulted.
5.9.1 General
The following subclauses supplement the considerations for design details for reinforced concrete as
given in 4.11.
5.9.2.1 Ensure that the size and number of prestressing tendons are such that cracking of the concrete
would precede failure of the beam.
5.9.2.2 This requirement will be satisfied for underreinforced beams, where failure would be due to
fracture of the tendons, if the percentage of reinforcement, calculated on an area equal to the width
of the beam soffit multiplied by its overall depth, is at least 0,15. For overreinforced beams, where
failure would be due to crushing of the concrete, the maximum number and size of tendons will be
governed by considerations of strain compatibility (see 5.3.3.1).
5.9.3.1 General
The recommendations of 4.11.2 concerning cover to reinforcement may also be applicable to tendons.
The required nominal cover against corrosion and the associated mix limitations are given in
SABS 01002.
The values of cover as fire protection for various structural elements may be taken from table 38. The
ends of individual pretensioned tendons do not normally require concrete cover and should preferably
be cut off flush with the end of the concrete element.
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Nominal cover
Fire mm
resistance
Beams Floors Ribs
h
Simply Contin Simply Contin Simply Contin
supported uous supported uous supported uous
0,5 20 20 20 20 20 20
1 20 20 25 20 35 20
1,5 35 20 30 25 45 35
2 60 35 40 35 55 45
3 70 60 55 45 65 55
4 80 70 65 55 75 65
NOTES
1 For the purposes of assessing a nominal cover for beams, the cover to main bars, which
would have been obtained from table 43, has been reduced by a notional allowance for stirrups
of 10 mm to cover the range 8 mm to 12 mm.
2 The nominal covers given relate specifically to the minimum element dimensions (see clause
7). Increased covers are necessary if smaller elements are used. (Specialist literature should
be consulted.)
3 Cases that lie below the line require attention to the additional measures necessary
to reduce the risks of spalling (see clause 7).
The cover to any duct should be at least the greater of 50 mm or the diameter of the duct. Precautions
should be taken to ensure a dense concrete cover, particularly with large or wide ducts.
Where the tendons are located outside the structural concrete (as defined in the relevant clause of
SABS 01002) and are to be protected by dense concrete added subsequently, the thickness of this
cover shall be at least equal to that required for tendons inside the structural concrete under similar
conditions. The concrete cover should be anchored by reinforcement to the prestressed element, and
should be checked for crack control in accordance with clause 4.
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5.9.4.1 General
In all prestressed elements, there should be sufficient gaps between the tendons or groups of tendons
to allow the largest size of aggregate used to move, under vibration, to all parts of the mould.
The provisions of 4.11.8 concerning spacing of reinforcement apply. In pretensioned elements, where
anchorage is achieved by bond, the spacing of the wires or strands in the ends of the elements should
be such as to allow the transmission length given in 5.8.4 to develop. In addition, if the tendons are
positioned in two or more widely spaced groups, the possibility of longitudinal splitting of the element
should be considered.
The clear distance between ducts or between ducts and other tendons should be not less than the
greatest of the following:
a) hagg + 5 mm, where hagg is the nominal maximum size of the coarse aggregate;
Where internal vibrators are used, sufficient space should be provided between ducts to enable the
vibrator to be inserted.
Where two or more rows of ducts are used, the horizontal gaps between the ducts should be vertically
in line wherever possible, for ease of construction.
5.9.5.1 General
Where curved tendons are used in posttensioning, the positioning of the tendon ducts and the
sequence of tensioning should be such as to prevent
b) bursting of the cover where the tendons run close to and approximately parallel with the soffit of the
element, and
c) crushing of the concrete that separates tendons in the same vertical plane. (If necessary, provide
reinforcement between ducts.)
In order to prevent bursting of the cover perpendicular to the plane of curvature, and in the plane of
curvature, the cover should be in accordance with the values given in table 39.
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Where the curved tendons run close to, and approximately parallel with, the surface of an element and
if the tendons develop radial forces perpendicular to the exposed surface of the concrete, the duct, if
necessary, should be restrained by stirrup reinforcement anchored into the element.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Minimum cover
mm
kN
14 70 85 100 115
16 80 95 110
18 90 105
20 100
40 50 50 50 50 60 70 80 90 100
NOTES
1 The tendon force shown is the maximum normally available for the given size of duct (taken
as 80 % of the characteristic strength of the tendon).
2 Where tendon profilers or spacers are provided in the ducts, and these are of a type that will
concentrate the radial force, the values given in the table will need to be increased.
3 The cover for a given combination of duct internal diameter and radius of curvature shown
in the table may be reduced in proportion to the square root of the tendon force when this is less
than the value tabulated, subject to the provisions of 5.9.3.3 and 5.9.3.4.
In order to prevent crushing of the concrete that separates the ducts, the minimum spacing between
ducts should be as follows:
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Ed. 2.2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
mm
kN
20
NOTES
1 The tendon force shown is the maximum normally available for the given size of duct (taken
as 80 % of the characteristic strength of the tendon).
2 Values less than 2 x the internal diameter of the duct are not included.
3 Where tendon profilers or spacers are provided in the ducts, and these are of a type that will
concentrate the radial force, the values given in the table will need to be
increased. If necessary, reinforcement should be provided between ducts.
4 The distance for a given combination of duct internal diameter and radius of curvature shown
in the table may be reduced in proportion to the tendon force when this is less than
the value tabulated, subject to the provisions of 5.9.4.3.
As an exception, it may be possible first to tension and grout the tendon that has the least radius of
curvature, and to allow an interval of 48 h to elapse before tensioning the next tendon. In this case,
the provisions for spacing given in 5.9.4.3 apply.
5.9.6.1 Reinforcement may be used in prestressed concrete elements either to increase the strength
of sections or to comply with 5.3.4.3.
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5.9.6.2 Ensure that any calculation that takes unstressed reinforcement into account will still be in
accordance with 5.3.2.1 and 5.3.3.1.
5.9.6.3 Reinforcement may be necessary, particularly where posttensioning systems are used, to
control any cracking resulting from the restraint to longitudinal shrinkage of beams that is provided by
the formwork during the time before the prestress is applied.
5.9.7.1 The number and disposition of links in rectangular beams and in the webs of flanged beams
will normally be governed by considerations of shear (see 5.3.4).
5.9.7.2 Provide links to resist the bursting tensile forces in the end blocks of prestressed beams in
accordance with 5.8.5.
5.9.7.3 Provide links in the transmission length of pretensioned beams in accordance with the
requirements of 5.3.4 and using the information given in 5.8.4.
When a prestressed concrete beam may be required to resist shock loading, reinforce it with closed
links and longitudinal reinforcement, preferably of mild steel. Other methods of design and detailing
may be used, provided it can be shown that the beam can develop the required ductility.
6.1 General
This subclause is concerned with the additional considerations that arise in design and detailing when
precast units, including large panels, are incorporated into a structure, or when a structure in its entirety
is of precast concrete construction. It also covers the use of plain concrete for walls.
The limit states philosophy set out in clause 3 also applies to precast insitu construction and therefore,
in general, the recommended methods of design and detailing for reinforced concrete given in clause 4
and those for prestressed concrete given in clause 5 also apply to precast and composite construction.
Subsections in clauses 4 and 5 that do not apply are either specifically worded for insitu construction
or are modified by this clause. Provisions for the design and detailing of plain concrete walls are given
in 6.5.
Precast units should be designed to resist, without permanent damage, all stresses induced by
handling, storage, transport and erection. (See also 5.3.1.2 and SABS 01002.)
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When necessary, specify the positions of lifting and supporting points. Consultation at the design stage
with those responsible for handling is an advantage. Ensure that the design takes into account the
effects of both snatch lifting from and placing onto supports.
6.1.2.3.1 The design of connections is of fundamental importance in precast construction and should
be carefully considered. The engineer responsible for the overall stability of the structure should ensure
the compatibility of the design and details of components. The responsibility for overall stability shall
be clearly assigned when some or all of the design and details are not worked out by the engineer.
6.1.2.3.2 Joints to allow for movement due to shrinkage, thermal effects and possible differential
settlement of foundations are of as great importance in precast as in insitu construction. Determine
the number and spacing of such joints (see annex B) at an early stage in the design. In the design of
beam and slab ends on corbels and nibs, take particular care to provide overlap and anchorage (in
accordance with 4.11.6 and 4.11.7) of all reinforcement adjacent to the contact faces, taking
constructional tolerances into consideration.
6.1.2.4 Stability
6.1.2.4.1 The provisions regarding stability given in 4.1.2 apply also to precast, composite and plain
concrete construction except that, in structures of five storeys or more, supported by plain concrete
walls, it will be necessary to ensure that the area of effective vertical ties from foundation to roof level
is at least 0,2 % of the crosssectional area of the walls.
6.1.2.4.2 The tie forces referred to in 4.1.2 should be resisted by reinforcement or prestressing
tendons embedded in precast units or in insitu structural elements or in both, but they should be
effectively continuous.
6.1.2.4.3 Ties should be joined, generally using one of the methods described in 6.3.2, 6.3.3 or 6.3.4.
6.1.2.4.4 Ties connecting precast units should be so arranged as to minimize outofbalance effects.
6.1.2.4.5 The minimum dimension of any insitu concrete section in which tie bars are provided should
be not less than the sum of the bar size (or twice the bar size at laps) plus twice the maximum
aggregate size plus 10 mm.
6.1.2.4.6 The tie should be able to transmit the forces from the reinforcement in the precast units and
to develop the required strength at all lapped joints. If enclosing links are used, the ultimate tensile
resistance of the links should be not less than the ultimate tension in the tie.
6.1.2.4.7 Ensure that column and wall ties do not, for their anchorage at either end, rely solely on the
bond of a straight plain bar. So bend or so hook plain bars as to provide the required anchorage in
bearing on sound concrete unless they are welded or mechanically anchored to the main reinforcement
in a precast unit.
6.1.2.4.8 As an alternative to providing the vertical ties recommended above for structures of five
storeys or more, such structures may be designed in accordance with the provisions given below.
6.1.2.4.8.1 So design the structure that, at each storey in turn, if any single vertical loadbearing
element (other than one complying with 6.1.2.4.8.2 becomes incapable of carrying its load, it does not
cause the collapse of the structure or of any significant part thereof. In designing the structure for this
condition, take into account any building components that are otherwise nonloadbearing. When
reliance is placed on catenary action, make allowance for the horizontal reactions necessary for
equilibrium. In the case of a wall, take the length under consideration to be a single loadbearing
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element such as the length between adjacent lateral supports or between a lateral support and a free
edge. For the purposes of this definition of wall length only, a lateral support may be considered to
occur at
a) a stiffened section of the wall (not exceeding 1 m in length) capable of resisting a horizontal force
of 1,5Ft kN per metre height of wall, or
b) a substantial partition at right angles to the wall, provided that it is tied to the wall with a tie force
equal to 0,5Ft kN per metre height of wall (a substantial partition may be taken as one having an
average mass per unit area of at least 150 kg/m2),
To comply with 6.1.2.4.8.2, ground floor columns that are exposed to the risk of impact by vehicles
and that cannot be allowed to become ineffective, should be so designed as to withstand an
appropriate impact.
6.1.2.4.8.2 Any vertical loadbearing element that cannot be allowed to become ineffective, together
with its connections, shall be so designed as to withstand a load of 34 kN/m2 applied to it from any
direction. Any horizontal element (or any part thereof) that provides lateral support vital to the stability
of that vertical loadbearing element shall be so designed, together with its connections, as to
withstand a load of 34 kN/m2 applied to it from any direction. Any element or lateral support so
designed should also be capable of supporting the reaction from any attached building components
also subject to a loading of 34 kN/m2 or such reaction as might reasonably be transmitted, having
regard to the strength of the attached component and the strength of its connection.
6.1.2.4.9 In order to comply with 3.3.3.2, when a structure is designed in accordance with 6.1.2.2.8.1,
or a vertical loadbearing element is designed in accordance with 6.1.2.2.8.2, take the partial safety
factor for strength m as 1,3 for concrete and 1,0 for steel. The partial safety factor for loads f is 1,05.
When the continuity of reinforcement or tendons through the connections or the interaction between
units (or both) is such that the structure will behave as a frame or as a continuous beam, the analysis,
redistribution of moments, and the design and detailing of individual units may all be in accordance
with clause 4 or clause 5, as appropriate.
6.2.2 Slabs
6.2.2.1 Slabs consisting of wide precast units or of a series of narrow precast units with effective
jointing between them capable of shear transfer, may be designed in accordance with 4.4 or 4.5 or
5.4, as appropriate.
6.2.2.2 When assessing the effect of concentrated loads (including partitions in the direction of span),
ensure that the width of slab assumed to contribute to the support of the load does not exceed the
width of the loaded area together with the width of three precast units and joints (when there is no
topping) or the width of four precast units and joints (where the topping is at least 30 mm thick), unless
test results substantiate the use of a wider area. In no case take the width as extending more than
0,25l on either side of the loaded area, where l is the span.
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Ed. 2.2
Design and detail other precast concrete units, including large panels, in accordance with the
appropriate provisions of clause 4, clause 5 or subclause 6.5, and make provision for the appropriate
connections as recommended in 6.3.
Design precast units intended for use in composite constructions (see 6.4) as such, but also check or
design for the conditions arising during handling, transportation and erection. In a floor or roof
construction of hollow blocks supported by precast concrete ribs, pay particular attention to the bearing
of blocks on the ribs when no topping is provided.
a) simple bearing: a supported unit bears directly on a support, the effect of projecting steel or added
concrete being discounted;
c) bedded bearing: a bearing with contact surfaces that have an intermediate padding of
cementitious material;
d) nonisolated unit: a supported unit that, in the event of loss of an assumed support, would be
capable of carrying its load by transverse distribution to adjacent units;
e) bearing length: the length of support, supported unit or intermediate padding material (whichever
is the least) measured along the line of support (see figure 27); and
f) bearing width: the overlap of support and supported unit, measured at right angles to the line of
support (see figure 27).
6.2.4.2.1 A corbel is a short cantilever beam in which the principal load is so applied that the distance
av between the line of action of the load and the face of the supporting element is less than d (where
d is the effective depth of the corbel at the face of the supporting element), and the depth at the outer
end of the beam is at least onehalf of the depth at the face of the supporting element.
6.2.4.2.2 Determine the depth at the face of the supporting element from shear conditions in
accordance with 4.3.4.2 but limit av as specified above.
6.2.4.2.3 Design the main tension reinforcement in a corbel and check the strength of the corbel on
the assumption that it behaves as a simple strutandtie system. Ensure that the reinforcement so
obtained is at least 0,4 % of the section at the face of the supporting element and is adequately
anchored. At the front face of the corbel, anchor the reinforcement either by welding to a transverse
bar of equal strength or by bending the bars backwards to form a loop; in the latter case, ensure that
the bearing area of the load does not project beyond the straight portion of the bars forming the main
tension reinforcement.
6.2.4.2.4 When the corbel is designed to resist a stated horizontal force, provide additional
reinforcement to transmit this force in its entirety; weld the reinforcement to the bearing plate and
anchor it adequately within the supporting element.
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6.2.4.2.5 Provide shear reinforcement in the form of horizontal links distributed in the upper twothirds
of the effective depth of the corbel at the column face; ensure that this reinforcement is at least
onehalf of the area of the main tension reinforcement, and anchor it adequately.
Where a continuous nib less than 300 mm deep provides a bearing, as on a boot lintel, design the
nib as a short cantilever slab in accordance with the provisions given below:
6.2.4.3.1 Ensure that the projection of the nib is sufficient to provide an adequate bearing width for
the type of unit to be supported (see 6.2.4.4). Give the reinforcement in the nib and any reinforcement
in the supported unit a minimum nominal overlap in plan of 60 mm.
6.2.4.3.2 Assume the line of action of the design load to occur at the outer edge of the loaded area,
i.e. at the front edge of the nib, or at the beginning of the chamfered edge, or at the outer edge of the
bearing pad, as appropriate.
6.2.4.3.3 Take the maximum design bending moment as the distance from the line of action of the
load to the nearest vertical leg of the links in the beam element from which the nib projects, times the
load. (Ensure that the tension reinforcement in the nib is at least that required by 4.11.4, and anchor
the reinforcement adequately.)
6.2.4.3.4 Extend the tension reinforcement (the area of the reinforcement being not more than that
given in 4.11.5) as near to the front face of the nib as considerations of adequate cover will allow, and
anchor it there, either by welding to a transverse bar of equal strength or by bending the bars through
180 to form loops in the horizontal or vertical plane (ensure that vertical loops are of a bar diameter
not exceeding 12 mm).
6.2.4.3.5 Provide links in the element from which the nib projects. The links should be capable of
transmitting (in addition to any other forces they resist) the load from the nib to the compression zone
of the element.
6.2.4.4.1 General
Ensure that the bearing width (see 6.2.4.1(f)) of precast units is sufficient to provide
b) a proper restraint against loss of bearing through movement. Do not use direct bearing connections
as column/column or wall/wall connections, either with or without flexible padding.
For nonisolated units (see 6.2.4.1(d)), the net bearing width should be the greater of 40 mm and the
value calculated from the equation:
where the design effective bearing length is as in 6.2.4.4.3 and the design ultimate bearing stress is
as in 6.2.4.4.4. For isolated units, the net bearing width should exceed that of nonisolated units
(see 6.2.4.1(d)) by 20 mm.
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Ed. 2.2
In the equation given in 6.2.4.4.2, the effective bearing length is the least of
c) 600 mm.
The design ultimate bearing stress is based on the weaker of the bearing surfaces and has the
following value:
a) for dry bearing on concrete: 0,4 fcu (an allowance for m included);
b) for bedded bearing on concrete: 0,6 fcu (an allowance for m included);
c) for the concrete face of a steel bearing plate cast into a unit or support and not exceeding
40 % of the bearing length: 0,8 fcu (an allowance for m included).
Bearings using flexible padding may be designed using stresses intermediate between those for dry
and for bedded bearings.
The outer edges of the concrete interface of precast units and the bearings are subject to spalling.
Chamfers occurring within areas subject to spalling may be ignored when the outer edge of a
supporting unit or the end of a supported unit is being determined (see figure 27). The
recommendations for allowances for effects of spalling at supports and at the end edges of supported
units are given below.
6.2.4.5.1 The distances to be assumed ineffective as bearing surfaces for the outer edges of supports
in relation to the material of the support:
a) steel: nil;
e) reinforced concrete less than 300 mm deep at the outer edge: not less than the nominal cover to
reinforcement on the outer face of the support; and
f) reinforced concrete where verticalloop reinforcement exceeds 12 mm diameter: nominal end cover
plus inner radius of bend. Where unusual spalling characteristics are known to apply when
particular constituent materials are being used, adjustment should be made to the distances
recommended.
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6.2.4.5.2 The distances to be assumed ineffective as bearing surfaces for the end edges of supported
units in relation to the reinforcement at bearing of the supported unit:
a) straight bars, horizontal loops or vertical loops not exceeding 12 mm in diameter, close to end of
element: the greater of 10 mm or cover;
c) verticalloop reinforcement of bar size exceeding 12 mm: nominal end cover plus inner radius of
bend.
The allowance for construction inaccuracies should cover deviations that can occur during the
assembling of components, site construction, manufacture and erection, and may be assessed from
a statistical analysis of measured or predicted deviation. Alternatively, for supported members of span
up to 15 m and with average standards of accuracy, the allowance may be taken as the greatest of:
a) 15 mm, or 3 mm per metre of distance between the faces of steel or precast concrete supports;
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SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
b) 20 mm, or 4 mm per metre of distance between the faces of masonry supports; and
c) 25 mm, or 5 mm per metre of distance between the faces of insitu concrete supports.
The presence of horizontal forces at a bearing can reduce the loadcarrying capacity of the supporting
unit considerably by causing premature splitting or shearing. These forces may be due to creep,
shrinkage, and temperature effects, or may result from misalignment, lack of plumb or other causes.
When they are likely to be significant, consider these forces in designing and detailing the joints by
providing
a) either sliding bearings or suitable lateral reinforcement in the top of the supporting unit, and
Where, owing to large spans or other reasons, large rotations are likely to occur at the end supports
of flexural units, use bearings that are capable of accommodating these rotations.
6.2.5.1 General
6.2.5.1.1 Design the critical sections of precast units close to joints to resist the worst combinations
of shear, axial force and bending caused by the ultimate vertical and horizontal forces. When the
design of the units is based on the assumption that the joint between them is not capable of
transmitting moment, either design the joint to ensure that this is so (see 6.2.4.7) or take suitable
precautions to ensure that if any cracking develops, it will not be unsightly and will not excessively
reduce the unit's resistance to shear or axial force.
6.2.5.1.2 Where a space is left between two or more precast units, which is to be filled later with insitu
concrete or mortar, make the space large enough for the filling material to be placed easily and
compacted sufficiently to fill the gap without abnormally high standards of workmanship or
supervision. The assembly instructions shall specify clearly at what stage during construction the gap
should be filled.
As the majority of joints will incorporate a structural connection (see 6.3), give consideration to this
aspect in the design of the joint.
6.2.5.2.1 A joint that transmits mainly compression is most commonly used for horizontal joints
between loadbearing walls or columns. Design the joint to resist all the forces and moments implicit
in the assumptions made in analysing the structure as a whole and in designing the individual units to
be joined. In the absence of more accurate information derived from a comprehensive programme of
suitable tests, the area of concrete to be considered when the strength of the joint in a wall or column
is being calculated, should be the greater of
a) the area of the insitu concrete, ignoring the area of any intruding floor or beam units (but not more
than 90 % of the wall or column area), and
Consider only those parts of the floor units that are solid over the bearing, and bed the units properly
on concrete or mortar of adequate quality.
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6.2.5.2.2 Pay particular attention to detailing the joint and joint reinforcement to prevent premature
splitting or spalling of the concrete in the ends of the precast units.
6.2.5.2.3 Where a wall or a column is subjected to lateral loads, design the horizontal joints for shear
in accordance with 6.5.3.14.
A joint may be assumed to transmit a shear force between panels when, for example, a wall acts as
a windbracing wall or a floor acts as a wind girder, provided that one of the provisions given below
is complied with.
6.2.5.3.1 Floor units transmitting shear in a horizontal plane should be restrained to prevent their
moving apart horizontally, and the joints between them should be formed by grouting with a suitable
concrete or mortar mix. When the calculated shear stress in the joint under ultimate loads does not
exceed 0,23 MPa, no reinforcement need be provided in or across the joint, and the sides of the unit
forming the joint may have the normal finish.
6.2.5.3.2 When the sides or ends of the panels or units forming the joints have a finish "asextruded"
(see table 42), and when the shear stress due to ultimate loads does not exceed 0,45 MPa, no
reinforcement need be provided in joints that are under compression in all loading conditions.
6.2.5.3.3 The shear stress due to design ultimate loads, calculated on the minimum root area of a
castellated joint, should be less than 1,3 MPa. Separation of the units normal to the joint should be
prevented either by the provision of steel ties across the ends of the joint or by the provision of a
compressive force normal to the joint under all loading conditions. A taper should usually be provided
to the projecting keys of a castellated joint to ease the removal of formwork; to limit movements in the
joint, ensure that this taper is not excessive.
6.2.5.3.4 When reinforcement is provided to resist the entire shear force due to design ultimate loads,
the shear force V should comply with the following equation:
V = 0,6 Fb tan f
where
Tan f can vary between 0,7 and 1,7 and is best determined by tests. However, for
concretetoconcrete connections, the following values may be assumed:
b) tan f = 1,4 for a roughened or castellated joint without continuous insitu strips across the ends of
joints; and
c) tan f = 1,7 for a roughened or castellated joint with continuous insitu strips across the ends of
joints.
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Ed. 2.2
6.2.5.3.5 It should be able to be demonstrated that resistance to sliding of the joint is provided by
other means; this would normally mean testing in accordance with 3.4.5.
6.2.5.4.1 For a halving joint, ensure that the maximum vertical ultimate load Fv does not exceed
4vcbdo, where b is the width of the beam, do is the effective depth of the half section and vc is the shear
stress given in 4.3.4.1 for the full beam section. When determining the value of Fv, give consideration
to the method of erection and the forces involved.
6.2.5.4.2 Detail reinforcement of the halving joint to suit the overall size and geometrical proportions
of the joint. Several arrangements of reinforcement are possible and are covered in specialist
literature. Inclined links may be used as the diagonal tension reinforcement where the line of action
of Fv intersects the inclined link. If this is not the case, then use vertical and horizontal links.
6.2.5.4.3 The total force in the links may be determined by an appropriate truss analogy. The
crosssectional area of the links is then given by
Fv
Asv = for links at 45E to the horizontal, and
0,87f yv cos 45E
Fv
Asv = for vertical and horizontal links,
0,87f yv
where
fyv is the characteristic strength of links (but not more than 450 MPa).
6.2.5.4.4 Provide nominal vertical links in accordance with 4.11.4.5. So secure inclined links that they
cannot be displaced.
6.2.5.4.5 Check the anchorage of all main reinforcement. In the tension face of the beam, transfer the
horizontal component of force in inclined links Fh, which for 45E links is equal to Fv, to the main
reinforcement. If the main reinforcement is straight without hooks or bends, the links may be
considered anchored if
Fh
< the anchorage bond stress given in table 24
2us lsb
where
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Ed. 2.2
6.2.5.4.6 If the main reinforcement is hooked or bent vertically, anchor the inclined links by bending
them parallel to the main reinforcement; in this case, or if inclined links are replaced by bentup bars,
ensure that the bearing stress within the bends does not exceed the value given in 4.11.6.9. Bentup
bars may only be used to replace inclined links when effective end anchorage is possible (by means
of welded crossbars or other positive anchorage device).
6.2.5.4.7 Ensure that horizontal links are capable of carrying horizontal loads that may be applied to
the joint in addition to the forces arising from the vertical reaction.
6.2.5.4.8 Place vertical links at the end of the fulldepth section as near to the end face as possible.
6.3.1 General
When designing and detailing the connections across joints between precast units, consider the overall
stability of the structure, including its stability during construction or after accidental local damage.
Take the provisions given in 6.1.2.4 into account and, in addition, consider the severe forces and
stresses that may be applied to units during the various stages of handling, transportation and erection.
Tie all units together adequately as soon as they have been placed in their final positions. When
prestressed elements are built into supports, restrained creep effects should be considered.
Design connections in accordance with the generally accepted methods applicable to reinforced
concrete (see clause 4), prestressed concrete (see clause 5) or structural steel. Where, by the nature
of the construction or material used, such methods are not applicable, prove the efficiency of the
connection by appropriate tests in accordance with 3.4.5.
In addition to ultimate strength requirements and the provisions given in 6.1.2.4 regarding minimum
tying together of the structure, consider the provisions given below.
6.3.1.3.1 Protection
So design connections that the standard of protection against weather, fire and corrosion that is
required for the remainder of the structure is maintained.
6.3.1.3.2 Appearance
Where connections are to be exposed, so design them that the quality of appearance required for the
remainder of the structure can be readily achieved. This may often be better done by emphasizing the
connections rather than by attempting to conceal them.
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During design, consider methods of manufacture, assembly and erection, and give particular attention
to the following points:
a) where projecting bars or sections are required, keep them to a minimum and make them as simple
as possible; make such projections no longer than is necessary for security;
e) most connections require the introduction of suitable jointing material; in the design, allow sufficient
space for such material to ensure that the proper filling of the joint is practicable;
f) it may be desirable to slacken, release or remove levelling devices such as nuts, wedges, etc., that
have no loadbearing function in the completed structure; where this is necessary, ensure that the
details are such that inspection (to make certain that this has been done) can be carried out without
undue difficulty.
6.3.1.4.1 The strength and stiffness of any connection can be significantly affected by workmanship
on site. The diversity of types of joints and their critical role in the strength and stability of the structure
place a particular responsibility on the designer to make clear to those responsible for manufacture
and erection, those details that are essential to the correct operation of the joint.
6.3.1.4.2 Consider the following points and, where necessary, pass specific instructions to the site:
b) critical dimensions, allowing for permitted deviations, e.g. minimum permissible bearing;
e) details of temporary propping, and the stage at which it may be removed (see the relevant clause
of SABS 01002);
f) the description of the general stability of the structure, with details of any temporary bracing
necessary;
g) the extent to which the uncompleted structure may proceed above the completed and matured
section;
i) the weld sizes, fully specified (where weld symbols are used, ascertain that these are understood
on site).
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Where continuity of reinforcement is required through the connection, use a jointing method such that
the assumptions made in analysing the structure and critical sections are realized. The following
methods may be used to achieve continuity of reinforcement:
a) lapping of bars;
b) sleeving;
c) threading of bars;
d) welding; and
Where straight bars passing through the joint are lapped, the provisions given in 4.11.6.6 apply. When
reinforcement is grouted into a pocket or recess, provide an adequate shear key on the inside of the
pocket.
Where continuity over a support is achieved by having dowel bars pass through overlapping loops of
reinforcement (which project from each supported element), make the bearing stresses inside the
loops in accordance with 4.11.6.9.
6.3.2.3 Sleeving
6.3.2.3.1 Three principal types of sleeve jointing may be used, provided that the strength and
deformation characteristics have been determined by tests in accordance with 3.4.5. The three types
are
a) groutfilled or resinfilled sleeves capable of transmitting both tensile and compressive forces;
b) sleeves that mechanically align the squaresawn ends of two bars to allow the transmission of
compressive forces only; and
c) swaged connectors.
6.3.2.3.2 Ensure that the detailed design of the sleeve and the method of manufacture and assembly
are such that the ends of the two bars will be accurately aligned into the sleeve. Ensure that the
concrete cover provided for the sleeve is at least that specified for normal reinforcement.
6.3.2.4 Threading
6.3.2.4.1 The following methods may be used for jointing threaded bars:
a) the threaded ends of bars may be joined by a coupler having lefthand and righthand threads; this
type of threaded connection requires a high degree of accuracy in manufacture in view of the
difficulty of ensuring alignment;
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b) one set of bars may be welded to a steel plate, which is drilled to receive the threaded ends of the
second set of bars; the second set of bars is fixed to the plate by means of nuts; and
c) threaded anchors may be cast into a precast unit to receive the threaded ends of reinforcement.
6.3.2.4.2 When there is a risk of the threaded connection working loose, e.g. during vibration while
insitu concrete is being cast, use a locking device.
6.3.2.4.3 Restrict the threading of reinforcement to plain round mild steel bars. Where there is
difficulty in producing a clean thread at the end of a bar, use steel that is normally specified for black
bolts and that has a characteristic strength of 430 MPa.
6.3.2.4.4 Base the structural design of special threaded connections on tests in accordance with 3.4.5.
Where tests have shown the threaded connection to be at least as strong as the parent bar, the
strength of the joint may be based on 80 % of the specified characteristic strength of the joined bars
in tension and on 100 % of that of bars in compression, divided in each case by the appropriate m
factor.
The design of welded connections may be in accordance with 4.11.6.7, provided that the welding is
carried out as recommended in the relevant clause of SABS 01002.
6.3.3.1 Joints with structural steel inserts generally consist of a steel plate or rolled steel section
projecting from the face of a column to support the end of a beam. Design the reinforcement in the
ends of the supported beam in accordance with clause 4.
6.3.3.2 Design the steel sections and any bolted or welded connections in accordance with
SABS 0162. Bearing stresses of up to 0,8fcu may be used, unless higher values can be justified by
means of tests.
6.3.3.3 Except where the design ensures that the reaction does not act at the end of the steel section,
base the design of the supported unit on a span equal to its overall length, including any projecting
steel sections. For the design of the supporting unit and its projecting steel section, assume that the
reaction is applied at the end of the projecting steel section.
6.3.3.4 In the design, consider the possibility of vertical splitting under the steel section due to
shrinkage effects and localized bearing stresses, e.g. under a narrow steel plate.
Any other type of connection that can be shown to be capable of carrying the ultimate loads acting on
it may be used. Amongst those suitable for resisting shear and flexure are those made by prestressing
across the joint.
Resin adhesives may be used to form joints subjected to compression but may not be used to resist
tension or shear. Use them only where they are adequately protected from the effects of fire.
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6.4.1 General
6.4.1.1 The provisions of this subclause apply to flexural composite elements consisting of precast
concrete units acting in conjunction with added concrete where provision has been made for the
transfer of horizontal shear at the contact surface. The precast units may be of either reinforced or
prestressed concrete. Analyse and design composite concrete structures and elements in accordance
with clause 4 or clause 5, modified, where appropriate, in accordance with 6.4.3 and 6.4.4. Pay
particular attention, in the design of both the components and the composite section, to the effect of
the method of construction, on stresses and deflections, and to whether or not propping is to be used.
6.4.1.2 Base the relative stiffnesses of elements on the properties of the concrete, gross or
transformed sections, as described in 3.4.3.1. If the concrete strength in the two components of a
composite element differs by more than 10 MPa, make allowance for this when stiffness is being
assessed.
6.4.1.3 Differential shrinkage of the added concrete and precast concrete units may require
consideration in analysing composite elements for the serviceability limit states (see 6.4.3.4);
differential shrinkage need not be considered for the ultimate limit state.
6.4.1.4 When precast prestressed units, having pretensioned tendons, are designed as continuous
elements and continuity is obtained with reinforced concrete cast insitu over the supports, the
compressive stresses due to prestress in the ends of the units may be ignored over the transmission
length of the tendons when the strength of sections is being assessed.
6.4.2 Shear
6.4.2.1 Carry out the analysis of the resistance of composite sections to vertical shear due to design
ultimate loads in accordance with 4.3.4 for reinforced concrete and 5.3.4 for prestressed concrete.
However, when insitu concrete is placed between precast prestressed units and the composite
concrete section is used in design, ensure that the principal tensile stress does not exceed 0,24 f cu
anywhere in the prestressed units; calculate this stress by making due allowance for the construction
sequence and by taking into account only 0,8 of the compressive stress due to prestress at the section
under consideration.
6.4.2.2 Calculations for horizontal shear between the two components of a composite section are
governed by the ultimate limit state. The methods given in 6.4.4.1 to 6.4.4.4 ensure that composite
action does not break down for the serviceability limit states and that the design shear strength is
adequate for the ultimate limit state.
6.4.3.1 General
In addition to the provisions given in clause 4 and clause 5 concerning deflection and control of
cracking, the design of composite construction will be affected by the provisions of the following
subclauses.
For composite elements comprising prestressed precast units and insitu concrete, the methods of
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analysis may be as given in 5.3.3. However, the compressive stresses in the precast unit at the
interface may be increased by not more than 50 % above the value given in table 29, provided that
the ultimate failure of the composite element is due to excessive elongation of the steel.
When there is a danger of corrosion (e.g. if there is nonprestressed reinforcement in the insitu 
concrete), the flexural tensile stress in the insitu concrete should be limited by crack control 
measures, in accordance with 4.3.7. Amdt 1, Apr. 1994 
Table 41  Deleted by amendment No. 1. 
Where continuity is obtained with reinforced concrete cast insitu over the supports, the flexural tensile
stresses and the hypothetical tensile stresses in the precast prestressed units at the supports should
be limited in accordance with 5.3.2.3. Amdt 1, Apr. 1994 
6.4.3.4 Differential shrinkage
6.4.3.4.1 The effects of differential shrinkage are not generally of great importance in simply
supported elements. However, where there is an appreciable difference between the age and quality
of the concrete in the components, differential shrinkage may lead to increased stresses in the
composite section and these must be investigated. The effects of differential shrinkage are likely to
be more severe when the precast component is of reinforced concrete or of prestressed concrete with
an approximately triangular distribution of stress due to prestress. In particular, the tensile stresses
due to differential shrinkage may require consideration in design, and the engineer should refer to
specialist literature in deciding when these stresses may be significant.
6.4.3.4.2 In the calculation of the tensile stresses, a value will be required for the differential shrinkage
coefficient (the difference in total free strain between the two components of the composite element),
the magnitude of which will depend on many variables. For a structure in a normal environment, and
in the absence of more exact data, assume a value of 100 x 106 for the differential shrinkage when
calculating stresses in composite Tbeams with an insitu concrete flange.
6.4.3.5.1 When continuity is obtained in composite construction by providing reinforcement over the
supports, give consideration to the secondary effects of differential shrinkage and creep on the
moments in continuous beams and on the reactions at the supports. Take the hogging restraint
moment Mcs at an internal support of a continuous composite beam and slab section due to differential
shrinkage as
where
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acent is the distance from the centroid of the concrete flange to the centroid of the composite
section;
6.4.3.5.2 The hogging restraint moment Mcs will be modified with time by creep due to selfweight load
and creep due to any prestress in the precast units. The restraint moment due to prestress may be
taken as the restraint moment that would have been set up if the composite section as a whole had
been prestressed, multiplied by a reduction factor 1 taken as 0,92 (see also 6.4.3.5.4).
6.4.3.5.3 Use the information given in 6.4.3.4 for assessing a value for the differential shrinkage
strain.
6.4.3.5.4 Equation (19) for calculating the restraint moments due to creep and differential shrinkage
is based on an assumed value of 2,5 for the ratio cc of total creep to elastic deformation. If the design
conditions are such that this value is significantly low, then the engineer should calculate values for
the reduction factors and 1 from the following:
cc
(1 e )
cc
cc
1 (1 e )
The interface of the precast and insitu components occurs either in the tension zone or in the
compression zone affecting the horizontal shear force due to design ultimate loads so that this shear
force is either:
a) where the interface is in the compression zone: the compression from that part of the compression
zone above the interface, calculated from the ultimate bending moment; or
b) where the interface is in the tension zone: the total compression (or tension) calculated from the
ultimate bending moment.
The average horizontal design shear stress is calculated by dividing the design horizontal shear force
(see 6.4.4.1) by the area obtained by multiplying the contact width by the beam length between the
point of maximum positive or negative design moment and the point of zero moment.
The average horizontal design shear stress should then be distributed in proportion to the vertical
design shear force diagram, to give the horizontal shear stress at any point along the length of the
 composite component. The horizontal design shear stress v so detained, should nowhere exceed the
 appropriate value in table 42. Amdt 2, Mar. 2000
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MPa
25 30 2 40
I I
Without links Ascast or asextruded 1 0,4 1 0,55 1 0,65
I I I
Brushed, screeded or
roughtamped 0,6 0,65 0,75
/ Washed to remove I I I
laitance or treated with
retarder and cleaned 0,7 0,75 0,80
Washed to remove
laitance or treated with
retarder and cleaned 21 2.2 2.3
NOTES
1 The description "ascast" covers those cases where the concrete is placed and vibrated,
leaving a rough finish. The surface is rougher than would be required for finishes to be
applied directly without a further finishing screed but not as rough as would be obtained if
tamping, brushing or other artificial roughening had taken place.
3 The description "brushed, screeded or roughtamped" covers those cases where some
form of deliberate surface roughening has taken place but not to the extent of exposing the
aggregate.
4 For structural assessment purposes, it may be assumed that the appropriate value of
v, (included in the table) is 1 3 .
Where nominal links are provided, they should be of crosssection at least 0,15 % of the contact area.
Spacing should not be excessive. The spacing of links in Tbeam ribs with composite flanges should
not exceed the greater of four times the minimum thickness of the insitu concrete or 600 mm. Links
should be adequately anchored on both sides of the interface.
Where the horizontal shear stress from 6.4.4.2 exceeds the value given in table 42, all the horizontal
shear force should be carried on reinforcement anchored on either side of the interface. The amount
of steel required, A, (in square millimetres per metre) should be calculated from the following equation:
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
1 000 bvh
Ah =
0,87f y
where
b is the contact width;
Differential shrinkage between added concrete and precast units need not be considered for the
ultimate limit state.
The recommended minimum thickness of structural topping is 40 mm nominal with a local minimum
of 25 mm.
6.5.1 General
6.5.1.1 A plain concrete wall is a vertical loadbearing concrete element whose greatest lateral
dimension exceeds four times its least lateral dimension, and one that is assumed to be without
reinforcement when its strength is being considered.
6.5.1.2 Where the greatest lateral dimension is less than four times the thickness, the provisions of
this clause may still be applied.
6.5.1.3 The definitions for short, slender, braced or unbraced reinforced concrete walls given in 4.8.1
also apply to a plain concrete wall.
The subclauses related to reinforced concrete walls may be applied (see 4.8.2).
The design ultimate axial force in a plain concrete wall may be calculated on the assumption that the
beams and slabs transmitting forces into it are simply supported.
The effective height l e of an unbraced plain concrete wall should be taken as follows:
a) in the case of a wall supporting at its top a roof or floor slab spanning at right angles: le = 1,5 lo
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where lo is the clear height of the wall between lateral supports; for gable walls, lo may be measured
midway between eaves and ridge.
The effective height of braced plain concrete walls should be taken as follows:
a) where the lateral supports provide resistance both to lateral movement and to rotation, le equals
threequarters of the clear distance between lateral supports or twice the distance between a
support and a free edge, as appropriate;
NOTE  This distance is measured vertically if the lateral supports are horizontal (e.g. floors) or horizontally if the
lateral supports are vertical (e.g. other walls).
b) where the lateral supports provide resistance to lateral movement only, le equals the distance
between centres of supports, or two and a half times the distance between a support and a free
edge, as appropriate.
The slenderness ratio le/h should not exceed 30, whether the wall be braced or unbraced.
Whatever the arrangements of vertical or horizontal forces, the resultant force in every plain concrete
wall should be assumed to have a transverse eccentricity of the greater of at least h/20 or 20 mm. In
the case of a slender wall, additional eccentricity can arise as a result of deflection under load.
Procedures allowing for this are given in 6.5.3.12 and 6.5.3.13.
6.5.3.6.2 In a case where a horizontal force is resisted by two or more parallel walls
The force should be assumed to be shared between the walls in proportion to their relative stiffnesses,
provided the resultant eccentricity in any individual wall does not exceed onethird of the length of that
wall.
Where the eccentricity in any individual wall is found to exceed this, the wall stiffness should be
regarded as zero and an adjustment made to the forces that are assumed to be carried by the
remaining wall(s).
6.5.3.6.3 In the case of a shear connection being assumed between vertical edges of adjacent
walls
An appropriate elastic analysis may be made, provided the shear connection is designed to resist the
design ultimate forces.
6.5.3.7.1 The load transmitted to a wall by a concrete floor or roof may be assumed to act at onethird
of the depth of the bearing area from the loaded face. Where there is an insitu concrete floor on either
side of the wall, the common bearing area may be assumed to be shared equally by each floor.
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6.5.3.7.2 Loads may be applied to walls at eccentricities exceeding half the thickness of the wall by
means of special fittings (e.g. joist hangers), provided that the adequacy of such fittings against local
failure is proved by testing or other means.
6.5.3.7.3 The resultant eccentricity of the total load on a braced wall at any level may be calculated
on the assumption that, immediately above a lateral support, the resultant eccentricity of all the vertical
loads above that level is zero.
At any level, full allowance should be made for the eccentricity of all vertical loads and the overturning
moments produced by any lateral forces above that level.
When loads are purely local (as at beam bearings), they may be assumed to be immediately
dispersed, provided that the local design stress under the load does not exceed 0,6fcu for concrete of
grade 25 or higher, or 0,5fcu for concrete of a lower grade.
The design load per unit length nw should be assessed on the basis of a linear distribution of load along
the length of the wall, with no allowance for any tensile strength.
6.5.3.11 Maximum unit axial load for short braced plain walls
The maximum design ultimate axial load per unit length of wall due to ultimate loads, nw, should satisfy
the following equation:
where
nw is the maximum design axial load per unit length of wall due to design ultimate loads;
ex is the resultant eccentricity of load at right angles to plane of wall (see 6.5.3.5 for minimum
value); and
6.5.3.12 Maximum unit axial load for slender braced plain walls
At every section of a slender braced wall, the maximum design axial load nw should satisfy
equation (20) and, additionally, the following:
where
ea is the additional eccentricity due to deflections, which may be taken as le2/2 500 where le is the
effective height of the wall.
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The maximum unit axial load at every section of an unbraced plain wall should satisfy the following
two conditions:
where
ex1 is the resultant eccentricity calculated at top of wall (see 6.5.3.7); and
The design shear resistance of plain walls need not be checked if one of the following conditions is
satisfied:
a) the horizontal design shear force is less than onequarter of the design vertical load; or
b) the horizontal design shear force is less than that required to produce an average design shear
stress of 0,45 MPa over the whole wall crosssection.
NOTE  For concrete of grades lower than grade 25 and for lightweight aggregate concrete, the figure of 0,30 MPa
should be used instead of 0,45 MPa.
Reinforcement may be needed in walls to control cracking due to flexure or thermal and hydration
shrinkage (see 6.5.3.16 to 6.5.3.18). Wherever reinforcement is provided, the quantity should be:
a) for reinforcement of grade 450: at least 0,25 % of the concrete crosssectional area; and
b) for reinforcement of grade 250: at least 0,30 % of the concrete crosssectional area.
If, at any level, a length of wall exceeding onetenth of the total length is subjected to tensile stress
resulting from inplane eccentricity of the resultant force, vertical reinforcement may be necessary to
distribute potential cracking. Reinforcement need only be provided in the area of wall found to be in
tension under design service loads. It should be arranged in two layers and should comply with the
spacing rules given in 4.11.8.2.
6.5.3.17 Reinforcement in plain walls to counteract cracks resulting from shrinkage and
temperature
6.5.3.17.1 Plain concrete walls that exceed 2 m in length and are cast insitu, may have to be
reinforced to control cracking arising from shrinkage and temperature effects, including temperature
rises caused by the heat of hydration released by the cement. Reinforcement for this purpose should
be considered as follows:
a) in an external plain wall directly exposed to the weather, reinforcement should be provided in both
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horizontal and vertical directions; it should consist of bars of small diameter, relatively closely
spaced, with adequate cover near the exposed surface (see also 6.5.3.15);
b) in an internal wall it may only be necessary to provide reinforcement in that part of the wall where
junctions with floors and beams occur, in which case it should be equally dispersed between each
face (see also 6.5.3.15).
6.5.3.17.2 In general, it will not be necessary to provide reinforcement to counteract shrinkage and
temperature effects in walls made of nofines concrete.
The deflection in a plain concrete wall will be within acceptable limits if the preceding provisions have
been conformed to and if, in the case of a cantilever shear wall, the total height of the wall does not
exceed ten times its length.
7 Fire resistance
7.1 General
7.1.1 When a structural concrete element is subjected to fire, it undergoes a gradual reduction in
strength and rigidity. For limit state design, therefore (as stated in 3.2.4.3), there are three conditions
to be considered:
The first criterion is applicable to all structural elements while the other two criteria are applicable to
walls and floors, which perform a separating function.
7.1.2 The requirements for fire resistance for various elements in a structure are either checked by
a standard test on a specimen or satisfied by suitable choices based on the data given in this clause.
NOTE  Standard fire tests are not intended to give information on the use of an element after it has been subjected to
fire.
7.1.3 The following factors influence the fire resistance of concrete structures (some of these factors
cannot be taken into account quantitatively):
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7.1.4 Concretes made with siliceous aggregates have a tendency to spall when exposed to high
temperatures but this tendency can be reduced by the incorporation of supplementary reinforcement
in the concrete cover. Spalling does not generally occur with either calcareous or lightweight
aggregates. The insulation properties of concrete made from lightweight aggregates are superior to
those of concrete made from siliceous and calcareous aggregates. Other measures that may be taken
to prevent spalling from occurring are
7.1.5 Concrete, prestressing tendons, and reinforcement show a reduction in strength at high
temperatures. At about 400 C, tendons are likely to lose about 50 % of their strength at ambient
temperature and in the case of reinforcement, a similar reduction in strength occurs at about 550 C.
7.1.6 The fire resistance of structural elements is generally determined when the element is
supporting its service load, which is taken as the sum of all the nominal selfweight and imposed loads.
Tables 43 to 46 show the minimum dimensions for various elements when these loads are to be
supported; any reduction in load will be reflected by an increase in fire resistance, but there are not
sufficient data available to define the relationship.
7.1.7 Recent investigations have shown that the provision of end restraint against thermal expansion
can substantially increase the fire resistance of a structural element. Until this aspect is more fully
investigated, it is proposed that in beams and slabs so built into a structure that restraint against
thermal expansion caused by fire would be provided at two opposite ends, the amount of protective
cover to reinforcement and tendons be reduced to the value shown for the next lower period in tables
43 to 46. Thermal restraint can be assumed to be provided by the surrounding structure if no gaps or
combustible materials exist between the structure and the ends of the floor or beam and if the
surrounding structure is capable of withstanding the thermal stresses induced by the heated floor or
beam.
7.1.8 In tables 43 to 50 (inclusive), the "minimum dimension" and the "minimum thickness" quoted
are all recommended dimensions that are subject to the dimensional deviations given in SABS 01002.
7.1.9 Where plaster or sprayed fibre is used as an applied finish to elements other than the ones in
tables 43 to 50, it may be assumed that the thermal insulation provided is at least equivalent to the
same thickness of concrete. Such finishes can therefore be used to remedy deficiencies in cover
thickness. For selected materials, the following guidance can be given with respect to allowing the use
of additional protection not exceeding 25 mm in thickness as a means of providing effective cover to
steel reinforcing or prestressing elements. In each case, the equivalent thickness of concrete may be
replaced by the protection named.
Mortar 0,6 x concrete thickness
Gypsum plaster
Sprayed lightweight
insulation 2,0 x concrete thickness; > 2 h
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(See also table 47 for the effect of soffit treatment on the fire resistance of slabs.)
7.2 Beams
7.2.1 The fire resistance of a reinforced or prestressed concrete beam depends on the amount of
protective cover, consisting of concrete with or without an insulating encasement, provided to the
reinforcement or tendons. It is also necessary that the beam have a minimum width to avoid failure
of the concrete before the reinforcement or tendons reach the critical temperature. For Ibeams, the
web thickness bw of a fully exposed beam should be at least 0,5 of the minimum width stated in tables
43 and 44 for the fire resistance of various beams.
7.2.2 Typical performances are given in table 43 for reinforced concrete beams and in table 44 for
prestressed concrete beams, both for siliceous aggregate concrete and for lowdensity aggregate
concrete.
7.2.3 The average concrete cover is determined by summing the product of the crosssectional area
of each bar or tendon and the distance from the surface of the bar to the nearest relevant exposed
face, and dividing the sum by the total area of these bars or tendons. Only those bars or tendons
provided for the purpose of resisting tension due to ultimate loads should be considered in this
calculation. When reinforcement is used in combination with tendons, its total area should be used.
7.2.4 Tables 43 and 44 give the average concrete cover required to provide the stated fire resistance,
but in no case may the nominal concrete cover to any bar or tendon be less than half this value, or less
than the value given for the halfhour period appropriate to that form of construction.
7.2.5 In addition, in certain cases where siliceous aggregate concrete is used, it will be necessary to
consider the provision of supplementary reinforcement to hold the concrete cover in position.
7.2.6 Supplementary reinforcement will be required in those cases indicated in tables 43 and 44
where the cover to all the bars and tendons under consideration exceeds 40 mm. When used,
supplementary reinforcement shall consist of expanded metal lath or a wire fabric not lighter than
0,5 kg/m2 (2 mm diameter wires at centres not exceeding 100 mm) or a continuous arrangement of
links at centres not exceeding 200 mm, incorporated in the concrete cover at a distance not exceeding
20 mm from the face.
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SABS 01001
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7
mm
4 3 2 1,5 1 0,5
*)Supplementary reinforcement may be necessary to hold the concrete cover in position (see
7.2.6).
**)Vermiculite/gypsum plaster should have a mix ratio in the range 1,5:1 to 2:1 by volume.
7.2.7 For Ibeams, the average concrete cover determined as in 7.2.3 is adjusted by multiplying it
by 0,6 to allow for the additional heat transfer through the upper flange face.
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Ed. 2.2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
mm
4 3 2 1,5 1 0,5
*)Supplementary reinforcement may be necessary to hold the concrete cover in position (see
7.2.6).
**)Vermiculite/gypsum plaster must have a mix ratio in the range 1,5:1 to 2:1 by volume.
166
Table 45  Fire resistance of reinforced concrete floors (silliceous or calcareous aggregate)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
mm
4 3 2 1,5 1 0,5
b) Cored slabs in which the cores are circular or are higher than Average cover to reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 25 20 20 15 15
they are wide. Not less than 50 % of the gross crosssection of Thickness under cores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 40 40 30 25 20
the floor should be solid material Depth, overall*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 175 160 140 110 100
c) Hollow box sections having one or more longitudinal cavities, Average cover to reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 25 20 20 15 15
which are wider than they are high Thickness of bottom flange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 40 40 30 25 20
Depth, overall*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 205 180 155 130 105
d) Ribbed floors having hollow infill blocks of clay, or inverted T Average cover to reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 25 20 20 15 15
section beams with hollow infill blocks of concrete or clay. A Width of rib, or beam, at soffit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 100 90 80 70 50
floor in which less than 50 % of the gross crosssection is solid Depth, overall*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 175 160 140 110 100
material shall be provided with a 15 mm plaster coating on
soffit
f) Inverted channel sections with radius at intersection of soffits Average bottom cover to reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . **)65 **)55 **)45 35 25 15
with top of leg not exceeding depth of section Side cover to reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . **)40 **)30 **)25 20 15 10
Least width of each downstanding leg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 70 60 50 40 30
Thickness at crown*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 150 125 125 100 90
g) Inverted channel sections or Usections with radius at Average bottom cover to reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . **)65 **)55 **)45 35 25 15
intersection of soffits with top of leg exceeding depth of section Side cover to reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . **)40 **)30 **)25 20 15 10
Least width of each downstanding leg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 60 50 40 35 25
Thickness at crown*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 150 100 100 75 65
167
Ed. 2.2
**)Supplementary reinforcement may be necessary to hold the concrete cover in position (see 7.3).
168
Table 46  Fire resistance of prestressed concrete floors (siliceous or calcareous aggregate)
Ed. 2.2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
SABS 01001
mm
4 3 2 1,5 1 0,5
b) Cored slabs in which the cores are circular or are higher than Average cover to tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 50 40 30 25 15
they are wide. Not less than 50 % of the gross crosssection of Thickness under cores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 40 40 30 25 20
the floor should be solid material Depth, overall*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 175 160 140 110 100
c) Hollow box sections having one or more longitudinal cavities, Average cover to tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 50 40 30 25 15
which are wider than they are high Thickness of bottom flange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 50 40 30 25 20
Depth, overall*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 205 180 155 130 105
d) Ribbed floors having hollow infill blocks of clay, or inverted T Average cover to tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 50 40 30 25 15
section beams with hollow infill blocks of concrete or clay. A Width of rib, or beam, at soffit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 100 90 80 70 50
floor in which less than 50 % of the gross crosssection is Depth, overall*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 175 160 140 110 100
solid material shall be provided with a 15 mm plaster coating
on soffit
f) Inverted channel sections with radius at intersection of soffits Average bottom cover to tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . **)100 **)85 **)65 50 40 25
with top of leg not exceeding depth of section Side cover to reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . **)50 **)45 **)35 25 20 15
Least width of each downstanding leg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 100 75 60 45 30
Thickness at crown*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 150 125 125 100 90
g) Inverted channel sections or Usections with radius at Average bottom cover to tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . **)100 **)85 **)65 50 40 25
intersection of soffits with top of leg exceeding depth of section Side cover to reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . **)50 **)45 **)35 25 20 15
Least width of each downstanding leg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 90 70 55 45 30
Thickness at crown*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 150 125 125 100 90
7.3 Floors
7.3.1 The fire resistance of a floor depends on the minimum thickness of the concrete section and
the average concrete cover to the reinforcement in the tensile zone. The performance of some typical
reinforced concrete floors is given in table 45 and the performance of some typical prestressed
concrete floors is given in table 46. The performance of floors of shapes not given may be assessed
by analogy.
7.3.2 Noncombustible screeds or floor finishes may be taken into account in the estimation of the
thickness of concrete.
7.3.3 The average concrete cover is determined by summing the product of the crosssectional area
of each bar or tendon and the distance from the surface of the bar to the nearest relevant exposed
face, and dividing the sum by the total area of these bars or tendons. Only those bars or tendons
provided for the purpose of resisting tension due to ultimate loads should be considered in this
calculation.
7.3.4 Tables 45 and 46 give the average concrete cover required to provide the stated fire resistance,
but in no case may the nominal concrete cover to any bar or tendon be less than half this value, or less
than the value given for the halfhour period appropriate to that form of construction.
7.3.5 In addition, in certain cases where siliceous aggregate concrete is used, it will be necessary to
consider the provision of supplementary reinforcement to hold the concrete cover in position.
7.3.6 Supplementary reinforcement will be required in those cases indicated in table 47 where no
ceiling protection is provided (see 7.4) and the cover to all the bars and tendons under consideration
exceeds 40 mm. When used, supplementary reinforcement shall consist of expanded metal lath or a
wire fabric not lighter than 0,5 kg/m 2 (2 mm diameter wires at centres not exceeding 100 mm) or a 
continuous arrangement of links at centres not exceeding 200 mm, incorporated in the concrete cover 
at a distance not exceeding 20 mm from the face. Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
7.3.7 In the absence of adequate test data, lowdensity concrete floors should be treated as dense
concrete floors even though the fire resistance of the former might be expected to be somewhat
superior.
7.3.8 In the case of hollow slabs (or beams with filler blocks), the effective thickness d should be
obtained by considering the total solid material per unit width te as follows:
t e h t f
where
The fire resistance of any given form of floor construction may be improved by the provision of an
insulating finish on the soffit or by a suitable suspended ceiling, some examples of which are given
in table 47.
169
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
1 2 3 4
Minimum thickness of
finish
mm
Ceiling finish
Increase in fire resistance
1,5 1 0,5
*)Vermiculite/gypsum plaster should have a mix ratio in the range 1,5:1 to 2:1 by
volume.
**)When suspended ceilings are used, the increased fire resistance only holds if
ducts, light fittings, etc., do not penetrate the ceiling and if services and
combustible materials are kept out of the space between the ceiling and the floor
construction above.
7.5 Columns
7.5.1 The minimum dimension of a column is a determining factor in the fire resistance it can provide.
The dimensions given in table 48 relate to columns that, when subjected to service loads, may be
exposed to fire on all faces. The use of limestone or other calcareous aggregates will, as indicated,
reduce spalling and allow a reduction in the size of the section. When siliceous aggregates are used,
the concrete cover to the main bars should not exceed 40 mm unless supplementary reinforcement
is provided. Ensure that the cover to reinforced concrete columns is the same as that given in table
43 for beams.
7.5.2 Supplementary reinforcement shall consist of either a wire fabric not lighter than 0,5 kg/m2
(2 mm diameter wires at centres not exceeding 100 mm) or a continuous arrangement of links at
centres not exceeding 200 mm, incorporated in the concrete cover at a distance not exceeding 20 mm
from the face.
7.5.3 When supplementary reinforcement as in item (b) of table 48 is used to obtain a reduced size
of column, it should be placed at midcover but not more than 20 mm from the face, and should be
in the shape of a rectangular or circular cage.
7.5.4 Columns that are built into fireresistant walls to their full height are likely to be exposed to fire
on one face only. Where fireresistant walls are required to have the same fireresistance rating as the
columns, the data given in table 49 apply to the situation where the face of the column is flush with the
170
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
wall or where that part embedded in the wall is structurally adequate to support the load, provided that
any opening in the wall is not nearer to the column than the minimum dimension specified in table 49
for that column.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
mm
4 3 2 1,5 1 0,5
*)Vermiculite/gypsum plaster should have a mix ratio in the range 1,5:1 to 2:1 by volume.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Minimum dimension of concrete
mm
h
4 3 2 1,5 1 0,5
a) Siliceous aggregate concrete:
1) without additional protection . . . . . . . 300 250 200 150 100 100
2) with vermiculite/gypsum plaster*)
or sprayed asbestos, 15 mm thick, on
exposed faces on light mesh
reinforcement securely fixed to the
column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 150 120 100 90 90
*)Vermiculite/gypsum plaster should have a mix ratio in the range 1,5:1 to 2:1 by volume.
171
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
7.6 Walls
The fire resistance of concrete walls containing at least 1,0 % of vertical reinforcement is given in
table 50. The minimum thicknesses shown are for siliceous aggregate concrete. When lowdensity
aggregate concrete is used, a reduction in thickness is permissible if the fire resistance of such a wall
is confirmed by a test.
Concrete cover to the reinforcement should be at least 15 mm for a fire resistance of up to 1 h, and
at least 25 mm for a fire resistance for longer periods. Unless shown otherwise by a test, walls
containing vertical reinforcement of less than 1,0 % are regarded as plain concrete walls (see 7.6.2)
for fireresistance purposes.
Walls exposed to fire on more than one face are to be regarded as columns (see 7.5).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
mm
4 3 2 1,5 1 0,5
*)Vermiculite/gypsum plaster should have a mix ratio in the range 1,5:1 to 2:1 by volume.
From the limited data available, the fire resistance of plain siliceous aggregate concrete walls can be
taken as follows:
172
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Annex A
(informative)
A.1.1 Loads
See 3.3.4.1.
In general, it will be sufficiently accurate to use an elastic analysis to assess the moments and forces
in elements subjected to their appropriate loadings for the serviceability limit states.
Where a single value of stiffness is used to characterize an element, the stiffness of the element may
be based on the concrete section. In this case, it is likely to provide a more accurate picture of the
moment and force fields than will the use of a cracked transformed section, even though calculation
shows the elements to be cracked. Where more sophisticated methods of analysis are used, in which
variations in properties over the length of elements can be taken into account, it will frequently be more
appropriate to calculate the stiffness of highly stressed parts of elements on the basis of a cracked
transformed section.
For checking serviceability limit states, the modulus of elasticity of the concrete should be taken as
the mean value given in table C.1, appropriate to the characteristic strength of the concrete. The
modulus of elasticity may be corrected for the age of loading if this is known. Owing to the large range
of values for the modulus of elasticity that can be obtained for the same cube strength, it might be
appropriate to consider either calculating the behaviour of the element (by using moduli at the end of
the ranges given in table C.1 to obtain an idea of reliability of the calculation) or having tests done on
the actual concrete to be used. For appropriate values of creep and shrinkage, refer to annex C.
A.2.1 General
A.2.1.1 When the deflections of reinforced concrete elements are calculated, note that there are a
number of factors that may be difficult to allow for in the calculation but that can have a considerable
effect on the reliability of the result.
a) estimates of the restraints provided by supports are based on simplified and often inaccurate
assumptions;
b) the precise loading, or the part of it that is of long duration, is unknown; the selfweight, which is
known to within quite close limits, is the major factor determining the deflections, since this largely
173
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
governs the longterm effects; lack of knowledge of the precise imposed load is not likely to be
a major cause of error in deflection calculations; for the proportion of imposed loading that may
be considered to be permanent and that will influence the longterm behaviour, see 3.3.4.1;
c) lightly reinforced elements may well have a working load that is close to the cracking load for the
element; considerable differences will occur in the deflections, depending on whether the element
has or has not cracked;
d) the effects of finishes and partitions on deflection are difficult to assess and are often ignored;
if a partition is built on top of a beam where there is no wall built up to the underside of the beam,
the longterm deflection will cause the beam to creep away from the partition; the partition may
be left spanning as a deep beam that will apply significant loads at its ends only to the supporting
beam; thus, if a partition wall is built over the whole span of a beam with no major openings near
its centre, its mass may be ignored in the calculation of longterm deflections of the supporting
beam; the suitable approach for assessing the magnitude of this effect is to calculate a likely
maximum and minimum deflection and to take the average.
A.2.1.2 Any method of calculation that can be demonstrated to yield results of acceptable accuracy
can be used, provided that points such as those listed in A.2.1.1 have been correctly accounted for,
and may be logically applied over a wide range of problems. The approach used in the method of
calculation given in A.2.3 is to assess the curvatures of sections under the appropriate moments (as
in A.2.2) and then calculate the deflections from the curvatures. The method of calculation given in
A.2.4 is an alternative to the method given in A.2.3 and deals additionally with the deflection of fully
and partially prestressed concrete elements. Shrinkage deflection may be calculated as in A.2.5.
The curvature of any section may be calculated by employing whichever of the following sets of
assumptions, A or B, gives the larger value. Set of assumptions A applies to a section that is cracked
under the loading under consideration, while set of assumptions B applies to an uncracked section.
A.2.2.2.1 Strains are calculated on the assumption that plane sections remain plane.
A.2.2.2.3 The concrete in compression is assumed to be elastic. Under shortterm loading, the
modulus of elasticity may be taken as that given in 3.4.2.1. Under longterm loading, an effective
modulus may be taken as having a value of 1/(1 + ) times the shortterm modulus, where is the
appropriate creep factor (see C.2).
A.2.2.2.4 Stresses in the concrete in tension may be calculated on the assumption that the stress
distribution is triangular, having a value of zero at the neutral axis and a value of 1 MPa at the centroid
of the tension steel in the short term, reducing to 0,55 MPa in the long term.
174
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
The concrete and the steel are both considered to be fully elastic in tension and in compression. The
modulus of elasticity of the steel may be taken as 200 GPa and that of the concrete as specified in
A.2.2.2.3, both in compression and in tension.
These assumptions are illustrated in figure A.1. In each case the curvature can be obtained from the
following equation:
1 f fs
c
rb xEc (dx) Es
where
1
is the curvature at midspan or, for cantilevers, at support section;
rb
where
175
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
176
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
d) to this curvature, add the shrinkage curvature calculated from the following formula:
1 S
cs e s
rcs I
where
1
is the shrinkage curvature;
rcs
cs is the free shrinkage strain;
Es
e is the modular ratio = ;
Eeff
Es is the modulus of elasticity of reinforcement;
Eeff is the effective modulus of elasticity of concrete (which can be taken as Ec /(1 + ));
I is the second moment of area of either cracked or gross section, depending on whether
curvature due to loading is derived from set of assumptions A or set of assumptions B; and
Ss is the first moment of area of reinforcement about centroid of cracked or gross section,
whichever is appropriate.
The deflected shape of an element is related to the curvatures by the following equation:
2
1
d 2
rx dx
where
1
is the curvature at x; and
rx
is the deflection at x.
Deflections may be calculated directly from this equation by calculation of the curvatures at successive
sections along the element and the use of a numerical integration technique such as that proposed by
Newmark. Alternatively, the following simplified approach may be used:
1
= Kl2
rb
177
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
where
K is a coefficient that depends on shape of the bending moment diagram. (See figure A.2.)
As the calculation method does not describe an elastic relationship between moment and curvature,
deflections under complex loads cannot be obtained by summation of the deflections obtained by
separate calculation for the constituent simpler loads. A value of K appropriate to the complete load
should be used.
If figure A.2 is used to assess the value of K by superposition, it may be assumed that the maximum
deflection of a beam occurs at midspan, without serious errors being introduced.
The calculation of the deflection of cantilevers requires very careful consideration whether the
cantilever is rigidly fixed and is therefore horizontal at the root, or whether the root of the cantilever
is caused to rotate owing to the loadings on the cantilever itself, or on other elements to which the
cantilever is connected. If this root rotation is , the deflection of the tip of the cantilever will be
decreased or increased by an amount l. In general it is recommended that the effective span of the
cantilever (as defined in 4.3.1.4) be used.
Deflection of slabs is probably best dealt with by using the ratios of span to effective depth. However,
if the calculation of the deflections of a slab is essential, it is suggested that the following procedure
be adopted:
A strip of slab of unit width is chosen such that the maximum moment along it is the maximum
moment of the slab, i.e. in a rectangular slab, a strip spanning across the shorter dimension of the slab
connecting the centres of the longer sides. The bending moments along this strip should preferably
be obtained from an elastic analysis of the slab, but may be assessed approximately by taking 70 %
of the moments used for the collapse design. The deflection of the strip is then calculated as though
the strip were a beam. This method will be slightly conservative.
178
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
179
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
A.2.4.1.1 In the absence of more reliable information, it is recommended that the immediate deflection
i at the midspan of the member due to applied characteristic load be calculated as:
l2
i = KMs
E c e
where
Ms is the max. moment of permanent load at support for cantilevers, elsewhere at midspan;
K is the deflection coefficient that depends on the shape of the bending moment diagram.
Note that for twoway slabs, all relevant parameters/notation refer to the short span.
Bending moments in the element should be determined by moment distribution, computer methods
or any other suitable method in accordance with A.1.2.
The second moment of area Ie should incorporate the degree of cracking in the element and can be
approximated by the following formula, which also accounts for tension stiffening of the concrete:
Mcr 3 Mcr 3
Ie = Ig + [1  ] Icr (22)
Ma Ma
180
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
where
fr = 0,30 f cu for restrained beams and slabs where preloading cracking is likely to
occur;
Ma is the maximum moment in the element corresponding with the deflection situation under
consideration;
yt is the distance from centroidal axis of concrete section (ignoring reinforcement), to extreme
fibre in tension.
For continuous elements, the effective moment of inertia may be taken as the average of the Ie values
for the critical positive moment and negative moment sections. For prismatic elements, the effective
moment of inertia may be taken as Ie obtained at midspan for simple and continuous spans, and at
support for cantilevers.
A.2.4.1.2 Longterm creep deflection shall be calculated by multiplying the immediate deflection
by a factor , such that:
= i (23)
where
is 1 + xi ;
xi is the ratio of neutral axis depth to effective depth of cracked element; and
is the creep strain divided by the initial strain; is the creep factor considering age of
concrete at loading, humidity, surfacetovolume ratio, etc.
181
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
where

= 1
p
; and Amdt 2, Mar. 2000
2
A.2.4.1.4 The permanent loads to consider for longterm deflections shall be in accordance with
SABS 0160.
The same procedure as for reinforced concrete elements can be followed except that
Ie = Ig; and
b) for partially prestressed concrete elements, cognizance should be taken of the fact that the centre
of gravity of the section does not coincide with the element neutral axis owing to the presence of
the axial prestress force.
Shortterm deflections can be based on Ie as calculated from equation (22). For longterm
deflections, the ratio of the neutral axis depth to the effective depth of the cracked element xi is
required in order to use equation (23). This can be determined by considering strain compatibility
and equilibrium of forces in the element, or by using the following empirical equation:
where
xi is the ratio of neutral axis depth to effective depth of partially prestressed element;
xcr is the ratio of neutral axis depth to fully cracked element depth, at the section where
deflection is under consideration;
182
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
where
s is the free shrinkage strain of concrete, for instance from figure C.2;
(1 )
)
kcs is 1
)
< 1,


As is the area of bonded steel. Amdt 1, Apr. 1994 
A.3.1 General
A.3.1.1 Since the bar spacing rules given in 4.11.8 ensure that cracking is not serious in the worst
likely practical situation, it will almost always be found that wider bar spacing can be used if the crack
widths are checked explicitly. This will be true particularly for fairly shallow elements.
A.3.1.2 The widths of flexural cracks at a particular point on the surface of an element depend
primarily on three factors:
183
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
a) the proximity of reinforcing bars perpendicular to the cracks to the particular point being considered;
b) the proximity of the neutral axis to the particular point being considered; and
A.3.1.3 The formula in A.3.2 gives a relationship between crack width and these three principal
variables, which gives acceptably accurate results in most normal design circumstances. However,
use the formula with caution in elements subjected dominantly to an axial tension.
A.3.1.4 Remember that cracking is a semirandom phenomenon and that an absolute maximum
crack width cannot be predicted. The formula is so designed that an acceptably small number of cracks
in a structure will exceed the predicted width. Do not, therefore, regard an occasional crack slightly
larger than the predicted width as cause for concern. However, should a significant number of the
cracks in a structure exceed the predicted width, seek reasons other than the statistical nature of the
phenomenon to explain their presence.
3acr m
(acr & c min)
 w= 1 % 2 Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
h&x
where
w is the design surface crack width;
acr is the distance from the point being considered to the surface of the nearest longitudinal bar;
m is the average steel strain at the level where cracking is being considered, calculated
allowing for stiffening effect of concrete in tension zone, and obtained from equation (24);
cmin is the minimum cover to tension steel;
h is the overall depth of member; and
x is the depth of neutral axis found from analysis to determine 1 (see below).
The average steel strain m may be calculated on the basis of the assumptions given in A.2.2.
Alternatively, as an approximation, it will normally be satisfactory to calculate the steel stress on the
basis of a cracked section, and then to reduce this by an amount equal to the tensile force generated
by the stress distribution (defined in A.2.2.2.4) acting over the tension zone divided by the steel area.
For a rectangular tension zone, this gives:
184
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
bt (h x) (a ) x)
Jm J1 (24)
3 Es As (d x)
where
1 is the strain at the level being considered, calculated ignoring stiffening effect of concrete in
tension zone;
a is the distance from compression face to point at which crack width is being calculated.
When the whole section is in tension, an effective value of (h  x) can be estimated by interpolation
between the following limiting conditions:
a) where the neutral axis is at the least compressed face, ( h  x) = h (i.e. x = 0); and
A.3.2.2 In the assessment of the strains, the modulus of elasticity of the concrete should be taken
as half the instantaneous value.
A.3.2.3 Where it is expected that the concrete may be subject to abnormally high shrinkage strains
(>0,0006), increase m by adding 50 % of the expected shrinkage strain.
185
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Annex B
(informative)
Movement joints
B.1 General
Many factors influence the tendency of concrete to crack, and the limitation of such cracking is also
influenced by many factors, probably the most important of which is the proper provision of adequate
reinforcement. However, there are cases where the most appropriate or indeed the only control
measure is a movement joint.
B.2.1 In common with all other structural materials, concrete expands when heated and contracts
when cooled; it also expands when wetted and shrinks when dried. It also undergoes other strains
owing to the hydration of the cement and other properties of the material itself and of its constituent
parts. If these expansions and contractions are restrained, stresses will occur that can be of sufficient
magnitude to cause immediate cracking of the concrete, or cracking will occur later owing to fatigue
failure resulting from longterm repetition of the stresses. Creep of the concrete over a long period can
in some cases reduce stresses due to restraint, but generally this should not be relied upon.
Differential settlements of foundations due, for example, to mining subsidence might also need to be
provided for. As these factors may cause unsightly cracking, damage to finishes, and even structural
failure, the possibilities and effects of such cracking should be properly investigated in relation to the
design, reinforcement and form of the element or structure concerned and in the light of published
information. If it is then found necessary to prevent or limit the effects of such potential cracking,
movement joints should be provided at predetermined locations.
B.2.2 Some indication of the possible magnitude of the movements to be dealt with in a concrete
structure may be gained from the examples given below.
B.2.2.1 The average coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is about 105/1 C; thus a 33 C
change in temperature could cause a difference in length of approximately 10 mm in a concrete
element of length 30 m. If this change in length were to be prevented by complete restraint of the
element, it would cause a stress of about 7 MPa in an unreinforced concrete element having a
modulus of elasticity of 20 GPa. If such stress were tensile, and superimposed upon other already
existing tensile stresses, cracking would occur. (If, however, the concrete were to be reinforced, the
distribution of the cracking would be controlled by the amount, form and distribution of the
reinforcement, which might even reduce the crack width and spacing to the extent that no harmful
consequence would be caused.)
B.2.2.2 Drying shrinkage strains may be roughly 500 x 106. In thin reinforced sections, this
represents an unrestrained shrinkage of about 1,5 mm per 3 m length of a concrete element. If this
change in length were to be prevented, a tensile stress of about 10 MPa would occur. (See also
annex C.3.)
B.2.2.3 Creep of concrete under stress tends to reduce the maximum stresses arising from the
restraint of movements of the types referred to in B.2.2.1 and B.2.2.2, the degree of reduction
depending on, among other factors, the rate of change of the stresses. Creep is a longterm process
and if the stresses change rapidly, e.g. because the crosssection of the element is small enough to
permit its temperature change or shrinkage to occur in a relatively short time, it has a negligible effect
on reducing the stresses.
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B.2.3 However, creep of the concrete can itself create strains that could lead to harmful and
unsightly effects if no movement joints were to be provided. For example, creep of the concrete can
cause deflections of beams to increase over a long period under sustained loading. Unless suitable
movement joints are provided between floors or roofs and partitions, these deflections can lead to
heavy loads being imposed upon the partitions, which, if of a nonloadbearing type, may then suffer
severe cracking. (See also annex C.2.)
A contraction joint is a joint with a deliberate discontinuity but no initial gap between the concrete on
both sides of the joint, the joint being intended to permit contraction of the concrete.
A distinction should be made between a complete contraction joint in which both the concrete and the
reinforcement are interrupted, and a partial contraction joint in which only the concrete is interrupted
but the reinforcement runs through.
An expansion joint is a joint with complete discontinuity in both reinforcement and concrete and
intended to accommodate either expansion or contraction of the structure.
In general, such a joint requires the provision of a sufficiently wide gap between the adjoining parts
of the structure, to permit the occurrence of the amount of expansion expected. Design of the joint so
as to incorporate sliding surfaces is not, however, precluded and may sometimes be advantageous.
A sliding joint is a joint with complete discontinuity in both reinforcement and concrete. Special
provision is made at the joint, to facilitate relative movement in the plane of the joint.
A hinged joint is a joint specially designed and constructed to permit relative rotation of the elements
at the joint. This type of joint is usually required to prevent the occurrence of reverse moments or of
undesirable restraint, for example in a threehinged portal.
A settlement joint is a joint intended to permit adjacent elements or structures to settle or deflect
relative to each other in cases, for example, where movements of the foundations of a structure are
likely to take place as a result of mining subsidence. The relative movements may be large.
NOTE  It may be necessary to design a joint to fulfil more than one of the requirements given in B.3.1 to B.3.5.
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B.4.1 The risk of cracking due to thermal movement and shrinkage may be minimized if the changes
in temperature and moisture content to which the concrete of the structure is subjected are limited. The
extent to which this can be done in the completed structure will depend very largely on its type and
environment, ranging from the underground basement, where the temperature and humidity are
relatively constant, to the uninsulated elevated structure, where the temperature and humidity are
close to the atmospheric temperature and humidity.
Furthermore, in modern buildings, the effects of central heating on both the temperature and moisture
content of the structure, combined with the relatively low thermal storage capacity of buildings clad
with lowdensity curtain walls, may give rise to more onerous thermal and humidity conditions than in
older, heavier, relatively unheated buildings. Thus, the investigation of the necessity of providing
movement joints is becoming more important.
B.4.2 Cracking can be minimized by reducing the restraints on the free movement of the structure,
and the control of cracking normally requires the subdivision of a structure into suitable lengths
separated by the appropriate movement joints.
B.4.3 The effectiveness of movement joints in controlling cracking in a structure will also depend
upon their precise location; this is frequently a matter of experience, and the location of movement
joints may be characterized as the places where cracks would otherwise most probably develop, e.g.
at abrupt changes of crosssection.
B.4.4 The location of all movement joints should be clearly indicated on the drawings, both for
individual elements and for the structure as a whole. In general, movement joints in the structure
should pass through the whole structure in one plane.
A movement joint should fulfil all necessary functional requirements. It should possess the merits of
simplicity and freedom of movement, yet still retain the other appropriate characteristics necessary,
e.g. weatherproofness, fire resistance, corrosion resistance, durability and sound insulation. The design
should also take into consideration the degree of control and workmanship and the tolerances likely
to occur in the actual structure of the type being considered. Where joints are of a filled type, they
may, in appropriate cases, be filled with a building mastic.
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Annex C
(informative)
C.1.1 The modulus of elasticity of concrete is influenced by the elastic properties of the aggregate
and, to a lesser extent by the aggregate/cement ratio, condition of curing, type of cement and age of
the concrete. In the case of concrete made from natural aggregates and having a density of
2 300 kg/m3 or more, the static or dynamic modulus of elasticity may be taken from table C.1 for
concretes of various compressive strengths.
C.1.2 If a more accurate figure is required for particular materials and a particular mix, tests should
be carried out. Concrete made from a few particular sources of aggregate may have a modulus of
elasticity substantially outside the range given in table C.1. The use of these materials may be
permitted, provided that the appropriate value for elastic modulus obtained from tests is used in design
calculations.
The mean values of static modulus of elasticity for normaldensity concrete in table C.1 are derived
from the following equation:
where
The modulus of elasticity of concrete Ec at an age t may be derived from the following equation:
where
t > 3 d;
Ec,28 is the static modulus of elasticity at 28 d, obtainable from table C.1; and
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Values of fcu,t/fcu,28 for use in equation (24) can be obtained from table 2. This table shows that, on
average, there is likely to be a gain of strength beyond 28 d (this will lead to a more realistic
assessment of the modulus of elasticity). It should be noted that there is a difference here from the
main body of this part of SABS 0100 where no increase in strength beyond 28 d is permitted in
satisfying limit state requirements. A smaller increase in strength will occur with small structural
members that are exposed to a dry environment after initial curing.
Where calculations of deflection or deformation are to be made, the reliability of the estimate of the
static modulus of elasticity will depend on the precision required from the calculation. Where
deflections are of great importance, tests should be carried out on concrete made with the aggregate
to be used in the structure. In other cases, experience with a particular aggregate, backed by general
data, will often provide a reliable value for Ko, and hence for Ec,28, but with unknown aggregates, it
would be advisable at the design stage to consider a range of values for Ec,28, as given in table C.1.
In the case of lowdensity aggregate concrete, the values of the static modulus in table C.1 should be
multiplied by (w/2400)2 where w is the density of lowdensity aggregate concrete (in kilograms per
cubic metre). It may be more convenient to use the dynamic modulus method of test to obtain an
estimated value for the static modulus of elasticity, using the formula
Ec = 1,25 Ecq  19
where Ecq is the dynamic modulus of elasticity obtainable from table C.1.
1 2 3 4 5
Characteristic Static modulus Ec, Dynamic modulus Ecq,
strength fcu,
GPa GPa
MPa
Mean value Typical range Mean value Typical range
20 25 2129 35 3139
25 26 2230 36 3240
30 28 2333 38 3343
40 31 2636 40 3545
50 34 2840 42 3648
60 36 3042 44 3850
The final (30year) creep strain in concrete, cc, can be predicted from the formula
stress
cc =
Et
where
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The effective section thickness is defined in figure C.1 for uniform sections as twice the
crosssectional area divided by the exposed perimeter. If drying is prevented by immersion in water
or by sealing, the effective section thickness should be taken as 600 mm.
It can be assumed that about 40 %, 60 % and 80 % of the final creep develops during the first month,
first 6 months and first 30 months under load respectively, when concrete is exposed to conditions of
constant relative humidity.
Creep is partly recoverable with a reduction in stress. The final creep recovery after one year is
approximately 0,3 times stress reduction/Eu, where Eu is the modulus of elasticity of the concrete at
the age of unloading.
An estimate of the drying shrinkage of plain concrete may be obtained from figure C.2.
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Figure C.2 relates to concrete of normal workability made without waterreducing admixtures; such
concrete will have an original water content of about 190 elm3.Where concrete is known to have a
different water content, shrinkage may be regarded as proportional to water content within the range
10 y e a r
ihrinkaqe x106 I i month
zhrinkage x10'
Effective
section
thickness ")
mm
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Ambient r e l a t i v e hum~dity, %
41
See C.2
The shrinkage of plain concrete is primarily dependent on the relative humidity of the air surrounding
the concrete, on the surface area from which moisture can be lost relative to the volume of concrete,
and on the mix proportions. It is increased slightly by carbonation and selfdesiccation and is reduced
by prolonged curing.
In general, all factors that influence creep will apply equally to shrinkage.
It should be noted that where detailed calculations are being made, stresses and relative humidities
may vary considerably during the lifetime of the structure, and appropriate judgements should be
made.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Annex D
(informative)
D.1 General
Deep beams are defined as prismatic members, generally straight and of constant crosssection
having a ratio of effective span to overall depth of less than 2 and such that the assumption that plane
sections remain plane in bending does not apply.
In the case of continuous beams, the transition to a deep beam for decreasing span to depth ratios is
gradual and depends on the distribution of loading, so that any given ratio is approximate if applied
generally.
The effective span of a simply supported deep beam may be assumed to be the distance between
centrelines of supports provided that this distance does not exceed 1,15 times the span between the
faces of supports, in which case the effective span is to be taken as 1,15 times the clear span.
In the case of continuous beams, the abovementioned definition of the effective span applies if the
effective spans for this purpose are taken as the approximate distances between the points of
contraflexure. Alternatively, if span lengths are calculated as for simply supported beams, the span
to depth ratio would be approximately 2,5 to 3. In the case of cantilevers, the ratio would be
approximately 1.
Deep beams may be designed and analysed by means of any of the following:
b) procedures such as the application of statically admissible stress fields in accordance with the lower
bound theorem of limit analysis by analogy with the behaviour of equivalent truss or lattice
structures consisting of struts and ties or tied arches (all preferably following the elastic field)
(see D.2.2); or
d) methods using the results of experimental tests on models of reinforced concrete or other suitable
materials or on prototypes or based on the extrapolation of published results of experimental or
theoretical work by reputable persons.
The theory of elasticity may be applied assuming values of Poisson's ratio of 0,0 to 0,2. In most cases,
only numerical solutions are suitable (such as, for example, finite differences, finiteelementmethods,
or boundary elementmethods). The analysis defines the fields of principal stresses and deformations.
High stress concentrations (for instance, those at the corner of possible openings) may be reduced by
cracking effects. The linear analysis is valid both for serviceability and ultimate limit states.
The analysis in the ULS requires a correct detailing of the reinforcement, to withstand the resultant
forces in tensile zones in the concrete and to satisfy equilibrium conditions.
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If a stress field is chosen which satisfies the equilibrium conditions, a lower bound solution of limit
analysis is considered. For the structure and its loads, an equivalent truss may be investigated,
consisting of concrete struts and arches as compressive members and of steel ties formed by the
reinforcement as tensile elements and their connections (nodes). Any equilibrium model may be
applied for verifying the ULS and also for the SLS, provided that the evaluated stress distribution is
close to the results of the linear analysis (see figures D.1 and D.2). A similar approach is also valid for
continuous beams.
The equilibrium model should preferably be based on the dominating load pattern but where point
loads and distributed loads have similar influences or dominate at various times, a more complex
model being a combination of the extreme patterns is required (see figure D.3).
The abovementioned nodes are defined as the volumes of concrete contained within the intersections
between compression fields of struts, in combination with anchorage forces or external compressive
forces (imposed loads or support reactions) or both. The nodes should be so dimensioned that all
forces are anchored and balanced safely.
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The geometry of the node region and the arrangement of reinforcement in it should be consistent with
the model on which the design of the structure is based and with the applied forces. Thereby the
equilibrium conditions should be fulfilled.
Transverse tensile forces from bond actions and minor nonuniformities of applied strut stresses should
normally be covered by structural reinforcement (e.g. stirrups) arranged near the surfaces.
For a more refined analysis, nonlinear stressstrain relations may be taken into account by applying
numerical methods as for twodimensional plane structures. The results of the analysis may be used
for both serviceability and ultimate limit states.
fb1 = fcd
where
where
a1 and a2 are the dimensions of the loaded area (see figure D.4);
b1 and b2 (symetrically to the loaded area) are determined from limitations to the dispersion of the
stresses (figure D.4); and
If an additional horizontal force H is acting at a support (figure D.4(c)), the bearing stress may be
calculated from the following formula:
F2 H2
c = < fb1
Fa1a2
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Ed. 2.2
Transverse tension (see figure D.4(a)) may be calculated using the formula:
1 b1 a1
T
4 b1
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Annex E
(informative)
Bibliography
The information contained in this part of SABS 0100 is considered adequate for the design of the
majority of buildings. For buildings, structures or elements that are not adequately covered or where
special conditions apply or where additional information is desired by the designer, the following
publications should be consulted:
a) Alexander, MG. Prediction of elastic modulus for design of concrete structures. The Civil Engineer
in South Africa, June 1985, vol. 27, No. 6, p. 313324.
b) Alexander, MG and Davis, DE. Properties of aggregates in concrete, Part 1. Hippo Quarries
Technical Publication, 1989. 44p.
c) Alexander, MG and Davis, DE. Properties of aggregates in concrete, Part 2. Hippo Quarries
Technical Publication, 1992. 48p.
d) Alexander, MG and Davis, DE. The influence of aggregates on the compressive strength and elastic
modulus of concrete. The Civil Engineer in South Africa, May 1992, Vol. 34, No. 5, p. 161170.
e) Chana, PS. Some aspects of modelling the behaviour of reinforced concrete under shear loading.
Cement and Concrete Association Technical Report 543, July 1981.
f) Cross, MG. A proposed parametric design model for shear in reinforced concrete. The Civil
Engineer in South Africa, April 1987, vol. 29, No. 4, p. 127134.
h) Kani, Huggins and Wittkopp (ed.). Kani on shear in reinforced concrete. Department of Civil
Engineering, University of Toronto, 1979.
i) Kemp, AR, Milford, RV and Laurie, JAP. Proposals for a comprehensive limit states formulation for
South African structural codes. The Civil Engineer in South Africa, September 1987, vol. 29, No. 9,
p. 351360.
j) Scholz, H. Proposed design provisions for reinforced concrete columns. The Civil Engineer in South
Africa, May 1988, vol. 30, No. 5, p. 229238.
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