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9

Braze Welding and Advanced


Gas Welding Practice:
Jobs 9-J39J49

Most industrial gas welding is on the ferrous and nonfer- Chapter Objectives
rous metals and alloys covered in this chapter. The prac-
tice jobs have been carefully selected on the basis of the
After completing this chapter, you will be able to:
practices being followed in industry. Table 9-3, on page
249, provides a Job Outline for this chapter. It is recom- 9-1 Define, describe, and demonstrate braze welding.
mended that the students complete the jobs in the order 9-2 Describe and demonstrate gas welding on various
shown. As a beginning welder, you may not have an op- ferrous and nonferrous metals.
portunity on the job to weld all of these materials until 9-3 Demonstrate and describe hard facing.
you gain more experience. Mastery of the practice jobs
listed in the Job Outline, however, will provide you with
the variety of gas welding skills that is the mark of the
skilled combination welder. Because this unit continues
the discussion of gas welding practice begun in Chapter 8,
the practice jobs are numbered consecutively. Thus the
first job in this chapter will be 9-J39.

Braze Welding
Braze welding is a form of torch brazing (TB). As AWS
defines it,
A welding process that uses a filler metal with a liquidus
above 840F and below the solidus of the base metal; the
base metal is not melted. Unlike brazing, in braze welding
the filler metal is not distributed in the joint by capillary
action. (American Welding Society, Standard Welding
Terms and Definitions: ANSI/AWS3.0)

232
Fig. 9-1 A braze-welded butt joint in 14-inch steel plate. The
weld was made with a no. 4 tip and a 532-inch bronze rod in the flat
position.

In braze welding (BW), one makes edge, groove, fil-


let, plug, or slot welds by using a nonferrous filler metal.
Intentional capillary action is not a factor in distribution
of the brazing filler metal. Joint designs for braze welding
are the same as for oxyacetylene welding. Some differen-
tial chemical attack and galvanic corrosion may occur in
braze welding.
In torch brazing, a bronze filler rod supplies the weld
metal, and the oxyacetylene flame furnishes the heat.
The joint design for braze welding is the same as for Fig. 9-2 Building up a gear tooth with bronze in a series of layers,
each of which is about 116-inch thick. A flux coated brazing rod is being
fusion welds. The welding technique is the same, except used. Location: Northeast Wisconsin Technical College McGraw-Hill
that the base metal is not melted. It is, in fact, raised only Education/Mark A. Dierker, photographer
to the tinning temperature. A bond (molecular union) is
formed between the bronze welding rod and the prepared Malleable cast iron can be welded only by braze weld-
surface of the work. The welds compare favorably with ing, since the higher heat of fusion welding destroys
fusion welds, Fig. 9-1. the malleability.
Heavy materials have to be beveled, and the weld must The coating on galvanized iron is less affected by the
be made with several passes to ensure a weld throughout the low temperatures of braze welding. This in turn mini-
total thickness of the metal. Each pass should be cleaned be- mizes the distortion in sheet metal fabrication.
fore applying the next layer of weld metal. Braze welding is a good method for joining dissimilar
metals such as cast iron and steel.
Industrial Uses
Braze welding is particularly adaptable to the joining and Bronze Filler Rod
repairing of such metals as cast iron, malleable iron, cop- The melting temperature of bronze filler rod is approxi-
per, brass, and dissimilar metals. It is also used for the mately 1,600F. This is considerably below the melting
building up of worn surfaces, Fig. 9-2, a process that is point of such metals as carbon steel, low alloy steel, and
referred to as bronze surfacing. Parts that are going to cast iron. The filler rods are copper alloys. They usually
be subjected to high stress or high temperature should not contain a little less than 60 percent copper and 40 percent
be braze welded. Bronze loses its strength when heated to zinc. These metals provide high tensile strength and high
a temperature above 500F. The process also cannot be ductility. Small quantities of tin, iron, manganese, and
used when a color match is desired. silicon are also added. These metals produce a rod that
Braze welding has the following commercial advantages: is free flowing and has a deoxidizing effect on the weld.
The speed of welding is increased because less heat is They decrease the tendency to fume and increase the
required than for fusion welding. hardness of the weld metal for greater wear resistance.
The welding of cast iron is greatly simplified because Special filler rods are also available for use as a bearing
the base metal is not melted. Preheating is reduced or bronze.
eliminated.
Since the work does not have to be brought up to a high Flux
temperature, expansion and contraction are reduced. Braze welding depends on the fact that molten metal
The bronze weld yields as the work cools until the with low surface tension flows easily and evenly over
temperature reaches about 500F. This reduces the surface of a heated and chemically clean base metal,
locked-up stresses. Fig. 9-3. The surface of the base metal contains oxides

Braze Welding and Advanced Gas Welding Practice: Jobs 9-J39J49 Chapter 9233
Fig. 9-3 The brazing action. After a spot at the edge of the plate
has been heated to a visible red, some bronze from the fluxed rod
is melted on the hot area. The bronze filler metal spreads and runs
evenly over the hot surface. This practice is known as tinning.
Location: Northeast Wisconsin Technical College McGraw-Hill
Education/Mark A. Dierker, photographer

that can be removed only through the use of a flux. Since


brazing is a bonding process, the surface of the base ma-
terial must be free of contamination of any kind.
Two methods are in general use for applying this
flux. In the first method, the end of the filler rod is
heated and dipped into a supply of powdered flux.
This causes the flux to adhere to the rod. It flows over
the work surface as the rod is melted. Note the flux
on the rod in Fig. 9-3. In the second method, liquid
flux is added to the stream of acetylene flowing to the
torch through a special unit designed for that purpose, Fig. 9-4 Gas fluxer introduces flux into the flame for bronze and
Figs. 9-4 and 9-5. The flux becomes an integral part silver brazing. It uses a highly volatile liquid flux and can be used
with any fuel gas. The Gasflux Co.
of the welding flame. This second method applies the
flux evenly and increases the speed of welding. This
process is used by those manufacturing industries that
engage in mass production (Fig. 9-6). For video of mechanized torch brazing
with flux injected into flame, please visit
www.mhhe.com/welding.

Braze Welding Practice:


Jobs 9-J39J44
S H OP TAL K
Practice in braze welding includes running beads on plate
Starting Up
in the flat and vertical positions, lap and T-joints, and
It is common for resistance welding opera-
single-bevel butt joints. The metals should include steel,
tors to start prior to having stabilized the electrode force. gray cast iron, and copper or brass if available.
They start before stabilization in order to speed up pro-
1. No edge preparation is necessary if beads are
duction. Even so, electrodes must get up to at least 95
percent of the chosen weld force setting before a weld being run on flat plate. Generally, joint design
should be started. for braze welds is the same as for fusion welds in
base metals of like thickness. Bevel the edges of

234Chapter 9Braze Welding and Advanced Gas Welding Practice: Jobs 9-J39J49
1. Consists 4. Adjust the torch for a slightly oxidizing flame.
of a Gasfluxer
installed in the Reserve
5. Heat the filler rod and dip it into the flux. Heat the
fuel gas line. Tank base metal to just the right temperature. The proper
temperature is indicated when the base metal be-
gins to glow. At this point, melt a small amount of
the rod and let it spread over the joint. This is re-
2. Liquid Gasflux 3. The fuel gas carries ferred to as tinning. If filler rod is applied before it
vaporizes into the Gasflux through the is hot enough, the molten bronze will not flow over
flow of the fuel gas. torch to the flame.
the surface. It will form drops that will not adhere
to the material being welded. If the base metal is
Gasfluxer
too hot, the molten bronze will boil and form little
4. A bright balls on the surface of the material being welded.
green flame Bronze weld metal that is too hot will also burn
indicates
that Gasflux is and give off a white smoke. This is the zinc that
Fuel Oxygen
being applied. is burning with the oxygen in the air. It forms
Gas
zinc oxide. The bronze will flow readily over the
surface when the work has reached the correct
temperature.
6. Carry the weld forward with a slightly circular
Fig. 9-5 How the liquid fluxer is connected to the torch and gas movement of the torch like that used in fusion weld-
supply. Source: Gasflux Company ing while adding filler rod to the weld pool. As the
weld progresses, keep the end of the filler rod well-
fluxed. Keep in mind that proper heating of the base
metal is critical.
7. If more than one layer of beads is necessary, as in
the welding of a second pass in a groove, make sure
that you obtain through-fusion between the new
bronze weld and the previously deposited bronze
bead, and a good bond on the bevel and plate sur-
faces. Be careful that there are no inclusions of slag
or oxide and other contaminants.
8. Continue to practice until you can make braze
welds that are of uniform width and height. They
should be smooth, with fine ripples, and free of
pits and other porosity. They should be brightly
colored. The edges should flow into the plate
without overlap or other signs of lack of a bond. A
deposit of white residue on the weld indicates over-
heating and burning.
9. Test the welds by making butt, lap, or T-joints, and
testing them as you did your fusion welds in steel.
Examine them for evenness and depth of bond. Find
Fig. 9-6 Some typical brazing and soldering applications.
out whether the bronze has flowed to the root of
The Gasflux Co. the joint. Good braze welds often tear out cast iron
when tested.
metal thicker than 18 inch to provide a groove for
welding. Powder Brazing
2. Clean the surface of the metal with a wire brush to Powder brazing is a form of brazing that is used in
remove any foreign substances. mass production industries. A specially designed torch,
3. Position the work so that it runs slightly uphill. This Fig. 9-7, or a small hopper attachment unit that can be at-
prevents the molten bronze from flowing ahead to tached to a standard welding torch, provides the powder.
plate surfaces that are not hot enough. The mixer matches the powder flow range to the gas flow

Braze Welding and Advanced Gas Welding Practice: Jobs 9-J39J49 Chapter 9235
Metal hopper withstands high
temperature build-up without damage. Hopper cover has convenient pour
spout for spill-free powder removal.
Made of high temperature plastic to
resist reflected heat.
Specially designed safety feature
prevents collection of mixed gases
in hoppereliminates danger of
explosion in hopper.

Nickel plated aluminum body is


light, tough, easy to handle.

Special nickel plated copper


gooseneck conducts heat Incomparable Smith Torch Body
away from the tip to keep the has durable silver soldered
tip coolprevents powder construction.
build-up on tip end.

Interchangeable mixers provide


Tips have stainless steel orifice maximum powder flow and heat
liner to resist abrasive action of output for each tip size.
powderlast at least ten times
longer than conventional tips.

Fig. 9-7 Powder brazing torch. Adapted from Smith Equipment

range of the tip to provide maximum performance with Welding Applications


each tip size. Gray cast iron may be braze welded or fusion welded. For
The powder brazing process can be used as a means the most part, cast iron is welded in maintenance and re-
of hard surfacing, brazing, and buildup welding. It pro- pair work. Welding is seldom used as a fabricating pro-
duces high quality work at high speeds. A wide selec- cess. Braze welding is preferred since it can be applied at
tion of overlay powders is available with a large variety a low temperature, and the bronze weld is highly ductile.
of hardness ratings, machineability, and resistance to heat Fusion welding is used when the color of the base metal
and corrosion. Brazing alloys are also available for use in must be retained and when the welded part is to be sub-
many applications. jected to service temperatures over 500F. Table 9-1 sum-
marizes the various cast iron welding procedures. Before
practice welding, review Chapter 3, pages 9295, for ad-
Welding Cast Iron ditional information concerning the nature of cast iron.
Characteristics of Cast Iron
Preheating
You will recall that cast irons are classified as gray iron,
white iron, nodular iron, and malleable iron. Both gray Control of expansion and contraction is very important in
cast iron and malleable iron are used commercially. We cast iron welding. The bulk and shape of the casting and
will be concerned here with the fusion welding of gray
cast iron. Malleable iron cannot be fusion welded with the
oxyacetylene process and must be braze welded.
Gray cast iron is an alloy of iron, carbon, and sili- J OB T IP
con. The carbon in gray cast iron may be present in two
forms: in a carbon and iron solution and as a free carbon Interview
in the form of graphite. When it is broken, the fractured Preparing for an interview starts by listing
your qualifications in a resume. Once you have that in-
surface has a gray look due to the presence of the graph- formation down on paper, youll feel ready to answer the
ite particles. Gray cast iron is easy to machine because interview questions. Decide what you have to offer that
graphite is a fine lubricant. The presence of graphite also business. Youll know best what to offer by having some
causes gray cast iron to have low ductility and tensile knowledge of the company.
strength.

236Chapter 9Braze Welding and Advanced Gas Welding Practice: Jobs 9-J39J49
Table 9-1 Summary of Cast Iron Welding Procedures

Cast Iron Type Procedure Treatment Properties


Gray iron Weld with cast iron Preheat and cool slowly Same as original
Gray iron Braze weld Preheat and cool slowly Weld better; heat-affected zone as good
as original
Gray iron Braze weld No preheat Weld better; base metal hardened
Gray iron Weld with steel Preheat if at all possible Weld better; base metal may be too hard to
machine; if not preheated, needs to be
welded intermittently to avoid cracking
Gray iron Weld with steel around No preheat Joint as strong as original
studs in joint
Gray iron Weld with nickel Preheat preferred Joint as strong as original; thin hardened zone;
machinable
Malleable iron Weld with cast iron Preheat, and postheat to repeat Good weld, but slow and costly
malleablizing treatment
Malleable iron Weld with bronze Preheat As strong, but heat-affected zone not as
ductile as original
White cast iron Welding not
recommended
Nodular iron Weld with nickel Preheat preferred; postheat Joint strong and ductile, but some loss of original
preferred properties; machinable; all qualities lower in
absence of preheat and/or postheat
Source: The James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation

whether or not light sections join heavy sections affect the flow of the molten metal during welding and retards
preheating and welding technique. When fusion welding oxidation that may lead to the formation of slag inclusions
cast iron, all parts of the casting must be able to expand and blowholes. Good cast iron welding rods contain 3 to
equally to prevent cracking and locked-in stress in the job. 4 percent silicon.
If the torch is applied directly to the cold casting and the Cast iron filler rods are supplied in diameters of 316,14,
joint to be welded is raised to the melting point, the expan- 3
8, and 12 inch and in lengths of 12 to 18 inches. They
sion of the heated metal will cause a break or crack in the carry the AWS-ASTM classification of RCI, RCI-A,
relatively cold casting surrounding the weld. If it does not and RCI-B. They may be round, square, or hexagonal in
break, severe internal stresses are locked in that may later shape. If the welder needs a longer or heavier rod, he or
cause a failure under service. she can weld two or more rods together.
Small castings can be preheated with the oxyacetylene
flame during the welding operation if the entire casting is Flux
heated evenly. Large castings may have to be preheated in The problem in welding cast iron, as in welding other met-
a firebrick furnace built around the casting. Heating is usu- als, is to prevent oxide from forming and, when it does,
ally done with gas- or oil-fired burners. The furnace is cov- to remove it from the weld. The flux dissolves the oxide,
ered with heat-resistant material to retain the heat and keep floats off other impurities such as sand, scale, and dirt,
out cold drafts. The casting is welded through a large hole and increases the fluidity of the molten metal.
in the heat-resistant material. When the weld is completed, The student welder must learn to apply flux properly.
the casting is again raised to an even heat all over. Then it Too much flux can cause as much trouble as too little. Ex-
is buried in heat-resistant material and allowed to cool very cessive flux becomes entrapped in the molten metal and
slowly. causes blowholes and porosity. Also, the molten iron will
combine with certain elements in the flux if it is applied
Filler Rod in excess. You will learn by experience the right amount
Fusion welding requires the use of a good grade of cast to use. The amount that adheres to the hot end of the weld-
iron filler rod that matches the material being welded. ing rod when it is dipped in the flux is usually enough. Do
The rod must contain enough silicon to replace the silicon not throw additional quantities into the weld as you are
that tends to burn out during welding. Silicon assists in welding.

Braze Welding and Advanced Gas Welding Practice: Jobs 9-J39J49 Chapter 9237