Anda di halaman 1dari 39

1

MODUL PRACTICUM



G U ID E O F B A S IC P HY S IC S L A B O RA T O RY

I. PRELIMINARY
A. The purpose experiment of Basic Physics in Laboratory
Developing the theory and the fact that the material given in lectures more
internalized and to understand.
Checking the truth of the laws of physics and visually see some of the
events in the actual events.
Acquire the necessary skills and skills in using and understood the
usefulness of laboratory equipment.
Ability to analyze, create hypotheses or conclusions from the data obtained
from the experiments.

B. Experiment Steps
1. Preparation, with special attention to the purpose of the experiment,
comprehensively understand the theory and physical quantities
related to the experiment, the function of the tools and
experimental nets.
2. Experiment, with due regard to environmental conditions, perform repeated
measurements, record all of the data is done, including the
smallest scale.
3. Analysis, check the data consistent, make the relationship in the graph and
perform calculations correctly.
4 The authors report.

II. CONDUCT (MSUST READ)


A. Home / Before Practicum:
1. Practitioner has come late after the lab begins not allowed to participate in
practicum.
2. Learn well the modules that you do in the lab.
3. Work on the preliminary task in the module in question and submit it to
your assistant before working in the lab module.

2
MODUL PRACTICUM



4. At the time of leaving the lab will be sure to bring the control valve,
student identification, and lab coats.
5. In Laboratory practitioner should be calm, orderly, polite, well-dressed in
a shirt or collared shirt, do not wear sandals and shall wear identification.
Prohibited food, drink, or smoke in the laboratory.
6. Practitioners not allowed to participate if they do not meet the practical
requirements:
a. Wearing identification
b. Carry identification cards practicum
7. Submit the preliminary tasks to assistants and answer the initial test before
the lab begins.

B. DURING LABORATORY
1. Practitioners can begin the experiment after preliminary tests and get
permission from the assistant Instruction to use tool
2. Practitioners should get the data by experimenting. If they fail to to obtain
the data (due to equipment failure or other things), must report to the
assistant and lecturer responsible for the daily.
3. Practitioners must keep her safety, cleanliness and order laboratory
4. Special 4 for experiments using electricity, before turning on the power
supply ask the assistant if the circuit is correct.
5. If the practitioners make a faults, assistants can make a rule and sanction.

C. FINISHED EXPERIMENT
After the lab is complete, before leaving the laboratory, the practitioner must:
1. Ask a preliminary report which has been re-checked.
2. Ask the signature on the control card.
3. Cleaning the table and throw garbage.

3
MODUL PRACTICUM



D. OTHER PROVISIONS
1. Practicum must replace equipment damaged or lost during practicum takes
place with the same tool prior to attending next practicum.
2. The amount of practical value is 25% (1 sks) of the total value of college
Physics
3. Practicum is not a requirement to pass the course Physics II.
4. whole other rules will be explained at the time of general responsiveness

E. TIME LAB
Shift I 7:30 to 10:00 a.m
Shift II 10:00 to 12:30 p.m
Shift III 12:30 to 15:00 p.m
Shift IV 15.00 to 17.30 p.m

F. COPYRIGHT
This module was written by team of PASCO that Ann Hanks, Sean
McKeever and Geoffrey Clarion. Edited by crew of basic physic Laboratory.
Direction of Sabaruddin Rahman, ST.,MT.,Ph.D and Wardi, ST.M.Eng As
Responsible for the laboratory

Gowa, 16th February 2015


Coordinator Practicum

4
MODUL PRACTICUM



LIST OF CONTENTS

Chapter I : Electromagnetic : Faradays Law 6


Chapter II : Magnet : Magnetic Force on Wire 13
Chapter III : Magnet : Magnetic Fields Coil 25
Chapter IV : Wave : Longitudinal And Transversal Wave 29
Chapter V : Optic : Snells Law 34


































5
MODUL PRACTICUM



CHAPTER I
ELECTROMAGNETIC
FARADAYS LAW

I. INTRODUCTION
A changing magnetic field can produce a potential difference, often called
an emf, across a coil of wire. If the coil is part of a closed circuit, a current is
induced in the circuit. The changing magnetic field can be produced by relative
motion between a coil and a permanent magnet or by changing the current in one
coil that is placed near another coil. Effects of these kinds are known as
electromagnetic induction and can be described by Faradays law and Lenzs law.
Motors, generators, and transformers are a few of the many common devices
whose operation is explained by the laws of electromagnetic induction. In this
experiment, a coil passes through a magnetic field, causing a change in the
magnetic flux in the coil.

II. PURPOSE
1. Verify faradays laws of electromagnetic induction
2. Observe factors which affect to magnitude of induced emf
3. Identify induced emf in the coil and the effect of the induced current on
the coils motion

III. EQUIPMENT
Induction Wand 200-turn EM-8099
Variable Gap Magnet EM-8618
Large Rod Stand ME-8735
45 cm Long Steel Rod ME-8736
Large Table Clamp ME-9507
Voltage-Current Sensor PS-2115
2-Axis Magnetic Field Sensor PS-2162
Rotary Motion Sensor PS-2120

6
MODUL PRACTICUM



Meter Stick
Computer and DataStudio Software
USB Link PS-2100
PASPORT Sensor Extension Cable PS-2500

IV. BASIC THEORY


According to Faraday's Law of Induction, a changing magnetic flux through
a coil induces an emf given by:

d
E = N (1)
dt
v v
Where = B dA = BA for a magnetic field (B) which is constant over the

area (A) and perpendicular to the area. N is the number of turns of wire in the coil.
The negative sign in Faraday's law indicates that the induced emf and the change
in flux have opposite signs. This arises from significant physical phenomena,
referred to as Lenz' Law: the induced current is
Always in a direction that opposes the change of flux that created it. That is,
the induced current tends to keep the original magnetic flux from changing by
creating a magnetic field in a direction that opposes the change in flux.

V. SET-UP
1. Put a rod in the stand and clamp the cross-rod to it as shown in Figure 1. Put
the Rotary Motion Sensor at the end of the cross-rod.
2. Attach the coil wand to the Rotary Motion Sensor with the tabs on the 3-step
pulley just to the sides of the wand as shown in Figure 2.
3. Put the pole plates on the magnet as shown in Figure 3. Adjust the gap
between the magnet poles so the coil wand will be able to pass through but
put the magnet poles as close together as possible.

7
MODUL PRACTICUM



Figure 1: Rod Stand Figure 2: Tabs Figure 3: Magnet Pole Plate

4. Adjust the height of the coil so it is in the middle of the magnet. Align the
wand from side-to-side so it will swing through the magnet without hitting it.
5. Plug the Voltage Sensor into a USB Link or similar PASPORT interface.
Connect the interface into the computer. Repeat for the Rotary Motion Sensor
and the Magnetic Field Sensor.
6. Plug the Voltage Sensor banana plugs into the banana jacks on the end of the
coil wand. Drape the Voltage Sensor wires over the rods as shown in Figure 1
so the wires will not exert a torque on the coil as it swings. It helps to hold the
wires up while recording data.
7. Open the DataStudio file called "InducedEMFpas.ds".

VI. PROCEDURE
In this practicum, you will use an Induction Wand to measure the
relationship between induced electromotive force and magnetic flux with respect
to velocity of a coil traveling through magnetic field and strength of magnetic
field. Velocity of coil will be varying with changes the angle and strength of
magnetic field will be varying with changes the distance of magnets.
Before do the procedure below, determine which the north and south pole of
magnet.

8
MODUL PRACTICUM



a. Constant Distance (Varying velocity of coil)


1. Setup the distance between magnets, the distance is 4 cm.
2. With sensor far from magnets, Press TARE button at 2-Axis Magnetic
Sensor. Sensor will be calibrated
3. Click START BUTTON at top of DataSudio. Pull the coil wand back
with angle is 7,5 degree. Use Rotary Motion Sensor to see the angle. Let it
swing through the magnet.
4. Data will be recording. After around 6 waves at the graph, click STOP
button at DataStudio
5. Use MAGNIFIER tool to enlarge the portion of the graphs
6. Use mouse to highlight the first peak at Voltage graph and note the
maximum value of voltage
7. Use mouse to high light the first peak at Magnetic Field graph and note
the maximum value of voltage
8. Use mouse to high Light the first peak at Angular Velocity graph and note
the maximum value of velocity
9. Repeat steps 1-7 with angle 15, 30, 45, and 60

b. Constant Angle (Varying strength of magnetic field)


1. Setup the distance between magnets, the distance is 3,5 cm.
2. With sensor far from magnets, Press TARE button at 2-Axis Magnetic
Sensor. Sensor will be calibrated
3. Click START BUTTON at top of DataSudio. Pull the coil wand back
with angle is 30. Use Rotary Motion Sensor to see the angle. Let it
swing through the magnet.
4. Data will be recording. After around 6 waves at the graph, click STOP
button at DataStudio
5. Use MAGNIFIER tool to enlarge the portion of the graphs
6. Use mouse to highlight the first peak at Voltage graph and note the
maximum value of voltage
7. Use mouse to high light the first peak at Magnetic Field graph and note
the maximum value of voltage

9
MODUL PRACTICUM



8. Repeat steps 1-7 with distance of magnets is 4 cm, 4,5 cm, 5 cm, 5,5 cm
and 6 cm

VII. DATA AND ANALYSIS


VII.1 TABLE
a. Constant Distance
Distance between magnets = 4 cm
Angle Angular velocity Magnetic Field (gauss) Voltage (volt)

(deg/s)

7,5

15

30

45

60

75

b. Constant Angle
Angle of coil = 30 degree
Distance (cm) Magnetic Field (gauss) Voltage (volt)

3,5

4,5

5,5

10
MODUL PRACTICUM



VII.2 GRAPH
a. Constant Distance

Velocity of coil vs Voltage


1.5
Voltage

0.5

0
7.5 15 30 45 60

Velocity

b. Constant Angle

Strength of Magnets vs Voltage


1.2
1
0.8
Voltage

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
Strength


c. DataStudio Graph (x degree, x cm)

1.2
1
0.8
Axis Title

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
Axis Title

11
MODUL PRACTICUM



VII.3 ANALYSIS
Answer the following question in your lab report:
1. How is the relationship between velocity of coil through the magnet and
induced voltage? And Why?
2. How is the relationship between magnitude of magnetic coil and induced
voltage? And Why?
3. Where is the coil enter the magnet and leave the magnet at DataStudio graph?
4. Is the emf of the first peak positive or negative? Taking into account the
direction the wire is wrapped around the coil, does the sign of the emf
correspond to the direction expected using Lenz's Law?
5. Why is the induced voltage increasingly swing smaller and slower?

VIII. PRELIMINARY TASK


1. Write the factors that affect to the magnitude of induced voltage at swing coil
through the magnet!
2. Write faradays laws of induction of voltage and five applications in life!
3. Explain about magnetic field, magnetic flux, electric field, and eddy currents!
4. How to determine direction of induced current according to the Lenzs law?
5. A coil have 200 turn which placed between two pole of permanent magnet
(north pole and south pole). Magnetic field B between two pole of magnets is
200 gauss. How much the magnetic flux if the outer diameter of coil is 3,1 cm
and inner diameter is 1,9 cm? If magnetic field is changing to 600 gauss in
2x10-2 seconds. How much induced voltage at coil?
6. A bracelet copper is dropped between two pole of magnet with certain
strength magnetic field. Bracelet that drop appear slowed. Explain this
phenomenon!

REFERENCES
Hanks, Ann. Year. Faraday Induction (PASPORT) EX-995. PASCO: United
States of America

The point of be a good engineers is think smart, honest, and work properly

12
MODUL PRACTICUM



CHAPTER II
MAGNET
MAGNETIC FORCE ON WIRE

I. INTRODUCTION
Magnets are mounted on an iron yoke and placed on a balance (resolution of
at least 0.01g). One of the conducting paths is suspended between the magnets.
The balance is used to measure the mass of the magnets and yoke prior to any
current passing through the conducting path. Current is then passed through the
conducting path, producing a force. The change in reading on the balance can be
converted to find the magnetic force between the conductor and magnetic field.
Conductors of different length are included to measure the effect of length
on magnetic force. Magnetic field can be varied by changing the number of
magnets in the yoke. The power source is used to change the current supplied to
the conductor. The Current Balance Accessory includes all the components
needed to test the effect of angle on magnetic force.

II. THEORY
A current carrying wire in a magnetic field experiences a force that is
usually referred to as a magnetic force. The magnitude and direction of this force
depend on four variables: The magnitude and direction of the current (I); the
strength of the magnetic field (B); the length of the wire (L); and the angle
between the field and the wire (q).
This magnetic force can be described mathematically by the vector cross
product:
Fm = IL x B
Or in scalar form,
Fm = ILBsin
Using the equipment included in the Magnetic Forces on Wires Experiment,
all four variables (I, B, L, and q) can be varied while measuring the resulting
magnetic force.

13
MODUL PRACTICUM



III. EQUIPMENT

1 Basic Current Balance SF-8607 # Current Loop Length


1 Current Balance Accessory SF-8608
1 SF 40 1.2 cm
1 Electronic Balance DJ-B6000
1 Low Voltage AC/DC Power Supply SF-9584A 1 SF 37 2.2 cm
1 Large Base and Support Rod ME-9355
1 SF 39 3.2 cm
1 Banana Plug Cord Set-Red (1 pack) SE-9750
1 Banana Plug Cord Set-Black(1 pack) SE-9751 1 SF 38 4.2 cm
1 Iron Yoke (holds magnets) - 1 SF 41 6.4 cm
1 Removable Magnets (six) -
1 Fixed Magnet with Yoke - 1 SF 42 8.4 cm
1 10-turn Rectangular Coil -

IV. SET UP

To set up the Current Balance:


1. Mount the Main Unit on a lab stand having with a rod 3/8 inch (1.1 cm) in
diameter or smaller.
2. Select a Current Loop, and plug it into the ends of the arms of the Main Unit,
with the foil extending down.
3. Place the Magnet Assembly on a balance with at least 0.01 gram sensitivity.
Position the lab stand so the horizontal portion of the conductive foil on the
Current Loop passes through the pole region of the magnets. The Current
Loop shouldn't touch the magnets.
4. Connect the power supply and ammeter as shown above.

14
MODUL PRACTICUM



V. EXPERIMENT
V.1 PROCEDURE EXPERIMENT 1 - FORCE VS. CURRENT

1. Insert between 4 6 magnets into the magnet holder to provide a constant


magnetic field. Enter the number of magnets used above Table 1.
2. Choose one of the current loops to use throughout the experiment and record
the length of the current loop above Table 1.
3. Setup the current balance as shown above.
4. Determine the mass of the magnet holder and magnets with no current
flowing. Record this value in the column under Mass in Table 1 below.
5. Turn on the power supply and set the current to 0.5 A. Determine the new
Mass of the magnet assembly. Record this value under Mass in Table 1
below.
6. Increase the current in 0.5 A increments to a maximum of 5.0 A, each time
measuring the new mass of the magnet assembly and recording this value
in Table 1 below.

V.1.1 ANALYSIS
# of Magnets Used:
Current Loop Used:

15
MODUL PRACTICUM



TABLE 1
Current Mass
(A) (grams)

1. Subtract the Mass value for each of the currents from the Mass
value for zero current to get the Force for each current.
2. Open the DataStudio file, Force_Current.ds
3. Enter the Current values used into the Force vs. Current table.
4. Enter the Force values into the Force vs. Current table.
5. Observe the shape of the Force vs. Current graph.

V.1.2 QUESTIONS
1. What relationship exists between the magnetic force and current
through the conductor?
2. What is the physical meaning of the slope of the Force vs. Current
graph?
3. What is the physical meaning of the vertical intercept of the Force vs.
Current graph?
4. Can the vertical intercept be attributed to measurement error? Explain.
5. Write a proportionality expression that represents the relationship
between Magnetic Force and Current.

V.2 PROCEDURE EXPERIMENT 2 - FORCE VS. LENGTH OF WIRE


1. Insert between 4 6 magnets into the magnet holder to provide a constant
magnetic field. Be sure to center the magnets in the holder.

16
MODUL PRACTICUM



2. Enter the number of magnets used above Table 2.


3. Choose the shortest current loop to begin the experiment.

4. Setup the current balance as shown above.


5. Determine the mass of the magnet holder and magnets with no current
flowing. Record this value above Table 2 below.
6. Turn on the power supply and set the current between 2.0 and 3.0 Amps.
Record this value above Table 2.
7. Determine the new Mass of the magnet assembly. Record this value under
Mass in Table 2 below.
8. Swing the arm of the main unit up, to raise the present current loop out of
the magnetic field gap.

17
MODUL PRACTICUM



9. Pull the current loop gently from the arms of the base unit. Replace it with
the next current loop and carefully lower the arm to reposition the current
loop in the magnetic field.
10. Repeat steps 6-8 for each of the current loops and enter the appropriate data
in Table 2
V.2.1 ANALYSIS
# of Magnets Used:
Current Used:
Mass with I = 0:

TABLE 2
Length Mass
(cm) (grams)

18
MODUL PRACTICUM



1. Subtract the Mass value for each of the currents from the Mass
value for zero current to get the Force for each length.
2. Open the DataStudio file, Force_ConductorLength.ds
3. Enter the Lengths used into the Force vs. Length table.
4. Enter the Force values into the Force vs. Length table.
5. Observe the shape of the Force vs. Length graph.

V.2.2 QUESTIONS
1. What relationship exists between the magnetic force and length of
conductor in the magnetic field?
2. What is the physical meaning of the slope of the Force vs. Length
graph?
3. What is the physical meaning of the vertical intercept of the Force vs.
Length graph?
4. Can the vertical intercept be attributed to measurement error? Explain.
5. Write a proportionality expression that represents the relationship
between Magnetic Force and Length.

V.3 PROCEDURE EXPERIMENT 3 - FORCE VS. MAGNETIC FIELD


1. Insert one magnet into the magnet holder and center the magnet in the
holder.
2. Choose one of the current loops to use throughout the experiment and
record the length of the current loop above Table 3.
3. Setup the current balance as shown above.

19
MODUL PRACTICUM



4. Determine the mass of the magnet holder and magnets with no current
flowing. Record this value in the Mass I = 0 column in Table 3.
5. Turn on the power supply and set the current between 2.0 and 3.0 Amps.
Record this value above Table 3.
6. Determine the new Mass of the magnet assembly. Record this value under
Mass I > 0 in Table 3 below.
7. Turn off the power supply to change the current to zero.
8. Swing the arm of the main unit up, to raise the current loop out of the
magnetic field gap.
9. Place an additional magnet into the magnet holder aligning the like poles of
the magnets.
10. Place the holder in the back on the balance pan with the North and South
poles in the same orientation as the last measurement.
11. Lower the arm of the main unit and reposition the current loop inside the
magnetic field gap. Be certain the current loop isnt touching the magnet
holder.
12. Determine the mass of the magnet holder and magnets with no current
flowing. Record this value in the Mass I = 0 column in Table 3.
13. Turn the power supply on to provide current through the loop.
14. Measure the new Mass of the magnet assembly and record this value in
the Mass I >0 column in Table 3.
15. Repeat steps 7-14 for 3, 4, 5 and 6 magnets.

V.3.1 ANALYSIS
Current Used:
Current Loop Used:
TABLE 3
Mass Mass
Magnetic Field I=0 I>0
(# of magnets) (grams) (grams)

20
MODUL PRACTICUM



1. Subtract the Mass value for each Magnetic Field from the Mass
value for zero current to get the Force for each field strength.
2. Open the DataStudio file, Force_MagField.ds
3. Enter the Lengths used into the Force vs. Magnetic Field table.
4. Enter the Force values into the Force vs. Magnetic Field table.
5. Observe the shape of the Force vs. Magnetic Field graph.

V.3.2 QUESTIONS
1. What relationship exists between the Magnetic Force and Magnetic
Field?
2. What is the physical meaning of the slope of the Force vs. Magnetic
Field graph?
3. What is the physical meaning of the vertical intercept of the Force vs.
Magnetic Field graph?
4. Can the vertical intercept be attributed to measurement error? Explain.
5. Write a proportionality expression that represents the relationship
between Magnetic Force and Magnetic Field.

V.4 PROCEDURE EXPERIMENT 4 - FORCE VS. ANGLE


1. Place the smaller magnet holder from the Current Balance Accessory on the
mass tray of the balance.
2. Attach the Current Balance Accessory to the arm of the current balance and
lower the coil into the magnetic field of the magnet holder. The coil should
not be touching the magnet holder.
3. Setup the current balance as shown above.
4. Set the angle to 0 such that the coils are facing the shorter dimension of the
magnet holder (see photo below).

21
MODUL PRACTICUM



5. Determine the mass of the magnet holder and magnets with no current
flowing. Record this value above Table 4.
6. Turn on the power supply and set the current between 2.0 and 3.0 Amps.
Record this value above Table 4.
7. Determine the new Mass of the magnet assembly. Record this value under
Mass I > 0 in Table 4 below.
8. Change the angle by 10 increments up to 90, each time repeating steps 5
7. Record the measurements in Table 4.
9. Repeat steps 5 7 for angles between 0 and -90 and record the
measurements in Table 4.
V.4.1 ANALYSIS
Mass with I = 0:
Current Used:
Current Loop Used:

22
MODUL PRACTICUM



TABLE 4

Mass
Angle I>0 Force
(degrees) (grams) (grams)
30
60
0
-30
-60

1. Subtract the Mass value for each Magnetic Field from the Mass
value for zero current to get the Force for each angle.
2. Open the DataStudio file, Force_Angle.ds
3. Enter the Angles used into the Force vs. Angle table.
4. Enter the Force values into the Force vs. Angle table.
5. Observe the shape of the Force vs. Angle graph.
6. Print a copy of the Force vs. Angle graph.

V.4.2 QUESTIONS
1. Describe the relationship between Magnetic Force and Angle.
2. Which trigonometric function best fits the data? Explain your choice.
3. Draw this fit on the printout of the graph and write the proportionality
expression between Magnetic Force and Angle.

VI. FINAL ANALYSIS


1. Combine the proportionality expressions for all four experiments into one
expression. Force should be on the left side of the expression and the other
variables on the right side of the expression.
2. Write a few sentences explaining the relationship between Magnetic Force,
Length, Current, Magnetic Field and Angle.
3. How would you convert this expression into an equation?
4. What is the constant of proportionality for this equation? Explain.
5. How could such an equation be used?

23
MODUL PRACTICUM



VII. PRELIMINARY TASK


1. Use the Right Hand Rule to find the direction of the magnetic fields at
each of the points labelled A - H in the following diagrams.

Answer:
2. Describe how you would use your right hand to determine the direction of
a magnetic field around a current carrying conductor.
3. Answer that question:
a. Calculate the force per unit length on a wire carrying a current of
0.50A when perpendicular to a 4.0T magnetic field.
b. What if the angle between the wire and the field is 45?
4. Determine the magnetic field midway between two long straight wires 10
cm apart if one carries 10A and the other 8.0A and these currents are
a. in the same direction, and
b. in opposite directions.

REFERENCES

Geoffrey Clarion. Newtons 2 Law. Pasco : United State Of America

Dreamer not just dream their dream, but dreaming a real dream

24
MODUL PRACTICUM



CHAPTER III
MAGNET
MAGNETIC FIELDS COIL

I. INTRODUCTION
The magnetic fields of various coils are plotted versus position as the
Magnetic Field Sensor is passed through the coils, guided by a track. The position
is recorded by a string attached to the Magnetic Field Sensor that passes over the
Rotary Motion Sensor pulley to a hanging mass.
It is particularly interesting to compare the field from Helmholtz coils at the
proper separation of the coil radius to the field from coils separated at less than or
more than the coil radius. The magnetic field inside a solenoid can be examined in
both the radial and axial directions.

II. EQUIPMENT
1 Helmholtz Coil Base EM-6715
2 Field Coil (2) EM-6711
1 Primary and Secondary Coils SE-8653
1 Patch Cords (set of 5) SE-9750
1 Patch Cords (set of 5) SE-9751
1 60 cm Optics Bench OS-8541
1 Dynamics Track Mount CI-6692
1 20 g hooked mass (Hooked Mass Set) SE-8759
2 Small Base and Support Rod (2) SE-9451
2 Optics Bench Rod Clamps (2) 648-06569
1 DC Power Supply SE-9720
1 Digital Multimeter SE-9786
1 Magnetic Field Sensor CI-6520A
1 Rotary Motion Sensor CI-6538
1 Science Workshop 500 or 750 Interface CI-6400
1 DataStudio Software CI-6870

25
MODUL PRACTICUM



III. BASIC THEORY


III.1 Single Coil
For a coil of wire having radius R and
N turns of wire, the magnetic field R

along the perpendicular axis through


the center of the coil is given by x



III.2 Two Coils

Figure 2: Two Coils with Arbitrary Separation

For Helmholtz coils, the coil separation


(d) equals the radius (R) of the coils. This
coil separation gives a uniform magnetic
field between the coils. Plugging in
x = 0 gives the magnetic field at a point on
the x-axis centered between the two coils:

IV. PROCEDURE
1. Arranging track already provided with coil and coil base buffer between track.
2. Arranging experimental tools appropriate with the experimental picture.
3. Calculate the strength of the magnetic field resulting by changing the input
voltage (0, 4, 8, 12, 16) V and record the resulting current in the table provided.
4. Draw a graph resulting from each experiment.
5. Repeating the experiments 1 till 4 with 2 coils experiment.

26
MODUL PRACTICUM




V. ANALYSIS DATA
V.1 TABLE
a. Single Coil

V variable x constant 15 cm
V (Volt) I (ampere) B
0
4
8
12
16

b. Two coil

V variable x constant 15 cm

Seri
V (Volt) I (ampere) B
0
4
8
12
16

Parallel
V (Volt) I (ampere) B
0
4
8
12
16

27
MODUL PRACTICUM



V.2. GRAPH
DataStudio Graph

1.2
1

Axis Title
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
Axis Title

V.3 ANALYSIS
For analysis data, write in your lab report what and how much different
with analysis of theory and analysis of practicum/experiment. Answer the
following question in your lab report:
1. How the different between voltage single coil through the magnet and
double/two coil?
2. At Data Studio graph, what happen with voltage when the coil enter, leave
and at the center of magnet?

VI. PRELIMINARY TASK


1. Explain about:
a. Oersted d. Stream g. Entanglement
b. Faraday e. Tension h. Jumper
c. Lorentz f. Coil
2. The working principle of the power supply?
3. the principle of working of analog and digital multimeter and the advantages
their respective?
4. The working principle of magnetic field sensors and sensor rotation

REFERENCES
Hanks, Ann. Year. Faraday Induction (PASPORT) EX-995. PASCO: United
States of America
Good people not look from their rhetoric but what your act for around

28
MODUL PRACTICUM



CHAPTER IV
WAVE
LONGITUDINAL AND TRANSVERSAL WAVE

I. PURPOSE
a. Shows the stationary transverse wave on a string and longitudinal waves in
spring
b. Know the relation between wave propagation speed (v) with the rope tension
force (F).
c. Determining the rapid propagation of waves on a string.

II. EQUIPMENT
Mechanical Driver, PASCO Model SF-9324 or WA-9753
Function Generator with Amplifier, PASCO Model PI-9587A or PI-9598
Support for the non-driven end of the spring.
Physics (Braided) String SE-8050

III. BASIC THEORY

Under the direction of vibration waves can be divided into 2 types:

1. Transverse waves, ie waves that has a vibration direction perpendicular to


the direction rambatannya. Example: waves on a string, belombang on the
surface of the water, light waves,

2. Longitudinal waves, ie waves that has a vibration direction in the direction


of rambatannya, Example: wave in spring, sound waves

A stretched string has many natural modes of vibration (three examples


are shown below). If the string is fixed at both ends then there must be a node
(place of no amplitude) at each end and at least one anti-node (place of
maximum amplitude). It may vibrate as a single segment, in which case the
length (L) of the string is equal to 1/2 the wavelength () of the wave. It may
also vibrate in two segments with a node at each end and one node in the

29
MODUL PRACTICUM



middle; then the wavelength is equal to the length of the string. It may also
vibrate with a larger integer number of segments. In every case, the length of
the string equals some integer number of half wavelengths.

If you drive a stretched string at an arbitrary frequency, you will


probably not see any particular mode: Many modes will be mixed together.
But, if the driving frequency, the tension and the length are adjusted correctly,
one vibrational mode will occur at much greater amplitude than the other
modes.

In this experiment, standing waves are set up in a stretched string by the


vibrations of an electrically-drive String Vibrator. The arrangement of the
apparatus is shown below. The tension in the string equals the weight of the
masses suspended over the pulley. You can alter the tension by changing the
masses. You can adjust the amplitude and frequency of the wave by adjusting
the output of the Sine Wave Generator, which powers the string vibrator.

L is the length of the vibrating part of the string and is the wavelength of the
wave. For the string shown above vibrating in 3 segments, = L.

30
MODUL PRACTICUM



For any wave with wavelength and frequency f, the speed of the wave, v, is

v=f (1)

In addition, the speed of a wave on a string is also given by

v = F
--- (2)

The linear density () is the mass per unit length of the string. The Tension (F) is applied by
the hanging a mass (m), and is equal to the weight (mg) of the hanging mass.

IV. PROCEDURE
1. Hook one end of the spring
through the hole in the banana
plug assembly.
2. Insert the banana plug on one
end of the spring into the drive
shaft of the Mechanical Driver.
3. Suspend the other end of the
spring from a ring stand or other
support such that the length of
the spring is between 30 and 60
cm. (It may be desirable to tape
the loop on the end of the spring
to the support so that it does not
move once resonance is
attained.)
4. Connect the Mechanical Driver to a function generator capable of driving
a speaker. (The PASCO PI-9587B Digital Function Generator/Amplifier is
excellent for this purpose.)
5. Start driving the Mechanical Driver at about 10 Hz with approximately 1
mm of amplitude and slowly increase the frequency. At various
frequencies it will be noted that certain parts of the spring seem to stand
still (nodes) while others oscillate rapidly (anti-nodes). As the frequency is

31
MODUL PRACTICUM



increased the number of


nodes and anti-nodes will
increase and the distance
between them become
shorter. It may be
necessary to decrease the
driving amplitude when
resonant points are attained.
6. Graph the relation between the number of nodes and the driving
frequency. Change the length (thus the tension) of the spring and see if
different frequencies are required for the same number of nodes.

V. TABLE OF DATA
A. Longitudinal Wave
1. Constant voltage
Length of spring : 60 cm
Frequency (f) Speed of the wave (v)
Antinode
Hz m/s
30
40
50
60

2. Constant frequency : 60 Hz
Length of spring : 60 cm
Speed of the wave (v)
Voltage Antinode
m/s
1
2
3
4
5
.....

32
MODUL PRACTICUM



B. Transverse Wave
1. Constant voltage: 10 V
Length of string : 100 cm
Frequency (f) Speed of the wave (v)
Antinode
Hz m/s
25
30
35
40
45
50

2. Constant frequency : 50 Hz
Length of string : 100 cm
Frequency (f) Speed of the wave (v)
Antinode
Hz m/s
5
6
7
8
9

VI. PRELIMINARY TASK


1. What is meant by the waves and vibrations?
2. Explain the difference between transverse waves and longitudinal waves!
3. What is a deviation, amplitude, frequency, and period?
4. Explain the relationship between period and frequency!
5. Write in the form of the formula, the relationship between wave speed,
wavelength, and frequency for the object that the medium vibrate!
6. Within 4 seconds there are two ocean waves passing when the distance
between the top and bottom waves 6 meters, what is the propagation of the
ocean waves?

REFERENCES
Hanks, Ann. Year. Faraday Induction (PASPORT) EX-995. PASCO.

33
MODUL PRACTICUM



CHAPTER V
OPTIC
SNELLS LAW

I. BASIC THEORY
Willebrord Snellius (15801626), the law was first accurately
described by the scientist Ibn Sahlat the Baghdad court in 984. In the
manuscript On Burning Mirrors and Lenses, Sahl used the law to derive lens
shapes that focus light with no geometric aberrations.

Snell's law states that the ratio of the sine of the angles of incidence
and refraction is equivalent to the ratio of phase velocities in the two media, or
equivalent to the reciprocal of the ratio of the indices of refraction:

For light crossing the boundary between two transparent materials,


Snells Law states n1sin 1 = n2sin 2 where 1 is the angle of incidence, 2 is
the angle of refraction, and n1 and n2 are the respective indices of refraction of
the materials (see below).

34
MODUL PRACTICUM



VII. PROCEDURE
1. Experiment 1: Reversibility
a. Equipment:
Ray Table
D-Shaped Lens
Light Source

b. Purpose.
In Trial 1 of this experiment, you will determine the relationship
between the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction for light passing
from air into a more optically dense medium (the acrylic of the D-shaped
lens). In Trial 2, you will determine whether the same relationship holds
between the angles of incidence and refraction for light passing out of a
more optically dense medium back into air. That is to say, if the light is
traveling in the opposite direction through the lens, is the law of refraction
the same or different? By comparing the results of both trials, you will find
the answer to this question. In Figure below, notice that refraction occurs
only at the flat surface of the D-shaped lens, not at the curved surface.

c. Setup
1. Place the light source in ray-box mode on a flat tabletop. Turn the wheel
to select a single ray.
2. Put the ray table in front of the light source so the ray from the light
source crosses the exact center of the ray table.
3. Put the D-shaped lens on the ray table exactly centered in the marked
outline.
Record Data

35
MODUL PRACTICUM



d. Trial 1
1. Turn the ray table so the incoming ray enters the lens through the flat
surface
2. Rotate the ray table to set the angle of incidence to each of the values
listed in the first column of Table For each angle of incidence (i1),
observe the corresponding angle of refraction (r1) and record it in the
second column of the table.

Trial 2
1. Copy all of the values in the second column to the third column of the
table. (In other words, the angles of refraction that you observe in Trial 1
will be the angles of incidence that you use in Trial 2.)
2. Turn the ray table so the incoming ray enters the lens through the curved
surface.
3. For the angles of incidence (i2) that you wrote in the third column of the
table, observe the corresponding angles of refraction (r2) and record them
in the fourth column
2. Experiment 2: Snells Law
a. Tool:
Light Source

36
MODUL PRACTICUM



Trapezoid from Ray Optics Kit


White paper

b. Purpose
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the index of refraction of
the acrylic trapezoid. For rays entering the trapezoid, you will measure the
angles of incidence and refraction and use Snells Law to calculate the index
of refraction.
c. Procedure
1. Place the light source in ray-box mode on a sheet of white paper. Turn the
wheel to select a single ray.
2. Place the trapezoid on the paper and position it so the ray passes through
the parallel sides as shown in Figure
3. Mark the position of the parallel surfaces of the trapezoid and trace the
incident and transmitted rays. Indicate the incoming and the outgoing rays
with arrows in the appropriate directions. Carefully mark where the rays
enter and leave the trapezoid.
4. Remove the trapezoid and draw a line on the paper connecting the points
where the rays entered and left the trapezoid. This line represents the ray
inside the trapezoid.
5. Choose either the point where the ray enters the trapezoid or the point
where the ray leaves the trapezoid. At this point, draw the normal to the
surface.
6. Measure the angle of incidence (i) and the angle of refraction with a
protractor. Both of these angles should be measured from the normal.
Record the angles in the first row of Table below
7. On a new sheet of paper, repeat steps 26 with a different angle of
incidence. Repeat these steps again with a third angle of incidence. The
first two columns of Table below should now be filled.

37
MODUL PRACTICUM



3. Experiment 3: Prisma
a. Tool:
Light Source
Trapezoid from Ray Optics Kit
Blank white paper
b. Purpose
The purpose of this experiment is to show how a prism separates
white light into its component colors and to show that different colors are
refracted at different angles through a prism.
c. Procedure
1. Place the light source in ray-box mode on a sheet of blank white paper.
Turn the wheel to select a single white ray.

2. Position the trapezoid as shown in Figure 2.2. The acute-angled end of


the trapezoid is used as a prism in this experiment. Keep the ray near the
point of the trapezoid for maximum transmission of the light.

38
MODUL PRACTICUM



VIII. PRELIMINARY TASK


1. Explain about:
a. Dispertion
b. Reflection
c. Snells Law
d. Ibnu Sahl
e. Deviation Angle
f. Refraction
g. Convex lens
h. Concav lens
i. Prisma
j. Polikromatic rays
k. Monokromatic rays
2. Find the refraction index of lens if light coming from the angle 60 degrees
and have 50 degrees angle refraction!
3. Explain how a vapor on the highway is viewed when see from a distance!
4. A prism has a refracting angle of 60 is made of glass refractive index of
1.50. A beam of light comes on one side of the field prism with the angle
of incidence of 30 . What size deviation angle.

REFERENCES

Geoffrey Clarion. Newtons 2 Law. Pasco : United State Of America

Be honesty and hopefully we will all be a reliable technocrats

39
MODUL PRACTICUM