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Journal of Manufacturing Processes


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/manpro

Technical Paper

Effect of SMAW manufacturing process in high-cycle fatigue of AISI


304 base metal using AISI 308L ller metal
M.F. Buchely a, , H.A. Colorado b , H.E. Jaramillo c
a
Structural Integrity Research Group, Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidad de los Andes, CR 1 ESTE 19A 40, Bogota 111711, Colombia
b
CCComposites Lab., Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellin, Colombia
c
Science and Engineering of Materials Research Group, Energetic and Mechanical Department, Universidad Autnoma de Occidente, CL 25 115 85, 760030
Cali, Colombia

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process is commonly used in many applications due to its high
Received 11 June 2015 versatility in the manufacturing of industrial parts, components and assemblies. This paper is about the
Received in revised form 30 July 2015 effect SMAW process on the high-cycle fatigue of austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 using AISI 308L ller
Accepted 5 August 2015
metal. Two different parameters (factors) of the manufacturing process were evaluated: type of electrode
Available online xxx
coating and heat input in the welding process. Three different electrode coating were compared: E308L-
15, E308L-16 and E318L-16 Premium. Additionally, three different heat inputs levels were used in the
Keywords:
welding process for each electrode covering (low, medium and high). For this welding application,
Austenitic stainless steel
High-cycle fatigue
cold rolled plates 300 mm length, 76.2 mm wide, 6.4 mm thick of AISI/SAE 304 were used as base material,
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) making up V-groove type joints on them. After welding, microstructure characterization using optical
Welding manufacturing process and scanning electron microscopy; chemical analysis composition; HRB hardness test; tensile test and
ferrite number (FN) of the welded joints were evaluated. Fatigue tests were conducted in the INSTRON
8872 machine. To analyze the fatigue results, Quantitative Analysis Accelerated Life Testing was used,
wherewith Smax -N graphs were plotted among all the experimental factors (as a factorial experiment).
It was found that solidication of weld shows dendrite growth with both ventricular and lathy mor-
phologies. The E308L-15 electrode deposits have better resistance to high cycle axial fatigue than the
other electrode deposits. Furthermore, we found that the high-cycle fatigue resistance of the deposits is
enhanced at lower heat inputs of welding process and greater FN. Material failures were localized among
the weld deposit, through the dendrite orientation on microstructure that also led the growth of the
crack.
2015 The Society of Manufacturing Engineers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction of material, which produces signicant property variations [68].


Additionally, in the heat affected zone (HAZ), grain growth and sec-
Austenitic stainless steels (ASS) are used in many applications ondary phase precipitations could occur as a consequence of the
where they are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking such as high thermal changes, which brings out structural problems when
nuclear power, and oil and gas industries [1]. Joining of these the material is under working conditions [3,5].
materials is typically conducted by arc welding processing, mostly The welded joints are particularly vulnerable to fatigue damage
because its high versatility in parts, components and assemblies when they are under cyclic loading conditions [2]. It is well known
that can be produced using this technique [25]. Besides these that welded joints are the preferential sites of crack nucleation and
applications, more research is needed in order to fully understand therefore a source for the decreasing of the fatigue strength [9].
the complex mechanisms that are activated during the welding The principal factors that affect the material properties are: the
process. stress concentrations due to the shape of welding beads, surface
For example, in fusion zone (FZ), morphology solidication and sub-surface defects, microstructural changes in HAZ, and ten-
mainly depends on the welding process parameters (such as volt- sile residual stresses created around the weld [4]. Thus, the cracks
age, amperage and welding speed) and on chemical composition due fatigue could nucleate and propagate in the welded joint during
its service life, even at loads below the yield point.
Other research shows the effect of the welding process in rela-
Corresponding author. Tel.: +57 13394949; fax: +57 13324323. tion to fatigue life of the material. Lakshminarayanan et al. [8] stud-
E-mail address: mf.buchely49@uniandes.edu.co (M.F. Buchely). ied the effect of welding on impact and tensile properties of ferritic

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2015.08.005
1526-6125/ 2015 The Society of Manufacturing Engineers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article in press as: Buchely MF, et al. Effect of SMAW manufacturing process in high-cycle fatigue of AISI 304 base metal
using AISI 308L ller metal. J Manuf Process (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2015.08.005
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60

1.6
6.4

2.37

Fig. 1. Scheme of welding joints (dimensions in mm).

Table 1
Parameters used in the welding process, and the heat input generated on it according
to Eq.(1).
Fig. 2. Schematic drawing showing the extraction of different specimens from the
Amperage Specimen I [A] V [V] vel [mm/s] Hin [J/mm] welded plates.

Low 1 70 2022 2.5 560616


Medium 2 85 2022 2.5 680748 150
High 3 100 2022 2.5 800880

Welding beads
R6 6
stainless steel alloys. Oh et al. [7] investigated the fatigue behavior
of alloy Ti-6Al-4V welds with different processes. Magudeeswaran

10
[10] studied the inuence of the welding electrode in the fatigue of
quenched and tempered steel. Kannan and Murugan [11] studied
the inuence of welding parameters in duplex stainless steel. Yuri 70
et al. [12] showed the effect of the microstructure and delta ferrite (a)
on fatigue of SUS304L steel. Finally, Hascalik et al. [13] investigated
the fatigue behavior of welded joints between 304 stainless steel 152.4
and AISI 4340 steel by friction welding process. However, no previ-
ous work was found about to study the fatigue life of weld deposits Welding beads
SMAW process in stainless steel AISI 304. R80 10
This paper shows the study of the microstructure, mechanical
behavior and high-cycle fatigue strength of welding joints using
20

the SMAW manufacturing processes in the austenitic stainless steel


AISI304. Two different factors of this process were studied: type
of electrode coating (three different coatings) and heat input on 30
the welding process (three different heat inputs). Fatigue life was
predicted using the Quantitative Analysis Accelerated Life Testing, (b)
which is an statistical methodology in order to reduce the number
of data and experimentation [14]. Fig. 3. Schematic drawing showing: (a) tension specimens 5.5 mm thick and (b)
fatigue specimens 4.5 mm thick. All dimensions in mm.

2. Materials and experimental procedure


After welding, the metal plates were inspected by both dye pen-
Two cold-rolled stainless steel AISI/SAE 304 plates (300 mm etrant and ultrasound inspection techniques, according to ASTM
length 76.2 mm wide 6.4 mm thick) were welded using a butt E165 and AWS D1.6-99 respectively. Thereafter, plates were cut in
joint and 60 V-groove by the shielded manual arc welding (SMAW) sections (Fig. 2). Sections of 25 mm and 15 mm wide were extracted
process. Samples were placed in at position in three beads (Fig. 1). to perform fatigue and tension tests respectively. Two additional
E308L electrodes were used as ller material, with three different sections were used for the characterization of the welding material
coating types: E308L-15, E308L-16 and E308L-16 Premium (chemical composition and microstructural analysis). Other pieces
according to AWS 5.4. Specimens were labeled as 15, 16 or 16p were discarded. Table 2 shows detailed description of all proce-
respectively for identication. dures used in this research.
The effect of heat input on welds was investigated as well. Three
different amperage values at constant voltage and speed of welding 2.1. Fatigue testing
application were selected, in order to generate three different levels
of heat input according to Olson et al. [15]: Fatigue tests were conducted in an Instron 8872 machine under
axial load control. The cyclic load was modeling with 10 Hz sine
I V
Hin = , (1) wave (Fig. 4). In this gure, Smax and Smin are the maximum and
vel
the minimum applied stresses, Sa is the alternating stress, and Sm
where Hin is the heat input, I is the amperage, V is the voltage, and vel is the mean stress during the test. The fatigue test was designed
is the speed of the welding application. Table 1 shows a summary to be tensiontension in prevention of specimen buckling under
of the welding parameters used in the process. Specimens were compressive loads. Stress ratio was kept constant (R = Smin /Smax = 0);
labeled as 1, 2 or 3 for a heat input low, medium or high therefore, Smin = 0. Specimens were tested until getting the nal
respectively. failure.

Please cite this article in press as: Buchely MF, et al. Effect of SMAW manufacturing process in high-cycle fatigue of AISI 304 base metal
using AISI 308L ller metal. J Manuf Process (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2015.08.005
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Table 2
Experimental procedure.

Characterization technique Description

Chemical composition It was done in an ARL-QUANTODESK Thermo spark emission spectrometer according to ASTM E1507, on a
polished weld section of plates.
Microstructural characterization Metallographic preparation was carried out according to ASTM E3, on a cross-section weld section of plates.
Specimens without chemical attack were analyzed in an Olympus BX5M Optical Microscope (OM) at 100
magnication in order to measure the inclusions density on base and welded material. according to ASTM
E1245. Subsequently, specimens were attacked using Methanolic aqua regia reagent, according to ASTM
E407. It was used an Olympus BX5M OM and a JEOL Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to perform
microstructural analysis and (EDS) for the inclusions identication.
Tensile strength test Rectangular cross section specimens were prepared for tensile test according to ASTM E8. Flat surfaces were
machined by a milling machine in order to generate at plates 5.5 mm thick. Then, a neck was made using a
wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) machine, according to the dimensions shown in Fig. 3(a). The
welding beads were placed at the center of the nal specimen. Tension tests were conducted in the universal
INSTRON 5586 testing machine. Although, it is known that the elastic modulus, yield point and total
elongation are a contribution of the base metals, HAZs and weld metal, results of elastic modulus (E), yield
stress (Sy ), ultimate tensile strength (SUT ), and percent elongation (%Elong) were also reported as reference
among the welded specimens.
Fatigue tests Rectangular cross section specimens were prepared for fatigue test according to ASTM E466. Flat surfaces were
machined by a milling machine to generate at plates 4.5 mm thick. Then, a neck was made using a computer
numerical control (CNC) machine, with the dimensions shown in Fig. 3(b). All surfaces were polished to ensure
a constant roughness. the welding bead were placed at the center of the nal specimen. Fatigue tests were
conducted in the INSTRON 8872 machine, using controlled load by varying the maximum alternating stress.
FN and Hardness measurement and Hardness The FN and hardness were measured over welding beads in the fatigue specimens. FN was measured using a
J5-660 Magne-Gage meter according to AWS A4.2. For hardness measurements, a Rockwell B (HRB) hardness
test was conducted with a load of 100 kg per 5 s according to ASTM E18. Tests were conducted in a 600 Instron
Wilson Durometer.

+ 10 Hz Finally, fracture surfaces were analyzed to determine the frac-


tographic patterns of the fatigue failure, using an Olympus SZ-60
Sa stereo-microscope and a JEOL scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Stress

S max 3. Results and discussion


Sm
R = Smin /S max S min 3.1. Microstructural and mechanical characterization
0
Time
-
The small differences of the chemical composition on base
material and weld deposits for each electrode (Table 4) are due
Fig. 4. Scheme of generic sinusoidal wave used in a fatigue tests [2]. to differences in the coating that produces slight changes in the
nal composition. However, Si content is the highest for 16P
weld deposits, which could generate the precipitation of secondary
Table 3 phases within the microstructure (silicate or oxide). Additionally,
Tensile strength data used in the fatigue experiment (Fig. 4), according to Cr content is highest for 15 weld deposits. Since Cr is a ferrite sta-
SUT = 628 MPa (from quasi-static results).
bilizer, it is expected that these deposits have a high ferrite number
%SUT [%] Smax [MPa] Sm [MPa] Sa [MPa] (FN).
83 520 260 260 A columnar-dendrite grain growth appears which correspond to
72 450 225 225 ferriteaustenite (FA) solidication mode (Fig. 5(a)). Delta () ferrite
64 400 200 200 phase rst solidies and then transforms into austenite () [3,9,16].
56 350 175 175
Some of ferrite is retained due to the high rates of cooling in the
welds forming two different morphologies: ventricular (skeleton)
ferrite and lathy (akes) ferrite [17]. It is known that differences
between morphologies arise from differences in crystallographic
Maximum strength - life cycles (Smax - N) graphs were plotted in orientation between the ferrite and austenite [18] (Fig. 5(b) and
order to compare the fatigue behavior for different experiment fac- (c)).
tors. The curves were constructed varying the Smax stress according It is observed that as heat input decreases, the dendrite arm
to average ultimate strength (SUT ) of weld deposits from the quasi- spacing is reduced (Fig. 6), as other have shown before [3,9].
static results (Table 3). To predict the high-cycle fatigue life, the The 16P deposits contain the highest inclusion density
statistical model Quantitative Analysis Accelerated Life Testing was (Table 5). EDS analysis over the inclusion showed large silicon and
used [14]. This strategy reduces the experimental time and number oxygen contents (Fig. 7). The large silicon and oxygen percentages
of specimens. suggest the presence of oxides. Moreover, due to their globular

Table 4
Chemical composition results for base material and weld deposits of the three different electrode coatings. Fe in balance (wt%).

Specimen C Si Mn P S Cr Mo Ni V Cu Ti Nb Co N

Base 0.050 0.631 1.623 0.030 0.004 18.190 0.214 7.960 0.088 0.304 0.008 0.000 0.127 0.070
15 0.036 0.343 1.811 0.028 0.007 19.680 0.054 9.070 0.065 0.104 0.003 0.011 0.060 0.081
16 0.039 0.221 1.933 0.027 0.007 19.090 0.127 9.050 0.068 0.109 0.009 0.033 0.072 0.071
16P 0.032 0.691 0.964 0.230 0.009 18.480 0.099 9.070 0.055 0.123 0.004 0.037 0.068 0.077

Please cite this article in press as: Buchely MF, et al. Effect of SMAW manufacturing process in high-cycle fatigue of AISI 304 base metal
using AISI 308L ller metal. J Manuf Process (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2015.08.005
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Fig. 5. Columnar-dendrite growth Different morphologies of the FA mode, the deposits taken from the specimen 15-2: (a) micrograph of the weld deposit where it is
appreciated FA columnar dendrite growth with delta () ferrite matrix and retained austenite in two different morphologies, OM 200; (b) growth AF with ventricular delta
ferrite, SEM at 1000; and (c) growth in FA with ferrite lamellae (lathy), SEM at 1000.

shape and small size (Fig. 7), they can be characterized as ned elongation (%Elong). It needs to be posed that the elastic, yield
series oxides. and elongation results were a contribution of the each region
It is observed that 15 weld deposits have the highest FN but (base metal, HAZ and weld deposit) on the specimen; however,
the lowest hardness (opposite to 16P weld deposits) (Table 5). all specimen failed by the welding beads at the middle of the spec-
This result can be explained taking into account that hardness of imens (Fig. 10). Therefore, only ultimate tensile strength and the
the austenitic matrix decreases with the increase of the retained location of fracture can be reported for the weld material. After
ferrite contents (or higher FN) (Fig. 8). performing a statistical comparison of the data, it was found data
The quasi-static mechanical properties of the welded speci- could be normally distributed. No signicant differences among the
mens were characterized (Fig. 9 and Table 6): elastic modulus quasi-static parameters were found for the different factors and
(E), yield stress (Sy ), ultimate tensile strength (SUT ), and percent levels.

Fig. 6. Dendrite arm spacing comparison between different heat inputs in welding process for (a) low heat input; and (b) high heat input.

Please cite this article in press as: Buchely MF, et al. Effect of SMAW manufacturing process in high-cycle fatigue of AISI 304 base metal
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Table 5
Characterization of weld deposits: inclusion density, ferrite number (FN), and hardness. Results are shown for each level of the two factor studied: electrode covering type
and heat input on welding process.

Factor Level Inclusion density 106 [1/m2 ] FN Hardness [HRB]

Electrode covering 15 80.25 58.02 11.43 1.33 90.61 1.92


16 31.82 21.42 9.25 1.05 91.79 2.28
16P 216.95 96.19 8.00 0.67 91.29 2.12

Heat input 1 83.57 109.31 9.13 2.11 91.24 2.31


2 118.77 75.46 9.76 1.42 91.18 2.36
3 126.68 116.5 9.97 1.65 91.21 1.84

Fig. 7. SEMEDS analysis of an inclusion obtained by the followed welding process.

Table 6
Mechanical characterization of the welded specimens by Quasi-static tension tests. Results are the mixture of the different response of each region (base metals, HAZs and
weld deposits) on the specimen.

Factor Level SUT [MPa] Sy [MPa] E [GPa] %Elong [%]

Welding electrode 15 631.51 14.30 342.71 10.09 192.85 6.58 34.6 6.79
16 629.68 16.13 342.93 12.18 185.95 10.20 31.61 3.72
16P 633.41 11.05 357.08 5.25 184.52 7.52 31.94 4.59

Heat input 1 632.25 16.38 338.74 11.06 181.35 10.06 32.49 3.74
2 630.25 16.84 345.51 9.98 188.32 5.71 34.67 7.64
3 631.63 6.79 355.41 7.89 193.65 5.15 30.99 2.62

20 700
18
600
16
14 500
Stress [MPa]

12 400
FN

10
300
8 15 1
6 200 16 2
4 16P 1
100
2
0
86 88 90 92 94 96 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Hardness [HRB] Strain [mm/mm]

Fig. 8. Relationship between ferrite number (FN) and hardness in the weld deposits. Fig. 9. Stressstrain curves for three specimen with different welding beads.

3.2. Theoretical fatigue life  is the theoretical fatigue strength in a fully reversed test
SN
(Sm = 0, and R = Smin /Smax = 1) at N number of cycles; and K and
Theoretical fatigue life for different stresses Smax (Fig. 4 and b are the fatigue strength coefcient and exponent, respectively.
Table 3) were calculated using the classical Basquin relationship  can be theoretically calculated for a specic cycle life of
SN
(Eq. (2)) and modied Goodman criterion (Eq. (3)) 
103 cycles (S1000 ) and 106 cycles (Se ) in a fully reversible test
(R = Smin /Smax = 1), using these expressions:

SN = K(2N)b , (2)

S1000 = 0.8 SUT , (4)
Sa Sm
 + S
SN
=1 . (3)
Se = Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Crelia (0.5SUT ). (5)
UT

Please cite this article in press as: Buchely MF, et al. Effect of SMAW manufacturing process in high-cycle fatigue of AISI 304 base metal
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Fig. 10. Tension specimens after tension test: (a) specimen 16P-1, and (b) specimen 16-2. Dashed lines show the border of the welding beads on each deposit. Fracture
occurred into the weld deposits. Stereo-microscope at 6.3.

The correction coefcients were found according Shigley et al. x1000


Log-linear tendency
[19]. According with the previous quasi-static results, SUT = 628 MPa
(from the current tension test); and using theoretical coefcients 1000
90% confidence
from stainless steel data: Cload = 0.85, Csize = 1, Csurf = 0.95, Ctemp = 1 upper interval

and Crelia = 0.897 [20]; it was found that: S1000 = 502.4 MPa and Se =
227.4 MPa. Therefore, K and b were calculated from Eq. (2) as linear
approximations: 90% confidence
lower interval

SN = 777.36(2N)39.8 , (6)
N [cycles]

However, Eq. (6) only applies for fully reversed test (Sm = 0, and
R = Smin /Smax = 1). In order to involve the mean stress Sm , as being in 100
the current tests (Table 3), Eq. (3) can be used as a correction criteria.
Thus, theoretical fatigue life N can be solved for any condition.
The fatigue life N was calculated at different stress conditions
(Table 7), as was previously shown (Table 3).

3.3. Fatigue test results and life predictions

Using Quantitative Accelerated Life-testing analysis, we found


that the experimental data could be adjusted to a Log-Linear model 10
250 350 450 500 x1000
600
using a Log-Normal distribution [14], which is validated in the
S max [MPa]
residual plot of the current experimental data (Fig. 12). It means
that the results had a Log-Normal distribution [21] (Fig. 11), and Fig. 11. Smax - N plot for all specimens in the fatigue test, including all the studied
predictions of the model in the 103 106 life range (on a logarithmic factors. Data at each stress can be adjusted to a Log-Normal distribution, and their
scale) are very close to a straight line. tendency is Log-Linear in this range. Condence intervals at 90% of reliability.
Comparing experimental results with theoretical values from
modied Goodman criterion (Tables 7 and 8), it is noted that values
for high-cycle fatigue life (stresses lower than 350 MPa) are similar;
however, large errors are obtained for low cycle fatigue life (stresses of 16P deposits (Table 6), which could increase the fatigue life for
higher than 520 MPa). low cycles.
The 15 deposits have better fatigue resistance for N > 15, 000 In order to establish a relationship between fatigue life and Fer-
cycles (high cycle fatigue) than 16 and 16P deposits (Fig. 13). rite Number, the fatigue life results were normalized (due each
In contrasts, it was found that 16P deposits have better fatigue stress level have different lives) by dividing the number of cycles
resistance for N < 10, 000 cycles (low cycle fatigue) than other two that each specimen supported over its respective mean fatigue life
electrode deposits. It was possible due the highest yield resistance (Table 8). We found that the higher the FN in the weld deposits

Please cite this article in press as: Buchely MF, et al. Effect of SMAW manufacturing process in high-cycle fatigue of AISI 304 base metal
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Table 7
Theoretical fatigue life N at different maximum stresses used in the current fatigue tests. S1000 and Se : Predicted maximum stresses at specic cycle life of 103 and 106 cycles,
respectively.

Smax [MPa] 540 (S1000 ) 520 450 400 350 303 (Se )
Theoretical life N [cycles] 1000 2185 22,643 95,194 341,541 1,000,000

Table 8
Mean fatigue life N at different maximum stresses Smax used in the current fatigue tests. S1000 and Se : predicted maximum stresses at specic cycle life of 103 and 106 cycles,
respectively.

Smax [MPa] 565 (S1000 ) 520 450 400 350 276 (Se )
Predicted and mean life [cycles] 1000 21,741 66,190 146,609 324,733 1,000,000

90
2.5

Normalized fatigue life


2
Cumulative Normal Probability

1.5

50 1

0.5

10
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
FN

Fig. 14. Relationship between ferrite number (FN) and normalized fatigue life in the
1 weld deposits.
-10000 -6000 -2000 2000 -6000 -10000
Residual
x1000
Fig. 12. Residual plot of model showing an acceptable adjusting of data for a Log-
Linear and a Log-Normal distribution. 1000

H in Low
x1000
H in Medium
1000 H in High

100
Electrode 15
Electrode 16
N [cycles]

Electrode 16P

100
N [cycles]

10

10

1
x1000
250 350 450 550 650 750
S max [MPa]

Fig. 15. Smax - N Log-Linear tendency showing the effect of the heat input of the
1 welding process in the fatigue life of the deposits.
x1000
250 350 450 550 650 750
S max [MPa]

Fig. 13. Smax - N Log-Linear tendency showing the effect of the welding electrode whereas for low-cycle fatigue does not appear a signicant differ-
coating in the fatigue life of the deposits.
ence between these levels.
From visual inspections of specimen during the test we found
that when the specimen is under alternating stresses, an irregular
is the greater their fatigue life, and consequently the greater their morphology is formed over the middle of the weld deposit (Fig. 16).
fatigue resistance (Fig. 14). This was associated to the crack nucleation site of the nal fail-
Regarding the heat input levels, the low heat input deposits ure (Fig. 16(a)). The HAZ clearly appears at the deposit boundaries,
have the better fatigue resistance for high-cycle fatigue (Fig. 15), however they are not the preferential site of failure (Fig. 16(b)).

Please cite this article in press as: Buchely MF, et al. Effect of SMAW manufacturing process in high-cycle fatigue of AISI 304 base metal
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Fig. 16. Sample during the fatigue test: (a) early cycles of test, and (b) before nal failure.

it was shown that 15 deposits had the highest resistance to


high-cycle fatigue (Se ). Meanwhile, 16P deposits had the high-
est resistance to low-cycle fatigue.
It was shown that low heat input deposits had the highest resis-
tance to high-cycle fatigue.
It was found that the higher the FN, the upper fatigue life of
welding deposits deposits.
Finally, the nal failure on specimens occurred into welding
deposits. Dendrite growth direction of weld deposits can inu-
ence the growth and propagation of the crack. Therefore, the
lower the dendrite arm spacing, the better the resistance to
fatigue.

Acknowledgements
Fig. 17. Lateral view of specimen after fatigue test. Fracture occurred into the weld
deposits. Stereoscope 6.3.
West Arco S.A (AV CR 68 5 93, Bogota, Colombia): Technical
and nancial support. Universidad Autnoma de Occidente (Cali,
Colombia): Instron 8872 fatigue testing machine.
Fractographic inspection of the lateral surface of the specimen
(Fig. 17) shows that dendrite growth direction and dendrite arm
spacing of the weld deposits can inuence the growth and propa- References
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Please cite this article in press as: Buchely MF, et al. Effect of SMAW manufacturing process in high-cycle fatigue of AISI 304 base metal
using AISI 308L ller metal. J Manuf Process (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2015.08.005