Anda di halaman 1dari 7


Term Definition Analysis

Nutrition Taking in of nutrients (organic substances and mineral Animals and fungi cannot make their own food, thus
ions) containing raw materials or energy for growth they survive on correct nutrition.
and tissue repair, absorbing and assimilating them. Green plants make their own food, thus they consume
inorganic substances (carbon dioxide, water, and
minerals) from the air and soil.
Plants build those inorganic substances into organic
Plants transfer the simple materials into complex
materials, ex: carbohydrates, proteins, and vitamins.

Photosynthesis The fundamental process by which plants Green plants use energy of sunlight for combining
(light manufacture) manufacture carbohydrates from raw materials using carbon dioxide and water to create glucose, that has to
energy from light. be trapped by other elements.

Carbon dioxide + water > glucose +

6C O 2 + 6 H 2 O > C6 H 12 O6 + 6

Chlorophyll Pigment which makes plants looks green, kept inside The sunlight energy has to be trapped by the chlorophyll
the chloroplasts of the cells. in order to produce glucose.
Sunlight falls on chlorophyll molecule and the energy is
Chlorophyll molecule released the energy.

Energy forces water to combine with carbon dioxide

(enzymes of the chloroplast help)
Glucose is produced as the result of the mix.
Light energy ------------------> Chemical energy

Water ( H 2 O ) Obtained from the soil and absorbed through the root Once it has reached and been transferred through the
hairs and carried up from the leaf in xylem vessels. xylem vessels then it is carried to the osmosis cells
through osmosis.

Sunlight Obtained from the concrete position of the leaf, broad Leaves are specifically arranged so that they do not cut
and flat surface is pointing towards the sun rays. off light from others.
Mesophyll cells need sunlight the most, they transfer it
because the leaves tend to be thin, thus allowing quick
passage into the epidermal cells.

Nitrigen Chemical element (78% in air) that is used in plants Very unreactive, thus has to be transformed into nitrate
for the making of protein alongside the glucose ions (Used to make amino acids to make proteins to help
produced in photosynthesis. with plant growth of leaves and stems) that combine with
glucose to make amino acids (form protein molecules).

Potassium and Two chemical elements that are used in plants for 1) Both are crucial for the correct development of the cells
Phosphorus production of DNA backbone and ATP for cellular and the sustainable growth of plants.
respiration (phosphorus) and 2) to send signals to cells
through ions in nervous system.

Carbon Dioxide It is obtained from the air (0.04% of air is CO2). Mesophyll Cells need carbon dioxide the most.
Enters the leaf through the stomata (diffusion)
Spongy air pockets across the mesophyll cells allow for
the carbon dioxide to spread all around.
Then it diffused into through the cell wall and cell
membrane into the chloroplasts.

Glucose A carbohydrate made from photosynthesis. Energy Usage:Respiration breaks down glucose so that
energy can be released into the leaf.

Storage as Starch: Glucose (simple sugar) is very

reactive and thus it is transformed into starch
(polysaccharide) and then into granules so it can be
stored in the chloroplasts .

Production of Organic Substance: starting point for

making sucrose and cellulose, fat and oil.

Limiting Factor Something present in the environment in such short Carbon Dioxide: The more CO2 a plant is given, the
supply that it restricts life processes. faster it can photosynthesize up to a point, but then a
A plant is limited in how fast it can photosynthesize maximum is reached.
because it does not have enough light.
Temperature: Plants photosynthesize slower when the
temperature is colder. Also it slows down of really hot
days because the stomata closes.

Stomata: The CO2 which is diffused through the

stomata can be stopped because if the stomata (due to
temperature) closes then photosynthesis cannot take

Osmosis A process by which molecules of a solvent tend to Water gets into the root hairs through osmosis.
pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less
concentrated solution into a more concentrated one.

Transpiration Evaporation of water at the surfaces of the mesophyll The stomata has air opening through which moisture
cells followed by loss of water vapour from plant that evaporates from the cells is diffused.
leaves, through the stomata.

Temperature A measure of the warmth or coldness of an object or Transpiration increased as temperature increases.
substance with reference to some standard value. The
temperature of two systems is the same when the
systems are in thermal equilibrium.

Humidity The amount of wetness or water vapor in the air. The higher the humidity, the less water will evaporate
from the leaves. Transpiration decreases and humidity

Wind Speed The rate at which air moves. Transpiration increases as wind speed increases.

Light Intensity A factor that controls the effectiveness of The higher the light intensity the more open the stomata
photosynthesis. will be, and thus more water will evaporate from the

Water Supply A factor that controls the effectiveness of If there is little water, the plant closes its stomata, and
photosynthesis. thus transpiration decreases.

Translocation The movement of sucrose and amino acids in phloem,

from regions of production to regions of storage, or to
regions of utilisation in respiration or growth.

Nutrient Cycles The biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is

converted into various chemical forms as it circulates
among the atmosphere and terrestrial and marine
ecosystems. The conversion of nitrogen can be carried
out through both biological and physical processes.

Adaptation Function

Stem and Petiole Expose leaf to sunlight and air.

Surface Area Expose a large area to sunlight and air.

Allow sunlight penetrate all cells.

Thinness Allow CO2 to diffuse in.
Allow O2 to diffuse out.

Stomata in Lower Epidermis Allow CO2 to diffuse in and O2 out.

Air Spaces in Mesophyll Cells Allow CO2 and )2 to diffuse to and from cells.

Chloroplasts Allow absorption of energy from sunlight.

Allow CO2 to combine with H2O.

Palisade Cells Keep few cell walls between sunlight and chloroplasts.

Xylem Vessels Supply H2O to cells (usage for photosynthesis)

Phloem Tubes Take away sucrose and other organic products from

The leaf must contain:

1. Entry and Exit points for CO2 (the stomata)

2. Chlorophyll and Chloroplasts
3. Water Transport (the stems and roots)
4. Sugar (glucose) Transport


Seeds are formed through plant reproduction. According to Science Daily, a seed is defined as "a small

embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food". To expand

on plant reproduction, a seed is formed after fertilization inside the mother plant that comes as a result of

the development into an embryo from a zygote and the seed coat (comes from the respective parts present

in the ovule). The process of fertilization begins with a double fertilization in the angiosperm, and is the

collision of the egg and the sperm nuclei, which is then transformed into a zygote. After fertilization, the

endosperm of the zygote divides and forms endosperm tissue, that will later become a source of food for

the embryo. The seeds, which is made up of an embryo, will continue to grow until its roots emerge and it

can officially be called a fruit.


Seeds are categorized into four main categories: classifications on the basis of:

1. Agriculture
2. Presence of Cotyledons
3. Botany
4. Germination

Agricultural Classification: true seeds (seeds that originate from flowers) and vegetative seeds (seeds

that have stem, root, or leave modifications that are used for crop production).

Presence of Cotyledons: Dicotyledonous (the embryo has two cotyledons, ex: pea, mango, and cotton

seeds) and Monocotyledonous (the embryo has one cotyledon, ex: wheat, onion).

Botany: naked seed (no flower or fruit is required for production, ex: pine cone) and covered seed ( a

fertilized and mature ovule).

Germination: hypogeal (the cotyledons remain below the soil and the plumule is carried above the

cotyledon) and epigeal (cotyledons are above ground by elongation of the hypocotyls, ex: the stem).

EMBRYO- An embryo is part of a seed, consisting of precursor tissues for the leaves, stem and root, as

well as one or more cotyledons. Once the embryo begins to germinate it is called a seedling.

GYMNOSPERM AND ANGIOSPERM- Angiosperms, also called flowering plants, have seeds that are

enclosed within an ovary (usually a fruit), while gymnosperms have no flowers or fruits, and have

unenclosed or naked seeds on the surface of scales or leaves.

ENDOSPERM- Endosperm is a tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants

following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can

also contain oils and protein.


COTYLEDON- Cotyledon is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant. Upon

germination, the cotyledon may become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling. The number of

cotyledons present is one characteristic used by botanists to classify the flowering plants

MONOCOT- Monocotyledons are angiosperms whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf,

or cotyledon. They constitute one of the major groups into which the flowering plants have traditionally

been divided.

DICOT- Dicotyledon were one of the two groups into which all angiosperms were formerly divided. The

name refers to one of the typical characteristics of the group, which means that the seed has two

embryonic leaves or cotyledons.