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Numlier 35 ugust 1994

07311111 sungllrilsplalcgs.
. Morsum Magnicat. 9 Wetherby Close,

ISSN 0953-6426
Broadstone, Dorset BH18 818, England.
Phone/FAX: Broadstone (01202) 658474;
International +44 1202 658474

MORSUM MAGNIFICAT was first published as a quarterly magazine in Holland, in 1983, by

the late Rinus Hellemons PAOBFN. Now published six limes a year in Britain, it aims to provide
international coverage of all aspects of Morse telegraphy, past present and future. MORS UM
MAGNIFICAT is for all Morse enthusiasts, amateur or professional, active or retired. It brings
together material which wouldotherwise be lost to posterity, providing an invaluable source of
interest, reference and record relating to the traditions and practice of Morse.
EDITOR Geoff Arnold G3GSR
(l3 Morley Road, Sheringham, Norfolk NR26 81E, England. Phone: 01263 821936)
G C Arnold Partners 1994. Printed by Hertfordshire Display Company, Ware, Hens


United Kingdom: 12.00 22.50

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Elsewhere: Surface mail 12.75
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Payment by Access, Eurocard, Master-card or Visa is also accepted; quote your card
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Make all cheques payable to G C Arnold Partners.

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and which was the last issue you had.


A semi-automatic key by Robley & Tough, understood to be telegraphists who
set up their own machine shop in Perth. Western Australia, in the 19205
Photo by David Crouch VK6WT
Conunent Contents
journal of the INMARSAT organisation, 10 MM Back Issues &
carries a feature highlighting problems being
In the Next Issue
experienced with false distress alerts coming
from ships over the Global Maritime Distress & 10 Radio Bygones
Safety System (GMDSS). This is the satellite-based 11 Low-cost Easy-toBuild
system which is replacing the traditionalHF/MF WIT
services provided by qualied and certicated radio CW Filter
ofcers. 18 The Telegraphic
Estimates of the proportion of false distress alerts Inventions of
received via GMDSS vary, but all apparently quote a Dr Dujardin
gure in excess of 97%! Anyone who has been at sea
will be only too well aware that the traditional SOOkHz 23 MM Bookshelf
auto-alarm apparatus produces the occasional false 24 Showcase
alarm (usually at around 2 oclock in the morning, in
26 Museum of
my experience), but 97%?!
This enormous volume of alerts, each of which Communication, Boness
must be followed up, is quite simply overloading the 28 Deep in the Heart of
rescue co-ordination centres, and fast moving the re- Texas 1

sponse system towards an inevitable crying wolf

attitude. 32 Readers Advertisements
Whilst it is acknowledged that in virtually every 34 Info Please!
case the alert stems from human error, rather than 35 Binders for MM
equipment malfunction, it appears from details given
in the article that the designers of the shipboard equip- 36 So You Want To Be a
ment and computer software must shoulder much of Morse Test Examiner? 2
the blame. One wonders how many of them have
40 Your Letters
seen a ship, let alone sailed in one!
There are satellite communication computer sys- 45 Index to Issues 29 34
tems which do not adequately warn the operator that
his Distress Alert Screen test will result in a real alert
being transmitted if he exits in a particular way it
requires only a press of the return key to turn test
into reality. Mvertisenwnt
Emergency position indicating beacons (EPIRBs)
which are stowed in brackets mounted around the
ships superstructure, are sometimes removed by crew
wishing to paint the bulkhead behind them. Due to its
design, an EPIRB is top-heavy, and the crew member 17 G4ZPY Keys
will naturally turn it upside down to stand it safely on
33 Derek Stillwell
the heavy end whilst he wields the paintbrush. EPIRBs
are activated by turning them upside down. . .! 35 FISTS CW Club
continued on page 48 35 The GQRP Club

MM5- ugust 1994

Louise Moreau, SK ried the original aerials for 3600ft up
Louise Moreau, W3WRE, died on 15 the slopes of Cefn Du Mountain.
April 1994. Louise was a noted key col- Only the concrete bases and the con
lector and respected telegraph historian crete guy rope anchor points now re
who gave MM strong support from its main. The huge buildings have survived,
earliest days when it was published in with their external appearance remain-
the Dutch language. ing as they were originally built in 1914.
Her very well received sixpart Today they house a riding school and a
series The Story of the Key in MM6 sport and mountaineering centre.
11 is to form the main part of an MM In conjunction with the Wahroonga
reprint of key articles to be published Amateur Historical Radio Society,
later this year, and this publication will VK2WAH, it is hoped, conditions per
be dedicated to her memory. mitting, to reestablish contact between
On behalf of MM and its readers, the two sites with both voice (SSB) and
sincere condolences have been extended Morse. (Only a Morse contact was made
to Louises family. at the rst attempt in 1993).
Depending on conditions, the follow-
Wales/Australia Anniversary Event ing frequencies will be used: 14.175 and
The rst direct wireless message trans- 14.020MHz, 21.175 and 21.020MHz i.
mitted from the long wave Marconi Also at times on 40 and 80 metres.
Wireless Station at Waunfawr, Caernar- Marconi built the station at Waun
fon, North Wales and received at the fawr for communication with the USA.
Experimental Wireless Station, Wah Trafc started in 1914 but at the out-
roonga, New South Wales, Australia, break of war the station was taken over
was sent on 22 September 1918. for government work. The signal cir-
To commemorate the 76th anniver- cuit was Waunfawr to Belmar, NJ. The
sary of this historic transmission, the return circuit was New Brunswick, NJ
Dragon Amateur Radio Club will oper- to Towyn, Merionethshire.
ate an amateur radio station, GB2VK, To avoid interference from the trans-
from the site of the old Marconi station mitter, each receiving station was sited
at Waunfawr from 0001 to 2359 UTC approximately 5060 miles from the
on 22 September 1994. transmitter. Originally, all messages were
The equipment will be housed in the sent by landline from London to Towyn,
old wireless station buildings and the which then keyed the huge transmitter
antennas will be erected near some of at Waunfawr by relays. Eventually, this
the bases of the 400ft masts which car- practice was stopped and Towyn closed
2 MEM35 lugust 1994
when signals were received direct from band, showing for each contact, date,
the US by stations nearer to London. time, call, RST, power received and
In view of the American connection, name received; also RST, power and
radio amateurs and amateur clubs in the name sent. A summary sheet must show
Belmar/New Brunswick, NJ area have name, address and callsign (please write
been invited to join in this commemora- legibly), claimed score for each band,
tive event. total claimed score, and brief details of
(Information from Dewi E. Roberts equipment used. Send logs to P. Doud-
GWOABL, Chairman and Publicity era OKlCZ, ul baterie 1, 16200 Praha 6,
Ofcer, Dragon Amateur Radio Club) Czech Republic, by 30 November 1994.
Awards: The leading station in each
Europe for QRP Weekend continent will receive a merit certicate
The rules for this internationally recog- and one years free membership of the
nised QRP event, organised by the OK G-QRP Club. Second and third in each
and G-QRP Clubs, are as follows. This continent will receive merit certicates.
year, the G-QRP Club will award one Disputes: In the case of any dispute, the
years free membership to the winner decision of the organisers shall be nal.
from each continent as well as the usual (Information from Gerald Stancey
certicates. G3MCK, Communications Manager,
Dates and times: From 1600 UTC on 7 G-QRP Club)
October to 2359 UTC, 9 October 1994.
Mode and frequencies: CW only, on Royal Signals Training Moving
3.560, 7.030, 14.060, 21.060 and The Royal Signals Amateur Radio
28.060MHz, all i10kHz. Society held The Last Great Reunion
Power: Not to exceed 5 watts RF out at Catterick in the last weekend in June.
put. Stations unable to measure output, ALL Royal Signals training is being
take half of their DC input power (10W concentrated at Blandford, at the Royal
input = 5W output and so on). School of Signals, during the next 12
Stations eligible: Any licensed radio months and later Apprentice Training
amateur. will follow ex-l-larrogate.
Contest calls: Call CQ EU QRP. Several of us operated at the reunion
Contest exchanges: For a valid contact, on a link set up on CW (repeat CW!)
exchange and log RST, power output, by one of the specialist squadrons. We
and name of operator. noted that the INT (barred) prosign is
Scoring: Contacts with own country, no still in use. They have much nicer keys
score; EU stations score point for each
nowadays tool
EU contact and 3 points for each contact (Report by Tony Timme G3CWW,
outside Europe; stations outside Europe Hudderseld)
score 5 points for each contact with Eu-
rope. The nal score is the sum of the Maritime CW Far from Dead!
points obtained on each band used. A letter in The World Wireless Beacon,
Logs: Send separate log sheets for each March 1994, reports that SOOkHz is by
91117185 ~lugust 1994 3
no means dead . Paul Du Mesni, sea- interference, and the union say that
going R/O aboard Canadian ship growing language problems at sea cast
C.F.A.V. Quest/CZDO, writes A Mal- doubt upon accurate comprehension
tese ship, MV Christianaki/9HUS3 this of spoken communications.
very day (4 February 1994) is handling (Report in Shipping, June 1994.
her distress on 500kHz about 150 miles Contributed by Roy Clayton G4SSH,
SSW of the southern tip of Ireland. Scarborough, North Yorkshire)
He reports that there are many Cana-
dian stations using MF CW, including UK MF WIT Weather Broadcasts
one on the Great Lakes at Sault Ste Ceased
Marie/VBB. On the East coast there are All W/T MF broadcasts of weather, gale
VAU, VCS, VCO, VCN, VCG, VCK, and navigational warnings ceased from
VCC, VFN, VOJ, VCP, VON, VOO, UK coast stations GPK, GCC, GKR,
VCM, VOK, and the only one which GNI and GLD as from 2400Z on 31 July
is radiotelephone-only, Charlottetown 1994. SOS, XXX and QTC service on
PEINCA, wishes it had CW as they SOOkHz and MF continues, as does
are not very busy! GKA HF W/T WX.
He comments that listeners can hear (Contributed by Bruce Morris
VCS working HF CW on 4.285, 6.4915, GW4XXF, Tywyn, Gwynedd, Wales)
8.440, 12.874, 16.9485 and 22.6195MHz
during daylight hours and evenings. USCG Morse Broadcasts To Cease
They might even hear CZDO working The US Coast Guard has announced that,
VCS as I send 100% of my trafc on as of July 1995, all weather broadcasts

CW to VCS... So far on this trip, only via Morse code and Coast Guard broad
10 days at sea and Ive sent 59 messages casts on CW will cease.
to VCS, and all on CW... Although a (Report in Ocean Voice, journal of
lot of pressure has been put on Radio the lNMARSATorganisation, July 1994)
Ofcers to use other modes of exchang-
ing trafc in recent years... CW work in Bunnell Special Offer
MF and HF is far from dead. J.H. Bunnell & Company, Division
(Contributed by Wyn Davies, of MN] Industrials, is offering an au
Brymbo, Wales) thentic, limited (250 only), Centennial
Edition of their fully functional Minia-
Plea to Keep Morse ture Telegraph Key and Sounder. Pro-
The ofcers union Numast has called duced using original tooling, and hand
for the retention of MF Morse broad- assembled, the instruments have gold-
casts of maritime safety information. The plated frames, nickel plated key lever,
Department of Transport plans to end and silver contacts.
the 500kHz broadcasts in August. (See The key and sounder comprise 29
also tlzefollowing item. Ed.) and 47 precision machined parts re
Numast say that although Navtex has spectively. Each instrument has wire
proved benecial, it can be affected by binding posts (terminals) with knurled
4 Mill/135 ugust 1994
{lilllltl lilllilil
.;Il!ttl|i illltraiiz

A New Key from Peter Jones

Surreybased Peter Jones Engineer- magnetic damping mechanism. It
ing has announced the introduction embodies the same precision engi-
of a single-lever paddle. This joins neering and traditional styling which
the pump handle and twin-lever has made the range popular.
paddle, which have already received For information, sales and
critical acclaim. service, contact Chris Rees G3TUX
Offered with the same choice of at The QRP Component Company,
base nish red enamel, polished PO Box 88, Haslemere, Surrey
brass or gold plated as the other GU27 2RF, phone 01428 641771,
keys, this model introduces a new fax 01428 661794.

thumb screws, and comes completely will be available in the early fall
assembled and polished. (autumn) of 1994 and the company an-
A Key on Base (KOB) set consisting ticipates that they will sell out rapidly.
of one Miniature Key and one Miniature They are therefore accepting deposits
Sounder mounted on a polished black for orders on a rst come, rst served
base, pre-wired with two binding posts, basis, acknowledging orders with a
is also offered. receipt, reserved serial number(s) and
These fascinating collectors items delivery date.

M9165 ugust 1994 5
Prices are as follows (payment in US output of 10 watts. It takes 80 minutes
currency only) Miniature Key, $265.00; to cycle from 5 wpm to 12 wpm in ten
Miniature sounder (150 ohm), $280.00; minute steps, with 8 p.m. local CST one
Miniature KOB set, $495.00. Postage of the starting points at 5 wpm. This
and handling $4.95 per order (foreign allows learners to organise their time for
US$10.95). Deposits, key or sounder the speed they need. Signal reports are
$20.00, KOB $40.00. requested and should be sent to PO Box
Address: J.H. Bunnell & Co, Divi- 36, Modbury North, SA 5092.
sion of MN] Industrials, 80 Locust Drive, (From Amateur Radio, journal ofthe
Kings Park, NY 11754, USA. Wireless Institute of Australia, June
J-Series Keys Booklet
A new booklet, JSeries Telegraph Keys Australian Anniversary
of the US Army Signal Corps is a 40 The 140th Australian Telegraph Anni-
page Catalogue of Detailed Descriptions versary Celebrations proceeded as
covering the J Series of keys from J1 planned ((see MM31 p5). On 7 and 8
to J51. It also lists telegraph related April 1994, former telegraphists and
items (TXs), etc., and cross-references postal clerks converged on Melbourne
to the keys. and Williamstown in Victoria, and
The keys are listed numerically, giv- Canberra in the Australian Capital Ter-
ing their description, base used, contacts, ritory, to participate in the reenactment.
size, specications, where used and The Melbourne GPO (owned by
manufacturers. Australia Post) and the Williamstown
The booklet will be invaluable for Historical Museum were set up in iden-
collectors of these keys and its author tical manner. Two beautifully restored
intends to update it periodically as addi- sets of sounders, with keys, relays and
tional information becomes available. cathedral galvanometers, mounted on
Price in the US is $9.00 post paid. Price special rosewood bases for the occasion,
for the UK or Europe can be obtained on were at each end of the circuits.
request from the author, Larry Nutting In Canberra, 400 miles away, there
WD6DTC, 4025 Slate Court, Santa Rosa, was similar equipment on a specially
California 95405, USA. Please tell him prepared telegraph operating table which
that you read about his booklet in is used regularly in the National Science
Morsum Magnicat. and Technology Centre. Telecom Aus-
(Report by Wyn Davies, Brymbo, tralia provided the telegraph lines and
Wales) loaned a number of early instruments,
from their historical collection at Colling-
VK Morse Beacon wood, and these were on show at the
The North East Radio Club in Adelaide venues, supplemented by various hand
has produced a Morse Code Training keys, semi-automatic and fully automatic
Beacon for two metres on 144.975MHz, keys owned by Morsecodian members.
signing VKSRCW. It has a continuous Three sets of eight posters produced

6 1M5M35 ugust 1994

by the Government Printing Ofce in extremely good and dozens of former
Canberra were at each station. Five gave operators tried their hands at sending
a simple explanation of how a telegraph and receiving again. Amateur radio
system worked. The sixth featured pho- operators were well represented, includ-
tographs and explanations of some of ing a dozen or so former Antarctic
the equipment in use. The seventh re- radio operators now holding amateur
produced a notice in the Victorian Colo- licences.
nial Gazette of 2 August 1853, inviting At the conclusion of the two
tenders for the construction of the line operating days, old operators, with some
between Melbourne and Williamstown. family members, about 185 in all, at-
The eighth poster was an enlarged tended a special reunion function. This
copy of a notice, dated 6 April 1897, attracted ex-operators from a number of
containing instructions from the Post- Australian States, some of whom had
master-General, Sir Charles Todd, that not seen each other for nearly sixty years.
the Universal Morse Code was to be At the function nearly 50 Melbourne
used in all the Australian Colonies on operators joined the Morsecodians
and after July 1897. Prior to this there
Fraternity, and further members will be
were several codes used in Australia, very welcome.
including American Morse. The Morsecodians achieved all the
At 9 am. on the rst day of the aims they had set. They enlisted and
celebrations, the signal went out: received generous support from their
sponsors, they set up operational Morse
Melbourne calling Williamstown. links between the three venues with
During the two days of operation over authentic working telegraph equipment
700 messages were handled between the and exchanged trafc for two days.
three venues for members of the public, They used their old sending and
free of charge. The messages were re receiving skills. They re-established
ceived by ear and transcribed on to old the great enjoyment experienced by the
typewriters, using specially printed tele Morse operators in their former voca-
graph forms and envelopes for the occa- tion and their younger telegraph
sion. The forms were printed to resemble colleagues, plus friends who had not
those used back in the mid-18503 with learned Morse, joined in with great
reasonable success. gusto, enjoying and sharing the cama-
Crowd participation was good in raderie of the occasion.
Victoria and the Canberra station was Most importantly, they honoured
very well attended. This was manned by Samuel F.B. Morse and like-minded
three former telegraphists, while other inventors of the day. They honoured
Morsecodians living in the area went too their own colleagues of yesteryear,
to Melbourne. who faced many difculties in their
Participation by former Melbourne time. In spite of those difculties, Morse
telegraphists, post masters, postal clerks communication proliferated in the old
and others interested in Morse was Colonies and endured for 140 years.
{Mm/B5 54113th 1994
It spanned a continent not much ing Equipment Type 3 Mk II, which
smaller than the United States and was used by many of those operators.
created a breed that will never exist in DARTS obtained the special call
those numbers again. Finally, in 1872, GBSOCR and planned to use a BZ set
the opening of the Australian Overland for the operation.
Telegraph one of the greatest construc Originally they requested the call
tion efforts that Australia has known GBSOHCR (Hemel Clandestine Radio)
enabled Australia to speak to the world. but were advised by the Radio Society
Thanks are extended to all who of Great Britain that support was re-
helped and participated in this great quired from a nationally based organisa-
event. Despite the friendly rivalry be- tion to obtain such a unique call. DARTS
tween the States for numerous years, the members who were members of the
true depth of friendship displayed dur- Royal Signals Amateur Radio Society
ing the 140th anniversary activities, and then obtained a letter of support from
at the reunion function that followed, the RSARS subject to the proposed call
was extraordinary. being changed to GBSOCR (Clandestine
Very Best Regards from Gordon Radio). This call was obtained and
Hill (President) and all the Fraternity RSARS allocated a special afliated
Membership June 1994. event number, F128, for use with it.
(Report sent to MM by Allan Moore, Preparations were carefully made
VKIAL, on behalf of the Morsecodians for the event. Due to the age of the B2
Fraternity. Allan requests that special set it was decided to limit operation to
mention be made of F red Ryan, VK 1 RY, six hours on each day, June 11 and 12. A
who was the technical genius behind the full set of spares was obtained, checked
restoration of the telegraph equipment and stored ready for emergency use.
referred to in the report. Without Fred, The event team, consisting of opera-
he says, we could not have done it. ) tors and log keepers was organised and
allocated time slots. The local press was
Operation Maquis 1994 informed in the hope of obtaining maxi-
DARTS, Dacorum Amateur Radio mum publicity. Like all radio clubs,
Transmitting Society participated in DARTS uses any opportunity to pro
Operation Maquis 1994 (see MM33, mote amateur radio, hopefully gaining
p.2), which commemorated the 50th extra members in the process.
anniversary of the clandestine radio A special QSL card was designed,
links between England and Europe dur- depicting the B2 set, and a QSL manag-
ing WWII, and honoured the memory er was nominated for the event. SAEs
of the brave men and women operators were sent to the RSGBs special event
who gave their lives at that time. It was QSL manager for incoming cards via
also a suitable time to remember the late the bureau. One week in advance, the
John Brown, G3EUR, who designed B2 was activated with the call GOFSP/P
the B2 spy set, or to give it its correct using the antenna and location planned
name, Portable Transmitting and Receiv for the event. This gave club members

8 M5 ugust 1994
the opportunity to familiarise themselves QTH and a continuous supply of tea
with the B2 and to check out the full and coffee.
station and operating aids. It was nice to see club members
Running at 20 watts, four stations looking in to see how things were
were worked, the most distant being progressing. DARTS is grateful to
LAllE, Otto, in Oslo who commented RSARS for its support and for the spe-
that the signal was Chirpy. A Chirpy cial afliated event number. The local
CW note was understood to be a char- paper, the Hemel Hempstead Gazette,
acteristic of the B2 in operation but it gave the event a good write up and
was then decided to have back-up rig included a photo of the B2 and one of
available in case any problems arose on the operators.
the day. (Report by John Pears GOFSP,
On June 11, the B2 was set up but Chairman of DARTS. This report has
difculty was experienced in making been reduced in size and edited because
contacts with its 20 watts power as the of space limitations but further extracts
40m band was very busy with weekend describing the use of the 82 on the ama-
trafc and special event stations. It was teur bands will appear in a later issue of
then decided to switch to the reserve rig, MM. Ed.)
a Ten-Tee Omni, for the whole of the
event and over 100 contacts were made Scheveningenradio/PCH 90 Years
with 12 European countries. Further to information in Letters in
Calls came in thick and fast with MM34, to avoid a clash with a national
rarely the need to call CQ. On occa- amateur radio exhibition, the date of
sions, six stations were calling GBSOCR the above event, which will use the call-
at the same time after it cleared with sign PA90PCH, has been changed to
a previous contact. Six operators/log October 29. All times are local time.
keepers were used over the weekend, From coastal station Scheveningen-
some experienced and some not so radio the maritime transmitter on
experienced. The latter greatly enjoyed 3.673MHZ will be used from 00001200
the event. They gained a great deal of on MCW, and from 12002400 on
condence in the process, so much so fone USB. At the same time, operation
that they now want to take part in a will take place on 144.325MHZ SSB
further CW special event or contest. (00000800) and on 145.325MHz FM
In conclusion, everyone participat (08002400).
ing enjoyed the weekend, although they On the sites of HF and VHF loca-
were disappointed at not being able to tions of PCH all over Holland there will
use the B2 due to the heavy weekend be amateur stations operating mainly
trafc. The operating/logging crew con- on 145.2 and 145.6MHz.
sisted of Len G4MSW, Jim G4MXG, The Radio Club Kennemerland
John GOFSP, Rod GOIAL, Terry GOTIW, PI4RCK will be on the air that day on
and Tony GOTPK. Special thanks go about 3.773MHz (00001200 SSB and
to Jim G4MXG for the use of his works 12002400 CW) and on 14.273, 21.273
{Mill/[35 lugust 1994

or 28.273MHZ SSB or CW, operating The Leicester Amateur Radio Show
from the newly~opened Sea and Har- will be staged at its usual venue of the
bour Museum at Ijmuiden (open to Granby Halls on Friday/Saturday,
visitors Sundays and Wednesdays, 1300 October 21/22.
1700 local time). The North Wales Radio and
Every QSO or listener report will be Electronics Show will be held at the
confirmed with a special QSL card. Each Aberconwy Conference Centre,
two contacts with PA90PCH and one of Llandudno on Saturday/Sunday,
the other stations will be rewarded with November 5/6. Opening hours are
an Award of the event. Foreign hams 10001800 on Saturday, 10001600 on
need to contact PA90PCH and SWLs Sunday.
have to report a QSO of PA90PCH to Morsum Magnicar/Radio Bygones
get the award free, has a stand at each of the above shows.
(Information from K0 Lagerberg
PAOJ Y) Send Your News to MM
Morse news of any kind, from around
For Your Diary the world, is always welcome. If there
In addition to the rallies mentioned here, are developments, controversies, activi-
watch out for announcements in the ties, or any other matters happening in
events section of your local paper. your country which you think the read
The 1994 Telford Amateur Radio ers of MM would be interested in, please
Rally will be held at the Exhibition Cen- write to Tony Smith. (Tony has now
tre, Telford, Shropshire on Sunday, moved see inside front cover).
September 4. Doors open at 10.30am. Also, look out for reports in your
The Scottish Amateur Radio & newspapers and magazines about any-
Computer Convention will be staged thing to do with Morse. If its not in the
at Cults Community Education Cen- English language, a translation would
tre, Earlswell Road, Cults, Aberdeen, be appreciated. Remember, we have no
on Saturday, September 17, commenc- staff in the eld. Our readers are our
ing at 10.00am. reporters!

NEXT Mrsum Izadlb Send 3 or a US$5 bill
for a sample issue

Magnificat Bygones
In the Aug/Sept 1994 issue, out now!
Australian Radio Operating in the Antarctic 19305 Seagoing Memories
Keyer Design Driving Valved Communications Receivers
Wireless Aids Manhunt Screen Grid to Beam Tetrode
BACK ISSUES - Limited stocks of Issues Pilot Little Maestro - BBC TV Studio Ops
Nos. 20, 21, 24, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32 8. 33 ONLY
now available,
G C ArnoldPartners, 9 Wetherby Close,
at 2.20 each to UK addresses. Broadstone, Dorset BH18 8J8, England
2.25 overseas (surface mail) Phone/FAX: 01202 658474

10 Mfil/B5 ugust 1994

is optimised for low cost
and easy assembly while still
providing adequate selectivity suitable
for both beginners and experienced CW
operators. A centre frequency of 537Hz
was selected because it has been demon
strated that tones around SOOHZ are pre
ferred instead of the higher frequency
tones of 750 and 800Hz (see reference
1). Although the measured 3dB band-
width of 262Hz is relatively wide for
CW reception, an investigation by two
experienced GQRP operators showed
that such a bandwidth is nevertheless The completed filter mounted in a suitable
adequate to enhance the performance of plastic box (Tandy 270-627), although it
almost any rig. could just as well be built on a simple
Low cost is achieved by using a baseboard, with a bracket to support the
band-pass design in which four of the switch and output 'phone jack
ve capacitors may be any value within
10% of a standard 1.0uF value as long expensive 0.2W transformer is equally
as the four capacitors are matched to satisfactory for this application as the
within 1% of a common value. The fth larger and more expensive 0.4W trans-
capacitor is one former. Using two
third of the com of the smaller trans-
mon value selected formers reduces the
for the other four Low-cost Easy-to- lter cost without
capacitors. This noticeablyaffecting
simplication of Build CW Filter its performance.
capacitor values The schematic
Using Only 88mH Inductors
permits the 1.0uF diagram of the CW
capacitors to be by Ed Wetherhold W3NQN lter is shown in
purchased in bulk Fig. l. The lter is
with a correspond based on the trans-
ingly reduced price. The two 8/2009 formation of a low-pass design having
transformers required to match the lter a reection coefcient of 0.044% and
to an 89 source and load are rated at is designed to be terminated at both
0.2 watts (MOUSER #42TM004) instead ends with 2340. Matching to the usual
of the previously used 0.4-watt rating. 89 source and load is accomplished
It was found that the smaller and less with two 8/2009 transformers. The
M17185 52lugust 1994 11
Fig. 1. Circuit diagram of the filter. Ciro/ednumbers C1, 2, 4, 5 1.00pF
refer to test nodes (see Table 1) 03 0.333uF
L1, 5 88mH
L2' 4 88mH C't'
Specifications of 537Hz CW bandpass filter
L3 3 X 88m
n = 2349 L3/L1 ratio = 3.00
Insertion loss = 4.8dB (filter + transformers) T1' 2 8/2009 O'2W
R1 10 to 229
Reflection coefficient = 0.044% (design value)
SW1 DPDT toggle
f-centre = 537Hz i5% P1 Phone PIUQ
Measured 3dB bandwidth = 262Hz
J1 Phone jack

ToTl high-Z winding 7072 high- I


Fig. 2(a).
Assembly and
wiring of the
inductors and



(START Fig. 2(b). Connection
LEADS) details or the bifilar
inductors, L2 and L4

12 MM35 lugust 1994

additional 340 of resistance is obtained ber adhesive or its equivalent. Capaci
from the transformer resistances and the tors C1, C3 and C5 are supported by
resistances of inductors L1 and L5. their leads when they are soldered to the
The low-pass prototype upon which stack terminals, see drawing and photo
the band-pass design is based has the graph (below).
centre inductor (L3) equal to three times 3. While the silicone adhesive is curing
the value of the end inductors (L1 and under C2 and C4, prepare the box you
L5). To simplify the realisation of the have selected to contain the lter parts
design, L1 and L5 are both made 88mH, by putting in the holes for the SW1
and L3 is three times greater (264mH). DPDT switch, the stack mounting clip,
Thus, all series inductors can be realised and the phone jack and cord. Then
with a single ve-inductor stack of prewire transformers T1 and T2 with
88mH inductors. L3 consists of three leads of suitable lengths to reach the
series-connected 88mH inductors. The bottom terminals of SW1, the ground
shuntconnected centretapped inductors terminal of J1 and the open leads of Cl
(L2 and L4) are realised with two and C5. After the leads are connected to
standard bilarwound 88mH inductors the transformers, secure the transform-
which are mounted on the ends of the ers with silicone adhesive to the bottom
5inductor stack. of the lter box.
4. The two bilar-wound inductors (L2
Assembly and L4) are now prepared for installa-
The pictorial diagrams of Fig. 2 show tion on the ends of the inductor stack.
the lead connections of the bilarwound Twist the green FINISH and red START
88mH inductors and the connections of leads together to make the centre tap
the inductor stack terminals and capaci- of L2 as shown in Fig. 2(b). If the two
tors. To complete the assembly of the leads are soldered with a 750 solder tip,
CW lter, proceed as follows: the red/green lm insulation will vapor-
1. Wire the twenty stack terminals as ise leaving a clean solder connection.
shown in the pictorial diagram of Fig. 2. Tin the two remaining leads. Do the same
The short leads on the stack terminals with the other inductor for L4.
may be used for the interconnec
tions. Remove all unused leads.
2. Install the ve capacitors on
the stack. C2 and C4 are rst se-
cured to the side of the stack as
shown in Fig. 2 with silicone rub

The filter slack assembly and audio

transformers ready for mounting. The
transformers are light in weight, and
can be safely secured legs-up by
silicone adhesive or 'Sticky Fixers

M9435 lugust 19.94 13

5. Strip off the plastic insulation from Table 1. Node-to-NodeResistances
some short lengths of hook-up wire and
use it as sleeving to cover the L2 and L4 Nodes Component Res.
From To Designation (Ohms)
inductor leads. Secure L2 and L4 to the
GND T1 Hi-Z Windng 12
ends of the stack with silicone adhesive. 1

2 GND L1 + /2 L2 11.4
Connect the L2 and L4 leads to the stack
3 GND L2 7.6
terminals and to the C2 and C4 leads as
4 GND V2 L2 3.8
shown in the Fig. 2 pictorial diagram. 5 GND L3 + 1/2L4 26.6
Then insert the inductor stack in its clip 6 GND V2 L4 3.8
inside the box and complete the wiring 7 GND L4 7.6
of the lter parts. 8 GND L5 + /2 L4 11.4
9 GND T2 Hi-Z Windng 12
Wiring Check 2 4 L1 7.6
After all the wiring is completed, the 5 6 L3 22.8
correctness of the wiring should be 6 8 L5 7.6
checked by comparing the measured 2 3 L1 + 1/2 L2 11.4
8 7 L5 + /2 L4 11.4
nodetonode resistances with those list-
ed in Table 1. If there is a substantial
See Figs. 1 & 2 for 'From-To' locations
difference between the measured value
and the listed resistance, the cause of the transformers. Use these items in the
difference should be found and correct- following procedure:
ed. For accurate measurements, use a 1. Use your ohmmeter to nd which

digital volt-ohmmeter or an analogue V- of the two windings of the 8/2009

O-M which has a scale centre of about 5 transformer is the 89 winding. This
ohms on the Xlohmmeter range. winding will have a DC resistance of
about 19 while the 2009 winding will
Installation have a DC resistance of about 129.
The manuals of most commercial re Connect the 89 winding of the 8/2009
ceivers specify the load that is to be transformer to the audio output jack of
connected to the audio output jack and your receiver.
49 or 89 are common values. How 2. Turn on your receiver. Apply a tone-
ever, this load specication is not appli modulated RF signal to the receiver
cable for dening the actual source antenna terminals and tune the receiver
impedance of your receivers audio out- to pick up the modulated signal.
put. It is therefore advisable to conrm 3. Connect the AC voltmeter across the
by measurement that the lter input will high impedance winding (with no load
be properly terminated by the imped- at this time) and adjust the receiver
ance at the transformer high-impedance audio gain to get a steady voltage indi-
winding before starting the lter assem- cation of about IV on the AC scale, or a
bly. To do this, obtain an AC voltmeter, level well above the noise level. The
several l/4W resistors between 10009 voltage level should be relatively con
and 15009, and one of the 8/2009 stant for valid test results. Vary the re-

14 Ml/B5 ugust 1994


RL= 234 & 178 9


a RL=179 9

0200- 250 too 509. pop too it

ill HHI llll FREQUENcitHzl' lll

Fig. 4. Graph showing measured attenuation relative to 0dB at the centre frequency and two
return-loss plots. The minimum return loss in a 234.0 system is 32.5dB. With a 179.0 load,
the minimum return loss is 19dB, corresponding to a reflection coefficient of about 0. 1 12


By arrangement with the author, MM is able to supply a kit containing the major
parts as specified in the article. These are: 1 stack of seven 88mH inductors; two 0.2W
8/2OOQ transformers; 1 set of matched capacitors; 1 plastic mounting clip for the filter
assembly; detailed assembly instructions. (This leaves the switch, phone jack and
plug. and housing to be obtained locally)
These kits are being handled by Ed Wetherhold and MM on a non-profit-makingbasis.
The price covers only the purchase of the materials, bulk packing and freight from the
USA, and packing and postage on the despatch of the individual orders in the UK, plus
(of course) the inevitable VAT!

Prices are as follows: Enquiries for kits from outside

....................................... 8.35 Europe should be directed to the
Rest of Europe: author, Ed Wetherhold W3NQN,
EU countries ....................... 9.45 1426 Cat/yn Place, Annapolis,
non-EU countries ................ 8.05 MD 21401-4208, USA

MMB5 ugust 1994 15

ceiver gain control up and down to check be connected from the output lead of C5
that the meter responds in a correspond- to ground so the parallel resistance of
ing manner to conrm that the audio the headset and resistor is about 2349.
output stage is not overloaded. Over-
load is indicated by the audio level not Performance
increasing upwards as the gain is in- The measured 30dB and 3dB band-
creased. Then set the gain control, record widths of the 537Hz CW lter are about
the AC voltage and call it Vl . 559 and 262Hz, respectively, and the
4. Without changing any control settings, 30/3dB shape factor is 2.13. The inser-
connect one of the resistors you selected tion loss due to the lter alone is 1.8dB,
across the 2009 winding and note that and both transformers contribute
the voltage level drops. Record the new another 3.0dB. Thus, the total loss of the
level and call it V2. From these volt- lter plus transformers is 4.8dB. You
age levels, you can calculate the imped can correct for this loss by increasing
ance that the lter will see when it is your receiver gain by a corresponding
connected to the 2009 winding of the amount. Figure 4 (see page 15) shows a
transformer. plot of the relative attenuation response
5. Calculate the impedance from: Z = and two plots of return loss. Because
R(V1 V2) / V2 where R is the selected this band-pass design is relatively insen-
resistance in ohms and V] and V2 are in sitive to the actual termination imped-
AC volts. For example, if R = 11009 ance, the lter load can vary by 23%
and ifVl and V2 are 1.0 and 083 volts, from the design value of 2349, and the
then Z = 1100(l.0 0.83) / 0.83 = minimum return loss will be l9dB. For
1100(0.l7) / 0.83 = 2259. Since this is this amount of return loss, less than 2%
within 10% of the lter design imped- of the input power to the lter is lost
ance of 2349, your lter is satisfactorily through reection and the remainder is
terminated at its input. If the measured dissipated in the lter and load.
impedance is substantially lower than
2349, repeat the procedure except this References
time connect the centre-tap of the 89 1. Project Frequency Band 3, A Report

winding to the receiver audio output jack. on the W3NQN 537-Hz Audio Filter,
6. Because the impedance specication by the GQRP Club Investigating team
of your speaker or headset is a reliable of Peter Barville G3XJS and Gus Taylor
indication of the load impedance, it is G8PG. Issued by the G-QRP Club, 11
sufcient to read the impedance from January 1994.
the label on the speaker or headset and 2. CW and SSB Audio Filters Using
use the 8/2009 transformer to match 88-mH Inductors, QEX82, pp. 3-10,
them to the lter output. If you are using Dec 1988, published by 'the ARRL.
a high~impedance headset, the output 3. A CW Filter for the Radio Amateur
transformer may be omitted and the Newcomer, Radio Communication, pp.
output lead of C5 may be connected di- 2631, January 1985, published by the
rectly to the headset. A resistor should Radio Society of Great Britain. MM

16 Mill/L35 ugust 1994


TEL. (0704) 894299
Long have users of Single Lever Keys asked us to produce a
combo for them. Now weve done it and we think its the
first one to be commercially made.
Available in ve different nishes, all with keydown
switches incorporated and with one little extra! If you get tired
of using the Single Lever, and would like to change over to a
Twin Lever, there is a jack socket tted to enable another key
to use the same Iambic Electronic Keyer.

The Single Lever Combo is just one of

17 further models which were added to
our product range in February 1994
For information on all our Products, just send a
9 x 4 S.A.S.E. (GB), or 2 IRCs Overseas

MM5 ugust 1994 17

HE MUSEE DHISTOIRE DES When Alphonse Foy, Director of
PTT DALSACE, located in the Chapp system, nally decided on
Riquewihr, 10km NNW of Col- an experimental electric line in 1843, he
mar, contains examples of the telegraphic insisted that the apparatus to be used
inventions of Dr Pierre-Antoine Joseph should give the same visual indications
Dujardin which achieved some notice as used in the Chapp system to avoid
and acceptance in their time, while his having to re-train the existing operators
printing telegraph in a new system.
was actually used On the 11 May
in Britain, between 1845, trials were
London and Edin- The Telegraphic carried out on an
experimental line
burgh, in 1866.
D uj a r d i n Inventions of along the length
(b.1809, d.1886) of the Paris-Rouen
interested himself Dr Dujardin railway before a
in the electric tele- Commission set up
graph from 1837 to to select the appa-
around 1870, and ratus to be used on
contemporary with the beginning of his the new national network. Demonstra-
interest were the introduction of Cooke tions were made of the English Wheat-
& Wheatstones needle telegraph in stone needle telegraph and of a
England, Steinheils electro-magnetic Foy-Breguet apparatus (Fig. 1) which
telegraph in Munich, Morses rst suc- reproduced the Chapp signals in sim-
cessful demonstrations in New York, and plied form (i.e., having indicators only,
Massons experiments at Caen with two with the regulator assumed to be perma-
needles and an electro-magnetic sender. nently horizontal, thus providing only
49 code symbols.)
Need for Compatibility Two days later, on May 13, Dr
The interesting thing about the intro Dujardin registered his patent for a
duction of the electric telegraph in France system also compatible with the Chapp
is that there was reluctance to abandon signals, with the three elements control-
the existing Chapp visual telegraph led by three twin electro-magnets, which
system, dating from 1793, which had he called the horizontal system. From
extensive networks across the country. the illustration (Fig. 2) it would appear
This ingenious system had a horizontal that this system was designed to repli-
beam (the regulator) with uprights at each cate all the Chapp movements by the
end (the indicators), rather like a wide inclusion of a moveable regulator, which
letter H, with all three elements inde was not provided in the Foy-Breguet
pendently moveable, and a code using system, but it is not known if this appar-
92 different symbols. atus was ever actually built.
18 9149165 ugust 1994

Fig. 1. Foy-Breguet electric telegraph reproducing simplified Chapp signals,

invented by Louis Breguet, 1844

Fig. 2. Dujardins Chapp

type 'horizontal' telegraph,
patented 13 May 1845
c n

r 1




{IV 15

Mil/35 ~lugust 1994 19
Fig. 3. Fleproduction of Dujardins rst printing (recording) telegraph as demonstrated on
the Paris-Houen experimental line, 18 May, 1845 (Musee d'histoire des PTT dAIsace)
Photo: Ken Ouigg GI4CFiQ

Printing Telegraph that a design patented at such a late

On 18 May 1845, Dujardin demon stage (i.e., while the trials were taking
strated yet another system on the Paris- place), and never demonstrated, was not
Rouen experimental line. This was his taken into account.
electric telegraph and printing (record- It was not until Foy was replaced as
in g) receiver (Fig. 3). However, the need Director-General of telegraph lines by
for compatibility with the Chapp sys- de Vougy, in 1853, that consideration
tem was considered paramount and the was given to other telegraph systems
Foy-Breguet system was adopted for and the rst trials in France of the Morse
the French State Telegraphs. system, later to be widely adopted across
It did not go unnoticed that Dujar- Europe, were held in 1854.
dins Chapptype design provided for Dujardins recording apparatus of
98 code symbols as opposed to the 49 1845, in fact, had some similarity to
of FoyBreguet, and there was some the Morse system. It had a more compli-
heated exchange of correspondence on cated version of Morses sending plate
this subject in the journals of the day. of 1838 (see The First Hand Key,
However, as presumably the only sys MM19, p.16), a dotonly code, and a
tems seriously considered were those receiver comprising a motordriven
demonstrated, it is not too surprising cylinder, wrapped with paper, mounted

20 91191435 ugust 1994

on a shaft carrying a screw-thread. A the eyes of the Commission, 82 letters
pen on a pivoted arm was controlled by per minute... The purpose of this com-
an electro-magnet and the code signals munication is to demonstrate that one
received were thus written on a helical may communicate over large distances
path. The code used is illustrated in by means of a magnet and without the
Fig. 4, giving, for example, ----- need of a battery.
for the letter J. This new sys
tem of Dujardins
Electra-magnetic Alphabet dc I'apparcil
used a different
Generator code to that of 1845
129114an 1345)

A second tele- ,

(see Fig. 5) with the

graphic system was letters E, I, O, A, U
described by Du- represented respec-
jardin in a report to tively by l, 2, 3, 4,
the Academy of and 5 consecutive
Sciences in 1850 re- dots. At the time
ferring to an ofcial of his 1845 demon-
test, held in front stration he had been
of the Electric Tele- working on an
graph Commission electromagnetic
of the Academy, generator to power
over the Paris-Lille his telegraph but
wires, connected this had not been

together to provide perfected in time so

a 560km circuit

batteries had to be
beginning and end- used. By 1850, he Ken

ing in Paris. had incorporated Photo:

Two of my it into his new ap-

appliances were Fig. 4. Code used with the 1845 apparatus. paratus, hence his
connected into this An electrically connectedstylus is wiped claim without the
circuit, an electro- across the lettered contacts. Starting at need of a battery.
magnetic generator 1/1, i. e., E, the letter J is five contacts
with one horse-shoe down and three across, giving a signal Letter Printing
magnet made up of . . . . . . .
of seven sections (Muse d'histoire des PTT dAIsace) A further inven-
and weighing about tion by Dujardin
15 kgs, and a printer which printed the was a letter printing telegraph, compris-
messages as groups of ink dots which ing a transmitting dial and a printing
represented the letters of the alphabet... receiver which printed in Roman letters,
The experiment was completely success- and was used for a short time in 1866 by
ful. the Electric and International Telegraph
I transmitted and I printed, before Company on its lines between London
Ell/[WEE ugust 1994 21
Fig. 5. Dujardins slide-action transmitter of 1850/51 . The method of sending by brass
stylus is similar to that of 1845, but the code was different. The letter X, for instance is
- - - - - - - and all vowels are created by a single movement of the stylus moving
from left to right. (Muse dhistoire des PTT dAlsace)
Photo: Ken Quigg GI4CRQ

and Edinburgh. However, in France this

invention was overtaken by the Ameri-
can Hughes printing telegraph, patented
there in 1858 and which by 1865 had
been ofcially adopted for use on the
French network.
Dujardin was one of many tele
graphic pioneers, who worked unceas-
ingly to introduce new systems or to
improve existing apparatus, who are long
forgotten in the wider world of telecom-
munications. He is not forgotten in his
native country, however, and examples
of his work remain in the museum at
Riquewihr and elsewhere in France.

(Our thanks to Ken Quigg, GI4CRQ,

for translating material kindly supplied
by M. Charbon, le President des Amis
Pierre Antoine Dujardin (1809-1886) de l histoire des PTIAlsace.)

22 Milt/35 lugust 1994

Featuring keys and other collectors items of telegraphic interest.

If anyone can add to the information given please contact

Tony Smith G4FAI, 13 Morley Road. Sheringham, Norfolk NR26 8JE

Key manufactured by the Floyal Canadian Corps of Signals Inspection and

Test Dept, date unknown. TYPE NO. SITD. D 11; SERIAL NO. 111
Collection: Chn's Bisaillion VESCBK Photo: Deborah Bisai/lion

Home-made key, using an old

relay from a car. Made by
Pascal Dekerle, Dijon, France
Photo: Pascal Dekerle

24 91191435 ugust 1994





Mac Key, 8-600,

0. 1940. Found rusted
in a garage. Now

~ cleaned up, and base
~ -







Reproduction Boston key on ebonite base. This model was originally made in 1915 by
the Clapp-Eastham Company of Boston (USA) for the luxury liner and the yachting trade.
With a marble base and German silver-plated working parts it was advertised at $15.00.
At the time, this smoothly working key, according to Louise Moreau W3WHE (The
of the Key - 6, MM 1 1, p.31), 'was the dream key of every Amateur'

M9185 ugust 1994

OTS, DASHES AND Admiralty heavy duty key; and a
DIALS the story of long German 1991 Morse Bicentennial
distance communication Commemoration key.
is this years exhibition theme at the Perhaps the most interesting is a 1912
Museum of Communication, illustrating Junkers naval key. This came from the
various aspects of telegraphy and tele- German capital ship Grosser Kurfurst
phony. which was scuttled with other ships of
The oldest the German High
exhibit is a work Seas Fleet at the
ing model of the
Murray Optical
Museums of Interest end of WWI. While
interned at Scapa
Telegraph of 1795, The Museum of Communication Flow all wireless
a system of six Boness, West Lothian equipment was sup-
swivelling shutters posed to have been
whose by Chris Gill removed from the
patterns (Musuem Publicity Officer)
indicated letters ships, but during
of the alphabet. post-war salvage
Following the in- operations the key
troduction of railways in Britain came was found on the Grosser Kmfurst. (The
Cooke & Wheatstones electromagnetic story 0fthis key and how itfomzd its way
telegraph of 1839. to the museum was told in detail in MM4,
There is a working reproduction of p.31. Ed.)
their ve-needle telegraph board made There is a practice key for use by
by Harry Matthews, the museums visitors. They can also practise their
founder and Curator. Above it is a copy Morse on a 1942 Admiralty Pattern Aldis
of a poster of the time extolling its vir- Lamp, or send signals with semaphore
tues to the general public and inviting ags. There is a 19203 GPO telegraph
them to come and see it, entrance price relay on display, together with a similar
l/ (one shilling)! Museum visitors get vintage sounder. This is working and
to see it for free AND can have a go on came from a railway ofce. Represent-
it. As it has only 20 letters in its matrix, ing early wireless is an automatic Morse
spelling has to be a little liberal. receiver a 1911 coherer receiver with
MM readers are of course waiting a tape printer.
to hear about Prof. Morse and there is An offshoot of the needle telegraph
plenty on offer relating to that gentle- was the railway Block Telegraph, and a
mans contribution to telegraphy. There 1930s example is displayed with its 3-
are several keys on display, including position indication of LINE BLOCKED/
a 1907 McGeogh Mk2; a 1920s TRAIN ON LINE/LINE CLEAR.
Boy Scouts practice key with switch Transmission lines are represented
from buzzer to light signalling; a 1939 with a selection of cables showing their

26 Mil/35 ugust 1994

evolution, including a section of the sec- restored by members of the Museum of
ond (but rst successful) Atlantic cable. Communication Foundation, the muse-
The other part of the exhibition cov- ums support group, who are also re
ers telephony, including working eld sponsible for mounting this exhibition.
telephones; a demonstration Uniselector Entrance to the exhibition is free.
alongside a working demonstration The museum is open to the public from
1954 Strowger automatic telephone 2 pm. to 5 p.m., on Saturdays and
exchange; and a range of telephones Sundays from May to September. Visits
dates back to the 18903. Hands On is can be made at other times by arrange-
an important part of the museums phi ment (telephone: 0506 823424).

Working replica Cooke & Wheatstone The Junkers key recovered from the
5-needle telegraph Grosser Kurturst
Photo: Museum of Communication Photo: Museum of Communication

losophy and a number of the exhibits Address: Museum of Communica-

can be handled or operated by visitors. tion, 58 Union Street, Boness, West
A range of batteries and cells includes Lothian, Scotland. Location: By the
Poggendorfs Bi-chromate 2volt cell. entrance to the SRPS Steam Railway
A 1928 Fultograph Picture machine re- station and depot.
minds visitors that facsimile transmis- (Ive always assumed the Junkers
sion has been with us for quite a while. key was produced by the manufacturer
Although not a working exhibit, this that made the aircraft of the same name.
machine is in working order, having been Is this correct? Ed.)
M9105 ugu5t 1994 27
and I dont know whether I The understanding was that I would
am pleased or sorry. When serve until the vessel reached the rst
we wake up tomorrow morning the American port, where I would be paid
Galveston pilot will be aboard and off and given my passage home. In
by early afternoon well be in Houston. the event I succeeded in keeping my
Anyway, lets drink to it while its still temporary berth for eighteen happy
legal. The invita months, before a
tion came from Jan new law decreed
that all radio ofc
Deep in the Heart of
Kopak, one of my
two cabin mates, ers of American
vessels must be
and he had some-
thing to drink to, a
Texas American citizens.
job! Part 1 Decision to emigrate I determined to
'But what was I join this favoured
by John Lingards Sykes
to drink 10? Per- race just as quickly
haps that the SS Rio as it could be man-
Bravo would blow aged and the rst
up before morning, and thatI would die step was to acquire an immigration visa.
in the explosion without knowing any- Immigration was by quota, and applica
thing about it? tion could be made only in the appli
My decision to emigrate to the USA cants own country. I had to wait a year
had been taken two years earlier, while I and a half for my turn. The waiting had
was still Radio Ofcer of the US freighter been hard going, and my savings had
SS West Kamak, drawing a salary of dwindled almost to zero.
$120.00 a month almost twice as much But here I was, less than twentyfour
as I had received in the British Merchant hours from the one American city of
Navy. I had been on leave without pay, which I had any knowledge, and that
a Marconi euphemism for temporarily only as a visiting seaman. I had barely
out of work, when the West Kamak job one hundred dollars in my pocket, and
had turned up out of the blue. my wife who had been too ill to ac-
The West Kamaks American radio company me was booked to follow in
ofcer had been put ashore ill at Ant- a months time. It was late November
werp. The London ofce of the United and our rst child was four months on
States Shipping Board had asked the the way.
British Association of Wireless Telegra
phists to provide a relief radio ofcer, Three Years Wait
and since I was an Honorary Delegate He, or as it turned out, she, would
of the Association, and immediately be an American citizen from birth, butI
available, I was offered the post. would have to wait three years before I

28 M91135
- lugust 1994
could apply for full citizenship and an thirty-four days ago I had encountered
opportunity to resume the only career it only in cake, but since then it had been
for which I had any qualications. No, I served up in hash, soups, stews, cab
didnt feel like drinking. Furthermore I bage, and even in boiled potatoes! Now,
didnt know what to drink. to crown it all, I was holding a glass of
The SS Rio Bravo was a German kummel which I learned later was a dis
vessel and I was travelling in her for two tillation of caraway seeds. It was an ill
very good reasons, the low fare (28.00) omen.
and the fact that she and her sister ship, I gulped it down at a single throw,
the SS Rio Panuco were at that time the shuddered and almost choked. It was
only passengercarrying vessels plying my turn to order and this time I pointed
between Europe and Houston. So far as to a green liquid which turned out to
I recall, I was the only British passenger have a strong mint avour. I swilled
aboard, at least in the second class. around my mouth and then gargled, but
In the tiny second class bar all the the wretched car-
drinks had German away taste per
names. I could sisted all night.
have ordered a It may seem a
beer and I would small thing to
have been un- remember all
derstood, but any these years, but
long drink, with it was the last
the sole excep- of many straws
tion of tea, gives and if it didnt
me a feeling that I break my back,
am drowning. it came very
Dams/0A! ; EM/QRATE-n close to shattering
An Ill Omen my weakening morale.
Thank you, Jan, Ill drink a short
one with you, some of that, and I Counted My Money
pointed to a fancy bottle of crystal clear I slept tfully and was already on
liquor which I noticed was much fa- deck when we stopped to pick up the
voured by German and Central Euro- pilot. A cold blustery wind was blowing
pean passengers. I had made a bad and apart from a couple of winking lights
choice, the very worst possible, but I there was nothing to see. I retreated to
had to drink it or risk offending the kindly my cabin and, for perhaps the twentieth
Polish-American carpenter, who had time, checked my papers and counted
promised to try to get me a room at the my money. What ought I to tip the cabin
boarding house where he usually stayed and table stewards?
when in Houston. The voyage from Southampton via
If there is one food item I detest above Havana, Vera Cruz and Tampico had
all others it is the caraway seed. Until taken thirty-four days. In addition to my
Ell/[M5 ugust 1994 29
one hundred dollars, I had nearly two prevailing when I had last been in
pounds in English money and this would America had gone with the wind and
have to sufce for four tips. I was stockbrokers were falling from Wall
ashamed to offer so little but I dared not Street windows like ticker tape.
break into my precious dollars. After At any rate, such was the talk at
what seemed many hours, the breakfast the boarding house supper table, the rst
bell sounded and I entered the dining table at which I had sat on American
room for the last time. soil. Of the twenty or so boarders, at
I had no appetite but after this meal least ten had already lost their jobs,
every bite of bread, every cup of coffee, and they included tradesmen, mainly
would diminish my capital, and I must building workers, who had lived and
stoke up to the full extent of my capaci worked in the city for up to twenty
ty. It was a vain resolve and I managed years. It was Saturday evening and I had
no more than a single bread roll and two another forty hours in which to plan my
cups of coffee, which at least washed job-hunting safari.
away the nal traces of caraway.
Trampled in the Rush
First Landmark Apart from the main shopping
The landscape between Galveston streets, and a small area around the ship
and Houston is at and featureless, and turning basin, I knew nothing of the
the San Jacinto monument was my rst layout of the city or of its sparse public
recognisable landmark. The monument transport system. My only skill was in
commemorates General Sam Houstons radio and my best bet would be to seek a
victory over Santa Anna in 1836. It job as a radio service man. Christmas
sealed Texan independence from Mexi- was approaching and I reasoned that this
co and avenged the massacre at the could mean business for domestic radio
Alamo in which all but one of the one set retailers, who in turn would need
hundred and fty defenders perished, more servicemen, even if only tempo
six of them being murdered after being rarily. It was a slim hope, but the only
tricked into surrender. one I had.
Among the dead were the immortal My fellow boarders had their own
Davy Crocket and Colonel James problems but they all found time to talk
Bowie, inventor of the bowie knife. to me about mine. Together, we scanned
Despite the victory at San Jacinto, Re- the help wanted ads which lled
member the Alamo remained a Texan several columns in the three local news-
rallying cry until superseded, at least papers. But I sensed that I didnt have
temporarily, by Remember Pearl Har- whatever it took to Make a thousand a
bour. month showing our irresistible Christ
But as yet it was only 1929 and the mas cards to friendly neighbours.
present trouble spot was not the Alamo, Furthermore, I was the wrong col
San Jacinto or Pearl Harbour, but a street our, or so my new friends told me, for
in New York City. The boom conditions thejob of Nite car washer or Apt. hse.
30 M91135 lugust 1994
janitor. Employers with proper jobs to and sit by the stove whiles I rustles up
offer didnt need to spend money adver- some breakfast. Isejus about dish up a
tising them it was sufcient to remove stack 0 Wheaties an the corn bread will
the No help wanted card from the gate be ready in no time at all.
or door; sufcient but dangerous one
could be trampled in the stampede! Kindness
In the face of that loving kindness,
Few Alternatives and the delicious and intriguing aroma
In America at that time there was no from the kitchen, it would have been
such thing as unemployment insurance, churlish to insist that I had no appetite.
indeed no social security service of any Besides, I quickly found that I had been
kind. A man who had no job and no mistaken. A stack of hot cakes (pan-
money had four alterna- cakes) criss-

tives, and a woman ve, : crossed with
including to borrow, to stripes of
beg, to steal and to crisp bacon
starve. I never met
t and topped
anyone, male or fe- 4(1 (/67. with ma-
male, who was pre
pared to starve
and very few
/ {Q ple syrup
was fol
lo we (1

who were by fried

prepared to e g g s
beg. Before sunny-
one could side up,
borrow it sausage
was neces- and fried
sary to nd potatoes,
someone with VON??? TO A GREEN LQU'DH hot corn
something to lend. bread, and
Monday morning what Rosy called
made its appearance at the end of an hot biscuits and I called scones.
unusually long Sunday night. I entered Fresh buttermilk and Rosys coffee
the dining room in search of company more than compensated for the missing
and encouragement rather than break- tea. In response to my playful question,
fast. The time was a quarter to seven and she confessed that she had never seen a
seemingly I was the rst down. I was caraway seed! I could have kissed her
about to retreat to my room when Rosy, for it, as well as for the two cold legs of
the establishments cook, with a heart chicken which she wrapped up and thrust
as big as a water melon, spied me into my top-coat pocket, as I prepared to
through the halfopen door. set out into a puzzling, frightening but
Jus yo come right in, honey chile, as yet compassionate world.
Mill/35 ugust 1994 31
As I write these words, the world
seems hell~bent for another deeper and Readers 371235
even more forbidding depression. If
indeed I have to go through it all again
my one prayer is that it may be in the
Stereocode Processor, on PCB and boxed.
company of folk as generous, as kindly
(See RadCom, September 1975, p.674, for
and as understanding as on the rst oc-
details). Price 20 plus postage. Girdle Round
casion. Over the next few years I was
the Earth, by Hugh Barty-King, pub. Heine-
destined to meet some tough hombres,
mann 1979. (The Story of Cable & Wireless
but never a mean one. But I am in and its Predecessors). 413 pp. incl 145 plates,
danger ofjumping ahead of my story. bibliography and index. 9in x 6in hardback,
ne condition, 12 plus postage. Alan Wil-
Leave Your Phone Number liams G3KSU, 7 Chandler Close, Devizes,
By six pm. on that physically chill Wilts SN10 3DS. Tel: 0380 728055.
and spiritually chilling Monday I had AEA MM3 Morse machine, manual, boxed,
called on ten radio service establish- 125. ETM-SQ twin paddle key, boxed,
ments, and had received ten identical 25. Kent straight key, 26. Cambridge
answers, No. twin paddle key, 10. All plus postage.
My English speech aroused interest, Bill Lindsay-Smith, Way Close, Madford,
curiosity and much sympathy. As often Hemyock, Cullompton, Devon EX15 3QY.
as notI was invited to tell my story over WANTED
coffee and a cigarette but the outcome
Vibroplex No.4 (Blue Racer); No.6
was always the same: I cant offer you (Lightning); J-36 & Champion. For on-
anything just now, but leave your air use. Within reason, your price paid.
phone number and if anything turns up Phil Pimblott G3XVP, 40 Richmondeld
well call you. Lane, Barwick-in-Elmet, West Yorks LS15
One service manager put it to me in 4E2. Tel: (ofce) 0532 440378, (home,
the gentlest manner that ninety per cent evenings and w/e) 0532 812064.
of all service work was carried out in the EXCHANGE
customers home, and that a service en-
Exchange for Keys. Three record set, Rhythm
gineer was expected to provide his own Method ofMorse Tuition by G3HSC. Also,
tools, test gear and means of transport. I Candler System Course (Copyright 1931),
couldnt provide any of these essentials; Fundamentals for Beginners, lessons 1 to
I couldnt drive and I had no idea of the 10 complete. Wyn Davies, Pen-y-Maes,
geography of the city. Halcog, Brymbo, Wrexham, Clwyd LL11
5DR, Wales.
In Part 2, John Lingards Sykes About 10 bugs, also numerous keys,
recounts how he adopted a new sounders, relays and other telegraph items
job-hunting strategy, and found available to swap for keys or bugs. Dave
success when he encountered a Pennes WA3LKN, 4607C Santa Cruz Drive,
devotee of Old Moores Almanack Indianapolis, IN 46268-5354, USA. Phone:
(317) 471-9605.

32 MIA/L35 ugust 1994




Is now producing straight keys of the

very highest quality
All parts individually made, hand nished and
assembled by DEREK STILLWELL to the highest
standards. This is a line example of old style
BRITISH CRAFI'SMANSHIP a real beauty to look
at and even better to use.
Long 1ins. solid brass arm
Heavy polished marble base
Hand turned hard wood knob
Fully adjustable main arm bearings
Large diameter silver alloy contacts
Truly remarkable action and feel even
the knob is a better shape
Each key engraved with makers name,
serial number and if you wish your
call sign

then send (UK) a 418.5" or overseas ZIRCr

for full details and colour photograph to

{ME/B5 ugust 1994

Info Tlease!
Readers require further information on the following keys, etc.
Please write to Tony Smith G4FAI, 13 Morley Road, Sheringham,
Norfolk NR26 8JE, England, if you can help.
All useful information received will be published in MM in a later issue

GFlA-71 Clandestine Morse

Burst Sending Set (300 wpm),
made by Arvin Industries, Inc.,
in 1971, for use with British
Army radio equipment.

Encoder unit on left, magnetic
tape unit in centre and keyer
on right. Further information
required, including equipment it
was used with, documentation
and user memories?





P.S. No. 47076 key, marked 10F/2814. This key is unusual in that its contacts are normally
closed; and when the lever is held down they go open circuit. Presumably an RAF or Air
Ministry key, information is requested on its maker, approximate date, and applications

34 -
M9135 ugust 1994
Qindersfor Ell/[0mm Magmficat
Tidy up your bookshelf
with these attractive binders.
Covered in a hard-wearing red grained finish,
with the magazine title blocked in gold on the
front cover, each binder holds eight issues of
the magazine, retained by strong wires, but
easily removable should the need arise.
Price 5.20 each to UK addresses (inc. VAT).
Overseas addresses by surface mail:
EC countries 6.11 (inc. VAT);
Rest of the world 5.20 (no VAT).
All prices include postage and packing.
Send your order with a cheque or postal order
or credit card details (number and expiry) to:
G C Arnold Partners, 9 Wetherby Close,
Broadstone, Dorset BH18 8J8, England
Overseas payments must be in Sterling

FISTS CW Club The International Morse Preservation Society

FISTS exists to promote amateur CW activity. It welcomes members with
" ,._\
\ all of levels Morse proficiency, and especially newcomers to the key.
The club has awards, nets (including a beginners net), dial-a-sked for
beginners, straight key activities, QSL bureau, newsletter, and discounts
from traders.
Further inlormation can be obtained from Geo. Longden 63208, 119
Cemetery Road, Darwen, Lancs BB3 2LZ Send an s.a.e. or two lFiCs.

G-QRP Club
The G-QFiP Club promotes and encourages low-power operating
on the amateur bands with activity periods, awards and trophies. Facilities
include a quarterly magazine, Morse training tapes, kits, traders' discounts
and a QSL bureau. Novices and SWLs welcome.
Enquiries to Rev. George Dobbs G3RJV, St Aidans Vicarage,
498 Manchester Road, Rochdale, Lancs 0L11 3HE. Send a
large s.a.e. or two IRCs

"If you eniOyreading Morsum 'Maghfficat pleaSeiteilyour friends about it ~

and encoUragethem (to take out subscriptions too!



4 '

DWI/35 ugust 1994

E STARE AT EACH OTHER has nished? He indicates that he has.
in amazement. The key has a Samuel must be turning in his grave.
quarterinch gap and he uses We chat for a while and discover that he
both hands to move the doorknob up is self-taught. We thank him for attend-
and down. Sending at approximately ing and make a note on his receiving
20 wpm he is pounding out the most copy which will be picked up by the
unreadable stream of dots and dashes Deputy Chief Examiner when he receives
that we have ever a copy of the test
heard. We ask him papers.
This candidate
to stop and gently
explain that his So You Want To Be a will receive a note
with his failure slip
excess of
is well
Morse Test advising that he has
' failed the sending
speed, and he
slow downto make
Examlner I)
' test on the forma
it easier. Part 2 tion of his charac-
He explains that ters and adVlSlng
by Roy Clayton G4SSH him to either prac-
he can send better
at that speed and (RSGB Chief Morse Test Examiner) tise sending to a
announces that he fellow amateur, or
is ready for the test record his sending
passage. We hand it over in silence and and listen to it being played back to
off he goes, thrashing unintelligible himself.
characters all around the room. We give We are amateurs examining fellow
up attempting to copy. Even though we amateurs and we consider this to be a
have the test text in front of us we cant most positive form of feedback. We hope
follow the thumps. he will persevere and return.

Have You Finished? Reception Duties

He finally stops and we ask if he Change-over time. The three exam

The first part of this illuminating description of the experiences of an amateur radio
Morse examiner ended with a candidate about to take his sending test using a
home-made 18-inch long key, with the knob made from a doorknob, the biggest key
the examiners had ever seen. He has just begun to send the pre-test practice
passage. Although light-hearted in parts, this article strives to reassure prospective
candidates that the Morse test is conducted fairly and considerately and need not be
the ordeal it is sometimes supposed to be

36 MWS ugust 1994

iners rotate their duties. I have a break pletely self-taught. Dont get me wrong;
from the tension of the examination Morse tutors are excellent in the early
room and join the candidates in the wait- stages when a beginner is learning char-
ing room. Phil, who was witness exam- acters and spacing, but candidates must
iner, moves across to be session sending graduate to reading QSO format texts
examiner and Mark, who has been on sent on a hand key if they are to give
reception duties, escorts the next three themselves any chance in the Morse test.
candidates up to the examination room
and sits in as witness examiner. The Shouter
This gives the candidates a friendly Phil appears at the door for the
face and ensures that Mark, who will change-over, with a disappointed look
rotate to the session sending examiner on his face. The session was not a suc-
next, becomes familiar with the layout cess. It later transpired that one candi-
of the room. date was absent (10 per cent of all
It is essential for any examiner to candidates change their mind on the day
experience the atmosphere in the wait- and do not turn up for the test); another
ing room in order to understand the ap- person could only read Morse at around
prehension of the candidates. Some have 5 wpm and had come along to gain
brought along a relative, friend, or their experience (his copy stopped after the
Morse instructor to lend moral support rst gure in the rst callsign) and the
and they are whispering together in other candidate was a shouter.
small groups. Others are nervously star- Let me explain. Most candidates
ing at the clock, or are having a nal spend the few days before the test brush-
read through the rules. ing up their sending. When they make
a mistake (which they immediately re
Self-taught cognise), they get into the habit of either
A regular customer gives me a muttering under their breath or shouting
cheery wave (Bert is on his fourth at- sorry, instead of sending eight dots and
tempt) and I manage to draw them all starting the word again. Unfortunately,
into general conversation, answering under the tension of the Morse test they
questions on amateur radio in general. continue this routine, resulting in uncor-
One of the examiners is a QRP (low rected errors and automatic failure.
power) enthusiast and has brought along I escort the remaining three candi-
an album of DX QSL cards (all CW of dates to the examination room for the
course) which creates a great deal of nal session and complete the introduc-
interest and helps break the ice. After 30 tions. This time I am witness examiner
minutes I have managed to eliminate the with Mark doing the sending. We go
feeling of a dentists waiting room. through the wellrehearsed procedures.
I groan inwardly when one gentle- However, experience has taught us that
man arrives wearing a pair of lightweight Murphy is lurking behind all our good
earphones connected to a Morse tutor intentions and we will observe every
and proudly announces that he is com- facet of human behaviour.
MM35 ugust 1994 37
The Complainer he will pass. We do not deduct marks
The practice passage is sent and one for lack of spacing (or splitting words).
candidate declares it was too fast. How Unfortunately for him the previous
ever, timing is part of the duties of the excitement has disturbed the concentra
witness examiner and I certify that it tion of the examiner who makes a
was exactly 12 wpm. All ready then? sending error.
No! No problem, eight dots and the word
The same candidate complains that is re-sent. This now leaves the candidate
the oscillator note is too high. We ad- in considerable difculty because he
just. Still not right. We attempt to cannot identify the start of a word and
compromise with the other candidates does not have the presence of mind to
who are becoming restless. continue writing.
Mark has had enough of this and
points out that it is the duration and Ex-professional
spacing of the note that makes the Morse We commence the sending tests and
comprehensible, not the note itself. All a candidate strides into the room with an
ready rw? A deep breath, the examiner air of self-condence. We have already
sends CT, biros are poised, nerves are at identied the give-away signs of an ex-
screaming pitch, ready for the rst letter professional during the receiving test.
of the test, when a watch on the wrist of He turned in a perfect copy, com
one of the candidates gives a double- plete with a diagonal line through all
bleep to announce the hour. the zeros and a line under every gure
One candidate writes down ii ii, one; nally pushing his paper across the
and a lady screams and breaks her pen- table, with a smile, at the end of the test
cil. Chaos reigns as the red-faced com without the need to check its content.
plainer places the offending watch in his He reaches for the nearest Misc
jacket pocket and the other candidates key and, after sending halfadozen VEs,
hold their heads in their hands. We casually mentions that he has not touched
adjourn to the waiting room for coffee a key for 3h years. He then rattles off a
and to calm down. quick GNI DE GBSS TR at 25 wpm
just to reinforce the message in case we
No Spacing have missed it.
The second run commences. I note
that the person with the Morse tutor is Over-condence
writing the entire passage in one long We smile and ask if he wants a
stream of 137 letters and gures, with- practice? He looks offended, so we pass
out any spacing whatsoever. This is only the test passage over and advise that
to be expected as the machine cannot he is only required to send at 12 wpm.
send words and he has learned every He smiles back and off he goes, rattling
character individually. along at a high rate of knots, sending
If he copies the passage without ex good quality Morse.
ceeding the permitted number of errors Unfortunately his over-condence
38 M9135 rtgust 1994
and lack of recent practice combine to witnessed candidates pushing the key
dig a great big hole into which he falls with their palm, knocking on the top
head rst. In the process of enjoying with a clenched st, and one chap even
himself, he loses concentration and un- held the key in a normal fashion while
consciously sends a short zero (one dash slapping the back of his wrist with the
in_stead of ve), panics, and corrects with other hand to force out the dots and
IMI. At this stage a look of alarm cross dashes.
es his face as he realises the enormity of
his mistake and that things are not pro- Frustrated Brilliance
ceeding as smoothly as he anticipated. The last candidate is the complainer.
We stop him, ascertain that he has We hand him the practice passage and
realised his mistake and ask him to send he declares that the table is too high. We
the correct erase signal, to pick up the pass over the cushion. He has not brought
passage at the gure group, and only a Morse key, so he tries all of ours in
use the correct international Morse turn.
symbols laid down for the Morse test. We have seen this Charade before
The fear of explaining a failure to his and explain that once he has made his
colleagues has a sobering effect and he choice he can adjust the gap and spring
completes the test at a steady 15 wpm. to his satisfaction. After that he must
stick with that key and will not be
One Finger on Top ofthe Key allowed any further adjustment during
Another lady candidate arrives, hold- the test.
ing a very tiny Morse key, which she We know that if this is not stipulated
proceeds to fasten to the bench with Blu then the rst uncorrected error will
Tack at arms length in front of the result in the top being pulled off the key,
pad. She then sends Morse by placing accompanied by colourful language and
one nger on top of the key and shaking a look of frustrated brilliance designed
dots off the end of an outstretched arm. to establish beyond doubt that it is only
We wonder, not for the rst time, if the faulty mechanics of the key that is
the advantages of permitting amateurs preventing the candidate from sending
to send Morse from the comfort of their perfect Morse. He completes his send
own homes, on 2metres, is producing ing to our satisfaction, but as a parting
a generation of candidates who have shot registers his disapproval of the
never been shown how to hold a Morse printing used for the test passage.
key in the correct manner, i.e., using the
movement of the wrist to control the A Pretty Average Day
dots and dashes. So we come to the end of a typical
The candidate manages to send read- session and once the candidates have
able Morse (how you hold the key has departed we mark the receiving tests,
no bearing on the result) but we know then complete and sign the results sheets.
that she will never be capable of sending
at much faster than 12 wpm. We have continued on page 48

M9135 - ugust 1994 39

your Letters
Headers letters on any Morse subject are always welcome, but may be edited when space
is limited. When more than one subject is covered, letters may be divided into single
subjects in order to bring comments on various matters together for easy reference

Erasure Signal artifacts from the launch of the balloon

I agree with Reg Prosser (MM33, p.43), Eagle are present on the Island.
it is not always easy to send the precise At Ny-Alesund, only a few traces
8 dots for this signal; and its especially of the support services for the ights
difcult in Morse tests which dont of the dirigibles Norge and Italia are
allow any alternative character. identifiable. The mooring mast is intact
Long ago I read of a good trick, and stands in isolation on a large eld
using the word Mississippi which has which stretches from the town almost to
four syllables. To send an erasure signal the edge of Kings Bay.
without counting, just send one dot for A splendid larger-than-life bronze
each syllable in Mississippi twice, all bust of Amundsen is located immediate-
barred, i.e. as one symbol. ly adjacent to an antenna farm contain-
This makes eight very regular sound- ing a variety of HF and UHF Yagis. In
ing dots, even with high speed on a addition to the North Pole Hotel, Ny-
keyer. The Mississippi sound of this Alesund is the site of a satellite tele
character becomes so familiar that one metry station and the Norwegian Polar
dot more or less caused by wrong Institute Research Station.
keying is immediately heard as a Non- A small museum contains informa
Mississippi sound. tion on the history of coal mining in the
Monika Pouw-Amold PA3FBF area and a limited exhibit of articles re
Mijdrecht, Holland lated to the dirigible ights. Pictures of
the openroofed hangar with its canvas
The Norge and the Italia walls are displayed along with several
I thoroughly enjoyed Tony Smiths large steel gas cylinders used by the
article, Airship Over the Pole in MM32 Italians to replenish the Italia with
(p.20). In August 1993 I made a trip hydrogen.
to Svalbard and visited several sites There is no other trace of anything
including Dane Island, Kings Bay, Ny- related to General Umberto Nobile who
Alesund, Longyearbyen and the Russian designed both airships, piloted the Norge
mining concession at Barentsburg. on its successful transpolar ight in 1926
Dane Island is the location from (described in Airship Over the Pole),
which the Swedish explorer Salomon and was leader of the disastrous ight of
Andree made an unsuccessful balloon the Italia in 1928.
ight to the Pole in 1897, and many This latter voyage resulted in a crash
40 MM35 - ugust 1994
about 180 miles northeast of Svalbard no one could tell me anything about the
which tore the control cabin from the location of the station or its history.
vessel and stranded nine men and the On the way home, I stopped in Trom~
Generals dog, Titina, on the ice. The so and visited the memorial erected by
international efforts to rescue the survi- General Nobile and dedicated to the
vors were a major news event of the memory of those members of his expe-
time. dition who died on the ice as well as on
Guiseppe Biagi, the wireless opera- the trip back to Italy. One side of the
tor, recovered the emergency radio from beautiful monument of Italian marble
the wreckage, repaired it, erected an is inscribed with a statement by Nobile
antenna and began transmitting a dis- recognising the multinationality of the
tress call. rescue effort.
The crash occurred on May 25, but it In a small park in the centre of this
was not until June 6 that Biagi learned delightful island city of the Arctic is a
from monitoring a San Paolo station memorial to Amundsen. It was from
(IDO) on 32 metres that his SOS had Tromso that Amundsen ew to his death
been picked up by a Soviet amateur while on the way to Svalbard in a French
operator at WossenieWochma near seaplane to participate in efforts to lo-
Archangel on June 3. cate Nobile and his companions.
The subsequent rescue of the survi- Harvey M. Solomon, MD, KQOA
vors of the crash has been well present- Atlanta, Georgia, USA
ed in several books, including Ghost
Ship of the Pole by Wilbur Cross and Remember the Batory?
Ice Crash Disaster in the Arctic 1928 Since we have been celebrating the 50th
by Alexander McKee. In addition, this anniversary of D-Day, I wonder if any
rescue was the subject of an excellent MM readers had anything to do with a
movie entitled The Red Tent. ship called SS Batory? It was a Polish
I have been unable to locate infor- ship and took evacuees to Australia from
mation on the radio equipment carried Liverpool. I was one of the children,
by the Italia. I suspect it was similar to together with my sister, GOPOJ.
that on the Norge. I wonder if any read- The ship has since been broken up.
ers have additional information concern- The captain made us sing constantly and
ing this topic, or related to the emergency a book was written about our journey,
transmitter used by the survivors of the called The Singing Ship. We learned that
crash of the Italia? the captain made us sing so often in the
In Longyearbyen, I visited another hope that Uboats would hear us and
small museum where I found an exhibit leave us alone.
of German military radio equipment re Ive never found out whether they
lated to a weather station which operat- heard us or not, or whether we were just
ed here during WWII. Included in the lucky, unlike the City of Benares when
display was an absolutely pristine Enig- so many children drowned on their way
ma ciphering machine. Unfortunately, to Canada.

Ell/[MS 5411th 1994 41
On our return from Australia, we line, used with the NH Relief (not ink)
travelled on the Stirling Castle where writer with variations in design to avoid
we were all adopted by some wonderful patents held by Siemens, e.g., the hair-
young soldiers. They looked after and pin spring and pivot.
entertained us kids so well yet some of Lee Grant G3XNG
them probably had had a rough time Morpeth, Northumberland
One child was overheard asking a P.S. 213A Key
young soldier if he was married. No, For many years I have used a key simi-
he said. Then will you wait for me? lar to that shown in the lower picture
asked the child. She must have been all on page 35 of MM34. It bears the code
of 11 years. HI! I wonder, too, if any P.S. 213A INST No. 120873 and was
readers were among those young sol- previously used on a Marconi-equipped
diers? Post Ofce cable ship which was de-
May I take this opportunity to say commissioned in the 19605 (I believe it
how much I enjoy MM and to thank was the original CS Alert).
you for it. Mine is slightly different in that the
Rosy James GOREA knob is the original, made of ebonite
St Mawes, Cornwall and is similar in shape to that shown on
the RAF 2533 key in the upper picture
Morse at the Movies on page 35. The lever is also insulated
In response to Wilf Cornish, (MM33, between the knob and the pivot with a
p.43), I have seen Heinzat several times, black celluloid type material.
and like it very much. The German A similar key is shown on page 28
signalled text Wilf refers to reads Elis of MM32 (Portishead Radio) and it also
abeth bringt 400 ztr. Kabeljau nach appears on the front cover of the 1961
Wilhelmshaven. edition of The Morse Code for Radio
In English, Elizabethtakes 20 000kg Amateurs by Margaret Mills G3AAC,
codsh to Wilhelmshaven. The abbre- published by the RSGB at is. 6d!
viation ztr. is a German weight meas- Despite sampling many other
ure Zentner which equals 50kg. straight keys, I always returned to this
Elisabeth is presumably the name of a Post Ofce key for serious use. By
ship. comparison with most others it was very
Monika Pouw-Arnold PA3F BF quiet in operation, had a soft feel and
Mljdrecht, Holland was physically undemanding particular
ly when compared with the NATO stand-
Camel-back Key ard key. I put this down to the leaf spring
The key shown on the front cover mounting for the front make and break
of MM34 was left to me in the will of contacts, and the relative lightness of
SK DJOXJ and was described as A the 165 mm (6 inches) long lever.
camel-back c.1870, from the Austro- The NATO key was a clunker and
Hungarian Railway systems Danube tiring to use over long periods. Creed of
42 Mill/[35 iugust 1994
Brighton developed a modied version I have often wondered what simple
for civilian use which included spring and more advanced spark transmitters,
mounted contacts similar to the Post and some of the later old rigs, sounded
Ofce key. It was a considerable im- like. I read somewhere that different
provement except that the gap adjuster makes of set had different tones. It would
remained too coarse for my taste. Sadly, indeed be very nice if a cassette with
the owner of the one Creed key I have such historical recordings existed, in-
seen would not sell it to me. cluding the TlT9 tones of yesteryear.
Tom Manseld G3ESH Monika Pouw-Arnold PA3FBF
New Malden, Surrey Mijdrecht, Holland

Regarding the RS. No.213A key on page Enigma

35 of MM34, I have a very similar key Regarding the Enigma item on p.6
designated P.S. No.213A key INST No. of MM34, which noted that the Three
149110. The differences are: the arm is Long Dashes station never appears on
shrouded with plastic from the knob to a Friday this is the Muslim Sabbath
about /2in short of the bearing and it of course.
carries a knob with a skirt. It also has a Keep up the good work with MM.
brown plastic cover which is attached Tony Timme G3CWW, Hudderseld
by four 4BA screws to the side of the
base. WlOps or Signallers?
I have a vague recollection of seeing In the article CW on the Comet 2, John
this type of key in a photograph of Lands Densem refers to the Signaller on the
End Radio in the late 50s when it was Comet. On rst reading this I felt sure
refurbished. This key is also shown in there must be a mistake as when I served
the photo from Portishead Radio on page for six years in the RAF the wireless
28 of MM32, where the covered arm is operators were always known as W/Ops
clearly visible. 1 too have mounted my or, as in my case, as WOMs Wireless
key on a steel base so that it can be used Operator Mechanics.
free-standing. This was during the war and shortly
Gerald Stancey GBMCK afterwards and at that time Signallers
Staines, Middlesex were in the Army. However, on check-
ing with Alec, G3KSH, whose memory
Those Tones is much better than mine, I found that
I was interested in the letter from Ron the term Air Signaller was brought into
Wilson (MM33, p.43) about T9 reports. use by the RAF during the late 19405
Only once in a while during my six years so now we know!
on the air have I heard a nonT9 tone. In Douglas Byrne G3KPO
fact, such a station with a good audible Ryde, Isle of Wight
AC-component is much more readable (According to John Hall 03K VA, writ-
in T9-QRM than another (T9) station, ing in RadCom, August 1994, the Air
even through a too wide lter. Signallers prayer was: In days of old,
Mill/135 ~ ugust 1994 43
when W/Ops were bold, and sidebands Knob Types
not invented, the word would pass by I am fascinated by the many different
sounding brass, and all were well con- types of knobs on Morse keys. Does
tented, Amen. anyone know, for instance, when and
John recently attended what was why the skirt was introduced? I was once
probably the last reunion of Air Signal told that it was to protect the operators
lers and Air Electronic Ofcers trained ngers from contact sparks in the early
at Number 1 Air Signallers School, days of transmitting. Presumably land-
RAF Swanton Morley, between 1947 and line telegraphy with its low operating
1957. The station is closing down next voltages did not require such protection,
year as part of the defence cuts and so, even on systems where the key arm was
he says, an era will end. Ed.) hot, e.g., in the USA.
Gerald Stancey G3MCK
London Calling Staines, Middlesex
Regarding the BBC Morse broadcasts, (In shipboard installations produced
(MM31, p.48; MM32, p.46; MM33, by Marconi Marine prior to 1947, the
p.43), 1 found in Rinus Hellemons book key drove a large SendReceive Mag
Vonkenboer a photocopy of a paper netic Relay (Type 556) whose dual con
called Wervelwind (whirlwind) tacts keyed the transmitter and also
which was dropped in WWII over Hol- shorted out the aerial input to the re
land. The following is an excerpt: ceiver to protect it during keydown .
These transmissions take place during Power for the relay came directly
the night from 3.30 mid-European time, from the ships mains supply, which was
on 216 metres and in the 49 metre band. either 110V or 220V DC, and theoreti-
There are three Morse transmissions with cally balanced about the earth point.
the important news, lasting half an hour You could therefore expect to nd a
each. From 2.30 to 3.00: news in Eng minimum of 55 volts on the key bar (in
lish. From 3.00 to 3.30: news reports in practice anything between zero and
French, and from 3.30 to 4.00: news in 220V, depending on whether there were
German, on 216111 and in the 49m band. any uncleared earthfaults on the ships
The days of the broadcasts are not electrical system at the time).
mentioned, nor is the leaet dated. Also, Even 55V DC is quite enough to give
I do not know if this schedule was in a nasty shock when touched with a
fact used (it doesnt line up with the sweaty hand in the tropics, as I can
time mentioned by Chris Hammett in personally testify! Hence the insulating
MM32, p.46). shroud around the key bar on the Mar-
Monika Pouw-Arnold PA3FBF coni Type 365 keys.
Mijdreclzt, Holland Readers are invited to tell MM
(Can anyone with access to the BBC anything they know about knob types,
archives obtain the full story on these common or unusual, insulated or non-
wartime Morse transmissions for MM? insulated, and their special purposes, if
Ed.) any. Ed.)
44 {Mm/[35 Hugust 1994
Morsum Magni t IARU Rgn 1 Cent. Morse Vote IARU
Ignition Coil Spark TX (ltr)
India Hamvention 94
J. Packer
J. Welder-Davis
30 4/5

IRA Morse Transmissions R.H. Stetansson

Index to issues Nos 29 - 34 Letters to the Morseman G. Bold
(August 1993 to June 1994) Morse Code. New Places
tor an Old Art? A. Prather

New Morse Test Standard (USA)
= back cover. '0 = inside back cover) W5YI Report U!
('30 I55.
No-code Arguments in France (ltr)
ACTIVITIES/EVENTS M. Colombani-Gaiileur 3:.

Brazilian Party CWAS 32 NZ Morse Test Consultation NZART

Chalk Pits Mus. Wireless Day D. Rudram 29 NZ Amateurs Support Morse NZART
Danish Liberation Celebrations T. Dahl 33 Operation Maquis 1994 J-J. Legrand
EUCW Fraternising Party 93 EUCW Operation Maquis 1994 J-J. Legrand
PA-CW-Test M. Pouw-Arnold

Europe tor QRP Weekend 93 OK-ORP Club 29


India Hamvention 94 J. Walder-Davis 32 Pay Up Or Else! (Lic. procs) DTI

Morsecodians at Alice 93 J. Houlder 29 OTI Tape Magazine H. Longley
Morsecodians at Alice 94 J. Houlder 34 QUS? R. Hellemons (.3

Morse. 2000 Conterence Univ/Wisconsin 34 REF Position on CW IARU Rgn 1

Operation Maquis 1994 J-J Legrand 32 RSGB Morse Vote IARU Rgn 1
Operation Maquis 1994 J-J. Legrand 33 RSGB Survey Results RSGB
Straight Key Evening Edgware DRS 33 So You Want To Be a Morse Test Examiner? 1
R. Clayton

World QRP Day 1994 IARU 33

Yeovil QRP Convention 1994 Yeovil ARC 33 Some Day Ill Know S. Martin 3:. N

TOPS Activity Contest 93 C. Hammett 30 Straight Key Evening Edgware DRS

90th Anniversary 01 PCH (ltr) K. Lagerberg 34 A TOPS Activity Contest 93 C. Hammett
UK Calibook on Disk J. Bailey
AIR FORCE US Morse Tests. The G. Bold
Aircratt Ident. Switchbox T. Smith Worked EUCW Award EUCW
Aircraft ldent. Switchbox (ltr) G. Farrance World QRP Day 1994 IARU
AIC Ident. Swbx. More on the V. Reynolds Yeovil QRP Convention 1994 Yeovil ARC
Creed Trainer Key T. Smith ZR0 Test AMSAT
CW on the Comet 2 J. Densem 75th Anniversary tst UKIAustralia Message
Eavesdroppers (Bk Review) T. Jones VK2WAH
RAF Type D Key Survey T. Smith 90th Anniversary of PCH (Itr) K. Lagerberg
RAF 10F/8782 Key (ltr) D.A. Coe 902MHz CW Record CO Magazine
Round Trip with a Key, A S. Garner
V for Victory (ltr) D. Johnson ARMY
D-Day Memories (ltr) H. Brooklyn 34 47
AMATEUR RADIO Military Miscellany (ltr)
Morse on the Don 5 (ltr)
S. Barr
J. Jeffrey
3t 43
33 44
Abbrevs 8. Procs (Itrs) Various
Abbrevs & Procedures (ltr) Various Morse on the Don 5 (ltr) F. Wilson 34 46
Am. Radio in the Year 2005 J. Griftin Most Important (LRDG) (ltr) C. Richards 29 44
Am. Radio Licences in Iceland R.H. Stelansson SAS Communications (ltr) T. S-J. Coleman 32 46
Bandptan Changes IARU Rgn 1 The First Time Saw Paris
P. Hawker 33
Brazilian Party CWAS Up, Up and Away! (1872) US Sig. Service 29
Computers and Morse (3. Bold 60

US Code Exemption Concerns W5YI Report BEGINNERS CORNER

CW in Monaco 3A-CW-Group wmmwwmammua
Morse Rhythm T. Manslield 29 38
CZEBRIT 94. New QRP Event G. Taylor
Danish Liberation Celebrations T. Dahl CLANDESTINEISPECIALOPERATIONS
EUCW Continues to Grow EUCW The First Time Saw Paris
P. Hawker 33
EUCW Fraternising Party 93 EUCW
Europe Ior QRP Weekend '93 OK-QFIP Club CLUBS
Everything You Ever Wanted to Know CW in Monaco 3A-CW-Group
About Morse Code... F. Maia _. ENIGMA (Numbers stations) ENIGMA N056"

Fake Distress Calls W5Yt Report EUCW continues to Grow EUCW

French Callsigns Changed B. Real
French No-code Referendum B. Real NQCJCDNNOJ
HS Telegraphy Working Group IARU Abbrevs & Procedures (Itrs) Various 39
IARU Morse Committee IARU Abbrevs & Procedures (ltr) Various 43
IARU Morse Committee IARU QUS? R. Hellemons 38

M91435 J4ugust 1994 45

COMMERCIAL LICENSING Vibroplex (UK) Catalogue Eastern Comms 34
W5Y| Group now a COLEM FCC 29 Western Electric Key (ltr) D.R. Pennes 33


Computers and Morse G. Bold 31 32 Acquiring the WT Code 1 Wm.G. Pierpont
Morse Code. New Places lor an Old Art?
A. Prather
Acquiring the WT Code 2 - Wm.G. Pierpont
30 37 Acquiring the Radiotelegraph Code (ltr)
Morse 2000 Conlerence Univ/Wisconsin 34 Wm.G. Pierpont
Other Applics Ior Morse (ltr) B. Eldridge 29 40 Morse Flip Cards Flip Cards
Other Applics lor Morse (ltr) R. Stelansson 48 Morse Rhythm T. Manstield
UK Callbook on Disk J. Bailey a4 Morse Trg by Computer (ltr) H. Schnait
Sending & Spacing Candler Course
EARLY WIRELESS 80 You Want To Be a Morse Test Examiner?
CW Readout Printer lor 905 RC. Marris 40 R. Clayton
Progress by Marconi 1909 The Times 32 16 The Code Book: Morse Code InstructionManual
Some Day Ill Know S. Martin 30 42 (Review) T. Smith
Transmitting Plates, More T. Smith
HS Telegraphy Working Group IARU LINE TELEGRAPHY
Australian Anniversary Morsecodians
ILLUSTRATIONS Chinese Dit-Dahs D. deNeul
Marconi Radio Oicer Advert 1961 34 BC Just Remember! C.P. Krause
Morsecodians at Alice 93 J. Houlder
INDEX Morsecodians at Alice 94 J. Houlder
Index for issues 2528 MM 29 46 Morse in the AP A. Keel
Postal Telegraph Co, The D.K. deNeul
INSTRUMENTS, HISTORICAL Telegraphy Demonstrations with High School Students
Bains Chemical Telegraph Porthcurno Mus. 31 BC D. Alderdice 30
Cape Gris Nez Cable Inst. Porthcurno Mus. 30 BC The Telegraph (Book Review) T. Smith
Ducretet & Lejeune keys, 1894 D 81 L Catalogue 32 BC Up, Up and Awayl (1872) US Sig. Service
Hughes Type-printer 1895 33 BC What Hath God Wroughtl T. Smith
Stick Pert & Punched Slip Porthcurno Mus. 29 BC When Morse Reigned Supreme R. Angove
150th Anniv 01 First Message USA
Vibroplex (UK) Catalogue Eastern Comms 34 MARITIME
Borkum - First Oicial Coast Station in Germany
KEYS G. Ulsamer 32 34
Alrcralt Ident. Switchbox T. Smith 30 GMDSS Frustration Ocean Voice 32
Aircratt Ident. Switchbox (ltr) G. Farrance 31 Home-Brew J. Sykes 34 30
A/C Ident. Svfbx, More on the V. Reynolds 33 Icelandic Mystery (ltr) R.H. Stetansson 32 48
Bunnell Mystery (Autoplex) Hawkins Guide 29 Language of Maritime Telegraphy
Constant Dashes B. Johnson 34 40
(NATO Navy Key) (ltr) R. Whittaker 30 Marconi Radio Otticer Advert 1961 BC
Creed Trainer Key T. Smith 33 Portishead Radio Today R. Marshall 32 26
Ducretet & Lejeune keys, 1894 D & L Catalogue 32 Reprieve, The J.L. Sykes
Golden Sec. Key Greatl (ltr) G. Ford 29 Rudder-Joke J.L. Sykes 32 12
H/Made High Speed Paddle (ltr) Semi~Automaticsat Sea (ltr) J. Beech 31 46
M. Colombani-Gailleur 29 Semi-Automaticsat Sea (ltr) R. Prosser 33 44
LeIt-handed Bugs (ltr) D.R. Pennes 31 Steam Morse (1876) Teteg. Journal 33 39
LeIt-handed Bugs (ltr) B. Real 32 Tel. ManipulatingKey Design H.J.H. Wassell 30
Lelt-handed Bugs (ltr) R.L. Thomas 34 VIT, A Visit to G. Bold 31 11
Lett-handed Operator (ltr) 8. Real 29 SOOkHz & GMDSS Not Compatible
Lilliput Key J. Orellana R 29 WWB 31
RAF Type Key Survey
D T. Smith
RAF 10F/8782 Key (ltr) D.A. Coe MISCELLANEOUS
Russian Collection (ltr) V. Pakhomov All Thanks to Morse! loW Cnty Press 31 6
Semi-Automaticsat Sea (ltr) J. Beech Contact Cleaner Cal-Av Labs 32 23
Single Lever Combo (G4ZPY) G4ZPY London Calling Overseas (ltr) J. Brunton 31 44
Smallest Key? (ltr) Bob Butt London Calling Overseas (ltr) C. Hammett 32 46
Smallest Keys (Itrs) Various London Calling (ltr) G. Taylor 33 43
Straight Key D. Stillwell Media CW (0AM no Morel) (ltr)M. Pouw-Arnold 31 43
Tel. Manipulating Key Design H.J.H. Wassell MM Mini-Meet J. Lycett 31 9
TransmittingPlates, More T. Smith Morse at the Movies (Itrs) Various 31 45

46 MDT/35 lugust 1994

Morse at the Movies (ltr) W. Cornish 33 43 Aids to Good Keying (ltr) R. Prosser 29 42
Morse in Great Houses E.F. Jones 31 Check Your Speed (ltr) G. Lizee 29 42
Morse in Great Houses (ltr) G. Taylor 33 48 Early Break-In (ltr) J. Worthington 30 48
Morse Music (ltr) M. Pouw-Arnold 30 48 Erasure Signal (ltr) R. Prosser 33 43
Novice News of the Month WW, 1913 31 34 Proper Nouns (ltr) R. Prosser 33 47
Other Applics for Morse (ltr) B. Eldridge 29 40 Those Tones (ltr) R. Wilson 33 43
Other Applics for Morse (ltr) R. Stelansson 31 4B Who was at the Key? 2 LR. Moreau 29 14
Paying for Super Keyer II (ltr) E. Langton 29 42 Worst Ops? (ltr) R. Prosser 30 48
Seeking Correspondents (ltr) P. Cleveland 34 47
Surprise (tattooed legs) D. Express 29 38 OPERATING SKILLS
Testing & Context Wm. G. Pierpont 31 34 Eavesdroppers (Book Rev) T. Jones 29 34
Trade Union Morse (ltr) C. MacKinnon 29 39 Katakana Speed (ltr) D. Leak 30 47
Weather Kites (ltr) G. Taylor 33 45
MORSECODE lnfatuation (1915) P. Benjamin 33 39
Chinese Dit-Dahs D. deNeuf 33
Everything You Ever Wanted to Know POLAR EXPLORATION
About Morse Code... F. Maia 29 Airship over the Pole (Bk Rev) T. Smith 32 20
Morse Code. New Places for an Old Art? Polar Radio. 1912 Style T. Smith 33 26
A. Prather 30
Morse 2000 Conference Univ/Wisconsin 34 POST OFFICE
Words. Words, Words G. Bold 33 American Morse by Radio (ltr) J. Hann 30 45
Newloundland Memories (ltr) D. Ryan 32 47
MORSE FOR THE DISABLED Wh. Morse Reigned Supreme R.Angove 30 20
Morse Code. New Places for an Old Art?
A. Prather 30 PRESS
Morse 2000 Conference Univ/Wisconsin 34 Morse in the AP A. Keel 32 6


What Hath God Wrought! T. Smith 33 .s a: Just Remember! C.P. Krause 31 39
Last Telegraph Messages (ltr) G. Ward 30 48
MUSEUMS Telegraphy Demonstrations with High School Students
Adelaide & other Mus. Closed J. Houlder 31 A D. Alderdice 30 32
Aviation, of W. Australia D. Couch 31
Chalk Pits Mus. Wireless Day D. Rudram 29 READERS LETTERS
Danish Resistance T. Dahl 31 Abbreviations& Procedures Various 29 39

La Muse dHistoire des PTT K. Quigg 29 Abbreviations& Procedures Various 31

Porthcurno Telegraph Mus. J. Packer 34 03 Abbreviations& Procedures B. Eldridge 32 46
Wellesbourne Wartime Mus. G. Farrance 32 Acquiring the Radiotelegraph Code
Wireless Hill (Australia) D. Couch 31 B. Pierpont 34 43
Adelaide & Other Mus. Closed J. Houlder 31 44
NAVY Aids to Good Keying R. Prosser 29 42
D-Day Memories (ltr) H. Brooklyn 34 Aircraft ldentil. Switchbox G. Farrance 31 47
Fairey Swordfish Radio (ltr) S. Shackletord 33 4e American Morse by Radio J. Hann 30 45
JapaneseMidgetSubs(ltr) C.G. Harvey 33 47 Check Your Speed G. Lizee 29 42
Morse Saves Livesl (Peru) Edmonton Jnl 34 34 Congratulations Michaell M. Hindley 34 43
Constant Dashes (NATO Navy Key) R. Whittaker 30 46
NO-CODE CONTROVERSY D-Day Memories H. Brooklyn 34 47
French No-code Referendum B. Real 29 Early Break-In J. Worthington 30 48
lARU Morse Committee lARU 33 U'INQCD
Erasure Signal R. Prosser 33 43
lARU Morse Committee lARU 34 Fairey SwordfishRadio S. Shackletord 33 48
lARU Rgn 1 Cont. Morse Vote lARU 30 Golden Sec. Key Great! G. Ford 29 40
No-code Arguments in France (ltr) Home-made High Speed Paddle
MColombani-Gailleur 29 J:- M. Colombani-Gailleur 29 41
NZ Amateurs Support Morse NZART 31 Icelandic Mystery R.H. Stefansson 32 48
REF Position on CW lARU Rgn 1 31 ANQ#W

Ignition Coil Spark TX J. Packer 30 47

RSGB Morse Vote lARU Rgn 1 31 Japanese Midget Submarines C.G. Harvey 33 47
RSGB Survey Results RSGB 31 Katakana Speed D. Leak 30 47
Last Telegraph Messages G.Ward 30 48
OPERATING,GENERAL Left-handed Bugs D.R. Pennes 31 44
Abbrevs & Procedures (Itrs) Various 29 Left-handed Bugs B. Real 32 48
Abbrevs & Procedures (Itrs) Various 31 Left-handed Bugs R.L. Thomas 34 44
Abbrevs & Procedures (ltr) B. Eldridge 32 Left-handed Operator B. Real 29 43

9119105 ugust 1994 47

London Calling Overseas
London Calling Overseas
J. Brunton So You Want to be a
C. Hammett
London Calling G. Taylor Morse Examiner? - Part 2
Media CW (QAM no More!) M. Pouw-Arnoid
Military Miscellany S. Barr
continued from page 39
Morse at the Movies Various It has been a pretty average day, with
Morse at the Movies W, Cornish
Morse in Great Houses G. Taylor
a 70 per cent pass rate.
Morse Music M. Pouw-Arnold Copies of the papers now go to the
Morse on the Don 5 J. Jetlrey
Morse on the Don 5 F. Wilson
RSGB, the Licensing Authority and the
Morse Training by Computer H. Schnait Deputy Chief Morse Examiner. He will
Most imponant, The (LHDG) C. Richards
doublecheck every result and read
NewfoundlandMemories D. Ryan
No-code Arguments in France through a report on the session, submit-
M. Colombani-Gailleur
ted by the senior examiner, to ensure
Non-success Story M. Goodman
Other Applics lor Morse Code B. Eldridge that standards are being maintained
Other Applics lor Morse Code Fl. Stelansson
Paying for the Super Keyer it E. Langton
throughout the country.
Proper Nouns R. Prosser We discuss the session on the drive
RAF 10F/8782 Key DA. Coe
Russian Collection V. Pakhomov
home and sympathise with the failures.
SAS Communications T. S-J. Coleman We hope they will return in two months
Seeking Correspondents P. Cleveland
Semi-Automaticsat Sea
time. They did, but that is another
J. Beech
Semi-Automaticsat Sea Ft. Prosser story... MM
Smallest Key? Bob Butt
Smallest Keys Various
Those Tones R. Wilson
Trade Union Morse C. MacKinnon Comment continued from page 1
V tor Victory D. Johnson
Weather Kites G. Taylor Obviously there is a training problem
Western Electric Key DR. Pennes as well. The specialist radio ofcer was
Worst Ops? R. Prosser
90m Anniversary of PCH
trained in operating his W/T equipment,
K. Lagerberg
and in sending distress alerts the ofcer
FlEFLECTlONS FROM UNCLE BAS who is now responsible for operating the
Aerials B. van Es
satcom system has other pressing jobs to
A Short Voyage B. van Es
Knew What i Wanted 8. van Es do, such as navigating the ship, and to him
the communicationsjob must necessarily
REVIEWS, BOOKS be a sideline.
Airship over the Pole
(Fl, Amundsen 8. L. Ellsworth) T. Smith 32 20
It is little wonder that doubts are being
The Code Book: Morse Code Instruction Manual expressed about this seemingly headlong
T. Smith 34 38 rush towards automating every communi-
Eavesdroppers (J. Bleakley) T. Jones 29 34
The Telegraph (Lewis Coe)
cations system aboard ship, and eliminat-
T. Smith 31 20
ing the specialist communications expert,
SATELLITES the ships radio officer. Computers are
ZR0 Test AMSAT 33 wonderful things, but only while they are
SUBMARINE TELEGRAPHY working correctly, and running software
Porthcurno Telegraph Mus. J. Packer 34 32 which was written with an understanding

of the needs of the user.
) .

For information on the current I' CO VWPJ

availability ofback issues,


please see the latest issue of
Mar-sum Magnicat

48 Mil/35 lugust 1994
Morse Q55
A series of reproductions of 08L cards with a Morse theme


OSL card ol the Bicentennial Morse
Memorial Day station at Cale Centraal,
Haven 44, Maassluis, Holland,
operating on 27 April 1991
Secrecy as to contents of
The Post Ofce (Protection) Act of i884 (Section H) enacts as
Every person who forges or wiliully and without due authorit
or utters a tewram knowing the same to be forged, or wilfulryalters a telegram
and without due
authority alter . or who transmits by'telezraphas a telegram. or utters as a telegram.
any message or communication whlc he to be not a telegram, shall. whether
he had or had not an intent to defraud. benows guilty of a misdemeanour, and shall be
liable. on summary conviction, to a fine not eaceedin
on indictment. to imprisonment with or without ten pounds. and. on conviction
rd labour for a period not
exceeding twelve months.
If any being in the employment of a telegraph company as dened by this
Improperly divulges to any person the
urport of any telegram; such person shell
"be guilty of a misdemeanour and be li le on summery conviction to a llne not
exceeding pounds. and on conviction on indictment to imprisonment, with
" or without twenty
herd abour. {or a term not exceeding one year. or to a line not exceeding
two hundred pounds.
For the purposes of this section the expression
printed message telegram ' means a written or
or communication sent to delivered at a st ofce. or the ofce
of a telegraph company. for transmission byor
telegraph, pr del vered by the ofce
or e telegraph - r , as a go or - --- t. ' - by post
The expression telegraph means
company any
" urrying on the business of sending telegrams for the company, cor ration. or none
pubic under tever
authority or in whatever manner such company, corporation. or persons may act
or be constituted.
The expression telegraph' has the same meaning as In the Telegraph Act. II:
and the Acts amending the same."

This Section applies equally to

Radioteieirams and to any Em-
ployees of a Shipping or Aircraft Company avlng access to them.
I- Copyright


Each holder of a United Kingdom Postmaster Generals Certificate of Proficiency in

Radiotelegraphy and Licence to Operate is required to declare that he he will preserve the
secrecy of correspondence. This notice, a copy of which must be displayed in each ship's
radio office, details just what he has signed up to