Anda di halaman 1dari 37

For Tv

(Pictorial Presentation) V.P.


a’
Note: a’
Fv is a vertical line
. A Showing True Length Fv
1. V.P FV &
Tv is a point. b’
A Line b’
perpendicular Y
X Y
B Fo
to Hp rF
v
& TV a b
Tv a b
// to Vp X
H.P.
Orthographic Pattern
(Pictorial Presentation) For Tv Note: V.P.
Fv & Tv both are
2. // to xy a’ Fv b’
b’ &
.
A Line F .V B both show T. L.
// to Hp a’
& A X Y
// to Vp Fo
rF
v
b a b
Tv
V.
T.
a
H.P.
Fv inclined to xy V.P.
Tv parallel to xy. b’
3. . b’
V.P .
F.V
A Line inclined to Hp B
V.

θ
F.

and θ Y
a’
parallel to Vp a’ X Y
θ
(Pictorial presentation) A b
a
T.V. b
.
X
T.V
a
H.P.
Orthographic Projections
Tv inclined to xy V.P.
4. Fv parallel to xy.
.
V.P . b’ a’ Fv b’
A Line inclined to Vp F. V
and a’
parallel to Hp A
Ø
B X Y
(Pictorial presentation) a Ø
Ø Tv
a b
T.V.
b
H.P.
For Tv
For Tv
5. A Line inclined to both
b’ Hp and Vp b’
.
.
(Pictorial presentation) V.P
V.P B

.
F.V
B
.
F .V

α
α Y
Y
On removal of object a’ For
a’ Fo i.e. Line AB Fv
r Fv
Fv as a image on Vp.
A
A Tv as a image on Hp,
β
β X
X a T.V. b
a T.V. b
V.P.
b’
FV
a’ α
X Y
Orthographic Projections Note These Facts:-
Fv is seen on Vp clearly. Both Fv & Tv are inclined to xy.
To see Tv clearly, HP is a β (No view is parallel to xy)
rotated 900 downwards, Both Fv & Tv are reduced lengths.
Hence it comes below xy. TV (No view shows True Length)
H.P. b
Orthographic Projections Note the procedure Note the procedure
Means Fv & Tv of Line AB When Fv & Tv known, When True Length is known,
are shown below, How to find True Length. How to locate Fv & Tv.
(Views are rotated to determine (Component a-1 of TL is drawn
with their apparent Inclinations
True Length & it’s inclinations which is further rotated
α&β
with Hp & Vp). to determine Fv)
V.P. V.P. V.P.
b’ b’ b 1’ b’ b1’
FV FV Fv
TL
TL α
a’ α a’ θ a’ θ 1’
X Y X Y X Y
1
a β b2 a
a β TV
Ø
β
TL
TV TV Tv
H.P. b H.P. b H.P. b b1
Here TV (ab) is not // to XY line In this sketch, TV is rotated Here a -1 is component
Hence it’s corresponding FV and made // to XY line. of TL ab1 gives length of Fv.
a’ b’ is not showing Hence it’s corresponding Hence it is brought Up to
True Length & FV a’ b1’ Is showing Locus of a’ and further rotated
True Length to get point b’. a’ b’ will be Fv.
True Inclination with Hp.
& Similarly drawing component
True Inclination with Hp. of other TL(a’ b1‘) Tv can be drawn.
The most important diagram showing graphical relations 1) True Length ( TL) – a’ b1’ & a b
among all important parameters of this topic. 2) Angle of TL with Hp - θ Important
TEN parameters
Study and memorize it as a CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 3) Angle of TL with Vp – Ø to be remembered
And use in solving various problems.
4) Angle of FV with xy – α with Notations
β
used here onward
V.P. 5) Angle of TV with xy –
Distance between
End Projectors. 6) LTV (length of FV) – Component (a-1)
b’ b1’
7) LFV (length of TV) – Component (a’-1’)
8) Position of A- Distances of a & a’ from xy
Fv
TL 9) Position of B- Distances of b & b’ from xy
α 10) Distance between End Projectors
θ 1’
a’
LTV
NOTE this
X Y θ& α Construct with a’
a LFV 1 Ø& β Construct with a
Ø
b’ & b1’ on same locus.
β
b & b1 on same locus.
Tv TL
b b1
H.P.
b’ b’1

FV
TL

θ
a’
X Y
a LFV
Ø 1

TV TL

b b1
b’

LOCUS OF b1’

FV
TL
550

a’
X y
a LFV
1
45 0
ΦTV

TL

LOCUS OF b
b b1
b’ b’1

FV
TL

500
θ
a’
X
y
a
Φ
600

TL

b1
b
b’ b’1

FV
TL

θ LTV 1’
a’
X Y
a LFV
1
Φ

TV

TL

b1
d’ d’1 LOCUS OF d’ & d’1

FV
TL

c’ θ
Y
d d1 LOCUS OF d & d1

TL

TV

c Φ
b’

STEPS TO LOCATE HT.


FV

(WHEN PROJECTIONS ARE GIVEN.)


1. Begin with FV. Extend FV up to XY line. a’
2. Name this point h’ v h’
( as it is a Fv of a point in Hp) x y
3. Draw one projector from h’.
4. Now extend Tv to meet this projector. VT’ HT
This point is HT a

TV
STEPS TO LOCATE VT.
Observe & note :-
(WHEN PROJECTIONS ARE GIVEN.) 1. Points h’ & v always on x-y line. b

1. Begin with TV. Extend TV up to XY line. 2. VT’ & v always on one projector.
2. Name this point v
3. HT & h’ always on one projector.
( as it is a Tv of a point in Vp)
3. Draw one projector from v. 4. FV - h’- VT’ always co-linear.
4. Now extend Fv to meet this projector.
This point is VT 5. TV - v - HT always co-linear.

These points are used to


solve next three problems.
b’ b’1

450
a’ θ
15
x v h’
y
10 300
HT
VT’
a ∅

b b1
b’ b’1 LOCUS OF b’ & b’1

FV TL
450
a’ θ
10 v h’
X Y
30
45
VT’ HT

100
a Φ
TL
TV

b b1 LOCUS OF b & b1
VT

b’ b’1

55
FV
TL

Locus of a’ a’ θ
X 10 50 v y
h’ b b1

35 TV
TL
a Φ
HT

80
b’ b1 ’

FV TL
Then from point v & HT
a’
angles β & Φ can be drawn.
v &
X Y
Φ From point VT’ & h’
angles α & θ can be drawn.
θ

VT’

THIS CONCEPT IS USED TO SOLVE


a
NEXT THREE PROBLEMS.
TL
TV

b b1
b’ b 1’

FV
mm
100

Locus of a & a1’ a’ a1 ’

10
X v h’
Y
Φ(450)
20
θ (300)
VT’
HT

a a1

TV 10
0m
m

b b1
b’ b 1’

FV
mm
75

Locus of a & a1’ a’ a1’

15
X v h’
Y
600
20 Φ
θ
450
VT’
HT

a a1

TV 75
mm

b b1
b’ b1’

FV
m
5 m
7
a’ a1 ’

15
X v Y
20 Φ
25 θ
VT’
a

TV
Draw two projectors for VT & end A 40mm
Locate these points and then b b1
YES !
YOU CAN COMPLETE IT.
b’ Line AB is in AIP as shown in above figure no 1.
A.I It’s FV (a’b’) is shown projected on Vp.(Looking in arrow direction)
.P.
Here one can clearly see that the
Inclination of AIP with HP = Inclination of FV with XY line
a’ α B
A
X
α
β
A A.V.P.
B
Line AB is in AVP as shown in above figure no 2..
β
a b
It’s TV (a b) is shown projected on Hp.(Looking in arrow direction)
Here one can clearly see that the
Inclination of AVP with VP = Inclination of TV with XY line
LINE IN A PROFILE PLANE ( MEANS IN A PLANE PERPENDICULAR TO BOTH HP & VP)
For T.V.
ORTHOGRAPHIC PATTERN OF LINE IN PROFILE PLANE
VP VT PP
a’ a”
A a’
Φ
FV LSV
b’ b’ b”
θ Y
X
HT
a
B F or F.V
. TV
a
b
b HP
Results:-
1. TV & FV both are vertical, hence arrive on one single projector.
2. It’s Side View shows True Length ( TL)
3. Sum of it’s inclinations with HP & VP equals to 900 ( θ + Φ = 900 )
4. It’s HT & VT arrive on same projector and can be easily located
From Side View.
OBSERVE CAREFULLY ABOVE GIVEN ILLUSTRATION AND 2nd SOLVED PROBLEM.
VT (VT) a”
a’
Φ Side View
Front view ( True Length )

VP
b’ b”
a θ (HT)
X HP Y

top view

b
HT
PROBLEM 14:-Two objects, a flower (A) and an orange (B) are within a rectangular compound wall,
whose P & Q are walls meeting at 900. Flower A is 1.5M & 1 M from walls P & Q respectively.
Orange B is 3.5M & 5.5M from walls P & Q respectively. Drawing projection, find distance between
them If flower is 1.5 M and orange is 3.5 M above the ground. Consider suitable scale..
b’ b’1
er)
3,5M (a n sw
TL
a’
1.5M
x y
Wall P Wall P
B
1.5M
a
3.6M
1M
A
Wall Q
b
5.5M
Wall Q F.V.
PROBLEM 15 :- Two mangos on a tree A & B are 1.5 m and 3.00 m above ground
and those are 1.2 m & 1.5 m from a 0.3 m thick wall but on opposite sides of it.
If the distance measured between them along the ground and parallel to wall is 2.6 m,
Then find real distance between them by drawing their projections.
TV
b’ b1 ’
B
3.00 m
a’
1.5m A 0.3M THICK
WALL
(GL) X Y
b
0.3m 1.5m
Wall thickness FV
1.2m
a
2.6m
REAL DISTANCE BETWEEN
MANGOS A & B IS = a’ b 1’
PROBLEM 16 :-
oa, ob & oc are three lines, 25mm, 45mm and 65mm
Tv
long respectively.All equally inclined and the shortest
is vertical.This fig. is TV of three rods OA, OB and OC
whose ends A,B & C are on ground and end O is 100mm
above ground. Draw their projections and find length of
each along with their angles with ground. O
o’
C
A
100
TL2 TL1
TL 3
Fv
b1’ b’ a’ a1 ’ c’ c1 ’
x y
a B

25
o Answers:
45 65 TL1 TL2 & TL3
b
c
PROBLEM 17:- A pipe line from point A has a downward gradient 1:5 and it runs due South - East.
Another Point B is 12 M from A and due East of A and in same level of A. Pipe line from B runs
150 Due East of South and meets pipe line from A at point C.
Draw projections and find length of pipe line from B and it’s inclination with ground.
12m
a’ 5 b’
D o
1 wnw
ard 5
TL Gr a
d ient 1
FV ( a 1:5
ns
wer)
N
A 12 M
c’ c’1 c’2 B E
x y
N
W b
a 450 EAST
C
150
TV S
TL ( answer) = a’ c’
2
c D UE
SO
UT = Inclination of pipe line BC
H
-E
AS
T
SOUTH
PROBLEM 18: A person observes two objects, A & B, on the ground, from a tower, 15 M high,
At the angles of depression 300 & 450. Object A is is due North-West direction of observer and
object B is due West direction. Draw projections of situation and find distance of objects from
observer and from tower also.
o’
300
450
15M
O
a’1 a’ b’ 300
450
a N

N
W E A
b o S
Answers:
B
Distances of objects
from observe W
o’a’1 & o’b’
From tower S
oa & ob
PROBLEM 19:-Guy ropes of two poles fixed at 4.5m and 7.5 m above ground,
are attached to a corner of a building 15 M high, make 300 and 450 inclinations
with ground respectively.The poles are 10 M apart. Determine by drawing their
projections,Length of each rope and distance of poles from building.
c 1’ c’ c’2 TV
C
300
b’
a’ 15M
450
15 M
7.5M
4.5M
300
A
4.5 M
450
12M
B
a b FV
10 M 7.5M
c
Answers:
Length of Rope BC= b’c’2
Length of Rope AC= a’c’1
Distances of poles from building = ca & cb
PROBLEM 20:- A tank of 4 M height is to be strengthened by four stay rods from each corner
by fixing their other ends to the flooring, at a point 1.2 M and 0.7 M from two adjacent walls respectively,
as shown. Determine graphically length and angle of each rod with flooring.
FV
a’
TV
True Length
Answers:
Length of each rod
= a’b’1
A
Angle with Hp.
=
X b’1 Y
b’
4M
a
B 1.2 M

0.
0.7 M

7
M
b FV
1.2 M
TV
PROBLEM 22.
A room is of size 6.5m L ,5m D,3.5m high.
An electric bulb hangs 1m below the center of ceiling.
A switch is placed in one of the corners of the room, 1.5m above the flooring.
Draw the projections an determine real distance between the bulb and switch.
6.5m Ceiling
TV
1m b’ b’1 Bulb
all
Side w
3.5m Front wall
a’
1.5 H
x y Switch
a
L D
Obser
ver
5m b
B- Bulb
A-Switch
Answer :- a’ b’1
PROBLEM 23:-
A PICTURE FRAME 2 M WIDE AND 1 M TALL IS RESTING ON HORIZONTAL WALL RAILING
MAKES 350 INCLINATION WITH WALL. IT IS ATTAACHED TO A HOOK IN THE WALL BY TWO STRINGS.
THE HOOK IS 1.5 M ABOVE WALL RAILING. DETERMINE LENGTH OF EACH CHAIN AND TRUE ANGLE BETWEEN THEM
h’
TV
(chains)
a’b’ 1.5M
A 350
1.5 M
1M B
1M
c’d’ (wall railing) D
FV
X Y
a1 ad 2M
C Wall railing
(frame)
h
(chains)
Answers:
Length of each chain= hb1
b1 bc True angle between chains =