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FEOFS 2013

PS-314
Effect of wt% of ATH on Mechanical Strength of
Polypropylene/Aluminium Trihydrate (PP/ATH) Composite.
1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 1*
Atta ur Rehman Shah , Dong-woo Lee , Sang-jin Kim , Abdul Wasy , Yi-Qi Wang , K. C. Ham , Krishnan Jayaraman , Byung-Sun Kim , Jung-Il Song
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon, South Korea.
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha Technical College, South Korea
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand
4
Composite Research Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), South Korea

Dierent wt% of ATH are commonly added to PP for VARIOUS applications to increase its ame retardancy. Thermal, electrical and re retardant
properties of ATH blended with dierent polymers including PP have already been published in literature, , while no information is available on the
mechanical strength and fracture toughness of these polymer composites. This paper includes a study to calculate tensile strength, exural
strength and fracture toughness of a PP/ATH composite. Eect of increasing wt% of ATH on the mechanical strength of the PP/ATH composite
have been concluded.

COMPOSITE PREPARATION EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FE MODELING


Injection Three points bending
Mixing Extrusion Cutting Tensile Test ASTM D638 Instron 5567 30 kN
at Temperature Molding Three points bending analysis is performed on the FE model and compared with experimental
PP + ATH + MAPP o in pallets test specimens
210-220 C
are obtained
results to validate the FE model. The geometry and loading of the FE bending model are same
Bending Test ASTM D790 R & B Unitech 5 tons as used in the experimental setup. The comparison of the results are shown in the results
section. FE results agreed to the experimental results at a mesh size of 0.5 mm. After validation
of the model notched specimen is analyzed at the same mesh size.
wt% amount of constituents in dierent blends
Fracture Analysis
PP(%) ATH(%) MAPP(%) Total(%) Using ASTM E1290 a single edge notched beam (SENB) specimen of span length (L) 51.2
mm, depth (W) 12.86 mm and width (B) 6.43 mm was modeled with a crack size of (a0) 7.3945
100 - - 100 mm. Load P is calculated using FE technique and the KIC is calculated using the following
standard formulae.
P (2 + a0 ( 2
W ) 0.886 + 4.64 a0 W - 13.32 (a0 W ) + 14.72 (a0 W ) - 5.6 (a0 W )
3 4
)
93 5 2 100 K IC = 1 (Y ) Y=
Dog bone specimen for tensile test BW 2 (1 - a0
32
W)

88 10 2 100
83 15 2 100
48 50 2 100 Three point bending test setup

Geometric model for fracture analysis according to ASTM E1290

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS RESULTS


Tensile Test Bending Test Model Validation
30 10

50 Three point bending test using FEA is performed and the results are compared with the experimental results. Applied loads are calculated from the ASTM formula
25 f = 3PL/2bd2, where f is taken from experimental results. Results are compared in the table below.
8
40
Young's Modulus(GPa)

5% ATH 10% ATH 15% ATH 50% ATH


Flexural Strength(MPa)
Tensile Strength (MPa)

20
6
30
15

4
20
10

2 10
5
FE plots of Bending stress in PP/ATH composite of dierent blends at mesh size = 0.5 mm
0 0 0
Plain PP ATH 5% ATH 10% ATH 15% ATH 50% -- 5% ATH 10% ATH 15% ATH 50% ATH

Variation in the tensile strength and young's modulus among dierent blends of PP/ATH Variation in the exural strength and young's modulus among dierent blends of PP/ATH Experimental
Comparison of the FEA and experimental results 50 FEA
Tesile properties of pure PP and PP/ATH composites Flexural strength of PP/ATH composites
Blend of PP/ATH Tensile Strength Youngs Modulus Blend of PP/ATH Flexural Strength Blend of Applied Load Bending Stress 40
(MPa) (GPa)
(MPa) P Experimental FEA Error
100% PP 26.8 1.678 PP/ATH Flexural Stress (MPa)
5% ATH 48.53
5% ATH 25 1.671
10% ATH 46.55
(N) (MPa) (MPa) (%) 30

10% ATH 24.42 1.762


15% ATH 23.82 1.829 15% ATH 39.21 5% ATH 83.16 48.54 46.15 4.90 20
50% ATH 21.32 50% ATH 38.45
3.245
10% ATH 79.82 46.55 44.29 4.85
10
15% ATH 67.23 39.21 37.31 4.86
50% ATH 65.62 38.45 36.42 5.26 0

SURFACE MORPHOLOGY 5% ATH

Comparison of the FE and experimental values


of exural stress
10% ATH 15% ATH 50% ATH

Fracture Analysis
5% ATH 10% ATH 15% ATH 50% ATH

(a) PP + 5% ATH (100x, 500x, 1000x & 2000x

FE plots of bending stress in SENB of PP/ATH composite of dierent blends at mesh size = 0.5 mm

Critical load for each PP/ATH composites SENB


0.7
Blend of PP/ATH Cri cal Load P Geometric factor Y
(b) PP + 10% ATH (100x, 500x, 1000x & 2000x) (N)
5% ATH 47 10.43858 0.6
10% ATH 45 10.43858
Fracture Toughness (MPa.m )

15% ATH 38 10.43858 0.5


50% ATH 37 10.43858
0.4
List of fracture toughness values for various
blends of PP/ATH composite 0.3

( c) PP + 15% ATH (100x, 500x, 1000x & 2000x) Blend of Fracture toughness (K IC)
PP/ATH 0.2

5% ATH 21.28 0.673 0.1


10% ATH 20.37 0.644
15% ATH 17.20 0.544 0.0
5% ATH 10% ATH 15% ATH 50% ATH
50% ATH 16.75 0.529
Variation of fracture toughness with wt% of ATH in PP/ATH composite
(d) PP + 50% ATH (100x, 500x, 1000x & 2000x)
SEM images of PP/ATH composite specimens before loading

5% ATH 10% ATH 15% ATH 50% ATH


CONCLUSION
Mechanical properties including tensile strength, youngs modulus, exural strength and fracture toughness of PP/ATH composite
are calculated using standard experimental and FE technique.
The FE model is validated through the experimental results of three points bending test and then used to calculate critical load for a
100x resolution 500x resolution notched specimen.
It is found that tensile strength, exural strength and fracture toughness of the composite are decreasing with the increase in the wt%
of ATH in the blend.
On the other hand a slight increase in the youngs modulus of the composite has been noted with the increase of wt% of ATH.
It shows brittleness is increasing with the addition of ATH. noituloser x0002 noituloser x0001
This research has proved that increase in ame)tretardancy of the composite is on the expense of the mechanical strength.
hgiR( erutcarf retfa dna )tfeL( gnidaol erofeb ,nemiceps )H TA %05( erutcarf fo segami M E S
1000x resolution 2000x resolution
Camera image of specimens SEM images of fracture (50% ATH) specimen,
after bending test before loading (Left) and after fracture (Right) Corresponding author: E-mail: jisong@changwon.ac.kr; Tel: +82-55-213-3605.