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# MSc in Marine Technology (International)

## Module Code: MAR8201 Module Title: Advance Marine Engineering

Design
Assignment Title:
MAR8210 Post School Assignment 2017
Report and program for calculating the torsional natural vibration frequencies

Submission

## Actual Submission Date: 22/05/17

-------------------------------------------- -------------------

## i Student Number: 160452783

Problem Statement - Post School Assignment 2017

Using an adequate programming language (quick Basic, Matlab, Excel), produce a simple computer
program capable of calculating the 2 first torsional natural vibration frequencies, of any torsional
system up to 20 inertia masses with or without reduction gear boxes. The program should also draw
the swing form of torsional vibration, additional stress diagram.
Using the LR requirements as a basis, check the results of Holzer calculations against the Magnifier
method including the stresses for the equivalent system and report the differences.
Please, remember that a proper report should be done in accordance to the LR rules provided, and
code must be handed as well.

To validate the program please consider the following data and the handouts provided:

## Engine type: 6L60ME

Number of cylinders: 6
Cylinder bore: 600 mm
Maximum combustion pressure: 127.5 bar
Firing order:1-5-3-4-2-6
Piston stroke: 1944 mm
Mean Indicated Pressure: 12.3 bar
Output: 9105 BHP
Propeller Diameter: 5600 mm
Inertia (dry): 210000 kg cm s2
Diameter of crankshaft: 672 mm
Diameter of intermediate shaft: 425 mm
Diameter of propeller shaft: 530 mm
Propeller type: Solid
Propeller diameter: 5600 mm

## Frequency of 1-node mode of vibration : 394,6 (vib./min.)

Frequency of 2 node mode of vibration: 1737.7 (vib./min.)

## ii Student Number: 160452783

Nomenclature and Abbreviations

## Nc critical speed ( rev/min)

Ns maximum continuous engine speed, in rev/min, or, in the case of constant speed Generating
sets, the full load speed ( rev/min)
Tm Resultant mth harmonic component of tangential effort at each crank pin, expressed per
unit area of piston (kgf/cm2)

J Inertia ( kg.cm.sec2)

Me Engine Magnifier

Mp Propeller Magnifier

List of Figures

## Figure 1 Engine propeller system schematic ....................................................................................... 2

Figure 2 Engine propeller system (Two mass system) ......................................................................... 2
Figure 3 Table 8.8.2 Particulars of equivalent dynamic system ........................................................... 4
Figure 4 Table 8.9.1 from LR rules ....................................................................................................... 4
Figure 5 Swing form of Torsional Vibrations ........................................................................................ 5
Figure 6 RPM vs Stress Plot .................................................................................................................. 5
Figure 7 Resonance graph .................................................................................................................... 7

## Cover sheet ....................................................................................................................... i

Problem Statement - Post School Assignment 2017 ........................................................... ii
Nomenclature and Abbreviations .................................................................................... iii
List of Figures .................................................................................................................. iv
1. Scope of assignment .................................................................................................. 1
2. Engine-Propeller system ............................................................................................ 2
3. Holzers Method for calculation of vibratory frequency and stresses .......................... 3
3.1. Overview .......................................................................................................................... 3
3.2. Method of calculation ...................................................................................................... 3
3.3. Hozler table ...................................................................................................................... 4
3.4. Results and Plots .............................................................................................................. 5
4. Magnifier Method for calculation of vibratory frequency and stresses ....................... 7
4.1. Overview .......................................................................................................................... 7
4.2. Method of calculation ...................................................................................................... 7
5. Conclusion ................................................................................................................. 8
6. References ................................................................................................................ 9
APPENDIX A: Hozler Table Input and Results from the Spreadsheet............................... 10

## v Student Number: 160452783

1. Scope of assignment

The scope of this assignment is to calculate torsional natural vibration frequencies and stresses for
the of torsional system provided in the assignment problem statement. The frequencies and stresses
are calculated using Holzers tabular calculation method and Magnifier calculation method with
reference from LR rules. The comparison of results from these two methods are reported at the end.

The scope of this assignment also includes writing programme with Microsoft excel. First two
torsional natural vibration frequencies, of any torsional system up to 20 inertia masses with or
without reduction gear boxes are calculated using this program. The program also able to draw the
swing form of torsional vibration, additional stress diagram.

## 1 Student Number: 160452783

2. Engine-Propeller system

The following Error! Reference source not found. shows the approximate schematic of the engine
propeller system described in the assignment problem statement

## Figure 1 Engine propeller system schematic

This system can be simplified to convert it into the two mass system. The masses of 6 cylinders,
chain drive and flywheel can be added together at one end. The masses of propeller and coupling
can added together at the other end. An equivalent shaft is connecting these two masses. This
approximated representation of two mass system is shown in Figure 2 below.

## 2 Student Number: 160452783

3. Holzers Method for calculation of vibratory frequency and stresses

3.1. Overview

The Holzer method is a tabular method for the analysis of multi-mass lumped-parameter systems. It
is applicable for the study of free and forced vibrations, systems with or without damping, systems
with any boundary conditions, and systems with angular or rectilinear motion.

It is used in this report to find natural frequencies, and each frequency is determined independently
of the others. In addition to the natural frequencies, the amplitude ratios of the masses and the
nodes in a system at its principal modes of vibration are also presented using Hozler method.

## 3.2. Method of calculation

For an undamped system, it can be assumed that no external torque is required to maintain a
conservative system vibrating at its principal modes.

The computations of the natural frequencies of an undamped system by Holzer's Method are
straight forward. Assuming a trial value for a natural frequency, the process is carried out by letting
the angular displacement of the first disk arbitrarily be one radian. The angular displacement of each
disk of the system is found by repeatedly applying following equation in a sequential fashion.

2 2 + 1 2
= 1 =
23

If the algebraic sum of the inertia torques is zero, that is then the assumed frequency is a natural
frequency. If not, a new value of w is assumed and the process is repeated. The magnitude and sign
of remainder torque are a measure of how far the trial frequency is removed from a natural
frequency.

The Holzer method is a trial-and-error method. So to start with assuming the first value for
frequency, following equation can be applied to the two mass represntation of system as shown in
Figure 2.

60 (1 + 2 )
=
2 1 2

## 3 Student Number: 160452783

3.3. Hozler table

Following calculations performed as per the Hozler tabular method. The results information is
tabulated as per the formats in LR rules.

## Minimum shaft Shaft speed Engine cylinder

Inertia (J) Flexibility Stiffness
Mass diameter (d) reduction firing angles
Description
Number
(kg.cm.s2) (Rad/kg.cm)*10^(-10) ki*10^(10) cm G (degress)

## 1 1st Cylinder 82500 0.798 1.25 67.2 - 0

2 nd 82500 1.25 240
2 Cylinder 0.798 67.2 -
3 3rd Cylinder 82500 0.798 1.25 67.2 - 120
th
4 4 Cylinder 82500 0.798 1.25 67.2 - 180
5 5th Cylinder 82500 0.798 1.25 67.2 - 60
th
6 6 Cylinder 82500 0.635 1.57 67.2 - 300
7 Chain Drive 39900 0.64 1.56 67.2 - -
8 Fly wheel 26000 20.06 0.05 42.5 - -
9 Coupling 3300 9.75 0.10 53 - -
10 Propeller 265000 0 0.00 0.00 - -

## Figure 3 Table 8.8.2 Particulars of equivalent dynamic system

Table 8.9.1
Frequency 41.66 Hz (cycles/min) No. of Nodes 1

## Relative Inertia Model Shaft Nominal Shaft

Amplitude torque Torque Stress Factor
Mass
J.^2
Number
J**2*108 ( j**2)*108 (Kg/cm2*104)

## 1 1.000 1.432 1.432 82500.0 0.2

2 0.989 1.415 2.847 80625.5 0.5
3 0.966 1.383 4.230 76961.9 0.7
4 0.932 1.335 5.565 71676.1 0.9
5 0.888 1.271 6.836 65009.1 1.1
6 0.833 1.193 8.029 57264.7 1.3
7 0.782 0.542 8.570 24409.5 1.4
8 0.727 0.328 8.899 13753.2 5.9
9 -1.058 -0.06 8.838 3692.2 3.0
10 -1.919 -8.83 0.010 976351.5

## Figure 4 Table 8.9.1 from LR rules

The details of the spreadsheets for performing Holzer table calculations are presented in Appendix
A.

## 4 Student Number: 160452783

3.4. Results and Plots

The values of vibration stress for fully protected screw shafts continuous running at or below the
maximum speed are calculated below as per the LR rules.

## 5 Student Number: 160452783

Stresses in Shafts
Stress (kgf/cm2)
ORDER Amplitude RPM Crank Intermediate Propeller
Shaft shaft Shaft
1 0.00192 397.8 27.681 113.6 58.2
2 0.00222 198.9 31.956 131.2 67.2
3 0.00218 132.6 31.418 129.0 66.0
4 0.00028 99.5 3.991 16.4 8.4
5 0.00003 79.6 0.475 1.9 1.0
6 0.00169 66.3 24.301 99.7 51.1
7 0.00001 56.8 0.092 0.4 0.2
8 0.00001 49.7 0.149 0.6 0.3
9 0.00002 44.2 0.232 1.0 0.5
10 0.00000 39.8 0.054 0.2 0.1
11 0.00000 36.2 0.011 0.0 0.0
12 0.00006 33.2 0.857 3.5 1.8
13 0.00000 30.6 0.006 0.0 0.0
14 0.00000 28.4 0.016 0.1 0.0
15 0.00000 26.5 0.039 0.2 0.1
16 0.00000 24.9 0.013 0.1 0.0

Maximum value of the vibration stress for continuous running at or below the maximum speed,
Crank Intermediate Propeller
Shaft shaft Shaft
Critical Speed (Nc) RPM 66.30 66.30 66.30
r 0.60 0.60 0.60
tc (kgf/cm2) 371.27 650.06 647.20
Stress at 6th order (kgf/cm2) 24.30 99.74 51.08
Permissible vibration stress as
215.00 580.00 580.00
per table 8.2.1(a) from LR Rules
Okay Okay Okay

## 6 Student Number: 160452783

4. Magnifier Method for calculation of vibratory frequency and stresses

4.1. Overview

The major strength of the method is its simplicity, as it allows the resonance amplitude to be
estimated with a minimum amount of information. It allows the engineer to use field data to
establish a dynamic magnifier number for later use.

To use the method, the system must be idealised by a spring and a mass, and an exciting torque or
force must be acting on the mass. The method is based on knowing the value of the dynamic
magnifier M, which is simply the dynamic amplitude divided by the static amplitude.

M values are established by historical data available in literature and by experimental testing. This is
why the method is only approximate, as the wide range of M values may make the results unusable.

The method can produce upper limit amplitudes, since if nothing is known about the damping in a
system, hysteresis damping of the steel itself can be used. This produces results of less than infinity,
and with a small forcing function the method can produce usable results.

## 4.2. Method of calculation

From two mass system (as shown in Inputs Tab) Critical Speed can be found out as f = 39.63 rad/s

60 (1 + 2 )
=
2 1 2

When the graph is drawn of rpm against the Vibraytory torque and Tansmitted torque. We can see
from the figure below that the areas above transmitted will gives us the gear hammering.

## 7 Student Number: 160452783

5. Conclusion

The barred speed range and stresses due to 6th order resonance are listed as followings:

Barred speed range at shaft stresses than permissible: from 62 rpm to 72.28 rpm
Maximum stresses other than the barred speed are all within permissible limits from LR
rules
Validated the results with LR Rules and observed that the Intermediate shaft stresses higher
than the Rule permissible limit at barred speed range.

After comparing the results from the Hozler method and the Magnifier method, the results are
approximately similar to each other.

## 8 Student Number: 160452783

6. References

[1] Lloyds Register Rules and Regulations for the classification of Ships, Part 5, Chapter 8
[2] Course work for Msc on Torsional Vibration
[3] Analysis of Torsional Vibrations in Rotating Machinery by J.C Wachel and Fred R.Szenasi
[4] Torsional vibration calculation issues with propulsion systems by Dr.Yuriy Batrak
[5] McGrawHill Torsional Vibration Measurement Methods, Monitoring, and Diagnostics
[6] Torsional vibration in reciprocating and rotating machines by Ronald L. Eshleman

## 9 Student Number: 160452783

APPENDIX A: Hozler Table Input and Results from the

## 10 Student Number: 160452783

Notes:
Material Properties input 1. Values indicated with color needs to be manually provided.
Density (r) : 0.00785 kg/cm3 2. For Calculate the values of ( ji**w2) for interations, please refer the sheet 'Hozler Table'
Modulus of Rigidity (G) : 830000 kg/cm2

## Engine Data input

Mean Indicated Pressure 12.3 kg/cm2
Rated Shaft Power 9105 BHP
6789.60 kW
Cylinder Bore 600.00 mm
Piston Stroke 1944.00 mm
Firing Order 1-5-3-4-2-6

M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9

Mass Description input Shaft Description input Approximate 1 Node Natural Frequency of Two mass system
Outer Shaft Resisting The value of final Natual frequency between
Mass Inertia (J) Stiffness (K) Shaft Length (L)
Description Diameter (D) Inertia (Is) moment (MR) positive and negative values of ( ji**w2)
Number Number MASS 1 MASS 2
(kg.cm.s2) (kg.cm/Rad) (cm) (cm) (kg.cm2) (cm3) can be calculated by interpolation.
1 1st Cylinder 82500 1.25E+10 S1 67.2 132.60 2.08E+06 5.96E+04
2 2nd Cylinder 82500 1.25E+10 S2 67.2 133 2.08E+06 5.96E+04 Mass1 includes Mass2 includes Three interations are performed to find out
3 3rd Cylinder 82500 1.25E+10 S3 67.2 133 2.08E+06 5.96E+04 1 82500 9 3300 the nearest value of Natural frequency
4 4th Cylinder 82500 1.25E+10 S4 67.2 133 2.08E+06 5.96E+04 2 82500 10 265000 Where,
5 5th Cylinder 82500 1.25E+10 S5 67.2 133 2.08E+06 5.96E+04 3 82500 J1 = Total Intertial of Mass 1 Iteration 1
6 6th Cylinder 82500 1.57E+10 S6 67.2 106 1.66E+06 5.96E+04 4 82500 560900 (kg.cm.s2) w1 w2 wInterpolated
7 Chain Drive 39900 1.56E+10 S7 67.2 106 1.67E+06 5.96E+04 5 82500 J2 = Total Intertial of Mass 2 Frequency 39.63 49.63 40.96
8 Fly wheel 26000 4.99E+08 S8 42.5 533 1.34E+06 1.51E+04 6 82500 268300 (kg.cm.s2) ( ji**w2) 1.149 -7.496
9 Coupling 3300 1.03E+09 S9 53 627 3.81E+06 2.92E+04 7 39900 K = Equivalent stiffness
10 Propeller 265000 0 S10 8 26000 (springs in series) Iteration 2
11 S11 2.85E+08 (kg.cm/Rad) w1 w2 wInterpolated
12 S12 Frequency 40.96 45.96 41.53
13 S13 First trial value of Natural ( ji**w2) 0.431 -3.391
14 S14 frequency for Hozler method
15 S15 f1 = 378.49 rpm Iteration 3
16 S16 w1 = 39.63 rad/s w1 w2 wInterpolated
17 S17 Frequency 41.53 44.03 41.66
18 S18 ( ji**w2) 0.091 -1.686
19 S19
Total J1 560900 Total J2 268300

## 11 Student Number: 160452783

Hozer table 1st Node
Frequency (F) = 397.82 Hz (cycles/min)
Natural phase velocity of the mode of vibration (w1) = 41.66 rad/sec

## Moment of Inertia Torsional amp. Torsional Sum. of inertia Section Shaft

Mass J*2 Stiffness (K) Stress Factor Order of Crank
Description Inertia (J) torque at shaft amp. Ratio torque J.^2 Modulus (Z) Stress
Number Firing Angle
(kg.cm.s2) (kg.cm/Rad) J**2*108 ( J**2)/K ( j**2)*108 cm3 (Kg/cm2*104) kg/cm2
1 1st Cylinder 82500 143183337 1.25 1.43 0.011 1.000 1.432 82500.0 59585.1 0.24 55556.3647
2 2nd Cylinder 82500 143183337 1.25 1.42 0.023 0.989 2.847 80625.5 59585.1 0.48 110477.941 1 0.0000 1.0000
3 3rd Cylinder 82500 143183337 1.25 1.38 0.034 0.966 4.230 76961.9 59585.1 0.71 164137.192 5 4.1888 0.9770
4 4th Cylinder 82500 143183337 1.25 1.33 0.044 0.932 5.565 71676.1 59585.1 0.93 215921.008 3 2.0944 0.9429
5 5th Cylinder 82500 143183337 1.25 1.27 0.055 0.888 6.836 65009.1 59585.1 1.15 265237.703 4 3.1416 0.8979
6 6th Cylinder 82500 143183337 1.57 1.19 0.051 0.833 8.029 57264.7 59585.1 1.35 311523.784 2 1.0472 0.8428
7 Chain Drive 39900 69248668 1.56 0.54 0.055 0.782 8.570 24409.5 59585.1 1.44 332539.555 6 5.2360 0.7912
8 Fly wheel 26000 45124446 0.05 0.33 1.785 0.727 8.899 13753.2 15072.9 5.90 1364911.53
9 Coupling 3300 5727333 0.10 -0.06 0.862 -1.058 8.838 3692.2 29231.9 3.02 698999.588
10 Propeller 265000 459922234 0.00 -8.83 -1.919 0.010 976351.5 0.0
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

## 12 Student Number: 160452783

Hozer table 2nd Node
Frequency (F) = 1737.97 Hz (cycles/min)
Natural phase velocity of the mode of vibration (w1) = 182.00 rad/sec

## Moment of Inertia Torsional amp. Torsional Sum. of inertia Section Shaft

Mass J*2 Stiffness (K) Stress Factor Order of Crank
Description Inertia (J) torque at shaft amp. Ratio torque J.^2 Modulus (Z) Stress
Number Firing Angle
J** *10 8
( J** )/K 2 2
( j** )*108
cm 3 2
(Kg/cm *10 ) 4
kg/cm 2

1 1st Cylinder 82500 ######### 1.25 27.33 0.218 1.000 27.327 82500.0 59585.1 0.24 55556.3647
2 2nd Cylinder 82500 ######### 1.25 21.37 0.389 0.782 48.695 50441.5 59585.1 0.48 110477.941 1 0.0000 1.0000
3 3rd Cylinder 82500 ######### 1.25 10.75 0.474 0.393 59.444 12764.1 59585.1 0.71 164137.192 5 4.1888 0.5030
4 4th Cylinder 82500 ######### 1.25 -2.21 0.457 -0.081 57.230 541.6 59585.1 0.93 215921.008 3 2.0944 -0.1036
5 5th Cylinder 82500 ######### 1.25 -14.69 0.339 -0.538 42.536 23854.3 59585.1 1.15 265237.703 4 3.1416 -0.6877
6 6th Cylinder 82500 ######### 1.57 -23.97 0.118 -0.877 18.565 63475.5 59585.1 1.35 311523.784 2 1.0472 -1.1218
7 Chain Drive 39900 ######### 1.56 -13.15 0.035 -0.995 5.414 39505.5 59585.1 1.44 332539.555 6 5.2360 -1.2726
8 Fly wheel 26000 861224000 0.05 -8.87 -0.693 -1.030 -3.454 27567.1 15072.9 5.90 1364911.53
9 Coupling 3300 109309200 0.10 -0.37 -0.373 -0.337 -3.822 374.5 29231.9 3.02 698999.588
10 Propeller 265000 ######### 0.00 3.14 0.036 -0.684 338.6 0.0
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

## 13 Student Number: 160452783

Summation
1 Node 2 Node
Order Vector Sine
Critical Vector Sine Cosine Critical Cosine
summatio componen
speed summation component component speed component
n t
1 397.824 0.044 0.015 -0.041 1738.0 0.385 0.310 -0.229
2 198.912 0.142 0.074 0.121 869.0 1.151 -0.515 -1.029
3 132.608 0.388 0.000 0.388 579.3 3.522 0.000 -3.522
4 99.456 0.142 -0.074 0.121 434.5 1.151 0.515 -1.029
5 79.565 0.044 -0.015 -0.041 347.6 0.385 -0.310 -0.229
6 66.304 5.452 0.000 5.452 289.7 1.322 0.000 1.322
7 56.832 0.044 0.015 -0.041 248.3 0.385 0.310 -0.229
8 49.728 0.142 0.074 0.121 217.2 1.151 -0.515 -1.029
9 44.203 0.388 0.000 0.388 193.1 3.522 0.000 -3.522
10 39.782 0.142 -0.074 0.121 173.8 1.151 0.515 -1.029
11 36.166 0.044 -0.015 -0.041 158.0 0.385 -0.310 -0.229
12 33.152 5.452 0.000 5.452 144.8 1.322 0.000 1.322
13 30.602 0.044 0.015 -0.041 133.7 0.385 0.310 -0.229
14 28.416 0.142 0.074 0.121 124.1 1.151 -0.515 -1.029
15 26.522 0.388 0.000 0.388 115.9 3.522 0.000 -3.522
16 24.864 0.142 -0.074 0.121 108.6 1.151 0.515 -1.029

Vibration mode
Order of Crank
Cyl No: 1 node 2 node
Firing angle

## 1 1 0.0000 1.0000 1.2639 1.0000 -0.7858

2 5 4.1888 0.9770 1.2349 0.5030 -0.3953
3 3 2.0944 0.9429 1.1917 -0.1036 0.0814
4 4 3.1416 0.8979 1.1349 -0.6877 0.5404
5 2 1.0472 0.8428 1.0652 -1.1218 0.8815
6 6 5.2360 0.7912 1.0000 -1.2726 1.0000