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Sparsh Chevrolet



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It is my pleasure to be indebted to various people, who directly or indirectly

contributed in the development of this work and who influenced my thinking,
behavior, and acts during the course of study.

I express my sincere gratitude and profound thanks to my guide SH.

BHARAT SINGH YADAV For his guidance throughout the project. I would also like
to thanks CHEVROLET WORKSHOP team and staff members who helped me in
making my industrial visit a great success.

I sincerely thank the service manager and floor manager for giving to me all the
theoretical and practical knowledge about the products and services which the
organization provides to the customers.

Finally I express my sincere thanks to all the team of courtesy CHEVROLET and
staff members who directly or indirectly helped me to complete the visit
successfully. They in every day of my visit and explained everything I asked them
very happily. I also want to thank all the senior technicians of the workshop for my
guidance throughout this period.

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Table of contents
1.1 history..6

2.Service of car.7
3.Machines used for servicing car8
3.1 Tire changer machine .9
3.2 Wheel alignment machine..12

4.Dent removal20



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General Motors Company commonly known as GM, formerly
incorporated (until 2009) as General Motors Corporation, is an
American multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Detroit,
Michigan, and the world's largest automaker, by vehicle unit sales, in

GM employs 202,000 people and does business in some 157 countries.

General Motors produces cars and trucks in 31 countries, and sells and
services these vehicles through the following divisions/brands:

In 2010, GM made an initial public offering that was one of the world's
top 5 largest IPOs to date. GM returned to profits in 2011

Based on global sales, General Motors is currently the world's no. 1


General Motors India Private Limited is a 50:50 partnership between

General Motors and SAIC that is engaged in the automobile business in
India. It is the 5th largest automobile manufacturing company in India
after Marti Suzuki, Hyundai, Tata Motors and Mahindra. General Motors
India started its journey in 1996 in India and has completed 16 years of
operation in India

GMIPL operates vehicle manufacturing plants in Halol, Gujarat and

Malegaon Dab hade, Maharashtra, It maintains headquarters in Halol and
Gurgaon and a large technical center in Bangalore. Its Halol and
Talegaon Dabhade Manufacturing Plants have a combined Production
Capacity of 385,000 vehicles annually.

Chevrolet colloquially referred to as Chevy and formally the Chevrolet

Division of General Motors Company, is an American automobile
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division of the American manufacturer General Motors (GM). Louis
Chevrolet and ousted General Motors founder William C. Durant started
the company on November 3, 1911 as the Chevrolet Motor Car
Company. Durant used the Chevrolet Motor Car Company to acquire a
controlling stake in General Motors with a reverse merger occurring on
May 2, 1918 and propelled himself back to the GM presidency. After
Durant's second ouster in 1919, Alfred Sloan, with his maxim "a car for
every purse and purpose," would pick the Chevrolet brand to become the
volume leader in the General Motors family, selling mainstream vehicles
to compete with Henry Ford's Model T in 1919 and overtaking the Model
T as the best-selling car in the United States by 1929.


Fig 1.1(a):- First logo of the company (1911).

On November 3, 1911, Swiss race car driver and automotive engineer
Louis Chevrolet co-founded the Chevrolet Motor Company in Detroit
with William C. Durant and investment partners William Little (maker of
the Little automobile) and Dr. Edwin R. Campbell (son-in-law of Durant)
and in 1912 R. S. McLaughlin CEO of General Motors in Canada.
Durant was cast out from the management of General Motors in 1910 for
five years. He took over the Flint Wagon Works, incorporating the
Mason and Little companies. As head of Buick Motor Company prior to
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founding GM, Durant had hired Louis Chevrolet to drive Buicks in
promotional races. Durant planned to use Chevrolet's reputation as a
racer as the foundation for his new automobile company. Actual design
work for the first Chevy, the costly Series C Classic Six, was drawn up
by Etienne Planche, following instructions from Louis. The first C
prototype was ready months before Chevrolet was actually incorporated.
However the first actual production wasn't until the 1913 model. So in
essence there were no 1911 or 1912 production models, only the 1 pre-
production model was made and fine-tuned throughout the early part of
1912. Then in the fall of that year the new 1913 model was introduced at
the New York auto show.

Fig 1.1(b):- Current logo of CHEVROLET

A motor vehicle service is a series of maintenance procedures carried out
at a set time interval or after the vehicle has travelled a certain distance.
The service intervals are specified by the vehicle manufacturer in a
service schedule and some modern cars display the due date for the next
service electronically on the instrument panel.
The completed services are usually recorded in a service book which is
rubber stamped by the service centre upon completion of each service. A
complete service history usually adds to the resale value of a vehicle.
Maintenance tasks commonly carried out during a motor vehicle service
Change the engine oil
Replace the oil filter
Replace the air filter
Replace the fuel filter
Replace the spark plugs
Tune the engine
Check level and refill brake fluid
Check level and refill power steering fluid
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Check level and refill Automatic Transmission Fluid
Grease and lubricate components
Inspect and replace the timing belt if needed
Check condition of the tires
Mechanical parts that may cause the car to cease transmission or prove
unsafe for the road are also noted and advised upon.


Generally there are two machines which are used for service a car. These
are following
i. Tire Changer Machine
ii. Wheel Alignment Machine


A tire changer is a machine used to help tire technicians dismount and
mount tires with automobile wheels. After the wheel and tire assembly
are removed from the automobile, the tire changer has all the components
necessary to remove and replace the tire from the wheel. Different tire
changers allow technicians to replace tires on automobiles, motorcycles
and heavy-duty trucks.
Foot pedals

Fig 3.1.1(a):- Foot pedals on a tire changer

The tire changer has two foot pedals. The left pedal is called the clamp
control pedal, a three position pedal that opens and closes the rim clamps.
Once pressed, pneumatic pistons move the 4 rim clamps together or apart
simultaneously. The right pedal is the table top pedal, which is a three
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position pedal that controls the rotation of the table top. When the table
top pedal is pressed down, the table top spins clockwise. The table top
spins counter clockwise when the pedal is raised.
Mount/demount mechanism

Fig 3.1.1(b):- Mount/Demount mechanism

The mount/demount mechanism consists of the duckhead, swing arm,
and vertical slide. The duckhead is at the bottom end of the vertical slide.
The duckhead is uniquely shaped, like a tapered bill, to fit next and
surround the rim of a wheel. It can either be made of metal or plastic. The
duckhead mounts and demounts the tire from the wheel. The swing arm
moves left and right. The purpose of the swing arm is to move the duck
head near or away from the rim. The last component of the
mount/demount mechanism is the vertical slide. The vertical slide moves
up and down so that the duck head can fit onto the rims of different size
wheel widths. The vertical slide has a spring and locking handle above
the swing arm to set the duckhead and maintain a stable position around
the rim.
Air pressure system

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Fig 3.1.1(c):- Valve system including air inflation gauge, air hose, and air
pressure bleed valve
The air pressure system on a tire changer provides the air to inflate tires
mounted on wheels. The air pressure system consists of 4 components:
air hose, air inflation gauge, inflation pedal and manual pressure bleed
valve. The air hose is located near the top of the tire changer, and it
allows compressed air to travel into the tire. A specialized end is used on
the air hose to clamp firmly onto valve stems of the wheels. The air
inflation gauge displays the air pressure within the tire when the air hose
is connected to the valve stem. The air inflation gauge displays the
pressure in pounds per square inch (psi). Directly below the air hose on
the side of the tire changer is the inflation pedal that enables the inflation
of the tire.When the inflation pedal is raised, a burst of air is released
from valves next to each rim clamp toward the bottom bead of the tire to
help with inflation. The manual bleed valve is located next to the air hose
and air inflation gauge. The manual bleed valve allows the manual
release of air pressure from tire.
Table top and rim clamps

Fig 3.1.1(d):- Table top with the rim clamps on each end
The table top and rim clamps hold and rotate the wheel to mount or
dismount a tire. The table top is directly above the foot pedals and below
the mount/demount mechanism.

The table top is able to rotate clockwise and counter clockwise. The table
top is shaped as the letter "X", but it can be a circle in different tire
changer models. On each end of the table top, there are pneumatic
powered rim clamps. These rim clamps move in unison to secure wheels
onto the table top. Each rim clamp can be adjusted closer or further away
from the center of the table top to accommodate smaller or larger wheels.
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Bead loosening system

Fig 3.1.1(e):- The bead loosener on the right side of a tire changer
The bead loosening system releases the tire bead from the rim of the
wheel. The bead loosening system consists of an arm near the bottom
right side of the tire changer. There is a shovel shaped metal piece at the
end of the arm called the bead loosener shoe. The bead loosener shoe
pivots and is rounded to accommodate the shape of a wheel. On top of
the arm, there is a handle with a button on top to engage the bead
loosening system. Across from the shovel shaped metal piece, there are
rubber squares to protect the wheel from scratches during the loosening
Tire installation

Fig 3.1.1(f):- Tire installation

The following list provides an explanation of an operator installing a tire

onto a wheel using a tire changer.

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The operator centers the wheel and securely fastens it onto the table
top with the rim clamp mechanism with the narrow bead-ledge up
of the wheel.
The operator pushes the bottom bead first in the well of the wheel.
The operator pushes the top bead down into the center well of the
wheel under the duckhead and rotates the table top using the table
top pedal.
The operator installs a valve core.
The operator slowly inflates the tire until the beads "pop" on the
bead ledge of the wheel.
The operator releases the rim clamps and inflates the tire to
manufacturer specifications.


Fig 3.2(a):- wheel alignment machine

It is a machine by which we can find out the problems related to wheel
alignment. Wheel alignment is important to the health of your car or
truck. If you hit a massive pothole, you might bump your suspension out
of the carefully calculated locations that the components have been set.
All of the elements that make your car go straight are called "alignment."
Some shops try to make it seem like rocket science, but wheel alignment

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is a fairly straightforward affair. The inclusive term "wheel alignment"
involves three main measurements -- caster, camber, and toe.

Fig 3.2(b) :- Clamper mount on tire

3.2.1 CAMBER
Camber is the tilting of the wheels from the vertical when viewed from
the front of the vehicle. When the wheels tilt outward at the top, the
camber is positive (+). When the wheel tilts inward at the top, the camber
is negative (-).

Fig 3.2.1(a):- Camber

3.2.2 CASTER
Caster is the tilting of the uppermost point of the steering axis either
forward or backward (when viewed from the side of the vehicle). A
backward tilt is positive (+) and a forward tilt is negative (-).

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Fig 3.2.2(a):- Caster
3.2.3 TOE
Toe is a measurement of how much the front and/or rear wheels are
turned in or out from a straight-ahead position. When the wheels are
turned in, toe is positive (+). When the wheels are turned out, toe is
negative (-).

Fig 3.2.3(a):- Toe

TOE: - by adjusting tie rod of steering system.
CAMBER:- by adjusting front shockers
CASTER:- fixed
But in case of TAVERA camber can be manage by adjusting HIGH

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Fig 3.2.4(a) :- Arrangement of steering system and wheel assembly


Monkey plier
Nose plier
Filler gauge
Special tool kit
Center punch
Screw driver
Adjustable spanners
Socket and accessories
Nylon hammer
Vices and clamps

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Wheel alignment is done is carried out in three steps.
Rim alignment: In this the rim of the wheel of the vehicle is fitted on to
the machine.
That generates the data and aligns the rim accordingly
Wheel Balancing: In wheel balancing the wheel is put on a machine and
is rotated. The machine tells the balancing of the wheels and the balance
are put accordingly.
Wheel alignment: this is the most important section of the wheel
alignment in which the wheel is checked for it straightness, tapering, and

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difference in height. Different parts are tighten-loosed accordingly.
It has three main measurements

Toe: The car could have toe-in or toe-out. Toe in is when the two front
tyres of the car are facing inwards.

Toe-Out is similar, but as the name says, the two front tyres both point
outside. Away from the centre of the car.

Now, Toe can have a drastic effect on car handling, steering position and
tyre wear. As you can imagine, when the tyres arent parallel, there is
minor scrubbing and so, the insides of the front tyres get worn out much
faster. And an experienced or knowledgeable eye will see that it isnt
normal wear but scrubbed.

This toe can be easily corrected by an experienced technician. The

important thing is to get an accurate reading before and after the
alignment. Also, you need to know the correct specifications.
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Camber: This is the tilting of the top of the tyre seen from the front. It
could tilt inwards or outwards.

If it tilts inwards as seen from the front, then the car is said to have
negative camber. If it tilts outwards, it has positive camber.

This could lead to pulling, steering not being straight and uneven tyre
wear. Let's take the case of Negative Camber. The load on the inside of
the tyre is more and hence that side of the tyre wears out more. This type
of wear is different from the wear you get from Toe-in. If it is wear due
to camber, the inside of the tyre shows smooth wear. It's more than the
rest of the tyre, but you can see that the tyre hasnt scrubbed.

Camber is not easily adjusted usually. Will explain more later in the

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Caster: This is the angle made by the steering column with respect to the
centre line of the tyre when seen from the side.

It sounds a bit complicated, but this image should make it clear.

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Dent removal

An electronic machine is used to remove the dent of the vehicle.

Different tools used while removing the dents are
Suction Puller: Suction pullers work by pushing a suction cup onto the
damaged area to allow the dent to be "pulled" out. This method works
well using a single cup for small dents where the paintwork is
undisturbed. Using two sizes of suction cups, linked by a "bridge" and
connecting a pulling handle between them permits medium and large
dents to be "popped" back out..

Rubber Hammer: If the backside of a dent is in an area that can be

reached, gentle tapping with a rubber hammer from the underside of the
panel restores the shape.

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Dent Pullers: These are non-suction pumps. If the suction cup style of
dent puller did not correct the damage, using the version that requires a
small hole drilled in the body exerts the extra pulling force needed for
deeper dents.

Dolly: A dolly is a special tool for smoothing out any wrinkles left in
areas damaged by dents. They come in a variety of sizes with different-
shaped curves

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Paint is first mixed in a paint mixing room then afterwards the vehicle is
painted in this chamber.

After painting the chamber is heated so as to dry the paint on the vehicle.

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I have completed wheel alignment and changing of tires of a car

successfully with the help of wheel alignment machine, tire changer and

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V. Ganesan

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