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PRESTON

UNIVERSITY
ASSIGNMENT # 5

MOTIVATION
DR. ABDUL BASIT

NAME : MAJOR AHMED BILAL KAYANI


REGISTRATION # : 1452 – 409013
COURSE : EMBA (EVENING SESSION)
QUARTER : FALL 2009
1. Assignment. : Write a note Theories of Job Satisfaction.
2. Source : Inter net and class notes
3. Time Accessed : 1120 hrs
4. Date Accessed : 28 July 2010

Need-Fulfillment Theory

1. This theory has its roots in Maslow's hierarchy of needs1; is a theory in


psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper A Theory of
Human Motivation.

2. Maslow studied what he called exemplary people such as Albert Einstein,


Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than
mentally ill or neurotic people, writing that “ the study of crippled, stunted,
immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology
and a cripple philosophy.” Maslow also studied the healthiest 1% of the
college student population.
3. Physiological needs
a. Physiological needs are important requirements for human survival.
b. Physiological needs include:-
(1) Breathing.
(2) Food.
(3) Homeostasis (property of a system, either open or closed,
that regulates its internal environment and tends to maintain a stable,
constant condition).
(4) Sex.
(5) Air, water, and food are metabolic requirements for
survival in all animals, including humans.
(6) Clothing and shelter provide necessary protection from the
elements.
4. Safety needs
a. With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual's safety needs
take precedence and dominate behavior.
b. In the world of work, these safety needs include:-
(1) Personal security.
(2) Financial security.
(3) Health and well-being.
(4) Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse
impacts.
5. Love and Belonging
a. After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human
needs is social and involves feelings of belongingness like:-
(1) Friendship.
1
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs
(2) Intimacy.
(3) Family.
b. Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it
comes from a large social group, such as clubs, office culture, religious groups,
professional organizations, sports teams, gangs, or small social connections (family
members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants).
6. Esteem
a. All humans have a need to be respected and to have self-esteem and self-
respect.
b. Also known as the belonging need, esteem presents the normal human
desire to be accepted and valued by others.
7. Self-actualization
a. “What a man can be, he must be.”
b. This level of need pertains to what a person's full potential is and realizing
that potential.

Discrepancy Theory
1. Concept2 that when people become aware of a deficiency in their competence
they are motivated to learn, and the anxiety caused by the discrepancy
between what they know and what they need to know drives them to make
the required effort (change of behavior).
2. Concept that job satisfaction (or lack of it) arises from the discrepancy
between what income an employee thinks he or she deserves to get and is
actually getting, as well as what income others deserve and are actually
2
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/discrepancy-theory.html
getting. In other words the difference between the actual rewards and the
perceived rewards.
Equity Theory
1. A version of discrepancy theory3 of job satisfaction focusing on the
discrepancies between what one has on the job and what one thinks is fair -
what one should have.
2. Effects of Inequity
a. Social comparison takes place.
b. Perceived discrepancies between ratios may produce tension or
dissonance (discord, disagreement, conflict, difference of opinion).
c. Amount of discrepancy corresponds to the amount of tension the
individual experiences.
d. Amount of tension corresponds to the amount of energy an individual
expends to alleviate the discrepancy.
3. Inputs. Factors considered by the individual that contribute to their work -
knowledge, skills and abilities.
4. Outcomes. Factors considered by the individual to have personal value -
money, promotion, praise.
• Inequity
• I/O < I/O (Underpay)
• 5/10 10/10

• Equity
Equity
• I/O = I/O
• 10/10 = 10/10

• Inequity
• I/O > I/O (Overpay
• 5/10 10/10

Herzberg’s Hygiene Theory


1. According to the Two Factor Theory4 of Frederick Herzberg people are influenced
by two factors.
a. Dissatisfaction was a result of hygiene factors.
b. Satisfaction and psychological growth was a factor of motivation factors.
2. Herzberg developed this motivation theory during his investigation of
200 accountants and engineers in the USA.
a. Hygiene factors are needed to ensure an employee does not become
dissatisfied. They do not lead to higher levels of motivation, but without them there
is dissatisfaction.
b. Motivation factors are needed in order to motivate an employee into
higher performance. These factors result from internal generators in
employees.

3
http://home.ubalt.edu/tmitch/641/equity~1.ppt
4
F:\MOTIVATION\Two Factor Theory - Herzberg, Frederick.mht
3. Typical Hygiene Factors are:-
a. Working conditions.
b. Quality of supervision.
c. Salary.
d. Status.
e. Security.
f. Company.
g. Job.
h. Company policies and administration.
i. Interpersonal relations
4. Typical Motivation Factors include:-
a. Achievement.
b. Recognition for achievement.
c. Responsibility for task.
d. Interest in the job.
e. Advancement to higher level tasks.
f. Growth.
5. Combining the hygiene and motivation factors results in four scenario's:-
a. High Hygiene + High Motivation: The ideal situation where employees are highly
motivated and have few complaints.
b. High Hygiene + Low Motivation: Employees have few complaints but are not
highly motivated. The job is perceived as a paycheck.
c. Low Hygiene + High Motivation: Employees are motivated but have a lot of
complaints. A situation where the job is exciting and challenging but salaries and work
conditions are not up to par.
d. Low Hygiene + Low Motivation: The worst situation. Unmotivated employees
with lots of complaints.
6. Conclusions
a. Dissatisfiers, even when fulfilled do not lead to job satisfaction.
b. The presence of satisfiers boosts both job satisfaction and the production/performance.
Valence – Satisfaction Theory
1. Valence, instrumentality and expectancy (VIE)5 theory had resulted from Vroom’s (1964) work
into motivation. His argument was that crucial to motivation at work was the perception of a link
between effort and reward. Perceiving this link could be thought of as a process in which
individuals calculated first whether there was a connection between effort and reward and then
the probability (valences) would follow from high performance (instrumentality.)
2. The motivational force of a job can therefore be calculated if the expectancy, instrumentality and
valence values are known. The individual’s abilities, traits, role perceptions and opportunities
attenuate the motivational force. The main contribution of both types of process theory has
been to highlight the effects of cognitive and perceptual processes on objective work conditions.
It suggests that managers need to pay attention to four main aspects of their subordinate’s
perceptions:-
a. Focus on the crucial expectancy values (the link between effort and their performance.)
b. Managers should determine what outcome employee values.
c. They need to link the reward that subordinates value to their performance.
d. Managers need to ensure that wage rates are not perceived as inequitable.
3. According to Vroom job satisfaction is perceived to be a future event rather than of the past.
a. He defines job satisfaction as valence* of outcomes (*means the intrinsic
attractiveness (positive valence) or aversiveness (negative valence) of an event, object,
or situation).
b. He defines job satisfaction as expectancy of need satisfaction.
4. Job satisfaction is a function of :-
a. I-N - Total amount of out come valence available to an employee.
b. E-P - Expectancy that his efforts will lead to performance that will be
instrumental in determining the valued outcomes.

5
http://www.docstoc.com/docs/4582601/job-satisfaction-theories