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Cerutti, R.D.1; Scaglione, M.C.1; Cramer A.N.; Giordano1, E.A.; Tarabla, H.1;
Boggio, J.C.2
Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias.R.P. Kreder
2805 (3080) Esperanza, Santa Fe, Argentina -
Universidad Catlica de Crdoba, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias

Keywords: chronobiology, blood, calves

To establish the biological rhythms of the lymphocytes concentration and to

determine if they originate in answer to recurrent environmental phenomenons
or an endogenous control, twelve calves were used under an upbringing system
divided in two groups of six animals each one. Group A was subject to the
natural variation of the cycle light-darkness (12:12), group B was under constant
environmental conditions (24:00). The blood samples were taken via the jugular
vein, during a period of 24 hours and to intervals of 2 hours, 12 samples of
blood of 5 ml each one. The determination of the lymphocytes concentration
was carried out with a hematological accountant (Abacus Diatron). The analysis
of the variance was used (ANOVA) for repeated samples, by means of the
option REPEATED of the Lineal General procedure Model. The statistical
pattern was the following one:
YiIjk = + [H]i + [A]I + [P]j + iIjk .
Where: YiIjk = dependent variable, = half general, [H] i = effect hour of the day (i
= 12 : 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20, 22 hs), [A] I = individual effect of the
animal (l = 12), [C]j = effect period (j=2: light-darkness 12:12 y 24:00), iIjk =
residual error of the pattern. The lymphocytes concentrations were affected
significantly by the animal effect (p=0.0001), the hour of the day (p=0.0001) but
not for the period light-darkness (p=0.3669).
The existence of a periodic pattern was verified following the harmonic analysis
or Fourier development. The characteristic of oscillating functions are the period
(T), amplitude (A1), mesor (A0), angular frequency (w) and the acrophase ().
The statistical analysis was carried out using the procedure NLIN of the
statistical packages SAS. Table 1 shows the functions of Fourier development
by lymphocytes in calves for days.

Table 1. Fourier functions computed to approximate the times series

Period light-darkness Model: [Lymphocytes] = A0 + A1*Cos (w*T + ) R
12:12 [Lymphocytes]= 3.870 + 1.163 * Cos (0.255 * Time + 6.02) 0.9672
24:00 [Lymphocytes]= 3.826 + 0.992 * Cos (0.227 * Time + 6.23) 0.9893
[Lymphocytes]: 109/L

The results here presented indicate existence of biological rhythms that are
adjusted to daily cycles. The period and amplitude exhibited in the calves under
controlled conditions are lightly different to that of the animals of natural
conditions, suggesting an endogenous character in the biological rhythmicity for
the lymphocytes.