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Sub + Aux 1 (Have/has) + Aux 2
Sub + Aux (Have/has) + verb in Past
AFFIRMATIVE/POSITIVE (been) + main verb (-ing) + Sub + verb in past + complement
Participle + Compl.
EXAMPLE they have studied today She went to the door.
Sub + Aux 1 (Have/has) + not +
Sub + Aux (Have/has) + not + verb Sub + aux (did) + not + Infinitive
NEGATIVE Aux 2 (been) + main verb (-ing)
in Past Participle + Compl. Verb + complement
+ Compl.

Jenny's been helping us

EXAMPLE I have not eaten breakfast today He didn't like the movie.

Aux 1 (Have/has) + Sub + Aux 2

Have/has + Sub + verb in Past Aux (Did) + sub + Infinitive Verb +
YES/NO QUESTION (been) + main verb (-ing) +
Participle + Compl. + ? complement + ?
Compl. + ?
have they studied English grammar Did you play tennis last week?
EXAMPLE Has he been cooking?
Wh Word + Aux 1 (Have/has) +
Wh word + Have/has + Sub + verb Wh Word + Aux (Did) + sub +
WH QUESTION Sub + Aux 2 (been) + main verb
in Past Participle + Compl. + ? Infinitive Verb + complement + ?
(-ing) + Compl. + ?
What did you eat for dinner?
EXAMPLE where have I left my umbrella? what have I been doing?

We use the Present Perfect We use the Past Simple tense to talk
We use the Present Perfect Simple
Continuous to talk about: about an action or a situation - an
USE to talk about:
1. past action recently- event - in the past. The event can
1. Unspecified point in the past
stopped be short or long:
2. An action that occurred in the 2. past action still-continuing 1. the event is in the past
past, but has a result in the 2. the event is completely finished
present (now) 3. we say (or understand)
3. Talking about general the time and/or place of the event
experiences (ever, never) .
4. Events that recently occurred
5. Events that have occurred up to
now (yet)
6. Events that occurred before
you expected (already)
7. Events that began in the past
and haven't changed (for,
TIME For, since, already, just, yet, ever,
For, since. For, last year, last night, yesterday.