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I I CONFIDENTIAL

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UNIVERSITI TTJN HUSSEIN OI\N MALAYSIA

FINAL EXAMINATION
SEMESTER I
SESSTON 201u20r2

COURSE NAME ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

COURSE CODE BFC 21303 / BFC 3013

PROGRAMME 2 BFF/3 BFF

DATE JANUARY 2OI2

DURATION 3 HOURS

INSTRUCTION ANSWER ANY FOUR (4)


QUESTIONS ONLY

THIS PAPER CONSISTS SEVENTEEN (I7) PAGES

CONFIDENTIAL
BFC 2r303/ BFC 3013

Ql (a) Illustrate the compositional layers and mechanical layers of earth.


(3 marks)

(b) Explain FOUR (4) plate motions with the aid of related diagrams.
(10 marks)

(c) Earth has undergone great changes over million of years. Describe the geologic
processes that change the earth's structure.
(6 marks)

(d) Discuss relationship between geologic time, porosity and rock strength.
(6 marks)

Q2 (a) A mineral is a naturally occuning inorganic solid possessing a definite chemical


structure that gives it a unique set
of physical properties. State FOUR (4) minerals
including its uses in industry.
(4 marks)

(b) The internal structure of a mineral is formed by the arrangement of the smallest
structure parts, the atoms, ions or molecules and by packaging in regular order, it will
forms as crystal lattice or crystalline. Illustrate the schematic presentation of the crystal
lattice ofNaCl and describe briefly on the diagram.
(4 marks)

(c) Distinguish the colour and streak of a mineral.


(2 marks)

(d) Transparency is the degree to which a medium allows light to pass through it. Explain
FOUR (4) types oftransparency.
(8 marks)

(e) Explain why the silicate mineral group is the Chief Rock Forming Minerals.
(3 marks)
BFC 21303/ BFC 3013

(0 (i) Define Silicon-Oxygen Tetrahedron


(ii) Illustrate THREE (3) linkages on how Silicon-Oxygen Tetrahedron is arranged
in silica minerals.
(4 marks)

Q3 (a) Describe the formation process for each of the following rock types:
(i) Igneous rock
(ii) Sedimentary rock
(iii) Metamorphic rock
(6 marks)

(b) Explain and illustrate the related diagram on the distinctive features or texture of
igneous rocks.
(8 marks)

(c) Explain the following classification of sedimentary rocks:


(i) Detrital or Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
(ii) Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
(4 marks)

(d) State and illustrate THREE (3) types of sedimentary structures in sedimentary rocks.
(3 marks)

(e) Define foliation in metamorphic rocks.


(2 marks)

(f) Justifu how foliation planes in metamorphic rocks may becomes critical to the stability
of the material in rock slope or excavation.
(2 marks)

Q4 (a) State TWO (2) main types of weathering in rocks.


(2 marks)

(b) Explain TWO (2) different processes of weathering.


(4 marks)
BFC 21303/ BFC 3013

(c) Discuss TWO (2) factors affect the rate of weathering processes
(4 marks)

(d) Two types of rocks, granite and basalt, are exposed at the surface in tropical region.
(i) Explain type of weathering will predominate.
(2 marks)

(ii) Justiff your answer which rock will weather most rapidly.
(5 marks)

(e) Compare the differences between the following pairs using diagrams (draw and label)
to explain;

(i) Normal fault and strike slip fault


(ii) Anticline and overtumed fold
(iii) Conformity and angular unconformity
(iv) Erosion by water and by wind
(8 marks)

Q5 (a) Explain THREE (3) different core logging calculations methods that are used in
practice.
(3 marks)

(b) Investigate the purpose of the following tests;


(i) Ultrasonic test
(ii) Point load test
(iii) Schmidt rebound number
(iv) Slake durability test
(v) Seismic refraction
(10 marks)

(c) An 20 m span of access tunnel for an underground mine will be excavated at a depth of
100 m below ground surface. The rock mass contains multiple occurances of
weakneses zones containing clay. These joints are rough or irregular, planar and the
rock wall contact is softeningo or low friction clay mineral coatings. Laboratory test on
core samples of intact rock give an average Uniaxial Compressive Strength of 260
BFC 21303/ BFC 3013

MPa. The principal stress are approximately vertical and horizontal and the magnitude
of the horizontal principal stress is approximately 1.5 times that of the verticalprincipal
stress. The rock is having a stress problem with a large inflow or high pressure in
competent rock with unfilled joints. By using the RQD value 650/o, calculate Q based
on data given in Figure Q5(c).

(6 marks)

(d) A tunnel is constructed and driven through highly weathered sandstone with a
dominant joint set dipping at 70" against the direction of the tunnel drive. The
discontinuities strike perpendicular to the tunnel axis. Based on the point load test, the
rock strength is 25 MPa. The joints are slightly rough, unweathered and average length
of the joint is 15 m with an aperture less than 2 mm without infilling materials and
spacing between the joints is 0.25 m. Groundwater of the tunneling condition is
anticipated to be dripping. By using the RQD value 55%o, calculate the Rock Mass
Rating (RMR) value based on the data given in Figure Qs(d).

(6 marks)

Q6 (a) Discuss ONE (1) factor affected the strength of rock intact for schist metamorphic
rock.
(2 marks)

(b) Discuss OI\E (1) factor affected the strength of rock mass for schist metamorphic rock.
(2 marks)

(c) A granites rock mass have 4 representative joint sets as listed in Table l.
Table 1
Joint number Dip direction bearine (") Magnitude of Dip (')
JI 96 58
J2 t36 46
J3 320 22
J4 266 t4
Note:
Basic friction angle for all the joints is 30o. The joints in the four sets are all
persistent (continuous), wet with a cohesive clay infill.
BFC2t303tBFC 3013

Using the equatorial net given in Figure Q6(c), answer the following;
(i) Plot great circles for the 4 joints.
(ii) Plot poles for the 4 joints.
(iii) Determine the magnitude and direction of the lines of intersection between
them, if any.
(iv) A cut slope having a dip of 55' in a direction having a bearing of 142" was
being proposed in a highway project. Investigate the stability of the slope, by
considering each of the possible types of failures. Tabulate your answers.

(l I marks)

(d) The following additional and relevant information was obtained from both field and
laboratory study for the slope in part Q6(c).

l. Unit weight of rock :25 kN/ m3.


2. Unit weight of water :9.81 kN/m'
3. Slope height :30 m
4. Tension crack depth :2 m
5. Cohesion of the clay infill : 50 kPa
6. Inclination of anchor bars :20"
7. Yield stress for one (l) anchor bar : l00kN

Using the equations given in Figure Q6(d),

(i) Calculate the factor of safety against plane failure and comment about the
stability.

(5 marks)

(ii) Determine the number of rock anchors if the required factor of safety is 1.6.

(5 marks)

6
BFC 21303/ BFC 3013

51 (a) Lukiskan gambarajah lapisan komposisi dan lapisan mekanikalplanet bumi.


(3 markah)

(b) Jelaskan EMPAT (4) pergerakan plat dengan bantuan gambarajah yang berkaitan.
(10 markah)

(c) Bumi telah mengalami perubahan yang besar sejak berjuta tahun yang lampau.
Terangkan proses-proses geologi yang mengubah struktur bumi.
(6 markah)

(d) Bincangkan hubungan diantara masa geologi, keliangan dan kekuatan batuan.
(6 markah)

s2 (a) Mineral merupakan bahan pejal bukan organik yang semulajadi yang memiliki struktur
kimia tertentu untuk menghasilkan sifat-sifat fizikalnya yang unik. Nyatakan EMPAT
(4) mineral-mineraltermasuk kegunaannya dalam industri.
(4 markah)

(b) Struktur dalaman mineral dibentuk oleh susunan bahagian-bahagian struktumya


termasuk atom-atom, ion-ion atau molekul-molekul kimia dan disusun mengikut
susunan yang tertentu sehingga membentuk crystal lattice atau crystalline. Lukiskan
gambarajah crystal lattice yang mengandungi elemen NaCl dan terangkan secara
ringkas gambaraj ah tersebut.
(4 markah)

(c) Bezakan maksud warna dan streak dalam mineral.


(2 markah)

(d) Lutsinar adalah darjah cahaya yang dibenarkan untuk melalui sesuatu medium.
Jelaskan EMPAT (4) jenis lutsinar dalam mineral.
(8 markah)

(e) Terangkan kenapa kumpulan mineral silikat merupakan Mineral Utama Pembentukan
Batu.
(3 markah)
BFC 21303/ BFC 3013

(f) (i) Berikan definisi Silicon-Orygen Tetrohedron.


(ii) ilustrasi TIGA (3) sambungan rantaian Silicon-Orygen Tetrahedron disusun
dalam mineral-m ineral silika.
(4 markah)

53 (a) Terangkan proses pembentukan bagi setiap jenis batuan berikut:


(i) Batu lgneus
(ii) Bafu Sedimentari
(iiD Batu Metamorfik
(6 markah)

(b) Jelaskan dan ilustrasikan gambarajah berkaitan dengan ciri-ciri tersendiri atau tekstur
pelbagai batuan igneus.
(8 markah)

(c) Jelaskan pengkelasan batuan sedimentari berikut:


(i) Detritolatau Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
(ii) Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
(4 markah)

(d) Nyatakan dan ilustrasikan TIGA (3) jenis struktur sedimentari dalam batuan
sedimentari.
(3 markah)

(e) Berikan definisi/o/rasi dalam batuan metamorfik.


(2 markah)

(0 Berikan justifikasi bagaimana satah foliasi dalam batuan metamorfik boleh menjadi
kritikal kepada penstabilan material dalam cerun batuan atau pengorekan batuan.
(2 markah)
BFC 21303/ BFC 3013

54 (a) Nyatakan DUA (2) jenis luluhawa yang berlaku pada batuan.
(2 markah)

(b) Jelaskan DUA (2) proses luluhawa.


(4 markah)

(c) Bincangkan DUA (2) faktor yang menpengaruhi kadar luluhawa.


(4 markah)

(d) Dua jenis batuan, granit dan gabro, terdedah di permukaan dikawasan tropika.

(i) Jelaskan jenis luluhawa yang utama yang akan terjadi pada batuan terebut.

(2 markah)

(ii) Antara dua batuan tersebut yang manakah yang akan terluluhawa dengan lebih
pantas? Berikan j ustifi kasi j awapan tersebut.
(5 markah)

(e) Jelaskan perbandingan diantara pasangan yang akan dinyatakan dibawah dengan
bantuan lukisan dan label;

0 Normalfault dan strike slipfault


(ii) Anticline dan overturnedfold
(iii) Conformity dan angular unconformity
(iv) Hakisan oleh air dan angin.
(8 markah)

55 (a) Jelaskan TIGA (3) perbezaan kaedah pengiraan teras gerudi batuan (core logging)
yang diamalkan.
(3 markah)

(b) Siasat tujuan ujian dibawah dilakukan:


(, Utrlsonic test
(iil Point load test
(ii, Schmidt rebound number
(iv) Slake durobility test
(v) Seismic refraction
(10 markah)
BFC 21303/ BFC 3013

(c) Satu terowong sepanjang 20 m untuk lombong bawah tanah akan dikorek pada
kedalaman 100 m dari aras permukaan bumi. Jasad batuan menunjukkan kehadiran
beberapa set kekar terhancur yang terisi bahan lempung. Kekar tersebut adalah kasar
dan bersatah. Sentuhan dinding batuan dilapisi tanah liat yang berjelekitan rendah.
Ujikaji makmal pada sampel korekan batuan sempurna memberikan nilai purata
kekuatan mampatan satu paksi sebanyak 260 MPa. Arah tegasan prinsip adalah
dianggarkan mendatar dan pugak dan magnitud tegasan prinsip mendatar adalah
dianggarkan sebanyak 1.5 lebih daripada tegasan prinsip pugak. Jasad batuan
mumpunyai masalah tekanan tinggi air dengan kekar tidak terisi. Dengan menggunakan
nilai PMB 650lo, kirakan nilai Q dengan berpandukan Rajah Qs(c).

(6 markah)

(d) Sebuah terowong dibina melalui batupasir terluluhawa gred tinggi dengan keadaan
kekar dominan bersudut kemiringan 70o dan miring bertentangan arah laluan masuk
pembinaan terowong. Jurus ketakselanjaran adalah berserenjang dengan paksi
terowong. Berdasarkan ujian beban titik, kekuatan batuan adalah 25 MPa. Kekar
menunjukkan sifat permukaan sedikit kasar, tidak terluluhawa, panjang kekar berpurata
15 m, bukaan kekar berukuran kurang 2 mm dengan tiada bahan isian dan purata jarak
antara kekar adalah 0.25 mm. Keadaan aras air bumi terowong adalah di dalam keadaan
mengalir. Dengan menggunakan nilai PMB 55%, kirakan nilai Rock Mass Rating
(RMR) dengan berpandukan kepada Rajah Q5(d).

(6 markah)

S6 (a) Bincangkan SATU (1) faktor yang mempengaruhi kekuatan sampel batuan syis
termetamorf.
(2 markah)

(b) Bincangkan SATU (1) faktor yang mempengaruhi kekuatan massa batuan syis
termetamorf.
(2 markah)

(c) Batuan massa granit mempunyai 4 set ketakselanjaran yang di tunjukkan di dalam
Jadual 1.

l0
BFC 21303/ BFC 3013

Jadual I
Nombor Arah kemiringan (o) Sudut kemiringan (")
ketakselaniaran
JI 96 58
J2 136 46
J3 320 22
J4 266 t4
Catatan:
Sudut jelekitan semua satah ketakselanjaran ialah 30'. Kesemua 4 set satah
ketakselanjaran mempunyai kepanjangan yang berterusan, berkeadaan basah dan
bukaan diisi oleh lempung.

Dengan menggunakan jaringan sama luas yang diberikan dalam Rajah Q6(c).Plotkan

(i) Bulatan besar untuk kesemua 4 set ketakselanjaran;


(ii) Kutub untuk semua set ketakselanjaran;
(vi) Tentukan jumlah dan arah titik persilangan dua set ketakselanjaran, jika ada;
(vii) Cerun batuan mempunyai kemiringan 55o dan mempunyai arah kemiringan
142" telah dicadangkan untuk pembinaan lebuhraya. Siasat kestabilan cerun
batuan tersebut dengan mengambil kira kesemua mod kegagalan cerun yang
telah dipelajari. Persembahkan jawapan dalam bentuk j adual.

(l I markah)

(d) Berikutadalah infomasi tambahan yang diperolehi dari cerapan lapangan dan juga
makmal untuk cerun batuan dari soalan S6(c).

l. batuan
Berat unit : 25 kN/ m3
2. air
Berat unit :9.81 kN/m3
3. Tinggi cerun :30 m
4. Kedalaman rekahan :2 m
5. Daya jelekitan kesemua satahketakselanjaran :50 kPa
6. Kecondongan tetulang besi :20o
7. Kekuatan satu (l) tetulang besi : l00kN

Dengan menggunakan formula yang diberi didalam Rajah Q6(d):

(i) Kirakan faktor keselamatan kegagalan satah dan komen tentang kestabilannya,

(5 markah)

(ii) Kirakan jumlah tetulang besi yang diperlukan sekiranya cerun tersebut
memerlukan faktor keselamatan I .6.

(5 markah)

ll
BFC 21303/ BFC 3013

FINAL EXAMINATION
SEMESTER/ SESSION : SEM I l20rl/20r2 PROGRAMME : 2BFF/3BFF
COURSE : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY COLIRSE CODE : BFC 3013/21303

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FIGURE O5(c)

l2
BFC 21303/ BFC 3013

FINAL EXAMINATION
SEMESTER/SESSION :SEMI /201112012 PROGRAMME : 2BFFi3BFF
COURSE : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY COURSE CODE : BFC 3013/21303

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FIGI]RE Q5(c) continued

l3
BFC 21303i BFC 3013

FINAL EXAMINATION
SEMESTER/SESSION :SEMI /2011/2012 PROGRAMME : 2BFF/3BFF
COURSE : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY COURSE CODE : BFC 3013/21303

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R Her/ rfiq roctrt'ssurE l0- 15

AII'Iil|TLI|}TEE OI'T}C I'TGOf TTGIE TAAIfI


wtFn mitrE e6lfnaEs ol iln rod( mr65 Cl'|rl|t (ot. trte ftrlil[g gLrh|sE Emrtl r *ft*d m illttr(rr lo mB Ftsd In ne
El3: '|o
1-lvlEn HEIEI cffE tE t'rifdrD]. f;l(D ctl F 6lm# hm the lrfnEt o{ |gnlB lF uli uoif,rE n fiEh tl til'Itbr sl pnE
prn fa ffi 3scn tilil Ed rs {ll(l A Efirgls nLls|Etr9 cfli D6 used b cilfErl lrE nrl||Hr lo FIC{' H ne cE d clry lrse
rod(rEffi:Fpo- 1'!5-3.3+tra.),tr$Jv-btalrutrEf otpr6per13(0. flElo{ l(tr!0f s> +>{-51.
a Thc pdirneEr Jnretras|figtr|e n|,|rBr of |(|rl EsB 5 oncn B$cbdbt b|dmn.6tlEl6lv, 5l8tyd@a or tFchg eh It
stoiltt e$d$(L ns gm&l lanE' EfiflJ|(t ofllfltElt D cour|ed a5 a cofidele pnt sL HoGlaf, f lhere irE l* Jsnb'
nE!F,adorlymi|spnilBsalsntEdtell.EbfEEeEd'tls6,nanrrl|Bfl|ae+irqn8!e|ocilntrEmslsl(bdl'
|dnErtEn salusnng Jrr
3, fi Frirnsie|E + er6 Je tr$!8Edt0ru Ehsf slEfclhl shdrtl D rbsrt lo rE Hsl Eflrcsrr Frrr 8e{ tr clq ll.1
Gsrnrnlly !E orn zfiE l{ilwr. r rE |dnl st c (lsconilI,lt ffir tlp r'|nnurl rEsE of +Jd 6 lrotrilily dEfiBl ttr
|n
sEDq. trlg| a Escqrt l86s Harslty o.trohd { 5l c Gcomrul mer EfiT||ns be mo|e ggfl}r|' .nd |b ilshr 6rJe ol
4J8 sflcid !p tssl ftEn sytilltno a IIE
y8r.E o{
#Js Endru |n hcl rElrt b lhE E|rtira mffit n/dy b illil ttrrE b n6EE.
it.l\rtEn srd' m55 omEtE clsy. EE Et SFF ilrqlte b btrdxrg bs EhqJld D **J& f,t slcn ci56 lhe Etvrlh of
nll|Ert roctUgof tilnbrgc- l*rgts.rnanprrns B rdrfildrrdclry lE oardsLrftsrr|l' t|esfe@r 0a r|effidrod(mEy
lscflE a n*6 lnK Er|d Fl Eteo|ly fll tr|en abBrrt sr he relo raclr-rlsnockfisEtr A sErardr s|sotwE strs65 n6kl
6 |rrfilO|fs5 ltr rEbfty trd E ru.|o'tt ecqJnlfit lw s In fu8 2 |n llE Et tr sflss faljclon lstr selr.Elcl.
5. The stprEsf tE tcfisla sln0frs (ca arE a1) of t|e tnld mcfi ilnlld be sEtlibd In SE sattllad cmclt{n lf Urs 6
e9Fa!r$*' b [E pasrr sfl filro n -.rt qfillsE A vert consctvlrff e sElut o| tlt gg!I] Elrtxl|d E m# ff ntr rd(s
n8l Frtdr* rhfi erffiad b ntoEt $ Ertrr*d cofdlf,rs.

J*
O=RQD TJ',
J, Jo SRF

FIGURE O5(c) continued

t4
BFC 21303/BFC 3013

F'INAL EXAMINATION

SEMESTER/SESSION : SEMI / 20ll/2012 PROGRAMME : 2BFF/3BFF


COURSE : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY COURSE CODE : BFC 3013/21303

A CLASSFEATIOI{ PARAIETERS AND THEN RANilG]S

Pammstq Ran6of wls


For this lff Engeuniaial
>1oMPa +1oMPa 2-4MPa 1-2MPa
PointJoad compBssive test is pEbred
sfBngth index
Sfsngth of Uniatal
iniad rcd( 1-
CompEsgim >2soMPe 10G25OMPa 5(llmMPa 2t5OMPa <,IMPA
mterial strengtr ',25MPa
5MPa

Ratino 15 0

OrilloE Qulity ROD 90%-1m% 75%-9096 50%-75% 25%-50% <25%


2
Radno n t3 8 3

Spacing of distiruitbs >2m 0.6G2m 2oo$(Xlnm 60-200mm <60mm

Ratino m t0 5

Soft gouge>s mm thic* or


Veryrugh srfac. Slighdy rugh
Slighoy nrgh Sli*ssided Ssartion>smm mtinous
Nd @nliils. tlo srfas. $rfres. Spdion < suf@s or
4 Csditi$ of disniroitbs (S $psEtim. Separalim <1mm.
'l mm. Highly Gqrge<s m
E) UMatheFd m[ Slighty Falhmd
wtlEmdmlls. thid( tr Separtim
ffi. waIs. 1-5mmmtines.

30 25 20 lo o
|nfiow per 10 m
tunml bngth Nom <10m 1G25 2$.125 >125
(um)

Grcundmter (Joint mtsr


pEsY (Maid 0 <0.1 0.r-0.2 0.2-0.5 >0.5
prirK+al)
GerHl
C/ dav Wot Drifrim Flilim
Ratino 15 10 0
A. RAT'irc AD'I'STE fT FOR DISOO{NilUflTT OREI{'ATIOiI ISEE FI
Shika md dio trbntafirs VEfv fworeble Fawubl Fai. Vw unlavqable
Tunmls and triG o -10 -12
Rating Foundationg
0 -5 -25 o
c.R(rc|(r sscLA:tsEs
Rrtino t(n81 g)51 60-{1 ao-21 <21

Cla$ r ll ilt IV
Desiotpn (:l'od .bd( Faia rbd( Poq rod( Vwwrcd(
D.FAI{|I{GROCXCL SSES
Oas nuobq tl ill IV

20 for 15 m I year tor 10 m 10 hfl6 for 2.5 m


Average stan+up tire span.
I reek for 5 m span
span
30 minutes for 1 m soan
'aB 6pan.

Cohesion of mck mas (kPa) >4{x) 3{X}4(n 20G300 10G200 <'100


Fridion amle of md( >45 35-45 2S35 1+)5 <'l5
E GlJlnLmES FOR CI-A]SSFTCATI()N OF D|SO(}{TII{UiTY CONDInOI{S' lll lS RAnilG
<lm 1-:rm 91On llzffi >2O m
DstinuitY lenolh (Dssistene) 6 1 0
NM <0.1mm 0.1-1.0 mm 1-5 mm >5 mm
Semtion(agat@) 4 1 n
Vsy rcugh Rough Sligfity rulgh slackansided
Rouohnes 5
Nom Hard filling <5mm Hard filing >smm Son ftlmg<z mm sott flling smm
lnfillind lddme) 4 0
Urileathned SlighUywthmd Modrately weatEEd Highly wafimd D6COmpOSed
Woathrino 5 1 0
F. EFFECT OF DISCOilNilUlrY STRIXE ANO DP ORENTANOil IN TI'NHEUIIG
Striks DsDendioler to tuml dis Sfike mEllel to tunnel ais
Drive with dir 45'-90" Drive with dir 20'-,15" Do 45"-90' Dio 2t'{5'
Favqr&le Vffiunfe@bb Feir
Drive aosinst dir 45'-90' r}tua rd.inst dicr0oJso |)io 0o-2o' JresDdiE of sfike
Fatl Fair

FIGURE O5(d) : Rock Mass Rating System (After Bieniawski, 1989)

t5
BFC 2 1303/ BFC 3013

FINAL EXAMINATION
SEMESTER/SESSION :SEMI /2011/2012 PROGRAMME : 2BFF/3BFF
COURSE : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY COURSE CODE : BFC 3013/21303

g0

90

o o

FIGIIRE O6(c) : Equatorial equal-area stereo-net marked in 2o intervals

T6
BFC 2r303/ BFC 3013

FINAL EXAMINATION
SEMESTER/SESSION :SEMI /2011/2012 PROGRAMME : 2BFF/3BFF
COURSE : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY COURSE CODE : BFC 3013/21303

Given:

FOS : cA + (W cosp - U - V sin0 + T sin (O+0)) tan 0


W sinp + V cosp - T cos (0+P)

6: (H_Z\.cosec p
W: y,. H'z f(l-(AH)'z)cot p - cot al
Y2
:
U Yz T*.2* .(H-Z).cosec p
V:YrTn.Z*"

cosec: l/sin sec:l/cos coFl/tan

FIGIJRE O6(d)

t7