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2
CHAPTER 1
Algebra

3
CHAPTER 2
Logarithmic & Exponential Functions

3
CHAPTER 3
Trigonometry

5
CHAPTER 4
Differentiation

5
CHAPTER 5
Integration

## 8 Solving Equations Numerically

CHAPTER 6

8 Vectors
CHAPTER 7

13
CHAPTER 8
Complex Numbers

16
CHAPTER 9
Differential Equations
Copyright 2015 by Z Notes
First edition 2015, by Emir Demirhan, Saif Asmi & Zubair Junjunia.

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CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS 
1.4 Partial Fractions
1. ALGEBRA +
+
( + )( + ) + +
1.1 The Modulus Function
Multiply ( + ), substitute = and find
No line with a modulus ever goes under the x-axis
Any line that does go below the x-axis, when modulated Multiply ( + ), substitute = and find
is reflected above it 2 + +
| x | = ||x || 2
+ +
( + )( + ) + + ( + )2
||
| |= Multiply ( + ), substitute = and find
||

| | = ||2 = 2
2
Multiply ( + )2, substitute = and find
|| = || 2 = 2 Substitute any constant e.g. = 0 and find
2 = ||
2 + + +
1.2 Polynomials 2
+ 2
( + )( + ) + +
To find unknowns in a given identity
Multiply ( + ), substitute = and find
o Substitute suitable values of

OR Take +
to the other side, subtract and simplify.
o Equalize given coefficients of like powers of Linear eqn. left at top is equal to +
Factor theorem: If ( ) is a factor of the function
() then () = 0 Improper fraction case: if numerator has to the
Remainder theorem: If the function () is divided by degree of power equivalent or greater than the
( ) then the remainder: = () denominator then another constant is present. This can
be found by dividing denominator by numerator and
DIVIDEND = DIVISOR QUOTIENT + REMAINDER
using remainder
1.3 Binomial Series {S12-P33} Question 8:
Expanding (1 + ) where || < 1 Express the following in partial fractions:
4 2 7 1
( 1) 2 ( 1)( 2) 3 ( + 1)(2 3)
1+ + + +
1 12 123 Solution:
Expand the brackets
Factor case: if constant is not 1, pull out a factor from
4 2 7 1
brackets to make it 1 & use general equation. Do not
2 2 3
forget the indices. Greatest power of same in numerator and
Substitution case: if bracket contains more than one denominator, thus is an improper fraction case
term (e.g. (2 + 2 )) then make the last part ,
expand and then substitute back in. Making into proper fraction:
Finding the limit of in expansion: 2
E.g. (1 + ) , limit can be found by substituting 2 2 3 4 2 7 1
between the modulus sign in || < 1 and altering it to 4 2 2 6
have only in the modulus 5 + 5
This is written as:
5 5
2+
( + 1)(2 3)

## Now proceed with normal case for the fraction:

5 5
+ =
+ 1 2 3 ( + 1)(2 3)
Page 2 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS 
(2 3) + ( + 1) = 5 5 3.3 Graphs
When = 1
5 = 5 + 5
= 2
3
When = 2
5 15
=5
2 2
= 1
Thus the partial fraction is:
2 1
2+ +
+ 1 2 3

## 2. LOGARITHMIC & EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS

= log =
log 1 = 0 log = 1
log log
log + log log
3.4 Double Angle Identities
log log log
sin 2 2 sin cos
log
log cos 2 (cos )2 (sin )2 2(cos )2 1
log
1 1 2(sin )2
log 2 tan
log tan 2
1 (tan )2
2.1 Graphs of ln(x) and ex
sin( ) sin cos cos sin
cos( ) cos cos sin sin
tan tan
tan( )
1 tan tan

## 3.6 Changing Forms

sin cos sin( )
cos sin cos( )
Where = 2 + 2 and
1
3. TRIGONOMETRY cos = , sin = with 0<<
2
{S13-P33} Question 9:
3.1 Ratios
sin 1
tan = cos sec = cos
1 cos
cosec = cot =
sin sin

## 3.2 Identities Diagram shows curve, = sin2 2 cos , for 0

(cos )2 + (sin )2 1 2
, and is maximum point. Find the coordinate of
1 + (tan )2 (sec )2 .
(cot )2 + 1 (cosec )2

Page 3 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS 
Solution: Show that:
Use product rule to differentiate: 2 sin 2
= sin2 2 = cos cos 2 =
4

= 4 sin 2 cos 2 = sin Solution:
First express area of sector
= +
1
= 2
= (4 sin 2 cos 2)(cos ) + (sin2 2)( sin ) 2
1
= (2 4) 2 = ( 2) 2
= 4 sin 2 cos 2 cos sin2 2 sin 2
Now express area of sector
1
Use following identities: = (2)( )2
2
cos 2 = 2 cos2 1 Express using sine rule
sin 2 = 2 sin cos sin( 2)
sin2 = 1 cos 2 =
sin
Equating to 0: Use double angle rules to simplify this expression
sin 2
=0 =
sin
4 sin 2 cos 2 cos sin2 2 sin = 0 2 sin cos
4 sin 2 cos 2 cos = sin2 2 sin =
sin
= 2 cos
Cancel sin 2 on both sides Substitute back into initial equation
4 cos 2 cos = sin 2 sin 1
= (2)(2 cos )2
2
Substitute identities = 4 2 cos 2
4(2 cos2 1) cos = (2 sin cos ) sin Now express area of kite
= 2
Cancel cos and constant 2 from both sides 1
4 cos2 2 = sin2 = 2 2 sin( 2)
2
Use identity = 2 sin( 2)
4 cos2 2 = 1 cos2 Finally, the expression of shaded region equated to
5 cos2 = 3 half of circle
3 1
cos2 = 4 2 cos2 + 2 ( 2) 2 sin( 2) = 2
5 2
cos = 0.7746 Cancel our 2 on both sides for all terms
= cos 1 (0.7746) 1
= 0.6847 0.685 4 cos 2 + 2 (sin cos 2 + sin 2 cos ) =
2
Some things in the double angle cancel out
1
{W13-P31} Question 6: 4 cos 2 + 2 sin 2 =
2
Use identity here
cos 2 + 1 1
4 ( ) + sin 2 2 =
2 2
4 cos 2 + 4 + 2 2 sin 2 4 =
Clean up
4 cos 2 + 2 2 sin 2 =
4 cos 2 = 2 sin 2
2 sin 2
cos 2 =
is a point on circumference of a circle center , 4
radius . A circular arc, center meets circumference
at & . Angle is radians. The area of the
shaded region is equal to half the area of the circle.
Page 4 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS 
4. DIFFERENTIATION sin( + )
1
cos( + )

4.1 Basic Derivatives 1
1 cos( + ) sin( + )

1
sec 2 ( + ) tan( + )

( + )+1
ln ( + )
( + 1)
sin cos Use trigonometrical relationships to facilitate complex
cos sin trigonometric integrals
tan sec 2 Integrate by decomposing into partial fractions

## 4.2 Chain, Product and Quotient Rule 5.2 Integration by -Substitution

Chain Rule:
() = ()

=
Make equal to something: when differentiated,
Product Rule: multiply the substituted form directly
Make equal to something: when differentiated,
() = +
multiply the substituted form with its reciprocal
Quotient Rule: With definite integrals, change limits in terms of

{W12-P33} Question 7:
( ) = 2 The diagram shows part of curve = sin3 2 cos 3 2.

The shaded region shown is bounded by the curve and
4.3 Parametric Equations the -axis and its exact area is denoted by .

=

In a parametric equation and are given in terms of
and you must use the above rule to find the derivative

## 4.4 Implicit Functions

These represent circles or lines with circular curves, on a
Cartesian plane Use the substitution = sin 2 in a suitable integral
Difficult to rearrange in form = differentiate as is to find the value of
Solution:
Differentiate terms as usual To find the limit, you are trying to the find the points
For terms, differentiate the same as you would but at which = 0
3
multiply with sin = 0 at = 0, , 2 cos = 0 at = 2 , 4
Then make

the subject of formula for derivative Choose the two closest to 0 because the shaded area
has gone through = 0 only twice

0 and 2
5. INTEGRATION Since it is sin 2 and cos 2, divide both by 2
5.1 Basic Integrals Limits are 0 and

4

+1 Integrate by substitution, let:
+
( + 1) 1
1 + = sin 2 = 2 cos 2 =
2 cos 2
+ sin3 2 cos3 2 (sin 2)3 (cos2 2) cos 2

1 1 (sin3 2 (1 sin2 2)) cos 2
ln| + |
+
Page 5 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS 
1 {W13-P31} Question 3:
(sin3 2 sin5 ) cos 2 Find the exact value of
2 cos 2
1 3 5
4
( ) ln
2
Now integrate:
1
1 1 4 6 Solution:
(3 5 ) = ( )
2 2 4 6 Convert to index form:
ln 1
The limits are = 0 and = 4 . In terms of , = 2 ln

= sin 2(0) = 0 and = sin 2 ( 4 ) = 1
Integrate by parts, let:
Substitute limits 1 1 1

1 14 16 1 0 4 06 1 = ln = = 2 = 2 2

( ) ( )= 1 1 1
2 4 6 2 4 6 24 ln 2 2 2 ln 2 2
2 2 1

()
5.3 Integrating 2 ln 4
() Substitute limits
() = 4 ln 4 4
= ln|()| +
()
{S10-P32} Question 10:
5.5 Integrating Powers of Sine or Cosine
By splitting into partial fractions, show that: To integrate sin or cos with a power:
2
2 3 1 3 1 16 If power is odd, pull out a sin or cos and use
2
= + ln ( ) Pythagorean identities and double angle identities
(2 1) 2 2 27
1 If power is even, use the following identities
Solution: 1 1
Write as partial fractions sin2 = cos(2)
2 2
2 2
2 3 1 2 1 3 2
1 1
2 1 + + 2 + cos = + cos(2)
(2 1) 2 1 2 2
1 1
3 5.6 Integrating
+ 2 ln 1 ln|2 1|
2 If or are odd and even, then:
Substitute the limits
1 3 3 Factor out one power from odd trig function
2 + 2 ln 2 ln 3 1 2 ln 1 + 1 + ln 1 Use Pythagorean identities to transform remaining even
2 2 2
3 1 1 1 3 1 16 trig function into the odd trig function
+ ln 16 + ln 3 + ln
2 2 2 3 2 2 27 Let u equal to odd trig function and integrate

## 5.4 Integrating By Parts If and are both even, then:

Replace all even powers using the double angle
=
identities and integrate
For a definite integral:

If and are both odd, then:
= [] Choose one of the trig. functions & factor out one power

What to make : Use Pythagorean identity to transform remaining even
L A T E power of chosen trig function into other trig. function
Logs Algebra Trig
If either or or both = 1, then:
Let equal to the trig function whose power doesnt
equal 1 then integrate
If both are 1, then let equal either

Page 6 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS 
{W09-P31} Question 5: Solution:
(i) Prove the identity Part (i)
cos 4 4 cos 2 + 3 8 sin4 Change to index form:
(ii) Using this result find, in simplified form, the 1
= cos 1
exact value of cos
1 Differentiate by chain rule:

3
= 1(cos )2 ( sin )
sin4
sin sin 1
1
1(cos )2 ( sin ) 2

6 cos cos cos
Solution: sin 1
Part (i) sec tan
cos cos
Use double angle identities Part (ii)
cos 4 4 cos 2 + 3 Multiply numerator and denominator by sec + tan
1 2 sin2 2 4(1 2 sin2 ) sec + tan sec + tan

+3 (sec tan ) (sec + tan ) sec 2 tan2
Open everything and clean
1 2 sin2 2 4 + 8 sin2 + 3 sec + tan sec + tan
2 2
sec + tan
1 2(sin 2)2 4 + 8 sin2 + 3 sec tan 1
1 2(2 sin cos )2 4 + 8 sin2 + 3 Part (iii)
1 2(4 sin2 cos2 ) 4 + 8 sin2 + 3 Substitute identity from (part ii)
1 2(4 sin2 (1 sin2 )) 4 + 8 sin2 + 3 1
(sec + tan )2
1 8 sin2 + 8 sin4 4 + 8 sin2 + 3 (sec tan )2
8 sin4
Part (ii) Open out brackets
Use identity from (part i): (sec + tan )2
1
sec + 2 sec tan + tan2
2
3
1 sec 2 + 2 sec tan + sec 2 1
cos 4 4 cos 2 + 3 2sec 2 + 2 sec tan 1
8
1
2 sec 2 1 + 2 sec tan
6

1 Part (iv)
1 1 3 1
[ sin 4 2 sin + 3]1
8 4 (sec tan )2
6
Substitute limits 2 sec 2 1 + 2 sec tan
1
(2 3)
32 2 sec 2 1 + 2 sec 2 tan2
Using differential from part i:
{W12-P32} Question 5:
1 2 tan + 2 sec
(i) By differentiating cos
, show that if = Substitute boundaries:
sec then

= sec tan 1
= (82 )
1 4
(ii) Show that sec tan sec + tan
(iii) Deduce that: 5.5 Trapezium Rule
1 1
2 sec 2 1 + 2 sec tan = [1 +
(sec tan )2 2
(iv) Hence show that: + 2( )]

1
4

1 1
1 =
.
for
2
= (82 )
0 (sec tan ) 4

Page 7 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS 
6. SOLVING EQUATIONS NUMERICALLY 7.2 Parallel, Skew or Intersects
6.1 Approximation For the two lines:
To find root of a graph, find point where graph passes
= + = +

through -axis look for a sign change Parallel:
Carry out decimal search o For the lines to be parallel must equal or be in
o Substitute values between where a sign change has some ratio to it e.g. 1: 2
occurred Intersects:
o Closer to zero, greater accuracy o Make =

o If simultaneous works then intersects
6.2 Iteration o If unknowns cancel then no intersection
To solve equation () = 0, you can rearrange () Skew:
into a form = o First check whether line parallel or not
This function represents a sequence that starts at , o If not, then make
=

moving to o Carry out simultaneous
Substitute a value for and put back into function o When a pair does not produce same answers as
getting 1 and so on. another, then lines are skew
As you increase , value becomes more accurate
Sometimes iteration dont work, these functions pare 7.3 Angle between Two Lines
called divergent, and you must rearrange formula for Use dot product rule on the two direction vectors:
in another way .
= cos
For a successful iterative function, you need a ||||
convergent sequence Note: and must be moving away from the point at
which they intersect
7. VECTORS

## 7.4 Finding the Equation of a Line

Given 2 points:
o Find the direction vector using
e.g. =
The column vector form: o Place either of the points as a given vector
1 1 To check if a point lies on a line, check if constant of the
= ( 3 ) + ( 1) direction vector is the same for , and components
2 3
The linear vector form: 7.5 Distance from a Line to a Point
= + 3 2 + ( + + 3) AKA: shortest distance from the point to the line
The parametric form: Find vector for the point, , on the line
= 1 + , = 2 + , = 2 + 3 1 1
The cartesian form; rearrange parametric Vector equation of the line: = ( 3 ) + (1)
1 3 +2 2 3
= =
1 1 3
Page 8 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS 
1+ Substitute 1 into 2:

= ( 3 + ) 2 + 2 = 5 +
3 2 = 3 and then = 6
is the point given Equation 3:
2 3=2

= (3) Substitute the value of
4 3 = 2 3 so 3 = 1
1+2 1
= ( 3 + 3 ) = ( )
This is incorrect therefore lines dont intersect
Part (ii)
3 2 4 3 6
Angle is formed by the intersection of the lines
Use Dot product of and the direction vector
and

. = cos 90 1 2
1 1 =(5+ )
( ) . (1) = 0 2
3 6 3 =
1( 1) + 1() + 3(3 6) = 0 1 2 1 2
11 19 = 0 = ( 5 + ) (2) = ( 3 + )
19 2 3 1
= 1
11 = (1)
Substitute into equation to get foot 0
Use Pythagoras Theorem to find distance Now use the dot product rule to form an eqn.
{S08-P3} Question:
|. | 3 3
; = cos 60
The points and have position vectors, relative to |||| 6 2 + 8 + 10 2
the origin , given by 1
3 3 = 6 2 + 8 + 10 2
= + 2 + 3 and = 2 + + 3 2
The line has vector equation 36 2 + 72 + 36 = 12 2 + 16 + 20
= (1 2) + (5 + ) + (2 ) 24 2 + 56 + 16 = 0
1
(i) Show that does not intersect the line = or = 2
3
passing through and .
(ii) The point lies on and is such that angle {W11-P31} Question:
is equal to 60. Given that the With respect to the origin , the position vectors of
position vector of is (1 2) + = + 2 + 2
two points and are given by
(5 + ) + (2 ), show that 3 2 + and
7 + 2 = 0. Hence find the only possible
= 3 + 4. The point lies on the line through
position vector of and , and
=
Solution: (i) = (1 + 2) + (2 + 2) + (2

Part (i)
2)
Firstly, we must find the equation of line
= (ii) By equating expressions for cos and
2 1 1 cos in terms of , find the value of
= (1) (2) = (1) for which bisects the angle .
3 3 0 Solution:
1 1 1 2 Part (i)
= (2) + (1) and = (5) + ( 1 )
= = ( )
3 0 2 1 3 1 2
Equating the two lines = (4) (2) = ( 2 )
1+ 1 2
0 2 2
(2 ) = ( 5 + ) 2
3 2 = ( 2 )
Equation 1: 1 + = 1 2 so = 2 2
Equation 2: 2 = 5 +

Page 9 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS 
2 1 2 o is what we want to find
= + ( 2 ) = (2) + ( 2 ) o is the cross product of 2 vectors parallel to the plane
2 2 2
Part (ii)
and
o If we use then =
Interpreting the question gives the information that
is equal to cos is equal to cos . 4
o = = (5)
Now you can equate the two dot product equations
. 9 + 2 1
cos = = o Substitute point to get .
|||| 39 + 4 + 122 4
. 11 + 14 o . (5) = 13
cos = =
|||| 59 + 4 + 122 1
9 + 2 11 + 14 Given a point and a line on the plane:
=
39 + 4 + 122 59 + 4 + 122 2 2
Cancel out the denominator to give you o (1,2,3) and = (1) + ( 1 )
9 + 2 11 + 14 0 1
= o Make 2 points on the line
3 5
45 + 10 = 33 + 42 o Substitute different values for
3
12 = 32 and = 8 o Repeat 3 point process
Given 2 lines on a plane:
7.6 Equation of a Plane o Find a point on one line
o Find 2 points on the other line
o Repeat 3 point process

## 7.9 A Line and a Plane

If a line lies on a plane then any two points on the line
( = 0 and = 1)should satisfy the plane equation
substitute and see if equation works
If a line is parallel to plane, the dot product of the
direction vector and normal of the plane is zero
Scalar product form:
4 7.10 Finding the Point of Intersection
. (5) = 13
1 between Line and Plane
The vector after is the normal to the plane Form Cartesian equation for line
The components of the normal vector of the plane are Form Cartesian equation for plane
the coefficients of , and in the Cartesian form. You Solve for , and
must substitute a point to find
{S13-P32} Question:
Cartesian form:
The points and have position vectors 2 3 + 2
4 + 5 + = 13
and 5 2 + respectively. The plane has
equation + = 5
7.7 Cross Product Rule
(i) Find position vector of the point of

intersection of the line through and and
() ( ) = ( )
the plane .
(ii) A second plane has an equation of the form
7.8 Finding the Equation of a Plane + + = . The plane contains the
Given 3 points on a plane: line , and the acute angle between the
o (1,2, 1), (2,1,0), (1,3,2) planes and is 60. Find the equation of .
o Use this equation: . = .

Page 10 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS 
Solution: 7.12 Distance from a Point to a Plane
Part (i)
3
= = ( 1 )
1

## The equation of the line = +

2 3 2 + 3
= (3) + ( 1 ) = ( 3 )
2 1 2
Substitute values into plane equation
+ = 5 2 + 3 + 3 = 5
3
4 1 = 5 =
2 |1 + 1 + 1 + |
Substitute lambda back into general line equation =
2 + (3 1.5) 6.5 2 + 2 + 2
( 1.5 3 ) = (1.5) Point is the foot of the perpendicular
2 1.5 0.5
Part (ii) {S12-P32} Question:
Using the fact that line lies on the plane, the Two planes, and , have equations + 2 2 =
direction vector of is perpendicular to the plane. 1 and 2 2 + = 7 respectively. The line has
Remember there is no coefficient for which means equation = + + (2 + + 2)
that it is equal to 1. (i) Show that is parallel to
3 1 (ii) A point lies on such that its perpendicular
( 1 ) . () = 0 distances from and are equal. Find the
1 position vectors of the two possible positions
3+ =0 so = 3 +
for and calculate the distance between
Using the fact that the plane and intersect at an
angle of 60 them.
1 1 Solution:
(1) . () Part (i)
0 1 If is parallel to , then the direction vector of
= cos 60 = would be perpendicular to the normal of their dot
2 1 + 2 + 2 2
2 2
product is equal to zero
2 + 2 = 2 + 2 + 2 2 1
4 2 + 8 + 4 = 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 (1) . ( 2 ) = 0
Substitute the first equation into 2 2
2 2 + 8 + 2 18 12 2 2 = 0 Part (ii)
4 16 = 0 = 4 and = 1 Any point on would have the value
We have found the normal to the plane, now we must 1 + 2
find (1+ )
4 = 0 2 1
Substitute the point into the equation because the Using the distance formula of a point to a plane, find
point lies on it the perpendicular distance of the general point on
(2) 4(3) 2 = = 12 from the plane and
4 8+4
4 = 12 = |3| and = | 3 |
Equate them as they equal the same distance
7.11 Finding Line of Intersection of Two Non- 4 8 + 4
| |=| | |4| = |8 + 4|
Parallel Planes 3 3
The direction vector of this line is

Remove modulus sign by taking into consideration the
is the normal of the first plane positive and negative
is the normal of the second plane 4 = 8 + 4 and 4 = 8 + 4
= 3 and = 1
Page 11 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS 
Substitute lambda values back into vector general line (i) Find the equation of the plane , giving
equation to get the two points 1 and 2 your answer in the form + + =
7 3 (ii) Find the position vector of .
1 = (4) and 2 = (2)
(iii) Show that the length of the perpendicular
5 1 1
Use Pythagorass Theorem to find the distance from to is 3 65
42 + 22 + 42 = 36 = 6 Solution:
Part (i)
7.13 Angle between Two Planes First find two vectors on the plane e.g. and
2 1
.

cos = = = ( 4 ) and = = (1)
|
||
| 1 2
The
s here represent the normals of each plane Find the common perpendicular of the two
Ignore any negative signs 2 1 9
( 4 ) (2) = ( 3 )
7.14 Angle between a Line and a Plane 1 2 6
We have now found the normal to the plane and now
must find
9 + 3 6 =
Substitute a point that lies on the plane e.g.
9(2) + 3(1) 6(2) = =3
9 + 3 6 = 3
Part (ii)
(i) = 2
= 2 2
1 3 1
= (2 + ) = (6) = (2)
3
First find : 6 2
Part (iii)
.

cos = Finding a perpendicular from to ; find the
|||
| equation of the line
= 90 1
is the angle between the line and the plane = (2)
{W13-P32} Question: 2
A point lies on and is perpendicular to . First
we must find the vector
2
= = (2 + 1)
2 2
Dot product of the point and the direction vector
of is equal to zero as it is perpendicular
2 1
(2 + 1) . (2) = 0
2 2 2
4
9 = 4 = 9
The diagram shows three points , and whose Substitute back into general equation of to find
position vectors with respect to the origin are 4 8 8
=( , , )
given by 9 9 9
2 0 3 To find the shortest distance, use Pythagoras theorem
= (1),
= (3) and
= (0). to find the distance from point to
2 1 4
The point lies on , between and , and is such 14 2 17 2 10 2 65 1
( ) + ( ) + ( ) = = 65
that = 2. 9 9 9 9 3

Page 12 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS 
7.15 Angles 8.3 Square Roots
When using dot product rule to fine an angle, Example:
Find square roots of: 4 + 3
for acute angle for obtuse angle for both angles Solution:
We can say that:
Use +ve value Use -ve value
Use +ve and - 4 + 3 = +
ve value of dot
of dot product of dot product
product Square both sides
2 2 + 2 = 4 + 3
Equate real and imaginary parts
8. COMPLEX NUMBERS
2 2 = 4 2 = 3
Solve simultaneous equation:
8.1 The Basics
32 2
2 = 1 = =
General form for all complex numbers: 2 2
32 2 32 2
+ 4 + 3 = +
2 2 2 2
From this we say:
( + ) = & ( + ) = 8.4 Argand Diagram
Conjugates: For the complex number = +
o The complex number and its conjugate
Its magnitude is defined as the following:
= + & =
|| = 2 + 2
Arithmetic:
o Addition and Subtraction: add and subtract real and Its argument is defined as the following:

imaginary parts with each other arg = tan1

o Multiplication: carry out algebraic expansion, if 2 Simply plot imaginary (-axis) against real (-axis):
present convert to 1
o Division: rationalize denominator by multiplying
conjugate pair
o Equivalence: equate coefficients

Use the quadratic formula:
o 2 4 is a negative value
o Pull out a negative and replace with 2 Arguments:
o Simplify to general form Always: < <
Use sum of 2 squares: consider the example

Example:
Solve: 2 + 4 + 13 = 0
Solution:
Convert to completed square form:
( + 2)2 + 9 = 0
2
Utilize as 1 to make it difference of 2 squares:
( + 2)2 9 2 = 0
Proceed with general difference of 2 squares method:
( + 2 + 3)( + 2 3) = 0
= 2 + 3 = 2 3
The position of is a reflection in the -axis of

Page 13 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS 
8.5 Locus {W11-P31} Question 10:
| | = On a sketch of an Argand diagram, shade the region
whose points represent the complex numbers which
The locus of a point such that | | = , is a circle
satisfy the inequality| 3| 2. Find the greatest
with its centre at and with radius .
value of arg for points in this region.
Solution:
The part shaded in blue is the answer.
To find the greatest value of arg within this region we
must use the tangent at point on the circle which has
the greatest value of from the horizontal (red line)

( ) =
The locus of a point such that arg( ) = is a ray
from , making an angle with the positive real axis.

## The triangle magnified

| | = | |
The locus of a point such that | | = | | is the
perpendicular bisector of the line joining and
2
sin =
3
= 0.730

=+ = 0.730 + = 2.30
2 2

## {W11-P31} Question 10:

i. On a sketch of an Argand diagram, shade the
region whose points represent complex
numbers satisfying the inequalities
1
| 2 + 2| 2, arg and 1,
4
ii. Calculate the greatest possible value of for
points lying in the shaded region.

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CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS 
Solution: Polar Form to General Form:
Part (i) Example:
Argand diagram:
Convert from polar to general, = 4 4
Solution:

=4 arg =
4

= 4 (cos + sin )
4 4
2 2
= 4( + )
2 2
= 22 + (22)
General Form to Polar Form:
Example:
Convert from general to polar, = 22 + (22)
Solution:
= 22 + (22)
2 2
Part (ii) = (22) + (22) = 4
The greatest value for the real part of would be the
one which is furthest right on the axis but within 22
= tan1 =
the limits of the shaded area. Graphically: 22 4

4 (cos + sin ) = 4 4
4 4

## 8.7 Multiplication and Division in Polar Form

To find product of two complex numbers in polar form:
o Multiply their magnitudes
o Add their arguments
1 2 = |1 ||2 |(arg 1 + arg 2 )

Example:
Find 1 2 in polar form given,

1 = 2 (cos + sin ) 2 = 4 (cos + sin )
4 4 8 8
Solution:

1 2 = (2 4) (cos ( + ) + sin ( + ))
Now using circle and Pythagoras theorems we can 4 8 4 8
3 3
find the value of : 1 2 = 8 (cos + sin )
1 8 8
= 2 cos
4
= 2
To find quotient of two complex numbers in polar form:
greatest value of = 2 + 2
o Divide their magnitudes
8.6 Polar Form o Subtract their arguments
1 |1 |
For a complex number with magnitude and = (arg 1 arg 2 )
argument : 2 |2 |
= (cos + sin ) =
cos + sin =

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CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS 
Example: When = 10:
1 1
Find in polar form given, 10 + 3 = (2(27) 5)2
2

1 = 2 (cos + sin ) 2 = 4 (cos + sin ) 10 = 49 3
4 4 8 8 = 0.4
Solution:
1 2 Now substitute 20 as and then find :
1
= ( ) (cos ( ) + sin ( ))
2 4 4 8 4 8 0.4(20) + 3 = (2 5)2
1
1 1 11 = (2 5)2
= (cos + sin )
2 2 8 8 121 = 2 5
= 632
8.8 De Moivres Theorem
= (cos + sin ) = {S13-P31} Question 10:
Liquid is flowing into a small tank which has a leak.
9. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS Initially the tank is empty and, minutes later, the
Form a differential equation using the information given volume of liquid in the tank is 3. The liquid is
o If something is proportional, add constant of flowing into the tank at a constant rate of 80 3 per
proportionality minute. Because of the leak, liquid is being lost from
the tank at a rate which, at any instant, is equal to
o If rate is decreasing, add a negative sign
3 per minute where is a positive constant.
Separate variables, bring and on opposite sides i. Write down a differential equation describing
Integrate both sides to form an equation this situation and solve it to show that:
Add arbitrary constant 1
= (80 80 )
Use conditions given to find and/or
ii. = 500 when = 15, show:
{W10-P33} Question 9: 4 4 15
A biologist is investigating the spread of a weed in a =
25
particular region. At time weeks, the area covered Find using iterations, initially = 0.1
by the weed is 2 . The biologist claims that rate of iii. Work out volume of liquid at = 20 and state
increase of is proportional to 2 5. what happens to volume after a long time.
i. Write down a differential equation given info Solution:
ii. At start of investigation, area covered by Part (i)
weed was 72 . 10 weeks later, area Represent the given information as a derivative:
covered = 272 Find the area covered 20
= 80
weeks after the start of the investigation.
Solution: Proceed to solve the differential equation:
Part (i) 1
=
80
2 5 = 2 5 1
=
Part (ii) 80
Proceed to form an equation in and : 1
(1) =
80
= 2 5 1
+ = ln|80 |
Separate variables
1 Use the given information; when = 0, = 0:
= 1
2 5 = ln(80)
Integrate both side
1 Substitute back into equation:
+ = (2 5)2 1 1
When = 0: ln(80) = ln|80 |

=7 =3 1 1
1 = ln(80) ln|80 |
+ 3 = (2 5)2
Page 16 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS 
1 80 Solution:
= ln ( ) Part (i)
80
80 First represent info they give us as an equation:
= ln ( ) 1
80 = 2
80 3
=
80 = tan 60 = 3
80 1 2
80 = = (3) = 3
3
= 80 80
1 = 32
= (80 80 )
1

Part (ii) = 2

You did the mishwaar iterations and found: Find the rate of change of :
= 0.14 (2. . )
Part (iii) =
1
Simply substitute into the equations :
1 2 3

## = (80 80 0.14(20) ) = 537 3 = 2

= 2
0.14 3 3
The volume of liquid in the tank after a long time
Part (ii)
approaches the max volume: 1
1 = 3
= (80) = 571 3
0.14 2
1
= 3

## {W13-P31} Question 10: 2

2 5
+ = 2
5
Use given information to find unknowns; when = 0:
2 5 2 5
(0) + = ()2 = 2
5 5
When = 60:
(60) + = 0
= 60
A tank containing water is in the form of a cone with 1 5
vertex . The axis is vertical and the semi-vertical = 2
150
angle is 60, as shown in the diagram. At time = 0, Thus the initial equation becomes:
the tank is full and the depth of water is . At this 1 5 2 5 2 5
2 + 2 = 2
instant, a tap at is opened and water begins to flow 150 5 5
out. The volume of water in the tank decreases at a 5 2 2 5
2 ( + ) = 2
rate proportional to , where is the depth of water 150 5 5
5
at time t. The tank becomes empty when = 60. 2 22
i. Show that and satisfy a differential + =
150 5 5 52
equation of the form: 5
3 2 22
= 2 =
150 5 5 52

Where is a positive constant. 5

## ii. Solve differential equation given in part i and 2 22 5

5
= 150 ( 5 ) = 60 60
2 2
obtain an expression for in terms of and . 5 5 2
5
2
= 60 (1 ( ) )

Page 17 of 17