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CNG TRNH KHOA HC Chuyn san iu khin v T ng ha, s 13, 08/2015

iu khin d bo ng c tuyn tnh ng b kch thch vnh cu s dng

quy hoch nhiu tham s v tuyn tnh ha chnh xc
Model Predictive Control of a Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous
Motor based on Multi Parametric Programming and Exact Linearization
o Phng Nam1, Nguyn Hng Quang2, Nguyn Nh Hin2
H Bch Khoa H Ni, 2H K thut Cng nghip Thi Nguyn

Linear motors have many advantages in compare with rotary motors due to directly creating linear motion without
gears or belts, It is hard to apply online model predictive controller for electro-mechanism systems with input,
output and state constraints because it requires the good ability in calculations of microcontroller and the nonlinear
property of these models. In this paper, the exact linearization is applied to obtain the corresponding linear model
and we propose the offline model predictive control law based on multi-parametric programming (MPP) for
permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (PMLSM) to remarkably reduce amount of calculation. Several
simulation results show the ability of proposed method in this paper.

Permanent magnet linear synchronous motors, Model predictive controller, Multi-parametric programming, Exact

error to zero [3]. In 2002, Li-Chen Fu et al., presented

List of Symbols the adaptive backstepping control law for linear
induction motor in presence of friction dynamic effect
Lsd , Lsq dq _ axis inductance H [4]. The differential flatness of motor is an important
m, Rs Mass, Resistance of primary section property and Delaleau at el., pointed out the flatness
kg , based controller for PMLSM in [5]. Model predictive
control (MPC) has been widely adopted by process
us , i s Vector of primary section current and control to address optimization problems. In [7], a
voltage V , A nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy
requires the formulation of an optimization problem
v, ve , we Mechanical, Electrical Speed m / s and with linear models the MPC problem is typically a
quadratic or linear program and there exists a variety
,Electrical Velocity (Rad/s)
of numerical methods and software. In 2013, Shan
Fm , Fc Electromagnetic, load force N Chai et al., develops new results on the use of model
predictive control in the presence of constraints to
regulate the speed of a permanent magnet synchronous
isd , isq , usd , udsq, q components of the primary Current, motor [6].
Voltage A, V . In [6], the control design used a linearized state-space
representation of the nonlinear dynamic model that
describes the dynamics and a quadratic programming
p, p Number of Poles, Vector of Pole Flux
(QP) procedure to solve the resulting on-line
Wb optimization problem.
However, the numerical complexity of linear MPC
xp , Pole position m , Rad may be a reasonable challenge and it is limited in its
industrial such as motor control,... In order to
overcome this obstacle, we propose the control law
1. Introduction based on combining multi-parametric programming
The topic of linear motor control has been the focus and exact linearization is described as follows:
of active research in the recent years. Many nonlinear The exact linearization make the closed-loop
control laws have been applied for linear motor, such system linear in an input/output sense with
as adaptive fuzzy-neural network method in [2], In necessary and sufficient conditions for
2006, Jul Ki Seok et al., proposed sensorless control input/output linearizability via static state
technique for permanent magnet synchronous motor feedback are derived.
based on back electro-motive force [3]. The rotor- The offline MPC solution is approached by
position-tracking proportionalintegral (PI) controller employing the principles of multi-parametric nonlinear
is used to estimate rotor velocity to control the position

CNG TRNH KHOA HC Chuyn san iu khin v T ng ha, s 13, 08/2015

programming and in particular the first-order Karush- Remark 1: This result is equivalent to the previous
Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) optimality conditions [7]. results in [1, 6] based on the conversion between rotary
and linear speed.
2. PROBLEM STATEMENTS The control objective is to find the input control to
achieve the desired speed while obtaining the
The PMLSM (in Fig.1) is described by the minimum of the cost function in the presence of
following dynamic equations [1, 6]: constraints:
u argmin J u , x

disd 1 2 Lsq 1

isd visq usd u U

dt Tsd Lsd Lsd N 1

disq 2 Lsd isq usq 2 p T T

argmin x k Qx k u k Ru k x N Px N

v isd v u U k 0

dt Lsq Tsq Lsq Lsq

subject to: x k 1 Ax k Bu k ; k 0,1, 2,..., N

3 p


p Lsd Lsq isd isq (1) Where P, Q are symmetric positive semi-definite

matrices and R is symmetric positive definite matrix,

m dve

Fm Fc N is predictive horizon

p dt

x k X x n : Gx


u U u n : M u


l * p
isc isb isa
l l
3 3

Fig. 1. The structure of permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (PMLSM), corresponding coordinate frame.

3. MAIN RESULTS Remark 2: (2) is the development from the previous

Lemma 1 [1]: state feedback in [1], which applied to PMSM.
By using the state feedback or the coordinate Algorithm 1.
transformation (2), we obtain the exact linearized We propose the model predictive control law
PMLSM: based on exact linearization and multi-parametric
programming for PMLSM as follows:
x 2
T 1 Lsd 0 Lsq x2 Step1: We implement the conversion from the optimal
u1 sd w
1 control problem in nonlinear model (1) to linear
Lsq 2 (2)
u2 Lsd x1 p w2
T x2 0 Lsq

model (3) based on the state feedback (2), obtain
u sq the cost function (4) with constraints:
0 0 0 1 w3

z Az Bw


y Cz

CNG TRNH KHOA HC Chuyn san iu khin v T ng ha, s 13, 08/2015

N 1

u U

u argmin x k Q x k u k Ru k x N P x N
4 Determining the set of RX0 and we come back
k 0
Step 2: Based on the transformation the step 3, 4, 5 until the obtained set is empty (only
implement in finite steps);
z u H F x Z x 1 T Nm
, we obtain the
optimal control problem (5) Remark 3:
Due to the offline description of the proposed
1 T
z argmin z H z
scheme, it is enables to implement constrained model
z Z x 2 predictive controller without high performance
microcontrollers as implemented in [6].
Step 3: By selecting arbitrary vector x 0 X and using
the KKT Technique to find the result of (5), we Remark 4:
obtain z 0 Z x0 and 0 ; Due to the depending on state of constraint set
Z x0 (step 3), we have to partition the constraint set
Step 4: From the sign of 0 , we find the index k
X of state (step 4) to obtain the offline algorithm.
correspond to the positive number to separate
G , W,S
from the matrices G, W,S ; Simulation Results.

B5: We have some results as follows: In this section, we implement our simulation studies to
verify the proposed control law based on exact
z x H 1GT GH T 1 W+S
1G x (6) linearization and the parameters of PMLSM is given:
p 2; 72 mm; L sd 4, 7 mH ; L sd 4,1mH ;
where x RX 0 X , in which, R X 0 is obtained p 0,8 Wb ; mslide 3, 5 kg; is , no min al 0,8A;
from the relation GH
G 1 T
x 0 Pno min al 470W; U no min al 380V ; Rsa , sb , sc 8, 5
The simulation of PMLSM investigated by exact
Ket qua
linearization approach show it tracks the desired value.
0 0.02

-0.02 isd** isdZOH
Current (A)

-0.4 v -0.04

v -0.06 isqZOH
Speed (m/s)


-0.8 -0.08

-0.1 -0.02
-1 ** isd isq
-0.12 i sq


-1.2 -0.08

-0.14 -0.1

0.1995 0.1996 0.1997 0.1998 0.1999 0.2 0.2001 0.2002 0.2003 0.2004 0.2005

-1.4 -0.16

-1.6 -0.18
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

Fig. 2. The behavior of currents and speed in PMLSM.

Machines - System Development in the Practice.

4. Conclusion [2] Faa Jeng Lin, Po Hung Shen (2004) A DSP
based Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous
Based on the combination between exact Motor Servo Drive Using Adaptive Fuzzy Neural
linearization technique and multi - parametric Network Control. Proc. The 2004 IEEE
programming, we proposed an algorithm that utilizes Conference on Robotics, Automation and
offline model predictive controller. The constraints on Mechtronics, pp. 601 606.
both control inputs and states are also considered in the [3] Jul Ki Seok, Jong Kun Lee, Dong Choon Lee
algorithm. This paper is only a first step in this topic (2006) Sensorless Speed Control of Nonsalient
due to the lack of multi - parametric programming in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using
the simulation. The offline model predictive control Rotor Position Tracking PI Controller. IEEE
law based on multi - parametric programming enables Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 53,
to reduce remarkably computation time. No. 2, pp.399 405
References [4] Chin I Huang, Li Chen Fu (2002) Adaptive
[1] Nguyen Phung Quang, Jrg Andresas Dittrich Back stepping Speed/Position Control with
(2008) Vector Control of Three Phase AC Friction Compensation for Linear Induction

CNG TRNH KHOA HC Chuyn san iu khin v T ng ha, s 13, 08/2015

Motor. Proceeding of the 41st IEEE Conference on

Decision and Control, USA, pp. 474 479.
[5] Emmanuel Delaleau, Aleksandar M.Stankovic
(2004) Flatnessbased hierarchical control of the
PM synchronous motor. Proceeding of the
American Control Conference.
[6] Shan Chai, Liuping Wang, Eric Rogers (2013)
Model predictive control of a permanent magnet
synchronous motor with experimental validation.
Control Engineering Practice, Vol 21, Issue 11,
pp. 15841593
[7] Alexandra Grancharova, Arne Hohansen, Explicit
Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Theory and
Applications. Springer, 2012, ch. 1