Fatigue analysis is essential for prevention of fatigue failures

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Fatigue analysis is essential for prevention of fatigue failures

© All Rights Reserved

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Caesar II

want2learn December 23, 2016 No Comment

http://www.whatispiping.com/basics-fatigue-analysis

Introduction:

Fatigue is the progressive and localized structural damage that occurs when a material is

subjected to cyclic loading. Continued cycling of high stress concentrations may eventually

cause a crack which propagates and results in leakages. This failure mechanism is called

fatigue. Damage once done during the fatigue process is cumulative and normally

unrecoverable.

Fatigue can be grouped in two classes; High cycle fatigue and low cycle fatigue.

High cycle fatigue involves little or no plastic action. Therefore, it is stress-governed.

Normally, a fatigue curve (also called the SN curve) is generated for every material by

experimental tests which correlates applied stress with the number of cycles to cause

failure. For high-cycle fatigue, the analysis is performed to determine the endurance limit,

which is actually a stress level that can be applied for an infinite number of times without

showing any failure. As a general rule no of cycles 10^5 is considered as demarcation point

for high and low cycle fatigue.

The loading cycles applied in piping design are normally very few in the order of a few

thousands. This type of fatigue is identified as low-cycle fatigue. For low-cycle fatigue, the

applied stress normally exceeds the yield strength of the material, which causes plastic

instability in the specimen under test. But when strain is used as the controlled variable, the

results in low-cycle region are reliable as well as reproducible.

Sources of Fatigue:

For Piping system, Cyclic loadings are primarily due to:

Motion wave.

Due to Flow induced Vibration

The fatigue process is divided into three stages: crack initiation from the continued cycling

of high stress concentrations, crack propagation to critical size, and unstable rupture of the

section.

Factors Affecting the Fatigue Behavior:

The factors which affect the fatigue behaviour are listed below:

Environmental Effects.

Here failure occurs only with stress levels in the plastic range, i.e. significant plastic

strain occurs during each cycle.

The stresses which cause fatigue failure in the piping are the peak stresses.

In piping design, most of the loading cycles encountered would be of the low cycle

type

Characterized by high no. of cycles (Preferable N>10^4) with relatively low stress

levels and the deformation is in elastic range.

This type of fatigue results from strain cycles in the elastic range.

A stress level, endurance limit, may be applied an infinite times without failure, is

calculated.

Failure Criteria:

While preparing fatigue curves, the strains obtained in the tests are multiplied by one-half of

the elastic modulus to obtain pseudo stress amplitude. This pseudo stress is directly

compared with the stresses calculated on the assumption of elastic behavior of piping.

During piping stress analysis, a stress called the alternating stress (Salt) is used which is

defined as one-half of the calculated peak stress. Fatigue failure can be prevented by

ensuring that the number of load cycles (N) associated with a specific alternating stress is

less than the number allowed in the SN curve or endurance curve. But in practical service

conditions a piping system is subjected to alternating stresses of different magnitudes.

These changes in magnitudes make the direct use of the fatigue curves inapplicable since

the curves are based on constant-stress amplitude.

Fatigue tests of metallic materials and structures have provided the following main clues to

the basic nature of fatigue:

Fatigue failure, or cracking under repeated stress much lower than the ultimate

tensile strength, is shown in most metals and alloys that exhibit some ductility in

static tests. The magnitude of the applied alternating stress range is the controlling

fatigue life parameter.

Failure depends upon the number of repetitions of a given range of stress rather than

the total time under load. The speed of loading is a factor of secondary importance,

except at elevated temperatures.

Some metals, including ferrous alloys, have a safe range of stress. Below this stress,

called the endurance limit or fatigue limit, failure does not occur irrespective of the

number of stress cycles.

amplitude that can be sustained for a given number of cycles.

The range of stress necessary to produce failure in a fixed number of cycles usually

decrease as the mean tension stress of the loading cycle is increased.

the apparently brittle region of origin and propagates of the crack. The plastic

deformation that accompanies a spreading fatigue crack is usually limited in extent

to regions very near the crack.

Therefore, to make fatigue curves applicable for piping, some alternate approach is

necessary.

One hypothesis asserts that the damage fraction of any stress level S, is linearly proportional

to the Ratio of the number of cycles of operation at the stress level to the total number of

cycles that would

produce failure at that stress level. This means that failure is predicted to occur if

U1.0 where U= Usage factor = (ni/Ni) for all stress levels

Where, ni= number of cycles operating at stress level i

Ni= number of cycles to failure at stress level i as per material fatigue curve.

Analysis Requirement:

If there are two or more types of stress cycles which produce significant stresses, their

cumulative effect shall be evaluated as stipulated in Steps 1 through 6 below:

1. Designate the specified number of times each type of stress cycle of types 1,2,3,,n,

will be Repeated during the life of the component as n1, n2, n3,., nn, respectively.

In determining n1, n2, n3,., nn, consideration shall be given to the superposition

of cycles of various origins which produce the greatest total alternating stress range.

For example , if one type of stress cycle produce 1000 cycles of a stress variation

from zero to +60,000 psi and another type of stress cycle produces 10,000 cycles of

a stress variation from zero to -50,000 psi, the two cycles to be considered are shown

below:

For each type of stress cycle, determine the alternating stress intensity Salt, which

for our application is one half of the range between the expansion stress cycles (as

shown above). These alternating stress intensities are designated as Salt1, Salt2,

Saltn.

On the applicable design fatigue curve find the permissible number of cycles for each

Salt computed. These are designated as N1, N2, .Nn.

For each stress cycle calculate the usage factor U1, U2, .Un where U1= n1/N1,

U2= n2/N2,..Un=nn/Nn.

System Using Caesar II

want2learn October 19, 2016 2 Comments

In my last article on Fatigue Analysis I had explained the basics required for performing

fatigue analysis of piping systems. Click here to refresh yourself once again before

proceeding further. This article will explain the step by step methodology of actual

analysis steps which need to be followed during fatigue analysis using Caesar II. Before I

start the analysis steps, a short description of typical fatigue curves are required from where

we have to take the allowable limit for fatigue analysis.

Fatigue Curve:

Plot of Cyclic Stress capacity of a material is called fatigue curve, also known as S-N curve.

ASME Section VIII Div 2 Provide fatigue curve for various material.

Fatigue design curves are generated from test data by applying large safety margins to the

average property curve.

While considering material fatigue in design, an additional safety margin is often applied

against the cycles-to-failure at a given stress amplitude. As an example, if a component is

cycled continuously over the same stress range (Any constant stress range), a design limit

on allowable (permitted) cycles may correspond to the cycle life multiplied by a factor

(safety margin) such as 0.8. This is the common safety margin employed in vessel and

piping design.

For every material, a fatigue curve is normally generated by experimental analysis which

correlates peak stress range with the number of cycles to failure.

The alternating stress Sa is defined as one-half of the calculated peak stress.

As already mentioned in my last article that fatigue failure may be prevented by ensuring

that the number of load cycles N that the system experiences are fewer (lower) than the

number permitted for the alternating stress developed.

The cumulative effect shall be evaluated in case if there are two or more types of stress

cycles which produce significant stresses. The material fatigue resistance at a given applied

stress or strain range is a function of a number of factors, including material strength and

ductility.

When to perform Fatigue Analysis:

Normally the fatigue analysis is performed for existing plants to evaluate actual cause for

any failure. For new plants the analysis can be performed only if the project specification

permits to do so. Refer project guidelines on the application requirement for fatigue analysis.

Before starting the analysis be ready with following data which will be required during

analysis:

Enough process data for finding the total number of cycles throughout the design life

of the piping system.

Assigning the fatigue curve data to the Piping Material in use: This is done

on the Allowable auxiliary screen. Fatigue data may be entered directly, or can be

read from a text file by clicking the Fatigue Curves Button. Seven commonly used

curves are available in \Caesar\System\*.Fat. (For Caesar version 2012, 2013 &2014

you may not find it in few computers, But these are available in earlier versions)

Fatigue curves provide series of S-N data which define the allowable stress with given

anticipated cycle and vise versa.

Defining the fatigue load cases: For this purposes, a new stress type, FAT, has

been already defined in Caesar II database. For every fatigue case, the number of

cycles anticipated must also be entered in appropriate space.

for us. The fatigue stresses, unless explicitly defined by the applicable code are same

as Caesar II calculated stress intensity (Max Stress Intensity), in order to conform to

the requirement of ASME section VIII, Division 2 Appendix 5.

fatigue analysis are required to be interpolated logarithmically from the fatigue curve

based upon the number of cycles (throughout its life) designated in the fatigue load

cases. The calculated stress is assumed to be a peak-to-peak cycle value (i.e.,

thermal expansion, settlement, pressure, etc) for static load cases, so the allowable

stress can be extracted directly from fatigue curve. On the other hand for harmonic

and dynamic load cases, the calculated stress is assumed to be a zeroto-peak cycle

value (i.e., vibration, earthquake, etc), so the extracted allowable need to be divided

by 2 prior to use in the comparison.

the allowable fatigue stress for the designated number of cycles is the calculation of

the allowable number of cycles for the calculated stress level. This is done be

logarithmically interpolating the Cycles axis of the fatigue curve based upon the

calculated stress value. Since static stresses are assumed to be peak-to-peak cycle

values, the allowable number of cycles is interpolated directly from the fatigue curve.

Since harmonic and dynamic stresses are assumed to be zero-to-peak cyclic values,

the allowable number of cycles is interpolated using twice the calculated stress

value.

Reporting the analysis results: Caesar II provides two reports for viewing the

results of load cases of stress type FAT; standard stress report and cumulative usage

report. The first of these is the standard stress report for displaying the calculated

fatigue stress and the fatigue allowable at each node. Stress reports could be

generated individually for each load case and show whether any of the individual

load cases in isolation would fail the system or not.

However, in situations where there is more than one cyclic load case potentially contributing

to fatigue failure, the cumulative usage report is more appropriate. In order to generate this

report, the user should select all of the FAT load cases which contributes to the overall

system degradation (possible failure). The cumulative usage report lists for each node point

the usage ratio (actual cycles divided by allowable cycles), and then sums (combines) these

up for total cumulative Usage. A total value greater than 1.0 indicates a potential fatigue

failure.

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