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PRE FABRICATED

MODULAR STRUCTURES

PRESENTED BY:
GUIDED BY:
FAIZAL.A.M
SOUMYA MISS
7TH SEMESTER
ASST PROFFESSOR,
CIVIL ENGINEERING
UKFCET, KOLLAM
UKFCET, KOLLAM
1
Contents

Introduction Equipments
Features Assembling
Comparison scheduling
Design concept Advantages
Components Limitations
Types of precast system Conclusion
Design consideration references

2
Introduction

The concept of precast structures also known as prefabricated/


modular structures.
The structural components are standardized and produced in plants
in a location away from the building site.
Then transported to the site for assembly.
The components are manufactured by industrial methods based on
mass production in order to build a large number of buildings in a
short time at low cost.

3
Features

The division and specialization of the human


workforce.
The use of tools, machinery, and other equipment,
usually automated, in the production of standard,
interchangeable parts and products.
Compared to site-cast concrete, precast concrete
erection is faster and less affected by adverse
weather conditions.
Plant casting allows increased efficiency, high
quality control and greater control on finishes.
4
Comparison
Site-cast Precast at plant
no transportation transportation and elevation
the size limitation is capacity limits the size-
depending on the elevation higher, industrialized quality
capacity only less affected by weather
lower quality because no space requirement on the
directly affected by weather site for fabrication
proper, large free space unlimited opportunities of
required architectural appearance
option of standardized
components

5
Design concept for precast concrete buildings

The design concept


of the precast
buildings is based
on
1.build ability.
2.economy
3.standardization of
precast
components.

6
Precast concrete structural elements
Precast slabs

Precast Beam & Girders

7
Precast Columns

Precast Walls

8
Precast stairs

Steel plates supported on 2 steel


Precast concrete Stairs
beams
9
Design considerations
final position and loads
transportation requirements self load and
position during transportation
storing requirements self load and position
during storing (avoid or store in the same position
as it transported / built in)
lifting loads distribution of lifting points optimal
way of lifting (selection of lifting and rigging tools)
vulnerable points (e.g. edges) reduction of risk
(e.g. rounded edges)

10
Types of pre cast system

1. Large-panel systems
2. Frame systems
3. Slab-column systems with walls
4. Mixed systems

11
1. Large-panel systems
box-like structure.
both vertical and horizontal
elements are load-bearing.
one-story high wall panels
(cross-wall system /
longitudinal wall system / two
way system).
one-way or two way slabs.

12
2. Frame systems

Components are usually


linear elements.
The beams are seated on
corbels of the pillars usually
with hinged-joints (rigid
connection is also an
option).
Joints are filled with
concrete at the site.

13
3.Lift-slab systems
- partially precast in plant (pillars)
/ partially precast on-site (slabs).
- one or more storey high pillars
(max 5).
- up to 30 storey high
constructions.
- special designed joints and
temporary joints.
-slabs are casted on the ground
(one on top of the other) then
lifted with crane or special
elevators.

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Lift-slab procedure

1. pillars and the first package (e.g. 5 pieces) of slabs prepared at


ground level
2. lifting boxes are mounted on the pillars + a single slab lifted to
the first floor level
3-8. boxes are sequentially raised to higher positions to enable the
slabs to be lifted to their required
final position - slabs are held in a relative (temporary) positions by
a pinning system
15
Planning traffic route
How long transporter vehicle is Is route permission
required?
What is the required load capacity of
required?
the transporter vehicle?
What is the maximum vertical
extension of the shipment
Routs on the site

16
Equipments
cranes:
mobile crane
tower crane (above
3stories)

lifting tools:
spreader beams
wire rope slings

rigging tools:
eye bolt
shakles
hooks
17
Assembling.
Column to column connection

18
Beam to column connection

19
Beam-slab joints

20
Wall to slab connection

Precast concrete structure consisting of solid


wall panels and hollow core slabs. 21
Advantages

Quick erection times


Possibility of conversion, disassembling
and moving to another site
Possibility of erection in areas where a traditional
construction practice is not possible or difficult
Low labor intensivity
Reduce wastage of materials
Easier management of construction sites
Better overall construction quality
Ideal fit for simple and complex structures
22
Limitations

size of the units.


location of window openings has a limited variety.
joint details are predefined.
site access and storage capacity.
require high quality control.
enable interaction between design phase and production planning.
difficult to handling & transporting.

23
Scheduling

some approximate data for installation


emplacement of hollow core floor slabs - 300 m2/day
erection of pillars/columns - 8 pieces/day
emplacement of beams - 15 pieces/day
emplacement of double tee slabs - 25 pieces/day
emplacement of walls - 15 pieces/day
construction of stair and elevator shafts - 2 floors/day

24
Examples.

The hospital will feature multi-trade prefabricated racks in the corridors, an


approach that is still new in the U.S.

25
Miami Valley Hospital Dayton,OH
26
Conclusion
oThe use of prefabrication and preassembly is estimated
to have almost doubled in the last 15 years, increasing by
86%.
oThe use of precast concrete construction can significantly
reduce the amount of construction waste generated on
construction sites.
o Reduce adverse environmental impact on sites.
o Enhance quality control of concreting work.
o Reduce the amount of site labour.
o Increase worker safety .
o Other impediments to prefabrication and preassembly
are increased transportation difficulties, greater
inflexibility, and more advanced procurement
requirements.
27
LARGE SPAN
STRUCTURES
LARGE SPAN STRUCTURES
Large Span Systems
Large span systems are structural systems whose dimensions exceed thelimits of standard beams and slabs and thus require changes totheir
geometry, conguration, or shape.
In general, long span systems tend towards a handfull of basic types, relying on principles of bending, compression, or
tension to carry roof or oor loads over large distances.
Large-span structures create unobstructed, column-free spaces greater than 30 m (100 feet) for avariety of functions.
The most common types are :

simple beam
space frame

gable frame

folded plates
cable stayed

truss

pre-stressed beam
suspension

pneumatic

arch castellated beam


Large span structures are the structures that
provide large column free spaces.
They are used in roofs for halls & other hall
type structures.
They are composed of steel in the form of
truss system.
They are quiet strong in nature
They are unique because of their aesthetic
properties..
For example they are used in airport,
railway station, stadium, assembly hall,
godown & temple etc.
Materials suitable for various forms of long span and complex structure
span and complex structure
1. All reinforced concrete including precast
2. All metal (e.g. mild-steel, structural steel, stainless steel or alloyed
alumimum,
3. All timber
4. Laminated timber
5. Metal/RC combined
6. Plastic-coated Textile material
7. Fiber reinforced plastic
Common Structural Forms Common Structural Forms for Long Span
Building Structures for Long Span Building Structures
1. Insitu RC, tensioned
2. Precast concrete, tensioned
3. Structural steel erected on spot
4. Structural steel prefabricated and installed on spot
5. Portal frame insitu RC
6. Portal frame precast
7. Portal frame prefabricated steel
Large span structures can be constructed by-
Shell structures.
Folded plate.
Trusses
Steel space frame.
Coffered slab
SHELL STRUCTURES

A SHELL STRUCTURE IS A THIN


CURVED MEMBRANE OR SLAB
USUALLY OF REINFORCED
CONCRETE THAT FUNCTIONS
BOTH AS STRUCTURE AND
COVERING.

THE TERM SHELL IS USED TO


DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURES
WHICH POSSESS STRENGHT
AND RIGIDITY DUE TO ITS THIN,
NATURAL AND CURVED FORM
SUCH AS SHELL OF EGG, A NUT,
HUMAN SKULL, AND SHELL OF
TORTISE
.. SHELLS OCCURING IN NATURE
It transmits load more than 2
directions to support.
It is highly efficient.
Shaped, proportioned & supported
It transmits load without bending or
twisting.
Its thickness is small compared to its
other dimension.
Deformation not large as compared to
its thickness.
Consist of shearing stress which should
be normal to the middle surface and
should be negligible
Application: Used in fuselages of aero
plane, boat hulls, roof structures.
Depending upon the geometry of
middle surface the shells can be
classified as :

1.Domes
2.Shell Barrel Arch / Vault
3.Translation shells
4.Ruled Surfaces shell
DOMES
Are hemispherical in shape.
Used as roof structure.
Constructed of stone , concrete &
brick.
Supported on circular / regular
polygon shaped walls.
Have certain height & diameter ratio.
Have very small thickness.
Can b constructed with or without
lanterns.
Are of 2 types:
i. Smooth shell domes & ii Ribbed
shell domes RIBBED SHELL DOMES

SMOOTH SHELL
DOMES
TYPES OF DOMES

SPHERICAL DOMES TRIANGULAR DOME

CYLINDERICAL DOME RECTANGULAR DOME


SHELL BARREL VAULT
Is an Arched form.
Used to provide a space with ceiling or roof.
Elements of barrel shell:
*Curved membrane
*Tension zone
*Rise
*Span
*Width
*Edge beams
*End frame of diaphragm
TYPES OF SHELL VAULTS

MULTI BARREL VAULT CANTILEVER BARREL VAULT

SHORT SPAN BARREL VAULT NORTH LIGHT BARREL VAULT


TRANSLATION SHELL
Is a type of shell structure.
Dome set on four arches
Different from spherical dome
Easier to form than spherical dome
Obtained by moving a vertical curve
parallel to itself along another vertical
curve usually in plane at right angles to
the plane of sliding curve.
High tension forces in the corner.
Special cases are:
1.Cylindrical shell &
2. Hyperbolic paraboloid
HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID
Is a special case of translation shell.
Obtained by sliding a vertical parabola with
upward curvature on another parabola with
downward curvature in a plane at right angles to
the plane of first.
Carries load on 2 directions.
Diagonal element sags in tension
Other element is an arch which is in compression.
Consist of saddle surface.
STEEL SPACE FRAMES
Are used in the form of grids of rectangular,
diagonal , triangular or hexagon pattern, arches
domes &other large column free areas.
Highly efficient.
Obtained by connecting the parallel trusses, not
by flexible elements but by transverse trusses as
rigid as the main truss.
Deflection of the truss is transmitted to the
adjoining trusses & the entire roof works act
more or less monothically.
Such special systems of hinged bar are called
SPACE FRAMES.
Offers an economical solution to roofing of large
rectangular areas.
Are stiffer than system of parallel trusses.
Shallower in depth .
TYPES OF SPACE FRAMED SYSTEMS
BRACED BARREL VAULT STRUCTURE

The braced double layer barrel vault is


composed of member elements arranged on
a cylindrical surface. The basic curve is a
circular segment; occasionally, a parabola,
ellipse or funicular line may also be used.

Its structural behavior depends mainly on the


type and location of supports, which can be
expressed as L/R, where L is the distance
between the supports in longitudinal direction
and R is the radius of curvature of the
transverse curve
RIBBED DOME STRUCTURE

Ribbed dome is the earliest type of braced


dome that has been constructed . A ribbed
dome consists of a number of identical
meridional solid girders or trusses,
interconnected at the crown by a compression
ring. The ribs are also connected by concentric
rings to form grids in trapezium shape. The
ribbed dome is usually stiffened by a steel or
reinforced concrete tension ring at its base.
GEODESIC DOMED STRUCTURE

The framework of these intersecting elements


forms a three-way grid comprising virtually
equilateral spherical triangles

HIPPED END STRUCTURE


is a type of roof where all sides slope
downwards to the walls, usually with a
fairly gentle slope. Thus it is a house with
no gables or other vertical sides to the roof.
A square hip roof is shaped like a pyramid.
Hip roofs on houses could have two
triangular sides and two trapezoidal
ones. A hip roof on a rectangular plan has
four faces. They are almost always at the
same pitch or slope, which makes them
symmetrical about the centerlines
POLYGONAL DOMED STRUCTURE

ADVANTAGES OF SPACE FRAMES


One of the most important advantages of a
space structure is its lightweight. This is mainly
due to the fact that the material is distributed
spatially in such a way that the load transfer
mechanism is primarily axial tension or
compression.
Space frames can be built from simple
prefabricated units, which are often of
standard size and shape. Such units can be
easily transported and rapidly assembled
on site by semi-skilled labor. Consequently, Space frames possess a versatility
space frames can be built at a lower cost. of shape and form and can utilize a
A space frame is usually sufficiently stiff in spite standard module to generate
of its lightness. This is due to its three various flat space grids, latticed
dimensional character and to the full shell, or even free-form shapes.
participation of its constituent elements.
What is the difference between truss and frame?

1. Truss is essentially a frame and is fabricated using the structural steel.


2. Truss is a flexural member and is normally used for supporting a roof.
3.Truss is composed of many triangles connected together .
4. Frames, on the other hand have right angles between different members (
such as a door fame , window frame, portal frame )
1- The joints in a truss are pinjointed whereas in case of frames rigid joints are
provided by bolting or welding. In a truss, the joints are pin type joints and the
members are free to rotate about the pin. As such, a truss cannot transfer
moments and members are subjected to only axial forces (tensile and
compression). On the other hand, members of frames are connected rigidly at
joints by means of welding and bolting. Therefore the joints of frames can
transfer moments in addition to the axial loads.

2- Truss memebers are designed for axial force(tensile or compression) only i.e.
there is no bending moment in trusses while on the other hand frames are
designed shear force and bending moment
Trusses are 2 dimensional. Space frame 3-d
In a practical setting, you may see trusses with no flexibility in joints, but it is still
acceptable to analyze them as a perfect truss.
FOLDED PLATE STRUCTURES
Consist of series of thin planer elements.
Flat plates are connected to one another along their edges.
Used in long span especially for roofs.
Give mutual support to each other.
Plates may be continuous over their supports longitudinally.
Capable of transmitting both moment & shear or only shear.
These plates carry the load from slab longitudinally to the
support.
The support must be capable of resisting both horizontal &
vertical forces.
Beam theory may be applied to design if the span is long.
TYPES OF FOLDED PLATE

PRISMATIC: if they consist of rectangular plates.


PYRAMIDAL: when consists of non-rectangular plates.
PRISMOIDAL: triangular or trapezoidal.

FOLDED PLATE BEHAVIOR

Each plate is assumed to act as


a beam in its
plane ,this assumption is
justified when the ratio of
The span length of the plate
to its height
width is large enough . But
when this ratio is small,
the plate behaves as a deep
beam.
COFFERED SLAB STRUCTURES
A coffer in architecture is a sunken panel in the shape of a
square, rectangle, or octagon in a ceiling, or vault.
A series of these sunken panels were used as decoration
for a ceiling or a vault.
Also known as caissons ('boxes"), or lacunaria ("spaces,
openings").
The strength of the structure is in the framework of the
coffers.
The stone coffers which is cut in soft tufa-like stone
reproduces a ceiling with beams and cross-beams lying on
them, with flat panels fillings the lacunae.
Wooden coffers were first made by crossing the wooden
beams of a ceiling.
Experimentation with the possible shapes of coffering,
which solve problems of mathematical tiling, or
tessellation, were a feature of Islamic as well as
Renaissance architecture.
The more complicated problems of diminishing the scale
of the individual coffers were presented by the
requirements of curved surfaces of vaults and domes.
Example of Roman coffering, employed to lighten the
weight of the dome, can be found in the ceiling of the
rotunda dome.
TRUSSES
A truss is a structural frame based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle.
Linear members are subjected only to axial tension and compression. They
support load much like beams but for larger spans.
To prevent secondary shear and bending stresses from developing, the
centroidalaxes of the truss members and the load at a joint should pass
through a common point
Different types of Wooden and Steel Roof Trusses:
King Post Truss
Queen Post Truss
Howe Truss
Pratt Truss
Fan Truss
North Light Roof Truss/ SAWTOOTH TRUSS
Quadrangular Roof Truss
Tubular Steel Roof Truss
Tubular Monitor Steel Roof Truss

King Post Truss


King Post Truss is a wooden truss.
It can also be built of combination of wood
and steel.
It can be used for spans upto 8m.
Queen Post Truss

Queen Post Truss is also a wooden


truss.
It can be used for spans upto 10m.
Howe Truss

It is made of combination of wood and


steel.
The vertical members or tension members
are made of steel.
It can be used for spans from 6-30m.

Pratt Truss
Pratt Truss is made of steel.
These are less economical than the Fink
Trusses.
Vertical members are tension and diagonal
members are compression.
Fink Trusses are very economical form of roof
trusses.
It can be used for spans from 6-10m.
Fan Truss
It is made of steel.
Fan trusses are form of Fink roof truss.
In Fan Trusses, top chords are divided into
small lengths in order to provide supports for
purlins which would not come at joints in Fink
trusses.
It can be used for spans from 10-15m.

North Light Roof Truss


When the floor span exceeds 15m, it is generally more
economical to change from a simple truss arrangement to one
employing wide span lattice girders which support trusses at right
angles.
In order to light up the space satisfactorily, roof lighting has to
replace or supplement, side lighting provision must also be made
for ventilation form the roof.
One of the oldest and economical methods of covering large areas
is the North Light and Lattice girder.
This roof consists of a series of trusses fixed to girders. The short
vertical side of the truss is glazed so that when the roof is used in
the Northern Hemisphere, the glazed portion faces North for the
best light.
It can be used for spans from 20-30m.
Used for industrial buildings, drawing rooms etc.
Quadrangular roof Trusses
These trusses are used for large spans such as
railway sheds and Auditoriums.

LARGE SPAN TRUSSES


TUBULAR STEEL ROOF TRSSES are
used for large span constructions such as
factories, industry worksheds, shopping
malls, huge exhibition centres, multiplexes
etc. They are generally used for spans as
large as 25-30m.
Advantages of Tubular Steel Roof Trusses
Structures designed for material handling equipments (e.g., a bridge and
a tower crane) where weight savings may be very substantial economic
consideration.
30% to 40% less surface area than that of an equivalent rolled steel
shape. Therefore, the cost of maintenance, cost of painting or protective
coatings reduce considerably.
The moisture and dirt do not collect on the smooth external surface of
the tubes. Therefore, the possibility of corrosion also reduces.
The ends of tubes are sealed. As a result of this, the interior surface is
not subjected to corrosion. The interior surface do not need any
protective treatment.
They have more torsional resistance than other section of the equal
weight.
They have a higher frequency vibrations under dynamic loading than the
other sections including the solid round one.
VIERENDEEL TRUSS
The Vierendeel truss/girder is characterized by having only vertical members between the top and bottom chords and is a
statically indeterminate structure. Hence, bending, shear and axial capacity of these members contribute to the resistance
to external loads.
The use of this girder enables the footbridge to span larger distances and present an attractive outlook.
However, it suffers from the drawback that the distribution of stresses is more complicated than normal truss structures.
Elements in Vierendeel trusses are subjected to bending, axial force and shear , unlike conventional trusses with
diagonal web members where the members are primarily designed for axial loads
LOAD DISTRIBUTION
Vierendeel trusses are moment resisting. Vertical members
near the supports are subject to the highest moments and
therefore require larger sections to be used than those at
mid-span. Considerable bending moments must therefore
be transferred between the verticals and the chords, which
can result in expensive stiffened details.

ADVANTAGES
The joints may be heavy, but the absence of diagonals makes
this form suitable for storey-height construction.
Using standard computer programs, the analysis is not
difficult, However the system does allow full storey-height
construction without obstruction to openings.

DISADVANTAGES
Vierendeel trusses are usually more expensive than
conventional trusses.
Their use limited to instances where diagonal web
members are either obtrusive or undesirable
but the resulting joints are often very heavy in
appearance. Vierendeel bridge at Grammene, Belgium
TENSILE STRUCTURES
The term tensile structures covers a broad category
of structures: Tension
Fabric membranes
Pre-stressed cable nets
Cable beams in form of trusses and girders

Although compression, bending and shear maybe


present in some of these structures, tension stress is
more prominent. Compression
Compared to bending and compression , tensile
Tensile structures are characterized by the
elements are more efficient as they use the material
to its full capacity. prevalence of tension force in their structural
Bending elements use only half the material systems and by limitation of compression
effectively, since bending stress varies from Forces to a few support members. Thus
compression to tension with zero stress at neutral These lightweight structures do not require
axis.
The considerable amount of construction
Compression elements are subjected to bucking of
reduced capacity as slenderness increases. Material to absorb the Buckling and bending
However, the efficiency of tensile structures Moments in compression members.
depends greatly on the type of support.
Elements of a membrane structure:
Highly flexible fabric held under tension in order to generate stiffness in surface
One-dimensional flexible elements i.e. ties or cables to creates ridges, valleys and edge boundaries
Rigid support members sustaining compression/bending
Note: Cable structures are constructed using a combination of the first two elements.
Cable structures can be tensioned by applying direct axial forces to the cables or by loading free
suspended cables with heavy cladding/decking.
Three main categories:
Boundary tensioned membranes
Pneumatic structures
Pre-stressed cable nets and beams

Boundary Tensioned Membranes


Lightweight (typically 0.71.4 kg/m2 ), highly flexible
membranes with a level of pre-tension which
generates stiffness in the surface.
The overall equilibrium of the structure is provided by
rigid edges and supporting members generally
subjected to compression and/or bending.
Under imposed load due to snow or wind, the fabric
surface undergoes large displacements and a
consequent increase in the material stress, which can
increase up to ten fold. For this reason a safety factor
higher than four is highly recommended.
Membrane structures are basically realised with
coated fabrics, with growing interest towards open
mesh coated fabrics and foils.
Coating layer can be of either PVC, PTFE
(polytetrafluroethlyene) or PVDF (polyvinylidine
difluride)
Pneumatic Structures
The term pneumatic structures includes all
the lightweight structures in which the load
bearing capacity is achieved by means of air
under pressure.
They are mainly subdivided into two
categories: the buildings characterised by a
single layer, stabilised by a slight difference in
pressure between the inside and the outside
of the structures, and the building envelopes
stabilised by air under pressure enclosed
between two or more membrane layers.
Air-supported structures provide a cost effective alternative for seasonal wide span coverings, nevertheless,
the reduced resistance under bad weather conditions combined with high costs due to great pressure losses,
reduced insulation, maintenance and the seasonal mounting and dismounting costs can progressively reduce
the initial convenience over the entire life span
Pre-stressed Cable Nets, Beams and Domes
Cable structures are load bearing structures composed of linear flexible elements under tension, with
the only exception being rigid members or supports such as rigid ring beams or masts.
They can be subdivided in cable nets, which describe three-dimensional surfaces, cable domes and
their two-dimensional version represented by cable trusses.
Cable nets share the basic physical principles which regulate their equilibrium and shape with the
boundary tensioned membranes described above.
Cable domes are based on a slightly different structural scheme which is generally circular in plan and
based on radial trusses made of cables with the only exception of vertical compression struts.
Cable trusses mostly present a planar structure, with a top cable and a bottom cable with a
considerable cross-sectional area due to their load bearing function.
The load bearing capacity of pre-stressed cable nets, domes and beams depends on the geometry
chosen, the level of pre-stress and the allowable deformation and fatigue strength of each member,
the higher the pre-tension the lower the deflection under external loads, but with a consequent
increase in costs and material stress.
Cables
Cables can be of mild steel, high
strength steel , stainless steel or
polyester or aramid fibres.
Structural cables are made of a series
of small strands twisted or bound
together to form a much larger cable.
The tensioned members are termed as
cables are group of wires, strands or ropes.
A wire is a continuous length of steel that
has a circular cross section. Cables do not
loose strength in
case of failure of one wire. The wires in the
strand are zinc coated and stranded into
helix whichforms a regular cross section.
Cable Stayed Structures
Usually used in bridges.
Adaptation of suspension bridge principle.
The deck structure is supported by tension stays sloping from one or more towers.
There may be either a single plane of stays down the centre of the bridge, or two planes;
one on each side of the bridge.
The towers act in compression and can have a variety of forms (A-frame, H-frame or
columns). The deck girders sustain compression forces as well as bending forces.
Economic spans range from 200m to over 850m, and as such cable-stayed bridges fill the
gap between large arches / trusses and small suspension bridges.
Span/depth ratio is an important design factor-A shallow depth results in great tension and
compression in stays and beams respectively, a steep slope has opposite effect.
Cable Suspended Structures
Used for long-span roofs.
Suspended cables effectively resist gravity loads in tension burt are unstable under wind
uplift and uneven loads.
Suspended Structures are those with horizontal planes i.e. floors are supported by cables
(hangers) hung from the parabolic sag of large, high-strength steel cables. The strength of a
suspended structure is derived from the parabolic form of the sagging high strength cable.
To make this structure more efficient, the parabolic form is so designed that its shape
closely follows the exact form of the moment diagrams.
The large curving cable may consist of many smaller cables which are tightly spun together.
As the cables are being spun together, they are also stretched over the span and attached
to the supports.
Stadiums
Stages
Covered malls
Walkways
Play areas
Entrances
Atriums
Sports arenas
Airports
As fabric cladding panels
Unique building medium.
Lightweight and flexible, fabric interacts with and expresses natural forces.
Fabric structures have higher strength/weight ratio than concrete or steel. Most fabrics can be A fabric
structure can be designed for almost any condition, heavier fabrics and more 3 dimensional frecycled.
forms will cope with extreme wind and snow loads.
Translucency In daylight, fabric membrane translucency offers soft diffused naturally lit spaces reducing
the interior lighting costs while at night, artificial lighting creates an ambient exterior luminescence.
Low Maintenance Tensile membrane systems are somewhat unique in that they require minimal
maintenance when compared to an equivalent-sized conventional building.
Cost Benefits Most tensile membrane structures have high sun reflectivity and low absorption of
sunlight, thus resulting in less energy used within a building and ultimately reducing electrical energy
costs.

Fabric structures being mainly fabric and cables have little or no rigidity and therefore must rely
on their form and internal pre-stress to perform the this function.
As a rule of thumb spans greater than 15 metres should be avoided however, much greater spans
can be achieved by reinforcing the fabric with webbing or cables.
Loss of tension is dangerous for the stability of the structure and if not regularly maintained will
lead to failure of the structure.
SPACEFRAMES

SPACE FRAME

ALANKRITA | DIVYA | GARIMA | KHUSHBOO |


MBS SCHOOL OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE THEORY OF STRUCTURES - SPACEFRAMES IV A SHASHI | SHRISHTI
A space frame is a truss-like, lightweight rigid structure constructed
from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern.

A three-dimensional structures.

The assembled linear elements are arranged to transfer the load.

Take a form of a flat surface or curve surface.

Designed with no intermediate columns to create large open


area.

Space frames usually utilize a multidirectional span, and are often


used to accomplish long spans with few supports.

They derive their strength from the inherent rigidity of the


triangular frame; flexing loads (bending moments) are
transmitted as tension and compression loads along the length of
each strut.

Space frames are an increasingly common architectural technique


especially for large roof spans in modernist commercial and
industrial buildings

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TYPES OF SPACE FRAMES
According to curvature
1- Flat covers
These structures are composed of planar substructures. The
plane are channeled through the horizontal bars and the shear
forces are supported by the diagonals.

2- Barrel vaults
This type of vault has a cross section of a simple arch. Usually
this type of space frame does not need to use tetrahedral
modules or pyramids as a part of its backing.

3- Spherical domes
These domes usually require the use of tetrahedral modules or
pyramids and additional support from a skin.
According to the number of grid layers
1- Single-Layer
All elements are located on the surface to be approximated.

2- Double-Layer
The elements are organized in two parallel layers with each
other at a certain distance apart. The diagonal bars
connecting
the nodes of both layers in different directions in space.

3- Triple-Layer
Elements are placed in three parallel layers, linked by the
diagonals. They are almost always flat. This solution is to
decrease the diagonal members length.
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TYPES OF SPACE FRAME
1) Two and three-way grids
Characterized as two way or three way

2) Single, Double and Triple Layered


Single layer frame has to be singly or doubly
curved.
Commonly used space frames are double
layered and flat.
Triple layered is practically used for a large
span building.

i. Skeleton (braced) frame work e.g. domes, barrel vaults, double and multiplier grids,
braced plates. They are more popular. They are innumerable combinations and
variation possible and follow regular geometric forms.

ii. Stressed skin systems e.g. Stressed skin folded plates, stressed skin domes and
barrel vaults, pneumatic structures.

iii. Suspended (cable or membrane) structures e.g. Cable roofs

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COMPONENTS OF SPACE FRAME
Consists of axial members : which are tubes and connectors
TUBES
1) CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS
2) RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS
CONNECTORS
1) Tuball Node Connector
A hollow sphere made of spheroidal graphite
The end of the circular hollow section member to be connected is
fitted at its ends by welding.
Connection from inside the cup is using bolt and nut.

2) Nodus Connector

It can accept both rectangular and circular hollow sections and that the
cladding can be fixed directly to the chords.

Chord connectors have to be welded to the ends of the hollow


members on site.

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3) Triodetic Connector

It consists of a hub, usually an aluminium extrusion, that has slots or


key ways, which the ends of members are pressed or coined to match
the slots.

4) Hemispherical Dome Connector

Usually use for double layer domes.

Has a span more than 40m.

More economical for long span.

The jointing is connect by slitting the end of the tube or rod with the
joint fin.

There are 2 types of joint, pentagonal joint and hexagonal joint.

Load Distribution

Some space frame applications include:


Hotel/Hospital/commercial building entrances
Commercial building lobbies/atriums
Parking canopies

Tension
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METHOD OF SUPPORT

1. Support along perimetersThis is the most commonly


used support location. The supports of double layer grids
may directly rest on the columns or on ring beams
connecting the columns or exterior walls. Care should be
taken that the module size of grids matches the column
spacing.

2. Multi-column supportsFor single-span buildings, such


as a sports hall, double layer grids can be supported on
four intermediate columns . Figure 13.5a

For buildings such as workshops, usually multi-span


columns in the form of grids . Figure 13.5b

Sometimes the column grids are used in combination with


supports along perimeters . Figure 13.5c

Overhangs should be employed where possible in order to


provide some amount of stress reversal to reduce the
interior chord forces and deflections. Figure 13.6

3. Support along perimeters on three sides and free


on the other sideFor buildings of a rectangular shape, it
is necessary to have one side open, such as in the case of
an airplane hanger or for future extension.

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Advantages of space frame systems over conventional systems:
Random column placement

Column-free spaces

Minimal perimeter support

Controlled load distribution

Design freedom

Supports all types of roofing


Light
Elegant & Economical
Carry load by 3D action.
High Inherent Stiffness
Easy to construct
Save Construction Time & Cost
Services (such as lighting and air conditioning) can be integrated with space
frames
Offer the architect unrestricted freedom in locating supports and planning the
subdivision of the covered space.
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Advantages of Space Frames

1. Lightweight
This is mainly due to the fact that material is
distributed spatially in such a way that the load
transfer mechanism is primarily axial; tension
or compression. Consequently, all material in
any given element is utilized to its full extent.
Furthermore, most space frames are now
constructed with aluminum, which decreases
considerably their self-weight.

2. Mass Productivity
Space frames can be built from simple
prefabricated units, which are often of standard
size and shape. Such units can be easily
transported and rapidly assembled on site by
semi-skilled labor. Consequently, space frames
can be built at a lower cost.

3. Stiffness
A space frame is usually sufficiently stiff in
spite of its lightness. This is due to its
three-dimensional character and to the full
participation of its constituent elements.

4. Versatility
Space frames possess a versatility of shape
and form and can utilize a standard module to
generate various flat space grids, latticed shell,
or even free-form shapes. Architects
appreciate the visual beauty and the
impressive simplicity of lines in space frames.
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Disadvantages of Space Frames

1. Cost
The main criticism of space grids is their cost, which can
be high when compared with alternative structural
systems. This is particularly true when space grids are
used for short spans.

2. Visually busy structures


Visually, space grid structures are very 'busy'. They are
rarely seen in plan or in true elevation and at some viewing
angles the lightweight structure can appear to be very
dense. Grid size and depth as well as the grid configuration
can have considerable influence on the perceived density of
the structure.

3. Longer erection times


The number and complexity of joints can lead to longer
erection times on site. This is obviously very dependent on
the system being used and the grid module chosen.

4. Large surface area


When space grids are used to support floors some form
of fire protection may be required. This is difficult to
achieve economically due to the high number and relatively
large surface area of the space grid elements

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SPACE FRAME METHODS OF ERECTION
The method chosen for erection of a space frame depends on its behavior of load
transmission and constructional details, so that it will meet the overall requirements of quality,
safety, speed of construction, and economy.
The scale of the structure being built, the method of jointing the individual elements, and the strength and rigidity of
the space frame until its form is closed must all be considered.

1- SCAFFOLD METHOD 2. BLOCK ASSEMBLY METHOD


Individual Elements are Assembled in Place at
Actual Elevations, members and joints or The space frame is divided on its plan into individual strips or blocks. These
prefabricated subassembly elements are units are fabricated on the ground level, then hoisted up into its final
assembled directly on their final position. Full position and assembled on the temporary supports. With more work
scaffoldings are usually required for this type of being done on the ground, the amount of assembling work at high
erection. Sometimes only partial scaffoldings elevation is reduced. This method is suitable for those double-layer grids
are used if cantilever erection of space frame where
can be executed. The elements are fabricated at the stiffness and load-resisting behavior will not change considerably after
the shop and transported to the construction dividing into strips
site, and no heavy lifting equipment is required. or blocks, such as two-way orthogonal latticed grids, orthogonal square
pyramid space grids, and the those with openings. The size of each unit
will depend on the hoisting capacity available.

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EXAMPLES OF POPULAR BUILDINGS WITH SPACEFRAMES

INDIAN HABITAT CENTRE , LODHI ROAD JEEVAN BHARTI BUILDING, CP

HALL OF NATIONS, PRAGTI MAIDAN STANSED AIRPORT, LONDON

RAILWAY STATIONS SUPPORTED BY BARREL VAULT STRUCTURE LOUVRE PYRAMID, LOUVRL PALACE, PARIS
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JOINTING SYSTEMS JOINTING SYSTEMS AND TERMINOLOGY
The jointing system is an extremely important part of a space frame design. The joints for the space frame are more important than the
ordinary framing systems because more members are connected to a single joint
Also, the members are located in a three dimensional space, and hence the force transfer mechanism is more complex
The type of jointing depends primarily on the connecting technique, whether it is bolting, welding, or applying special mechanical
connectors. It is also affected by the shape of the members.
This usually involves a different connecting technique depending on whether the members are circular or square hollow or rolled steel
sections.
Requirements considered for designing the jointing systems :-The joints must be strong and stiff, simple structurally and mechanically, and
easy to fabricate without recourse to more advanced technology and joints of space frames must be designed to allow for easy and
effective maintenance
All connectors can be divided into two main categories: the purpose-made joint and the proprietary joint used in the industrialized system
of construction
Purpose-made joints-usually used for long span structures where the application of standard proprietary joints is limited.
Example -cruciform gusset plate for connecting rolled steel sections.
All the connection techniques can be divided into three main groups: (1) with a node
(2) without a node, and (3) with prefabricated units.

TERMINOLOGIES
Aspect ratio: Ratio of longer span to shorter span of a rectangular space frame.
Braced (barrel) vault: A space frame composed of member elements arranged on a
cylindrical surface.
Braced dome: A space frame composed of member elements arranged on a spherical surface.
Depth: Distance between the top and bottom layer of a double layer space frame.
Double layer grids: A space frame consisting of two planar networks of members forming the top and bottom layers parallel to each other
and interconnected by vertical and inclined members.
Geodesic dome: A braced dome in which the elements forming the network are lying on the great circle of a sphere.
Lamella: A unit used to form diamond shaped grids, the size being twice the length of the side of the diamond.
Latticed grids: Double layer grids consisting of intersecting vertical latticed trusses to form regular grids.
Latticed shell: A space frame consisting of curved networks of members built either in single or double layers.
Latticed structure: Astructuralsystemintheformofanetworkofelementswhoseload-carrying mechanism is three-dimensional in nature.
Local buckling: A snap-through buckling that takes place at one point.
Module: Distance between two joints in the layer of grid.
Space frame: A structural system in the form of a flat or curved surface assembled of linear elements so arranged that forces are transferred
in a three-dimensional manner.
Space grids: Double layer grids consisting of a combination of square or triangular pyramids to form offset or differential grids.
Space truss: A three-dimensional structure assembled of linear elements and assumed as hinged joints in structural analysis.
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Steel Trusses

Arunima G
Prabhnoor S
Raunak R
Saurabh K
Sudhanshu M
Tanvi G
Steel Trusses
Introduction
Steel trusses were taken up as against wooden trusses because the scarcity of quality timber was increasing
in many areas.
Steel is also a superior building construction material when compared to wood. Unlike timber, it is a
homogenous and isotropic material, i.e. it has same characteristics in all directions.
Another major advantage steel provides in roof trusses is that it is much lighter and often more economical in
large roof systems.

Tension
Steel Trusses
Roof truss design
The following are the conditions that influence the design of a roof truss:

1. Loads:
Roof trusses are especially adapted to such buildings where they support the roof and still afford a clear space without the use of
intermediate columns. They support loads of various kinds, such as the dead load, due to the weight of material used in constructing
and covering the roof, the wind load, the snow load, and frequently the weight of plastered ceilings, as well as loads from
attic floors and from suspended platforms and galleries. In laying out the stress diagrams, all these loads are considered, and
both members and details are then proportioned to withstand the various stresses produced. Purlins, that rest on and connect the
trusses at their panel points, or points at which the main rafter and the web members intersect. These purlins support the rafters of
the roof, on which the wood sheathing and roofing material are placed. In iron and steel construction I beams and Z bars are
generally employed. Great care should be taken to avoid, as far as possible, the accidental stresses to which trusses are so often
subjected during erection, and which can scarcely be calculated.

2. Slope of Roof:
The character of the roofing material must be considered in determining the direction of the upper chord.
For instance, when shingles are used, the pitch should not be less than 1 of rise to 2 of run, while with slates if the pitch is less
than 1 to 3, the wind is liable to blow the rain under the slate, thereby causing leaks. A slope of 1 to 2, however, is preferable for slate,
although, when occasion requires, the minimum pitch of 1 to 3 may be employed. Corrugated iron is liable to leak if laid with a
pitch of less than 1 to 3, while in a gravel and tar roof, if the slope is greater than 1 to 4, the heated tar is apt to run down
and collect at the lower portion of the roof, leaving the upper part exposed and unprotected, and rain falling on such a roof flows
off so quickly that the pebbles are washed out of the roofing.
Flat clay tile set in asphalt may be used on flat roofs, but clay and metal tile simulating corrugated or Spanish tile are usually
laid with a pitch somewhat greater than 1 to 2.
Steel Trusses
Roof truss design
3. Distance between Trusses:
The fact that the economy of the design is so largely dependent on the spacing of the trusses, makes it necessary that an
effort be made to ascertain the distance that may most economically exist between them. This is especially the case when the
building over which they are to be placed is of such a character that the spacing of the trusses governs, or, at least, affects the
exterior design. Often, too, the engineer is restricted by the fact that the size of the lot must be considered when determining the size
of the building, and hence, the distance between the trusses is influenced to a certain degree, particularly when architectural effect is
desired.
4. Material used:
The general design of a truss is influenced by the material employed in its construction, and the choice of material is influenced by
its cost and availability, as well as by the span of the truss and the loadsthat come on it. When the span exceeds 80 feet, and the loads
are comparatively heavy, steel is usually the best material to use; but if steel is unavailable, timber may be used for trusses having
spans as great as 150 feet. When timber trusses have as great a span as this, they are usually arched, and built in pairs. While steel may
be used for the construction of trusses of all spans,great and small, the designer is frequently compelled to use timber because the
cost of the work is limited.

5. After the general dimensions of the roof truss have been determined, if economy is to be considered, the cost must be
investigated. Should the conditions admit a choice of several designs, it is often desirable to estimate the cost of each, and
adopt the one whose construction costs the least. In designing trusses it is generally cheaper to use stock sizes of timber or steel
shapes, for by so doing, even though the members are of a larger size than actually required, the work is usually facilitated to such
an extent that the time required in its performance is materially reduced, which is frequently a factor of the utmost importance.
Steel Trusses
System options
Steel sections are available in many different extrusion types and systems, the following may be used for steel roof trusses:

Angle and flat bar truss:

Small angle bars may be welded directly onto each other forming very
light trusses up to about 12 m span.
The length of the compression members must be reduced as much as
possible to avoid buckling. This results in trusses with a large numberof
diagonals and connections.
Examples: Fink or Polonceau Truss.

Steel tube truss:

Steel tubes are readily available throughout the world and at reasonable
prices, since they are also used for steel pipes and piping systems.
The jointing of the round surfaces is difficult; butt and fillet welding of
properly cut and shaped tubes is possible but slow and expensive.
When using tubes, the number of connections per truss should be
reduced as much as possible.
Steel Trusses
System options

Rolled sections truss:

Rolled sections other than angle bars used in truss designs are the
channeland universal beams.
Half-section universal beams are particularly useful in truss design but are
not readily available.
Used in trusses of spans larger than 12 m.

Rectangular hollow section truss:

RHS provide a particularly neat appearance of steel trusses.


Welded connections are common thanks to the regular shapes of the
RHS.
RHS are particularly expensive and are not readily available in many
countries.
JOINING DETAILS
TYPICALLY, THE JOINT CONNECTIONS ARE FORMED BY BOLTING OR WELDING THE END MEMBERS
TOGETHER TO A COMMON PLATE, CALLED A GUSSET PLATE.

PINNED/BOLTED CONNECTIONS

Generally in steelwork construction, bolted site splices are preferred to welded splices for economy and
speed of erection.
CHORDS The outer members of a truss that defi ne the envelope or OVERHANG The extension of the top chord beyond the heel joint.
shape. OVERALL HEIGHT - - A vertical measurement taken at the midpoint
TOP CHORD An inclined or horizontal member that establishes the of a truss from the bottom of the Bottom Chord to the peak.
upper edge of a truss. This member is subjected to compressive and PANEL The chord segment between two adjacent joints.
bending stresses. PANEL POINT The point of intersection of a chord with the web or
BOTTOM CHORD The horizontal (and inclined, ie. scissor trusses) webs.
member defining the lower edge of a truss, carrying ceiling loads PANEL LENGTH - The horizontal distance between the centerlines of
where applicable. This member is subject to tensile and bending two consecutive panel points along the top or bottom chord.
stresses. (On a simply supported, non-cantilevered truss). PEAK Highest point on a truss where the sloped top chords meet.
CLEAR SPAN The horizontal distance between inside faces or SLOPE (PITCH) The units of horizontal run, in one unit of vertical rise
supports. for inclined members. (Usually expressed as 3:12, 5:12, etc.)
HEEL The joint in a pitched truss where top and bottom chords meet. SPLICE POINT The location where the chord member is spliced to
HEEL HEIGHT - The "thickness" of a truss at the end of the Bottom form one continuous member. It may occur at a panel point but is
Chord. Measured from the bottom of the Bottom Chord (or top of top more often placed at 1/4 panel length away from the joint.
plate) to the top of the Top Chord (underside of sheathing) at the end WEBS Members that join the top and bottom chords to form the
of the truss. triangular patterns that give truss action. The members are subject
JOINT The point of intersection of a chord with the web or webs, or only to axial compression or tension forces (no bending)
an attachment of pieces of lumber (eg. splice) WEDGE - THE TRIANGULAR PIECE OF LUMBER INSERTED BETWEEN
LATERAL BRACE A permanent member connected to a web or chord THE TOP AND BOTTOM CHORDS, USUALLY TO ALLOW THE TRUSS TO
member at right angle to the truss to restrain the member against a CANTILEVER.
buckling failure, or the truss against overturning.
Metal Roof Truss Advantages and Disadvantages of Metal Roof Truss Structures.

Metal roof trusses, just like wood trusses, have their advantages and disadvantages. Some builders prefer to the metal roof
truss because the building of a structure is all about precision and metal has a more precise measurement than wood.
Safety is also an issue when deciding to use a metal roof truss or a wood truss system, building codes and other procedures
may require certain trusses.

Advantages of Metal Roof Truss Structures

Even though they are considered to be more expensive, metal roof trusses can span further than wood.
Metal roof trusses can be manufactured to exact standards.
They are much more lightweight and this allows for larger shipments. This reduces the time it takes to get to the project
site.
Metal roof trusses are fire resistant.
They are compatible with almost all types of roofing systems.
No insect infestations can occur.
Chemical treatments are not necessary to maintain the trusses.
Metal roof trusses are recyclable and therefore environmentally friendly.

Disadvantages of Metal Roof Truss Structures

Skilled labor is required to install metal roof trusses.


They are not energy efficient since they allow more heat to escape from the structure.
Metal roof trusses allow sound to be more easily transmitted.
Temperature fluctuations allow them to move more.
When the metal is cut, drilled, scratched or welded, rust can become a problem.
The workers have a higher risk of electrocution when installing the metal roof trusses.
Wires that are on the trusses can rub over time creating a hazard to anyone who happens to touch the metal trusses.
Steel Trusses
Truss forms

7. King post truss:


It is the simplest form of roof truss, a triangular frame consisting
of two equal rafter members connected by a tie-beam.
The tie beam becomes necessary when the outward thrust of the rafters
is too great for the resistance of the walls.
In a king post truss the bending moment on the tension member, dues to
its own weight and load of the ceiling, increases as the span of the truss
increases. The section required to resist both the tensile and transverse
bending stresses would necessarily be large; hence, to reduce the size of
this member a suspension rod is introduced.
The king post is in tension, usually supporting the tie beam as a truss
Simple representation of a King post truss
but the crown post is supported by the tie beam and is in compression. The
crown post rises to a crown plate immediately below and supporting collar
beams, it does not rise to the apex like a king post.
It is limited to a span of 24 feet.

Representation of a King post truss showing jointing


Steel Trusses
Truss forms
Steel roof trusses are available in many different forms and systems, the following may be used for steel roof trusses:

1. Fink truss:

The Fink truss offers greater economy in terms of


steel weight for
short-span high-pitched roofs as the members are
subdivided into shorter elements.
There are many ways of arranging and
subdividing the chords and internal members.
This type of truss is commonly used to construct 1/3 1/3 1/3
roofs in houses. when made of steel it is more
economical for long spans than either the howe or
the pratt.
Most types of roofing use a W pattern truss.
USING SIMILAR TRIANGLES, THE LENGTH (X) OF THE TOP CHORD IS DETERMINED. X/42 = 13.89/12
X = (42 X 13.89) 12 = 48.615 OR 4 . TRUSSES ARE BUILT ON A FLAT SURFACE AND THE PIECES
ARE CUT TO SUIT THE LAYOUT MARKS.

USES :
FINK TRUSSES ARE USES FOR SHORT SPAN STRUCTURES
MAXIMUM 9.
TRUSSES ARE USED FOR PITCHED ROOF IN HOMES.

DISADVANTAGE :

FINK TRUSSES ARE NOT USES FOR LONG SPAN (USE FOR ONLY
SMALL SPAN)
Steel Trusses
Truss forms

2. Queen post truss (Fan Truss): Principal Rafter

It is useful as a rectangular space is desired in the center of the room ,

an attic or small hall. Queen Post

If the span length is in between 8 to 12 meter then queen post trusses


are used.
Two vertical posts are provided in 2 sides at a distance which are
termed as queen posts.
Straining beam and straining seal is used to keep the queen posts in exact
position.
Top ends of two main rafters are joined with thequeen posts heads. It
Fan truss
can be used in longer spans when it is cross-braced in the center.
3. Double Fan

The fan truss has three or four members fanning out from a common
point at the bottom of the truss.
The double fan has two common points where members fan out. Double-Fan truss
4. Cambered Fink
With Fink or Fan trusses having an inclination for the rafter not exceeding 30 degrees it is
more economical to employ a horizontal chord or tie since it obviates bending of the
laterals.
Raising the bottom chord, also materially increases the strains in the truss members,
hence it increases the cost.
A truss whose bottom chord has a rise of two or three feet, presents a better appearance,
however, than one with a horizontal chord, and for steep roofs, it will generally be fully as
economical to raise the bottom chord because of the shortening of the members.

Trusses with raised ties are designated as Cambered."


Steel Trusses
Truss forms
6. Howe truss:
The method of increasingthe number of triangles, as shown ,
may go on indefinitely and the naturaloutcome is the howe truss. This
truss maybe extended to very large spans by increasingthe number of
panels, but it is not suitable for steep roofs, because as the span
increases,the length of the struts towardthe centre becomes so great as
to requiretimberof large size. For long trusses the usual rise is one-
seventh of the span. With long spans, it is customaryto reduce the shear
at the heel of the truss by placing the compression member nearest the
wall more nearly vertica
l.
The Howe Truss was and sometimes even now is used in steel bridges.
It's impressive strength over long spans contributedto its overwhelming
popularityas a railroadbridge.

The design of Howe truss is the oppositeto that of Pratt truss


in whichthe diagonal members are slanted in the direction
opposite to that of Pratt truss (i.e. slantingaway from the middle
of bridge span) and as such compressive forces are generated in diagonal
members. Hence, it is not economical to use steel members to handle
compressive force.

Simple representation of a Howe truss Representation of a Howe truss showing jointing


Steel Trusses
Truss forms

8. Pratt truss:
Pratt its similarity to the Howe truss, and the points of
difference readily noted. In the Pratt truss, the compression members of
the web of the frame, or the struts a, a are vertical, while the tension
rods b, b are oblique. In the Howe, a reversed condition exists, for the
struts are obliqueand the tension members vertical.
The Pratt offers rather a better appearance than the Howe from the fact
that the oblique members, which usually extend at different angles, are
round bars that are hardly noticeable, but in the Howe they are made of
timbers, which are frequently unnecessarily heavy and far from pleasing
in appearance, while the vertical timber struts used in the Pratt arc
Simple representation of a Pratt truss
entirely unobjectionable.
The howe truss, however, has the advantage that the connections at
c, d, and e are more conveniently made. The design uses vertical Sway bracing Lateral (wind) bracing
members for compression and horizontal members to respond to
Portal strut Struts
tension.
and bracing

Deck

Floor beams Stringers

Representation of a Pratttruss showing jointing


Steel Trusses
Truss forms

9. Flat Warren truss:


It is a typeof Parallel Chord truss.
Warren truss contains a series of isosceles triangles or equilateral
triangles. To increase the span length of the truss bridge, verticals
are added for Warren Truss.
The unique design of a Warren truss structure ensures that no strut,
beam or tie bends or withstands torsional straining forces but is only
subject to tension or compression. The loads on the diagonals alternate
between tension and compression, whereas the elements near the
center are required to support both compression as well as tension in
response to live loads. The use of the Warren truss design is common Simple representation of a Flat warren truss
in prefabricated modular bridges wherein all the girders are of equal
length. Warren truss is a notch better than Neville truss, which has
isosceles triangles filling up the entire length of a bridge design.
Warren Truss Advantages
- There is less material required for the construction of a Warren
truss bridge.
- There is less blockage of view.
- The constituents of a Warren truss bridgecan be assembledpiece wise.

Representation of a Pratttruss showing jointing


WARREN TRUSS ADVANTAGES
- THERE IS LESS MATERIAL REQUIRED FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A WARREN TRUSS BRIDGE.
- THERE IS LESS BLOCKAGE OF VIEW.
- THE CONSTITUENTS OF A WARREN TRUSS BRIDGE CAN BE ASSEMBLED PIECE WISE.

WARREN TRUSS BRIDGE DISADVANTAGES


- THE MAINTENANCE OF THE JOINTS AND FITTINGS OF A WARREN TRUSS BRIDGE COULD BE EXPENSIVE.
- THE CALCULATIONS TO DETERMINE THE LOAD-BEARING CAPACITY OF A WARREN TRUSS BRIDGE CAN BE
HASSLING.
- MANY WARREN TRUSS BRIDGES ARE NOT AESTHETICALLY APPEALING TO THE EYE.
- THERE COULD BE TOO MUCH DEFLECTION FOR LONG SPANS.
NORTH LIGHT TRUSS
North light trusses are traditionally used for
short spans in industrial workshop-type
buildings. They allow maximum benefit to be
gained from natural lighting by the use of
glazing on the steeper pitch which generally
faces north or north-east to reduce solar gain.
On the steeper sloping portion of the truss, it
is typical to have a truss running
perpendicular to the plane of the North Light
truss, to provide large column-free spaces.
The use of north lights to increase natural
daylighting can reduce the operational
carbon emissions of buildings although their
impact should be explored using dynamic
thermal modelling. Although north lights
reduce the requirement for artificial lighting
and can reduce the risk of overheating, by
increasing the volume of the building they can
also increase the demand for space heating.
Further guidance is given in the Target
Zero Warehouse buildings design guide .
SAWTOOTH TRUSS

A truss made with one top chord steeper than the


other, usually to add windows.

A variation of the North light truss is the saw-


tooth truss which is used in multi-bay
buildings. Similar to the North light truss , it is
typical to include a truss of the vertical face
running perpendicular to the plane of the saw-
tooth truss.

SPAN: 5m to 8m
MATERIAL : steel or timber
Saw-tooth roofs may be constructed of heavy timber or steel trusses .
This is generally used in factories where more light is required.

WIDELY USED TO SERVE TWO MAIN


FUNCTIONS:
To carry the roof load
To provide horizontal stability.
EXAMPLES

green house with saw tooth roof truss

WINDOWS

Light fills the space from clerestory windows in


the sawtooth-style roof
ADVANTAGES
The major advantage of installing a saw-tooth roof truss on a structure is the
uniform diffusion of light throughout the space below it.
Saw-tooth roofs prevent the influx of direct sunlight while providing
northern light.
In saw-tooth design, every bay has an angled skylight. Less glare and
unwanted heat also offer better working conditions, increased production
DISADVANTAGES
The complex design and various building materials needed will make the
sawtooth roof much more expensive than other roof types.
Its also a high maintenance roof.
Adding windows, valleys and varying slopes creates a higher chance for
water leaks. For this reason, sawtooth roofs arent advisable in heavy
snowfall areas.

APPLICATIONS
o Lofts
o machine shops
o Warehouses
o factories
o Residences
SHELLS
THEORY OF STRUCTURES

GROUP MEMBERS

ANJALI KOLI
ANOUSHKA SHARMA
KANISHKA SHARMA
LIPIKA AGGARWAL
SHUBHAM GUPTA
TEJASVI KAUR
INTRODUCTION
A shell is a type of structural element which is characterized by its geometry, being a
three-dimensional solid whose thickness is very small when compared with other
dimensions. A shell structure is a thin, curved membrane or slab, usually of reinforced
concrete, that functions both as structure and covering, the structure deriving its
strength and rigidity from the curved shell forms.

Essentially, a shell can be derived from a plate by two means : by initially forming the
middle surface as a singly or doubly curved surface and by applying loads which are co
planar to a plates plane which generate significant stresses. Shell structures
predominantly resist loads on them by direct compression. That is without bending or
flexure.

Since most materials are more effective in compression than in bending, shell
structures result in lesser thickness than flat structures

TYPES:
Single curvature shells, curved on one linear axis, are part of cylindrical or cone in the
form of barrel vaults and conoid shells.

Double curvature shells are either part of a sphere, as a dome, or a hyperboloid of


revolution.
THIN CONCRETE SHELLS

The thin concrete shell structures are a lightweight construction composed of a relatively
thin shell made of reinforced concrete, usually without the use of internal supports giving
an open unobstructed interior. The shells are most commonly domes and flat plates, but
may also take the form of ellipsoids or cylindrical sections, or some combination thereof.
Most concrete shell structures are commercial and sports buildings or storage facilities.

There are two important factors in the development of the thin concrete shell
structures:

The first factor is the shape which was developed along the history of these
constructions. Some shapes were resistant and can be erected easily. However, the
designers incessant desire for more ambitious structures did not stop and new shapes
were designed.

The second factor to be considered in the thin concrete shell structures is the thickness,
which is usually less than 10 centimeters. For example, the thickness of the Hayden
planetarium was 7.6 centimeters.
Shells belong to the family of arches, vaulted halls and domes. We can understand that a
vault is a shell with one singly curved surface and a dome is a shell with doubly curved
surfaces.

A saddle shell has also doubly curved surfaces, but with a difference. If we cut a dome in
two directions at right angles to one another, both cuts are convex curves. If we cut a
saddle shell in the same way, one curve is convex and the other is concave.

Examples ;
Hyperbolic paraboloids and hyperboloids

Shells are generally made out of reinforced concrete : from 40m (130 ft) to 73 m in
span. However, people have materialize the form of shells with space frames, lattices
and membranes, allowing larger spans (up to 200 meters.)
HISTORY

The Roman Pantheon, as it stands today in the centre of the city of Rome, really is a
remarkable and imposing structure. The Pantheon is a masterpiece of ancient shell
construction and has withstood for almost two-thousand years. Today, the span of 43 m still
impresses the engineering profession. The Pantheon, built in the early 2nd century A.C.,
approximately 125, is the largest unreinforced dome in the history.
MEMBRANE BEHAVIOUR
The membrane behaviour of shell structures refers to the general state of stress in a shell element that consists
of in-plane normal and shear stress resultants which transfer loads to the supports. In thin shells, the
component of stress normal to the shell surface is negligible in comparison to the other internal stress
components and therefore neglected in the classical thin shell theories. The initial curvature of the shell
surface enables the shell to carry even load perpendicular to the surface by in-plane stresses only.
The carrying of load only by in-plane extensional stresses is closely related to the way in which membranes
carry their load. Because the flexural rigidity is much smaller than the extensional rigidity, a membrane under
external load mainly produces in-plane stresses. In case of shells, the external load also causes stretching or
contraction of the shell as a membrane, without producing significant bending or local curvature changes.
Hence, there is referred to the membrane behaviour of shells, described by the membrane theory.
Carrying the load by in-plane membranes stresses is far more efficient than the mechanism of bending which is
often seen by other structural elements such as beams. Consequently, it is possible to construct very thin shell
structures. Thin shell structures are unable to resist significant bending moments and, therefore, their design
must allow and aim for a predominant membrane state. Bending stresses eventually arise when the
membrane stress field is insufficient to satisfy specific equilibrium or deformation requirements.
Material Effects on Shell Behaviour

Reinforced concrete shells have complicated nonlinear material behaviour with strong
influence on the structural behaviour. Significant tensile stresses in the shell will cause
cracking and with that weakening of the shell cross-section.

Micro-cracking at the surface is caused by the evaporation of water. Due to the high
amount of surface exposed the micro-cracking in the shell surface may exceed the
allowable value.

Furthermore, creep of concrete will cause flattening of the shell surface, resulting in
less curvature and possible bending stresses to occur. Additionally, shrinkage may lead
to unwanted residual stresses.
CYLINDRICAL CONICAL SHELL
Cylindrical Shell Conical Shell

Cylindrical Shell is a shell that is Conical Shell is a shell that is a


a structure about an axis structure about an axis non-
parallel to the sides of an parallel to the sides of an
imaginary straight sheet. imaginary straight sheet.
It distributes wind load equally It is a stable structure for
on the structure sides. standing high pressure winds.

They may be of wood, steel, plastic or reinforced concrete.


They may form the roof and containing walls for long span structures.
BARREL VAULTS

The elements of a barrel shell are:


(1) The cylinder,
(2) The frame or ties at the ends, including the
columns, and
(3) The side elements, which may be a cylindrical
element, a folded plate element, columns, or all
combined.
For the shell shown in the sketch, the end frame is
solid and the side element is a vertical beam.
A barrel shell carries load longitudinally as a beam and
transversally as an arch. The arch, however, is
supported by internal shears, and so may be
calculated.

They maybe used as:


(1) Long-span structures
(2) Short-span structures
Cylindrical shell used in the roof are also known as barrel shell or vault
These may be of
multiple
numbers joined
together to
increase
strength
POSSIBLE METHODS OF JOINING CYLINDRICAL CONICAL SHELLS
SANGATH, AHMEDABAD

DELFT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, NETHERLANDS


SPHERICAL DOMES

A dome is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.
There are also a wide variety of forms and specialized terms to describe them. A dome
can rest upon a rotunda or drum, and can be supported by columns or piers that
transition to the dome through squinches or pendentives. A lantern may cover an
oculus and may itself have another dome.

A dome is a rounded vault made of either curved segments or a shell of revolution,


meaning an arch rotated around its central vertical axis.

Domes have a long architectural lineage that extends back into prehistory and they have
been constructed from mud, stone, wood, brick, concrete, metal, glass, and plastic over
the centuries. The symbolism associated with domes includes mortuary, celestial, and
governmental traditions that have likewise developed over time.

The word "cupola" is another word for "dome", and is usually used for a small dome
upon a roof or turret. "Cupola" has also been used to describe the inner side of a dome.
Drums, also called tholobates, are cylindrical or polygonal walls with or without
windows that support a dome. A tambour or lantern is the equivalent structure over a
dome's oculus, supporting a cupola.
BEHAVIOUR
As with arches, the "springing" of a dome is the point from which the dome rises. The
top of a dome is the "crown". The inner side of a dome is called the "intrados" and the
outer side is called the "extrados". The "haunch" is the part of an arch that lies roughly
halfway between the base and the top.

A masonry dome produces thrusts down and outward. They are thought of in terms of
two kinds of forces at right angles from one another.

Meridional forces (like the meridians, or lines of longitude, on a globe) are compressive
only, and increase towards the base, while hoop forces (like the lines of latitude on a
globe) are in compression at the top and tension at the base, with the transition in a
hemispherical dome occurring at an angle of 51.8 degrees from the top.

The thrusts generated by a dome are directly proportional to the weight of its
materials. Grounded hemispherical domes generate significant horizontal thrusts at
their haunches.

Concave from below, they can reflect sound and create echoes. A dome may have a
"whispering gallery" at its base that at certain places transmits distinct sound to other
distant places in the gallery. The half-domes over the apses of Byzantine churches
helped to project the chants of the clergy.
TECHNIQUES & MATERIALS

When the base of the dome does not match the plan of the supporting walls beneath it
(for example, a dome's circular base over a square bay), techniques are employed to
transition between the two. The simplest technique used is diagonal lintels across the
corners of the walls to create an octagonal base.

Another is to use arches to span the corners, which can support more weight. A variety
of these techniques use what are called "squinches". A squinch can be a single arch or a
set of multiple projecting nested arches placed diagonally over an internal corner.
Squinches can take a variety of other forms, as well, including trumpet arches and niche
heads, or half-domes.

The earliest domes were built with mud-brick and then with baked brick and stone.
Domes of wood were allowed for wide spans due to the relatively light and flexible
nature of the material and were the normal method for domed churches by the 7th
century.
Wooden domes were protected from the weather by roofing, such as copper or lead
sheeting. Domes of cut stone were more expensive and never as large, and timber was
used for large spans where brick was unavailable. Brick dome was the favoured choice
for large space monumental coverings until the Industrial Age, due to their convenience
and dependability.
GRID SHELL DOME

A grid shell is a structure which derives its strength from its double curvature but is
constructed of a grid or lattice.
The grid can be made of any material, but is most often wood or steel.

Grid shells were pioneered in the 1896 by Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov in
constructions of exhibition pavilions of the All-Russia industrial and art exhibition 1896
in Nizhny Novgorod.
EXAMPLE

Louisiana Superdome, New Orleans


Architect: Curtis and Davis
Engineer: Sverdrup and Parcel
With a 680 ft diameter the Louisiana
Superdome is the largest dome in existence.
Designed for 75,000 spectators, the
multipurpose arena serves many functions
from various sports events to rock concerts
and political conventions.
The patented lamella dome structure features
a peripheral tension ring truss.
A Tension ring
B Radial ribs
C Diagonal struts, parallel to radial ribs
D Hoop rings, combined with diagonal struts,
form a diamond bracing grid
E Roof joists
F Metal deck
G Single-ply water proof membrane
GEODESIC DOME
Walter Bauersfeld built the first geodesic dome in
1922 for a planetarium in Jena, Germany.
Buckminster Fuller developed his geodesic dome
for low-cost housing 1942.
A basic geodesic sphere, referred to as single
frequency, consists of 20 spherical triangles that
form pentagons. Dividing single frequency into
more units forms hexagons.
Frequencies: 1 2 3 4

1 Single frequency dome: 10 triangles forming


pentagons
2 Single frequency dome of 10 spherical triangles
3 Two-frequency sphere
4 Two-frequency hemisphere dome
5 Four-frequency hemisphere dome
6 Football of 10 hexagons, 12 pentagons
EXAMPLE

US pavilion Expo 67 Montreal


Architect: Buckminster Fuller & Shoji Sadao
The 250 feet diameter by 200 feet high dome
roughly presents a three-quarter sphere, while
geodesic domes before 1967 were hemispherical.
The dome consists of steel pipes and 1,900 acrylic
panels. To keep the indoor temperature
acceptable, the design included mobile triangular
panels that would move over the inner surface
following the sun. Although brilliant on paper, this
feature was too advanced for its time and never
worked. Instead valves in the centre of acrylic
panels enabled ventilation.
EXAMPLE

Climatron, Missouri Botanical Gardens, St Louis (1959)


Architect: Murphey & Mackey
Engineer: Paul Londe
The dome of 175 feet diameter and 70 feet height permits tall palm trees to tower
above tropical streams, waterfalls and 1,200 species of exotic trees and plants.
Temperature ranges 64 to 74 degrees and average humidity is 85 percent.
EXAMPLE
Spruce Goose dome, Long Beach, USA
Architect: R. Duell and Associates
Engineer/builder: Temcor
This aluminium dome for Hughs Spruce
Goose(at 415 ft diameter among the largest
geodesic domes). The dome of 15 geodesic
frequencies weighs < 3 psf.
The design had to provide a temporary
opening for the plane of 320 ft wing-span to
pass through.
A Aluminium cover plate with silicone seal
B Aluminium gusset plates, bolted to struts
C Aluminium batten secure silicone gaskets
D Triangular aluminium panels
E Wide-flange aluminium struts
F Stainless steel bolts
EXAMPLE

HPR dome, Walla Walla, USA


Architect: Environmental Concern, Inc.
Engineer/builder: Temcor
Aluminum dome of 206 diameter and 42 ft depth
(span/depth ratio 4.9), weighs less than 3 psf.
HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID

Formed by sweeping a convex parabola along a


concave parabola or by sweeping a straight line over a
straight path at one end and another straight path not
parallel to the first.

Structural behaviours
Depending on the shape of the shell relative to the
curvature, theere will be different stresses.
Shell roofs, have compression stresses following the
convex curvature and the tension stresses following
concave curvate.
PROPERTIES
Hyperboloid structures are superior in stability towards
outside forces compared to "straight" buildings, but have
shapes often creating large amounts of unusable volume
(low space efficiency) and therefore are more commonly
used in purpose-driven structures, such as water towers
(to support a large mass), cooling towers, and aesthetic
features.

Water tank hyperbolical concrete


shell structure
MIAMI MARINE STADIUM

Preserving the Miami Marine Stadium is a


cast-in-place concrete 100-meter long
building with an eight-section hyperbolic
paraboloid roof
It is 33-meter wide with a cantilever of 20
meter over the stands; one third of the
structure is built on piers into the water.
Used for motorboat racing and various
types of concerts on a floating stage.
RCC & STEEL STRUCTURE
CONCRETE SHELL
The material most suited for construction of shell structure is CONCRETE because it is
a highly plastic material when first mixed with water that can take up any shape on
centering or inside formwork.

Small sections or reinforcement bars can readily be bent to follow the curvature or
shells.

Once cement has set and the concrete has hardened the R.C.C membrane or slab acts
a strong, rigid shell which serves as both structure and covering to the building.
TYPES AND FORMS

Folded plates
Domes

Barrel shells Translation shell


CENTERING OF SHELL

Centering is the term used to describe the


necessary temporary support on which the
curved R.C.C. Shell structure is cast.

The centering of a barrel vault which is a


part of a cylinder with same curvature along
its length , is less complex.

The centering of concoid, dome and


hyperboloid of revolution is more complex
due to additional labour and wasteful
cutting of materials to form support for
shapes that are not of uniform linear
curvature.
CONCRETE SHELL CONSTRUCTION

Shells may be cast in place, or pre-cast off site and


moved into place and assembled. The strongest
form of shell is the monolithic shell, which is cast as
a single unit.

Geodesic domes may be constructed from concrete


sections, or may be constructed of a lightweight
foam with a layer of concrete applied over the top.
The advantage of this method is that each section of
the dome is small and easily handled. The layer of
concrete applied to the outside bonds the dome
into a semi-monolithic structure.

Monolithic domes are cast in one piece out of


reinforced concrete and date back to the 1960s. It is
cost-effective and durable structures, especially
suitable for areas prone to natural disasters.
Monolithic domes can be built as homes, office
buildings, or for other purposes.

Monolithic dome in Alaska


Completed in 1963, the University of
Illinois Assembly Hall, located in
Champaign, Illinois was and is the first
ever concrete-domed arena. The design
of the new building, by Max Abramovitz,
called for the construction of one of the
worlds largest edge-supported
structures.

The Seattle Kingdome was the world's


first (and only) concrete-domed multi-
purpose stadium. It was completed in
1976 and demolished in 2000. The
Kingdome was constructed of triangular
segments of reinforced concrete that
were cast in place. Thick ribs provide
additional support.
ADVANTAGES

Concrete shells are naturally strong structures, allowing wide areas to be spanned
without the use of internal supports, giving an open, unobstructed interior.

The use of concrete as a building material reduces both materials cost and a
construction cost, as concrete is relatively inexpensive and easily cast into compound
curves.

The resulting structure may be immensely strong and safe; modern monolithic dome
houses, for example, have resisted hurricanes and fires, and are widely considered to
be strong enough to withstand even F5 tornadoes.

Very light form of construction, to span 30m shell thickness required is 60mm.

Dead load can be reduced economizing foundation and supporting system.

Aesthetically it looks good over other forms of construction.


DISADVANTAGES

Since concrete is porous material, concrete domes often have issues with sealing. If
not treated, rainwater can seep through the roof and leak into the interior of the
building.

On the other hand, the seamless construction of concrete domes prevents air from
escaping, and can lead to buildup of condensation on the inside of the shell. Shingling
or sealants are common solutions to the problem of exterior moisture, and
dehumidifiers or ventilation can address condensation.

Shuttering problem

Greater accuracy in formwork is required

Good labour and supervision is necessary

Rise of roof may be a disadvantage.


The Market Hall in Leipzig, Germany (1929) by Franz Dischinger
Petroleum Coke Bulk Storage - Pittsburg, California
OPAC Consulting Engineers
FOLDED PLATES

Nikhita Khurana
Pulkit Chawla
Tanvi Yadav
Dhruv Khurana
INTRODUCTION

FOLDED PLATES is one of the simplest FOLDED PLATE STRUCTURE


shell structure. SHELL STRUCTURE

They are more adaptable to smaller areas


than curved surfaces which require
multiple use of forms for maximum BAY
economy. WIDTH
OF
BARREL
A folded plate may be formed for about VAULT
the same cost as a horizontal slab and has
much less steel and concrete for the
same spans.

Folded plates are not adapted to as wide


bay spacings as barrel vaults. BAY WIDTH OF
FOLDED PLATES
BEHAVIOUR
Each plate is assumed to act as a beam in its own
plane, this assumption is justified when the ratio of
the span "length of the plate to its height width is
large enough. But when this ratio is small, the plate
behaves as a deep beam.

When the folded plate is that with simple joint ,


which mean that no more than 2 elements are
connected to the joint.

But when more than 2 elements are connected to


the joint, it can be named as multiple joint. The
width of any plate should not be larger than 0.25 its
length to be considered to act as beam.

RIDGE
Actions of Folded plate due to loads :
1) SLAB ACTION : loads are transmitted to ridges by
the bending of plates normal to their planes.
2) BEAM ACTION : Loads are transmitted through
plates in their planes to diaphragms.
COMPONENTS
The principle components in a folded plate structure are illustrated in the sketch below. They
consist of,
1) the inclined plates,
2) edge plates which must be used to stiffen the wide plates,
3) stiffeners to carry the loads to the supports and to hold the plates in line, and
4) columns to support the structure in the air.

A strip across a folded plate is called a slab element because the plate is designed as a slab in that
direction.
The span of the structure is the greater distance between columns and the bay width is the distance
between similar structural units.
If several units were placed side by side, the edge plates should be omitted except for the first and last
plate.
If the edge plate is not omitted on inside edges, the form should be called a two segment folded plate
with a common edge plate.
The structure may have a simple span or multiple spans of varying length, or the folded plate may
cantilever from the supports without a stiffener at the end.
Inclined plates

Edge plates

Span
Stiffeners

Columns

TAPERED FOLDED PLATES


THE PRINCIPLE OF FOLDING

STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR OF FOLDING


The inner load transfer of a folding structure happens through the twisted plane, either through the
structural condition of the plate (load perpendicular to the centre plane) or through the structural
condition of the slab (load parallel to the plane).

At first, the external forces are transferred due to the structural condition of the plate to the
shorter edge of one folding element.

There, the reaction as an axial force is divided between the adjacent elements which results in a
strain of the structural condition of the slabs. This leads to the transmission of forces to the bearing.
FORMS OF FOLDED PLATE STRUCTURES
By using folded structures different spatial
forms can be made.

The straight elements forming a folded


construction can be of various shapes:
rectangular, trapezoidal or triangular.
By combining these elements we get
different forms resulting in a variety of shapes
and remarkable architectural expression.

Folded structures in the plane are the


structures in which all the highest points of
the elements and all the elements of the
lowest points of the folded structure belong
to two parallel planes.

Frame folded structures represent


constructional set in which the elements of
each segment of the folds mutually occupy
a frame spatial form. This type of folded
structure is spatial organization of two or
more folds in the plane.

Spatial folded structures are the type of a


structure in which a spatial constructive set is
formed by combining mutually the elements
of a folded structure.
FORMS OF FOLDED PLATE STRUCTURES
The shape of folded structures affects the transmission of load and direction of relying of folded
structures. Based on these parameters, folded plate systems are further classified into :
1. linear folded plate structure
2. radial folded plate structure
3. spatial folded plate structure

LINEAR FOLDED
PLATE STRUCTURE

RADIAL FOLDED
PLATE STRUCTURE

EXAMPLE OF A COMBINED FOLDED


STRUCTURE FORMED BY A CYLINDRICAL
SPATIAL FOLDED
FOLDED STRUCTURE AND HALF OF DOME
PLATE STRUCTURE
STRUCTURE

Combined folded constructions are carried out over the complex geometric basis, formed by the
combination of simple geometric figures, rectangles and semicircles on one side or both sides.

This type of folded structure can be derived in the plane or as a frame (cylindrical) structure, and
represents a combination of folded structure above the rectangular base and of the radial
construction.
TYPES OF FOLDED PLATE STRUCTURES
LONGITUDINAL/ PRISMATIC FOLDING
Longitudinal folding is characterized through uninterrupted
and linked folding edges where parallel and skew up folds and
down folds alternate.

Single-layered longitudinal folding corresponds in their load


bearing structure to a linear load bearing system whereas a
double-layered folding with different directions of their folds
can create the structural condition of the plate.
SKETCH LONGITUDINAL FOLDING

SPOT OR FACET FOLDING


Also called spot or facet folding, requires that several folds
intersect like a bunch in one single spot. This results in pyramidal
folds with crystalline or facet-like planes.

Facet folding can either be based on a triangular shape or on


a quadrangular shape.

A single or double-layered facet folding resembles the load


bearing structure of a plate and can be compared to space
frameworks

SKETCH PYRAMIDAL FOLDING


Reinforced Cement Concrete
Steel Plate
Mixture of Concrete and lightweight terracotta tiles
Polymer mixture of concrete and fibreglass
Scored laminated timber sheets

Prestressed concrete folded plates


Extremely light with concrete thickness of 200mm
An existing hangar at Santa Cruz Airport, Mumbai
(Bombay), India, has been extended to accommodate
additional aircraft and engineering facilities.
Contains 8 folds
62 m long cantilever of the new folded-plate roof
Measure152 x 60 m in plan, and is symmetrically
divided by a longitudinal expansion joint
The 152 m length consists of two cantilevered roofs,
each 62.3 m long, and a central roof 27.4 m long over
the maintenance building.
Highest point of roof is 32.3m above ground
The transverse section of the folded plate consists of
eight 7.6 m wide modules, each having a corrugated
plate arrangement, with horizontal top and bottom
plates inclined at 45 between the webs.
EXAMPLE: THE CHURCH OF NOTRE DAME, THE
CITY OF ROYAN
Walls can be designed and carried out as folded
structures, since by folding we get a solid
construction that can accept large vertical and
horizontal impacts, which enables exceptional
height of the wall fabric.
This type of folded structures, due to their
geometry, provides an economical solution and
the rational use of material when compared to
the height of the building.
Walls made as folded structures can be
materialized in reinforced concrete.
Facility constructed with this structure is the
church of Notre Dame, the city of Royan, France,
1958, with the walls built in the form of folded in
"V" shape of reinforced concrete.
Viable galleries, which have a constructive role
of the diaphragm, are built on them
USES
Storage buildings
Swimming pools
Gyms
Airports etc.
ADVANTAGES
since they are of concrete, such roofs have inherent resistance to fire, deterioration and to
atmospheric corrosion.
They allow large spans to be achieved in structural concrete. This allows flexibility of planning and
mobility beneath.
Where ground conditions require expensive piled foundations the reduced number of supporting
columns can be an economic advantage.
The plates are required to be thicker than the shells, and there are more firms who will tackle
constructing them without excessive prices, increasing competition and sometimes making the
cost more competitive than for cylindrical shells.
DISADVANTAGES
Skilled labor is required in the construction of curved shuttering.
Since concrete is porous material, concrete domes often have issues with sealing. If not treated,
rainwater can seep through the roof and leak into the interior of the building
Labor skilled in curved shuttering are very expensive
Skilled labor for folded plates are hard to find
APPLICATION
Folded structures have found the application in
architectural buildings and engineering structures.

Based on the position in the architectural structure, this


type of construction can be divided into: roof, floor and
wall folded constructions.

The largest number of examples of folded structures are


roof structures.

The need for acquiring the larger range and more cost
effective structure led to the emergence of this type of
structure.

The largest application of folded structures is in the


formation of trapezoidal sheet.

This type of folded structure can absorb and receive the


load without introducing additional structure.

Application of trapezoidal sheet, except as roofing, is in


making the thermal insulation of roof and wall sandwich
panels.
HIGH RISE
BUILDINGS

PRESENTED BY :

KARTIK KUMAR
PAYAL GUPTA
PRACHI ARORA
MEGHA KASHYAP
NEETU SHARMA
ARJUN
MOHIT GUPTA
INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION
High rise is defined differently by different bodies.

Emporis standards- The International Conference on Fire


A multi-story structure between 35- Safety
100 meters tall, or a building of "any structure where the height can
unknown height from 12-39 floors is have a serious impact on evacuation
termed as high rise.

Building code of Hyderabad,India- U.S., the National Fire Protection


Association
A high-rise building is one with four A high-rise as being higher than 75 feet (23
floors or more, or one 15 meters or meters), or about 7 stories
more in height.
PLANNING ASPECTS OF HIGH RISE BUILDINGS :
Area Shall not be less than 1000 sq.m

Setbacks of 12 m on either sides of High Rise Buildings shall be provided.

Parking floor height shall not be more than 4.2 m.

Minimum 2 Nos. of staircases shall be proposed for High Rise Buildings.

The first refuge floor to be at 24 m and thereafter the refuge floor shall
be provided at interval of 15 m.

If building height is more than 70 m., break tank of 30,000 Liters (Thirty
Thousand Liters) minimum capacity shall be provided.

Projections beyond the building line in the form of flowerbed, niche,


deck etc including the balcony, terrace shall not exceed 1.2 m.
PRINCIPLES & DESIGN STANDARDS
RELATED TO USE CONSTRUCTION
SYSTEMS ARE AS :

The building must achieve all building laws related to internal spacing.
The Building must apply modern technological systems.
It must constructed using suitable structure systems.
Application of all civil defense requirements related to safety and fire fighting.
Provision of all services (car parking ,fire fighting water tanks ,water supply tanks, etc).
Fire escape stairs should consist of 2 flights each flight must not be less than 90 cm wide.
Fire escape staircase must connect to outside of the building.
Ease of access of all floors to civil defense units.
The building must be constructed out of fire resistant materials (or materials with a high rate of fire
resistance).
The main stair case flight must not be less than 135 cm wide.
The main staircase & elevators should be present in every main core of the building.
Provision of sufficient parking slots to the number of the building users.
Basement floors with all the suitable systems to the required use.
ECO-FRIENDLY HIGH RISE BUILDINGS
DESIGN STANDARDS:
Environmental standards must be applied when designing high rise
buildings. As most of the countries nowadays seek to achieve sustainable
buildings to maintain the efficiency of the building through applying the
following:
Use of renewable energies.
Use of eco-friendly construction materials.
Water rationalization inside the high rise building.
Air Quality inside the high rise building.
Proper lighting inside of the building.
Color selection philosophy.
Acoustic design.
Building security issues and its design.
Environmentally compatible architectural style.
MATERIALS USED IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS :

Reinforced Concrete

Light Weight Concrete Brickwork Glass being used as Walling in Kohinoor Square,Dadar
Plastic used as pipe material for waste and rainwater

Steel used for reinforcement

Mineral Wool used as Insulating Material


ANALYSIS & DESIGN OF HIGH RISE BUILDINGS :
High Rise Buildings generally have following type of structural loads
& thus analysis of the same is an important aspect determining the
designing parameters of the Buildings.

Gravity loads Snow


Dead loads Load
Live loads
Snow loads
Wind Dead &
Lateral loads Load Live Load
Wind loads
Seismic loads

Special load cases


Impact loads
Blast loads
Earth Quake
Load
Structural Loads
Gravity loads
Dead loads
Live loads
Snow loads

Lateral loads
Wind loads
Seismic loads

Special load cases


Impact loads
Blast loads

Seismic Loads Wind Loads


Shear wall system
A type of rigid frame construction.
The shear wall is in steel or concrete to provide greater lateral
rigidity. It is a wall where the entire material of the wall is employed
in the resistance of both horizontal and vertical loads.
Is composed of braced panels (or shear panels) to counter the
effects of lateral load acting on a structure. Wind & earthquake loads
are the most common among the loads.
For skyscrapers, as the size of the structure increases, so
does the size of the supporting wall. Shear walls tend to be used only
in conjunction with other support systems.
Dewitt chestnut
FRAMED-TUBE STRUCTURES]
The lateral resistant of the framed-tube structures is provided by
very
stiff moment-resistant frames that form a tube around the
perimeter
of the building.

The basic inefficiency of the frame system for reinforced concrete


buildings of more than 15 stories resulted in member proportions
of prohibitive size and structural material cost premium, and thus
such system were economically not viable.

The frames consist of 6-12 ft (2-4m) between centers, joined by deep


spandrel girders.

Gravity loading is shared between the tube and interior column or


walls.

When lateral loading acts, the perimeter frame aligned in the


direction of loading acts as the webs of the massive tube of the
cantilever, and those normal to the direction of the loading act as the
flanges.
The tube form was developed originally for building of rectangular
plan, and probably its most efficient use in that shape.
THE TRUSSED TUBE Recently the use of perimeter diagonals thus
the term DIAGRID - for structural effectiveness
The trussed tube system represents a classic
and lattice-like aesthetics has generated renewed
solution for a tube uniquely suited to the
qualities and character of structural steel. interest in architectural and structural designers
of tall buildings.
Interconnect all exterior columns to form a rigid
box, which can resist lateral shears by axial in its
members rather than through flexure.

Introducing a minimum number of diagonals on


each faade and making the diagonal intersect
at the same point at the corner column.

The system is tubular in that the fascia diagonals


not only form a truss in the plane, but also
interact with the trusses on the perpendicular
faces to affect the tubular behavior. This creates
the x form between corner columns on each Introducing a minimum
faade. number of diagonals on
each faade and
Relatively broad column spacing can resulted making the diagonal
intersect at the same point
large clear spaces for windows, a particular
at the corner column
characteristic of steel buildings.
John Hancock
The faade diagonalization serves to equalize Center introduced
the gravity loads of the exterior columns that trussed tube
give a significant impact on the exterior design.
architecture.
BUNDLED TUBE SYSTEM
The concept allows for wider
column spacing in the tubular
walls than would be possible
Sears Tower,
with only the exterior frame Chicago.

tube form.

The spacing which make it Burj Khalifa, Dubai.

possible to place interior


frame lines without seriously
compromising interior space
planning.

The ability to modulate the


cells vertically can create a
powerful vocabulary for a
variety of dynamic shapes
therefore offers great latitude
in architectural planning of at
all building.
TUBE-IN-TUBE SYSTEM
Lumbago Tatung Haji
This variation of the framed tube Building, Kuala Lumpur
consists of an outer frame tube,
the Hull, together
with an internal elevator and
service core.

The Hull and core act jointly in


resisting both gravity and lateral
loading.

The outer framed tube and the


inner core interact horizontally as
the shear and flexural components
of a wall-frame structure, with the
benefit of increased lateral
stiffness.

The structural tube usually adopts


a highly dominant role because of
its much greater structural depth.
Construction materials
Materials used for high rise buildings: concrete, steel, glass, cladding material, high alumina
cement used for roofs & floors. It contains bauxite instead of clay, cement, Portland cement of
lime stone, silica.
Advantages are: CONCRETE:- cellular concrete of clay-gypsum &
Plasticity invention of light weight concrete.
FERRO CONCRETE:-it is layer of fine mesh
Easily availability
saturated with cement.
Easy in casting
GUNITE:- it is also known as shot Crete.
Non corrosive
compressed air to shoot concrete onto (or
Can be cast in situ into) a frame or structure. Shot Crete is
Disadvantages are: frequently used against vertical soil or rock
Cost of form surfaces, as it eliminates the need for
Dead weight formwork.
GLASS:- float glass with double glass is used in tall
Difficulty in pouring
buildings .
Tempered glass is used in tall buildings
instead of plain glass, as that would shatter at
such height.
ANALYSIS OF MULTISTORY FRAME FOR WIND
LOAD WHAT IS WIND?
Wind means the motion of
air in the atmosphere. The
response of structures to
Imperial Towers Mumbai wind depends on the
characteristics of the wind
o Wind is essentially the large scale
Horizontal movement of free air.
o It plays an important role in design of tall
structures because it exerts loads on
Building.
o High Rise Building-A building Having
height more then 15m As per National
Building Code 2005 of India is called
High Rise Building.
WIND ISSUES FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN

o Structural integrity under ultimate loads


o Deflections under service loads
o Building motions and occupant comfort
o Uncertainties in building structural properties
(stiffness, damping)
o Uncertainties in wind loading
o Uncertainties in wind climate The Porsche Design Tower is one of the tallest
Residential Buildings in the USA according to
Forbes
o Codes and standards
o Computational Fluid Dynamics
VARIATION OF WIND VELOCITY WITH HEIGHT

o Near the earths surface, the motion is


opposed, and the wind speed reduced, by
the surface friction.
o At the surface, the wind speed reduces to
zero and then begins to increase with
height, and at some height, known as the
gradient height, the motion may be
considered to be free of the earths frictional
influence and will attain its gradient
velocity.
o Gradient Height 300 m for flat ground& 550
m for very rough terrain
HOW WIND FORCE GOVERNING FOR
TALL STRUCTURE?

WITH increase height of building


Construction cost per unit area
decrease
Increasing lightness in weight per
unit area
More danger against high velocity
of wind force at high level
PRESENTATION OUTLINE

Definition of shear wall

Position

Design provisions

Behavior

Case studies

201
RC STRUCTURAL WALLS

Known as shear walls

Designed to resist lateral forces

Excellent structural system to resist earthquake

Provided throughout the entire height of wall

Practicing from 1960s for medium and high rise


buildings (4 to 35 stories high)

202
ADVANTAGES OF SHEAR WALLS

Provide large strength and stiffness in the direction of


orientation

Significantly reduces lateral sway

Easy construction and implementation

Efficient in terms of construction cost and


effectiveness in minimizing earthquake damage

203
PLACEMENT OF SHEAR WALLS

204
PLACEMENT OF SHEAR WALLS

Located symmetrically to reduce ill effects of twist

Symmetry can be along one or both the directions

Can be located at exterior or interior

More effective when located along exterior perimeter


of building

205
Fig. 2 Reinforced concrete shear wall (Murthy C.V.R. ,2005)
20
6
PLACEMENT OF SHEAR WALLS
Located symmetrically to avoid ill effects of twisting

Symmetry can be along one or both the directions

Can be located at exterior or interior

More effective when located along exterior perimeter of building

6
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Thickness 150 400 mm

Minimum reinforcement 0.25% of gross area in each direction

Diameter shall not exceed 1/10 th thickness of section

Reinforcement provided in two curtains when:

Factored shear stress exceeds or


Wall thickness exceeds 200 mm
0.25 f ck

9
SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF WALLS

Factors governing seismic behavior of shear walls:


Ductility
Stiffness
Soil structure interaction effects
Period of structure

15
SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR CONTD

Ductility
Ratio of displacement at maximum load to that at
yield
Highly desirable property for shear walls
Stiffness

Property of element to resist displacement


More stiffer wall need more force to deflect it

16
SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR CONTD

Soil- structure interaction


Structural damage directly related to depth of
soil overlying the rock and period of vibration of
soil
Understanding relationship between period of
vibrations of soil and structure is important

18
CONCLUSIONS
Shear walls are efficient in resisting earthquakes

More efficient with increased ductility

Soil structure interaction studies are important

ALR ratio has adverse influence on seismic


performance of shear walls

Shear walls with staggered openings are more effective


than walls with regular openings
41