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ENERGY RECOVERY FROM WATER SUPPLY TANK

Faheem Ali
Lecturer, Department of Electrical Engineering
University Of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Abstract-----Efficiency plays an important role while The industries that plays a major role in the
considering any practical system. Generally electrical development of the country requires bulk amount of
means are used to pump water into water supply tanks. At energy. From factories to companies, colleges to
day time the water is allowed to rush through the schools and universities, hospitals to research centers,
distribution pipe and is supplied to the consumers. This
offices to homes it is all about electricity. The
supply is periodic (almost twice a day) and for a time
duration of two hours. In country like Pakistan where we challenge is managing the available fuel,
are faced with energy crises its role can be manipulated, conventional and renewable resources to cope with
and with certain modifications and additions the the demand. Various load forecasting methods have
available potential energy can be utilized to generate been developed in order to know about the future
electrical power as a byproduct in addition to water demands and the predicted development and
supply. This would make the system highly efficient, expansion in the existing energy consuming systems.
economical and we would have energy recovery from the
system. This energy can be either utilized directly or can Conventionally electrical energy is generated using
be stored in batteries for later use. nuclear, natural gas, diesel, or coal as fuel.
Hydroelectric means is another way of electrical
Key Words----Pump storage, photovoltaic (PV), renewable
energy systems (RES), photovoltaic pumping (PVP), solar energy. The problem with nuclear, diesel, natural gas,
pumping, economical photovoltaic pumping, efficient and coal is that they are not environmentally friendly,
pumping, and peak load plants (PLP). have toxic and unhealthy emissions. The modern day
researches are emphasizing on moving towards ways
Introduction: of generation that are environmentally friendly and
have minimum wastes and emissions.
Energy plays a key role in the development and
prosperity of a Nation. Though the development is as An important concern is that the reserves are
a result of multi-disciplinary parameters, generally it constantly decreasing day by day. A day will come
has been observed that well developed countries are that we would be left with no such conventional
always self-sufficient in terms of energy and often resources if we keep on using them without mind or
exports the surplus energy to earn foreign exchange. proper planning. The answer to this question is
Energy is the requirement, starting from an ordinary moving towards alternate energy resources such as
cell operated remote control devices to sewing sun, wind, waves, tides, and pump-hydro structures.
machines, air conditioners, electrical appliances and Such sources are permanent and inexhaustible. The
other heavy machinery. The systems and equipment plus point is that using these types of sources for
that we use in our daily routine life somehow generation would lead to know or minimum
consumes either one or other type energy. Electrical emissions and wastes, the other advantage being re
energy in particular would be my focus in the usability.
remaining parts of the discussion.
Another way is using these available resources
Technical Background: smartly and managing them to perfection. Water can
be used time and again in cycles, to generate
Electrical energy consumption is drastically
electrical power.
increasing with increase in population and growth.
Related Work: cost generation to a flexible resource offering a
number of services has been pointed out by J Snell.
Pump storage plants are used to provide electrical Initially hydro-electric generation was considered to
power in case if it is required to balance the demand be the most economical way of generating electricity
and generation. This can also be used to improve the at a large scale, recently it has multi-disciplinary
reliability of wind power generation. In this paper N. applications. It is used as peaking load, as a
Zhang works out the capacity that would be required renewable energy resource as well as low cost green
for a pump hydro system to work in coordination energy resource. The worth mentioning advantage is
with a wind turbine. Operating and investments costs a storage medium [5].
are compared to obtain optimum capacity for a pump The role of renewable energy sources and its justified
storage system. Other parameters are included and implementation is discussed in this paper by R.
their effect on the capacity is determined in this paper Nagaraj. It is generally believed that in far long
[1]. remote areas independent plant is a more economical
E. Ela elaborates the role of pump storage plats. solution. The fuel transportation charges to such areas
According to him its the most popular electrical are very high and thus make the overall system
energy storage system. Previously these plants were uneconomical. Other growing concerns are over the
used to assist the peak load operation. They used to associated climatic changes and global warming. It is
operate in pump mode at nights to fill the upper therefore advisable to go for independent renewable
reservoirs, while at day time the operation reversed; energy systems, but the main problem is the
they were operated in generator mode to generate reliability. This is because all the renewable energy
electrical energy during downward flow. The role of sources have irregular patterns; they vary from region
pup hydro storage system has changed in recent to region and time to time. The availability of these
years. Earlier being used as storage medium, resources is not always ensured when energy is
nowadays the role is manipulated and it is used to required. Reliability can be considerably improved
assist other plants in power system or is used with using hybrid systems, a system consisting of two or
other renewable energy systems to generate reliable more different renewable inputs plus a storage
constant power. Problems that may limit the ability to system. The renewable system can be interconnected
fully value pumped storage plants are further to a conventional fuel based system as well, so as if
discussed and solutions to those problems are one fails due to resource availability, the other one
proposed. He analyses the role of pump storage plant ensures the reliability. Storage system can be added
to be used as backup or peak hour plant, the to the existing system, which would store the
limitations of this system and suggests remedies [2]. available energy at times when power availability is
In a case study of Siah Bishe pump storage plant in greater than the demand. The stored energy can then
Iran S. Mirsaeidi addresses load regulation problems. be utilized at periods of peak demand or when the
He introduces this plant and analyzes it from available power is less than the demand at that time.
operational and technical point of view. He argues Fresh water is the other necessity of a community, the
that previously the most suited choice for electrical main sources of water are the oceans but they have
energy storage is pump hydro storage. It used to store some salinity problem associated with them. The
water at high potential at off peak periods and then renewable energy systems can be used for
used the potential of the stored water to generate desalination of the ocean water providing safe and
electrical energy at peak load periods. This paper is a clean water to the remote areas apart from being used
survey of the advantages and applications of the for power generation [6].
pump hydro storage plants. He discloses a fair picture Electrical load in cities are mostly centralized and the
for the development of pump hydro storages [3]. energy consumption in the metropolitan area is
A Bahadori discusses different opportunities for increasing day by day. If you look into the list of
further generation from hydro source as well as most developed countries, their energy consumption
focuses on improving the efficiencies of existing averages would be must higher compared to the less
systems. He is interested in further growth of hydro- developed countries. It is because of the associated
electric generation in Australia. He argues that the industrialization, hotels, resorts, factories, street
hydroelectric is the most mature and reliable lights, heavy machineries, defense industries, etc. At
generation source, and is implemented worldwide in potential buildings and malls where the height of the
order to fulfill the energy demands of different building ranges from 30 meters to 300 meters, it is
communities. The advantage of hydroelectric is that it advised to use photo voltaic generation, hydro-
leaves the fuel intact, not polluting it. Thus it makes it electric pump storage system, and grids systems can
available for further uses and applications [4]. be used in interconnection to meet the load
The new role of hydroelectric generation from low requirements. At such location there is adequate
sunlight availability, water distribution tanks are turbine systems. A new turbine using modern tools
present at the top of these building and lower has been developed for Tongbai project. Testing and
reservoirs in the basement can be constructed with analysis has been completed. The phenomena like
ease. Solar panels can be installed at the roof tops, synchronization, stability are addressed and the
which would generate considerable amount of power. unsteady effects are greatly reduced. IN this paper P.
Also the pump storage plants can be used in two Nowicki, M. Sallaberger, and P. Bachmann, presents
different modes, to pump water from lower reservoir and analyzed the first operational results of the
to the upper reservoir at off peak periods, and the turbine [8].
same water can be allowed to rush through the blades
of a reversible machine to generate electrical energy. A new approach is proposed for load shedding in
The generation and consumption trends have been under frequency conditions using pump storage
analyzed under different circumstances for three plants. It is obvious that sometimes there is a sudden
different types of consumers, i.e. residential, dip or dramatic increase in the load, and if the load is
commercial, and mixed. For residential class when not shredded properly, operation at reduced
the Photovoltaic is available during sunshine or a frequency is a threat to the system. The pump storage
cloudy day the following sequences have been plant can be used in two modes, in motor mode when
proposed by J. Zhang, Q. Zhang. (a) At night demand is less than generation; it pumps water up
generation from grid can be used to pump the water into the upper reservoir and acts as a load. On the
from the lower to upper reservoir until it gets full. (b) other hand when the demand is greater than the
If there comes a peak hour for grid supply, the supply it can be used in the generator mode to
potential energy of the water in the upper reservoir increase generation. It can also be used to achieve
can be utilized to generate electrical energy for the sensible load shedding in case of sudden load
building. (c) If the sum of hydro pump and changes. Using pump storages for load shedding and
photovoltaic power exceeds the demand of the regulation was proposed by S. J. Huang, and C. C.
building, the excess power can be sold to the Huang [9].
connected grid. In case the situation is a rainfall, you The role of our system is to produce electrical energy
can use the power from grid as well as the power using the potential energy of water stored at a head.
already stored as potential energy of water. Also the But in actual sense it is not the same pump storage
water of rain can be stored as well. For a class of plant. Instead a water storage tank is used as an upper
commercial consumers during sunshine or overcast reservoir, the prime purpose of the water storage and
conditions where PV is available the sequences are as distribution tank is to supply water to the consumer
follows. (a) At night during off peak periods, use the end efficiently reliably. These systems are widely
cheap power from grid. spread across the world, addressing the water supply
(b) Use power from photovoltaic generator at day issues to the consumer end. A supply tank has fixed
time to meet the load. (c) Allow the water at roof top domain, in which it has to ensure the water
to generate electrical energy and the upper reservoir availability for 24 hours a day seven days a week.
to be emptied by the time peak hours of the grid Normally these supply tanks have sufficient height
connected supply ends. At rainy days follow the same and that ranges between 20 meters to 100 meters,
consequences as discussed for residential class. A depending upon the number of consumers and their
similar arrangement pattern for mixed load is also locations etc. Normally storage and supply tanks
analyzed [7]. supply water to the consumer storage tanks twice or
The need for power generation from pump storage thrice in twenty four hours. And the operation
plants is increasing day by day worldwide. In rapidly continues for an hour or two each time. This means
growing economies like china the demand for energy that the water in the distributor pipes runs every six
is increasing with time and development is strictly hours a day, and 180 hours a month. These one
dependent on the power availability. There is need for hundred and eighty hours can be utilized to produce
more pump storage plants in order to balance the electrical energy using the downward flow of water
demand and supply. It is obvious that these plants are in the distributor. The water rushes through the pipes
quick in response and can rapidly adjust turbine because of the store potential energy which is the
speed and hence generation in accordance with any converted into potential energy. Two thing are very
shift in demand. This is the most developed scheme important considering the capability of generation,
and is also used for energy storage in the form of one is the head of the storage tank and the other is the
potential energy of water. In recent years ANDRITZ discharge of water i.e. the rate at which the water
HYDRO is making sincere efforts in pump-turbines crosses a point each second.
development. The rapid growth in electrical energy The electrical energy that is produced as a result can
demand calls for more sophisticated and efficient be used at the water distribution service provider
house or it can be supplied elsewhere. It can also be The world is moving from conventional to renewable
stored in batteries and can be utilized for other energy resources. Using pump storage plants as peak
purpose. Unlike pump storage plants where water can load plants is well developed concept in modern day
be stored and energy can be generated at periods of world. The same thing may be considered as a proper
peak demand, here we can only generate electrical alternate for UPS system, working at load shedding
energy when the distributor is carrying pressurized conditions. The system can be made highly
water. It neither depends on peak demand, and we economical with the ease of using line concentrating
cannot store it in the tank for further use because the
mirrors and would be highly reliable. The important
distribution of water is scheduled irrespective of
aspect is the re utilization of the same water time and
power demands of a location. The only time we can
generate is when the tank is distributing and the only again for generation as well as in dual sense for
way to store power is in the form of batteries. It can conventional domestic use. This system can be
be stored and then feed back to the motor when it is further improved using well-known solar trackers and
required to operate as a pump for pumping the water can lead to a well-developed, commercially viable
into the tank. This is the energy that is recovered system.
using the energy stored in water. This energy
recovery would increase the efficiency of the system. Acknowledgement:
Though all of the energy cant be recovered, if we are
I would like to thank Professor Azam ul Asar and
able to recover even ten per cent, it would be fair
Egnr. Noman Ullah for their valuable comments and I
achievement. The research theme is therefore energy
recovery rather than power generation. appreciate the role of Department of Electrical
Engineering, university of Engineering and
Technology for hosting this research activity and
facilitating me throughout this period.
Proposed Model:
References:
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