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Maddie Laird

Mr. Yack
Honors Physics 9
May 23, 2017

Physics Final Study Guide:

Quick review:

General information:

-Slope on a Position vs. Time graph is velocity.


- Average speed = Distance Time.
- Distance is scalar (direction does not matter).
-Distance = Path length and total ground covered.
-Average velocity = Displacement Time.
-Displacement is a vector (direction matters).
-Displacement is change in position.

-Slope = y2 y1 x2 x1
- y = mx + b : Slope Intercept Form

-Slope on a Velocity vs. Time graph is acceleration.


-Acceleration = Change in velocity Change in time.
-Area on a Velocity vs. Time graph is displacement.

-A slanted, constant (positive or negative) line/slope on a position vs. time graph is represented
as a straight, flat line on a velocity vs. time graph.
-A straight, flat line/slope on a velocity vs. time graph is represented as a straight, flat line ON
ZERO on an acceleration graph.

-Qualitative: Describing using words.


-Quantitative: Describing using numbers and formulas.

-Balanced forces
-At rest
-Constant velocity
-Unbalanced forces
-Changing velocity = Acceleration.
Forces:
-Forces: Interactions between two objects.
-Push or pull.
-Forces between objects are differentiated by the way the two objects interact.
-Some forces include
-Normal force: Perpendicular.
-Gravity: Always downwards on Earth.

-All resistance forces:


-Friction: Opposite the motion, parallel to two surfaces, resistant force.
-Air resistance
-Thrust
-Lift

-Net force: The sum of all forces on an object. This includes both magnitude and direction of the
force.
-Acceleration is directly proportional to net force.
-Acceleration is inversely proportional to mass.
-The acceleration of an object depends on the net force acting on an object and the mass of the
object.

- Net Force = Mass Acceleration.


-Acceleration = Net Force Mass.
-Mass = Net Force Acceleration.

Free fall motion: An object that is experiencing only the force of gravity is said to be in free fall
motion.

Projectile Motion:
-Projectile: An object that only experiences the force of gravity.
Uniform Circular Motion:
-Ways to change an objects velocity (acceleration) include speeding up, slowing down, or
change direction.

-Tangential (circular) velocity = Circumference Period.


-Period = Time for 1 complete cycle.
-Centripetal acceleration = Tangential velocity Radius.
-Centripetal force = Mass Centripetal acceleration.

-Gravitational force, the force that keeps objects balanced and attracted to each other, depends on
the masses and the distance between two objects.
-Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation.
-The force is directly proportional to the product of the masses.
-The forces is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between two masses centers.

Momentum:
-Momentum: Mass in motion.
-Momentum is not a force.
-Momentum = Mass Velocity
-Dimensions = kg m/s (direction) Vector
-Impulse: Change in momentum.
-Impulse = Mass Change in velocity OR Impulse = Force Change in Time.
-Dimensions = kg m/s (direction) Vector

-Area on a Force vs. Time graph is impulse.

-Elastic collisions: Collisions with separate masses (velocities). BOUNCE BACK.


-Inelastic collisions: Collisions with combined masses (velocities).
Energy:
-Energy can be
~Stored in a system.
~Transferred within a system via internal forces or in/out of a system via external forces.
~Can NEVER be created nor destroyed.

Types of Energy:
-Kinetic energy (Ek): Energy that is stored as motion.
-Ek=1/2mv^2
-Gravitational potential energy (Eg): Energy is stored as a position in a gravitational field.
-Eg=mgh
-Elastic Potential Energy (Eel): Energy stored in the compression of a spring, or deformation of a
material.
-Eel=1/2kx^2

***ENERGY IS MEASURED IN JOULES!

-Work = Force Change in time OR Work = Force cos Distance.


-kg m/s^2
-Work can only be done by the parallel component of the force. The force has to be in the exact
same direction as the displacement or the exact opposite.
-Work is not a vector.
-Work is scalar.
-Work: The transfer of energy.

Vector Vector = Scalar


Force Displacement = Scaler (Work)

Power:
-Power: A quantity that measures the rate at which work is done or the rate of energy transfer by
any method.
-Power = Work Time interval OR Power = Force Speed
-Power is measured in Watts or Horsepower (J/s)

Waves:
-Wave: The motion of a disturbance.
-Speed of a wave (m/s) = Frequency (Hz) Wavelength (m).
-Medium: A physical environment through which a disturbance can travel.
-The change in medium causes a change in speed.
-Frequency: Cycle/sec
-Period: Sec/cycle
-Line of Origin = Equilibrium of median
-Amplitude: Maximum or minimum displacement.
-Crest: Top points.
-Troughs: Bottom points.
-Wavelength: One complete cycle.
-Compressions: Maximum density/Maximum pressure.
-Rarefactions: Minimum density/Minimum pressure.

-Transverse waves travel PERPENDICULAR to the moving (vibrating) particles.


-Longitudinal waves travel PARALLEL to the moving (vibrating) particles.

-Two types of waves:


-Mechanical or Electromagnetic Waves.

-Mechanical waves require a medium


- = Sound (340 m/s)
-Transverse waves travel PERPENDICULAR to the moving (vibrating) particles.
-Longitudinal waves travel PARALLEL to the moving (vibrating) particles.

-Electromagnetic waves can travel through empty space (vacuum).


- = Light (300,000,000 m/s)
-Electromagnetic spectrum: Radio waves, Microwaves, Infrared Radiation,
Visible Light (ROYGBIV), Ultraviolet, X-rays, Gamma Rays.
-Radio = Low frequency, low energy, long wavelength.
-Gamma = High frequency, high energy, short wavelength.
-Wave behaviors include:
-Reflection Bounce
-Refraction Bend
-Diffraction Spread
-Resonance Vibrate
-Doppler Effect NEEEEEEOOOOOOOOW
-Destructive Cancel
-Constructive Build up

-The normal line is the perpendicular line to the surface. The normal line divides the angle
between the incident ray and the reflected ray into two equal angles.
-The angle between the incident ray and the normal line is known as the angle of incidence.
-The angle between the reflected ray and the normal line is known as the angle of reflection.
-The angle between the surface and either light ray is known as the angle with the surface.

-If a material of a wave transfers from a more optically dense material into a less optically dense
material, then the wave will bend away from the normal line.

-If a material of a wave transfers from a less optically dense material into a more optically dense
material, then the wave will bend towards the normal line.

-Index of refraction: A measure of optical density.


-Resonance: When an objects natural frequency intensifies, increasing the amplitude of the
energy quickly.
-Doppler Effect: The apparent change in the frequency of a wave caused by relative motion
between the source of the wave and the observer.