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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS (I)

STRESS AND STRAIN AXIAL LOADING

Dr. Jung-San Chen


Department of Engineering Science
National Cheng Kung University
NORMAL STRAIN

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(elongation per unit length)

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NORMAL STRAIN

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2P P
P
= = stress = =
A 2A A

= = normal strain = =
P
L L A
2
= =
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=67fSwIjYJ-E (Steel)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hD_NJaZIpT0 (Al)

STRESS-STRAIN TEST

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STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM: DUCTILE MATERIALS

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STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM: BRITTLE MATERIALS

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STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM: DUCTILE MATERIALS

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STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM: DUCTILE MATERIALS
Yield Strength (Stress) = 0.2% Offset Yield Strength

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ELASTIC VS. PLASTIC BEHAVIOR

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Residual strain or
permanent strain
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ELASTIC VS. PLASTIC BEHAVIOR

If the strain disappears when the stress is removed,

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the material is said to behave elastically. (before
point B)
The largest stress for which this occurs is called the
elastic limit. (=proportional limit)

When the strain does not return to zero after the stress
is removed, the material is said to behave plastically.

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FATIGUE
A member may fail due to fatigue at stress levels

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significantly below the ultimate strength if subjected to
many loading cycles.
Fatigue failure is of a brittle nature, even for materials
that are normally ductile.

When the stress is reduced below the endurance limit,


fatigue failures do not occur for any number of cycles.

[Note] : endurance limit is the stress for which failure


does not occur, even for an indefinitely large number
of loading cycles.
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FATIGUE
Fatigue properties are shown on S-N diagrams.

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Stress at failure

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HOOKES LAW: MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
Below the yield stress

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= E ( Hooke ' s Law)
E = Young's Modulus or
Modulus of Elasticity
Strength is affected by alloying,
heat treating, and manufacturing
process but stiffness (Modulus
of Elasticity) is not.
Note: Strength refers to the
capacity of a structure to resist loads;
stiffness is ability to resist a
deformation

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AXIALLY LOADED MEMBERS
Recall: Spring L: natural length (unstressed length,
relaxed length, or free length)
k
In linearly region:
L
k = or fP
P k=
P k: stiffness f: flexibility
L +
P 1
k = f= k =
P f

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DEFORMATIONS UNDER AXIAL LOADING
Prismatic Bar From Hookes Law: = E

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P
From the definition of stress: =
A

From the definition of strain: =
L
Equating and solving for the
deformation,
PL
= k= P = EA L
AE
=f =
P L EA
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DEFORMATIONS UNDER AXIAL LOADING
With variations in loading, cross-section or material

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PL
properties, =
i A E , Pi : internal force
i i

P1
i i
P1 = PA + PD + PC
P= PD + PC
(1)
L1 P A P 2
A A

P P3 = PC
L2 (2) 2

PD D PD PD P3 P1 L1 P2 L2 P3 L3
L3 =1 = ,2 = ,3
(3)
EA EA EA
= 1 + 2 + 3

This equation is only valid for prismatic bar or bar consisting of


prismatic segments ( Pi is the internal force)
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DEFORMATIONS UNDER AXIAL LOADING
PL
=

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Strains are not Uniformly Distributed:
AE

P/ A
= =
E E

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BAR WITH VARYING CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA
N ( x)dx
d =
P(x) EA( x)
L N ( x ) dx

dx
=
0 EA( x )

It has been assumed that the stress distribution is uniform over cross
section

If is small error 0

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(obtained)
(obtained)

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=?

A
Similar figures:

D E =
AD =
: AB AE : AC DE : BC
B C
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STATIC INDETERMINATE

Statically Determinate Problems:

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The reaction and internal forces can be obtained
from the equilibrium equations.

Statically Indeterminate Problems:


The reaction and internal forces can not be
obtained from the equilibrium equations. It has to
consider the deformation geometry (boundary
condition).

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Statically Indeterminate Problem

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EXAMPLE 2.03 Statically Indeterminate Problem

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Statically Indeterminate Problem

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SOLUTION:
Solve for the displacement at B due to

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the applied loads with the redundant
constraint released,

P1 = 0 P2 = P3 = 600 103 N P4 = 900 103 N

A1 = A2 = 400 10 6 m 2 A3 = A4 = 250 10 6 m 2
L1 = L2 = L3 = L4 = 0.150 m

Pi Li 1.125 109
L = =
i Ai Ei E

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Solve for the displacement at B due to the
redundant constraint,

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P1 = P2 = RB

A1 = 400 10 6 m 2 A2 = 250 10 6 m 2
L1 = L2 = 0.300 m

R =
Pi Li
=
(
1.95 103 RB)
i Ai Ei E

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Require that the displacements due to the loads and due
to the redundant reaction be compatible,

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= L +R = 0

=
(
1.125 109 1.95 103 RB)=0
E E
3
R A = 323 kN
RB = 577 10 N = 577 kN
RB = 577 kN
Find the reaction at A

Fy = 0 = R A 300 kN 600 kN + 577 kN


R A = 323 kN

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THERMAL STRAIN

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T
T =
L

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THE STRESS CHANGE DUE TO THE TEMPERATURE
RAISES

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Break

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POISSONS RATIO
For a slender bar subjected to axial loading:
x

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x 0, y = z =0 x =
E
Assuming that the material is isotropic
(no directional dependence),
y = z 0
Poissons ratio is defined as

lateral strain y z
=
=
=
axial strain x x
if the material is linear elastic
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VOLUME CHANGE
y
a
c

b
x strain= length change
original length
z
x direction: x direction: a
Strain : y direction: b
y, z direction: Length change :
z direction: c
Final length=original length +length change
x direction: a (1 + )
Final length: y direction: b(1 )
z direction: c(1 )
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VOLUME CHANGE
Original volume: V0 = abc
Final volume: V1 =a(1 + )b(1 )c(1 )
= abc(1 + 2 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 3 )
abc(1 + 2 ) if 1
Unit volume change : (dilatation)
V V1 V0 abc(1 + 2 ) abc
=e = =
V0 V0 abc

= (1 2 ) = (1 2 ) > 0 Volume must increase in tension
E condition
1 2 > 0 < 1/ 2
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GENERALIZED HOOKES LAW FOR MULTI-AXIAL
LOADING

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For an element subjected to multi-axial loading, the normal
strain components resulting from the stress components may be
determined from the principle of superposition.
x 0, y 0, z 0
x y z
x = +
E E E
x y z
y = +
E E E
x y z
z = +
E E E
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SHEARING STRAIN (3D)
normal stresses

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length change
shear stresses

change in shape
Sign conventions for shear stresses and strains
shear stress plane direction force
direction
+ + +
+
+
+
Shear strain The positive shear stresses are accompanied by
positive shear strains
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SHEARING STRAIN (2D)

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SHEARING STRAIN VS. SHEARING STRESS

A plot of shear stress vs. shear strain is similar the

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previous plots of normal stress vs. normal strain
except that the strength values are approximately half.
Hookes law in shear
xy = G xy yz = G yz zx = G zx
where G is the modulus of rigidity or shear modulus.

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SHEARING STRAIN VS. SHEARING STRESS
Generalized Hooks Law for a Homogeneous and Isotropic

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Material under Most General Stress Condition:

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RELATION AMONG E, , AND G
An axially loaded slender bar will elongate in the axial

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direction and contract in the transverse directions.

An initially cubic element oriented as in figure will


deform into a rectangular parallelepiped. The axial
load produces a normal strain.
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RELATION AMONG E, , AND G

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If the cubic element is oriented as in the figure, it will
deform into a rhombus. Axial load also results in a shear
strain.

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RELATION AMONG E, , AND G

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Before After

tan a tan b
tan(a b) =
1 + tan a tan b

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