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KEANEKARAGAMAN HEWAN

Ciri Hewan
Eukariotik: sama dengan protista, fungi dan tumbuhan. Berbeda dengan
bakteri yang prokariot (kingdom Monera)
Multiselluler: Sama dengan fungi dan tumbuhan. Berbeda dengan protista
dan bakteri (Uniselluler)
Heterotropik: Sama dengan Fungi. Berbeda dengan Tumbuhan, dan protista
yang menyerupai tumbuhan (Alga) yang bersifat autrotrop
Dinding sel: tidak mempunyai dinding sel, tetapi berupa membran sel.
Berbeda dengan Tumbuhan, Fungi, Protista (alga) yang
mempunyai dinding sel
Ciri Hewan
Tubuh disusun oleh protein (kolagen)
Memiliki jaringan saraf dan otot
Umumnya reproduksi sexual dgn tahap diploid
Setelah fertilisasi zigot membelah membentuk blastula
Blastula gastrulation (pembentukan jaringan
embrionik dan gastrula)
Perkembangan embrio pada hewan
1 The zygote of an animal undergoes 2 Only one cleavage 3 In most animals, cleavage results in the
a succession of mitotic cell divisions stagethe eight-cell formation of a multicellular stage called a blastula.
called cleavage. embryois shown here. The blastula of many animals is a hollow ball of cells.

Blastocoel
Cleavage Cleavage

6 The endoderm of
the archenteron de-
velops into the tissue Eight-cell stage Blastula Cross section
lining the animals Zygote of blastula
digestive tract. Blastocoel
Endoderm
5 The blind pouch
formed by gastru-
lation, called Ectoderm
the archenteron,
opens to the outside
Gastrula Gastrulation
via the blastopore.
Blastopore 4 Most animals also undergo gastrulation, a rearrangement of the
embryo in which one end of the embryo folds inward, expands, and
eventually fills the blastocoel, producing layers of embryonic tissues:
the ectoderm (outer layer) and the endoderm (inner layer).
PENGELOMPOKAN HEWAN
Tipe Asimetri
Simetri
Radial Simetri
Jmlh lapisan
jaringan
HEWAN Bilateral Simetri

Segmentasi

Rongga tubuh
Simetri tubuh
Pembagian tubuh hewan menjadi bagian yang sama baik
anatomi maupun morfologi oleh bidang pembelahan
Dibagi atas:
Radial simetri: hewan dengan sisi yang sama pada setiap
pemotongan jari-jari (Cnidaria, Coelentrata, Hydra, Ubur-
ubur)
Bilateral simetris: hewan dengan 2 sisi yang sama hanya oleh
pembagian satu sumbu median (Platyhelminthes, Nematoda,
Molusca, Annelida, Arthropoda, Ecinodermata dan Chordata)
radial symmetry

Bilateral symmetry
Segmentasi tubuh
Pembagian panjang tubuh menjadi segmen-segmen
(ruas-ruas)
Annelida, Arthropoda, Ecinodermata dan Chordata
Rongga tubuh (Coelom):
suatu ruang berisi cairan terletak antara saluran
pencernaan dengan dinding tubuh
1. Acoelom: hewan yang tidak mempunyai rongga tubuh (Porifera,
Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes)
2. Pseudocoelom: hewan yang mempunyai rongga tubuh semu
yaitu: rongga internal kontak langsung dengan dinding saluran
pencernaan dan rongga eksternal dengan lapisan otot bagian
dinding tubuh (Nematoda)
3. Coelom: hewan yang mempunyai rongga tubuh sebenarnya
yaitu: suatu rongga yang dilapisi jaringan tengah yang
memisahkan saluran pencernaan dengan organ internal lain dari
dinding tubuh (Molusca, Annelida, Arthropoda, Ecinodermata
dan Chordata)
Jumlah Lapisan Jaringan
Rongga tubuh
Animal Classification
One hypothesis of animal phylogeny based mainly on
morphological and developmental comparisons

Rotifera
Ctenophora
Cnidaria

Phoronida

Annelida

Arthropoda
Mollusca
Chordata
Porifera

Nemertea

Nematoda
Ectoprocta

Brachiopoda

Echinodermata

Platyhelminthes
Radiata Deuterostomia Protostomia

Bilateria

Eumetazoa

Metazoa

Ancestral colonial
flagellate
One hypothesis of animal phylogeny based mainly on
molecular data

Chordata
Cnidaria

Phoronida
Brachiopoda

Nemertea
Ctenophora

Arthropoda
Mollusca

Annelida
Echinodermata

Ectoprocta

Platyhelminthes

Rotifera
Silicarea

Nematoda
Calcarea
Radiata

Porifera Deuterostomia Lophotrochozoa Ecdysozoa

Bilateria

Eumetazoa

Metazoa

Ancestral colonial
flagellate
Ecdysozoans share a common characteristic
They shed their exoskeletons through a process
called ecdysis
Lophotrochozoans share a common characteristic
Called the lophophore, a feeding structure
Other phyla
Go through a distinct larval stage called a trochophore
larva Apical tuft
of cilia

Mouth

Anus
(a) An ectoproct, a lophophorate (b) Structure of trochophore larva
Future Directions in Animal Systematics
Phylogenetic studies based on larger databases
Will likely provide further insights into animal
evolutionary history
Invertebrata
Invertebrata
Invertebrata
Exploring PORIFERA (5,500 species) CNIDARIA (10,000 species)

invertebrate
diversity A sponge
PLACOZOA (1 species)
A jelly
KINORHYNCHA (150 species)
0.5 mm

250 m
A placozoan (LM) A kinorhynch (LM)
PLATYHELMINTHES (20,000 species) ROTIFERA (1,800 species)

A marine flatworm A rotifer (LM)


ECTOPROCTA (4,500 species) PHORONIDA (20 species)

Ectoprocts Phoronids
BRACHIOPODA (335 species) NEMERTEA (900 species)

Exploring A brachiopod A ribbon worm


invertebrate ACANTHOCEPHALA (1,100 species)
5 mm
CTENOPHORA (100 species)

diversity
An acanthocephalan A ctenophore, or comb jelly

MOLLUSCA (93,000 species) ANNELIDA (16,500 species)

An octopus A marine annelid


LORICIFERA (10 species) PRIAPULA (16 species)
50 m

A loriciferan (LM) A priapulan


NEMATODA (25,000 species) ARTHROPODA (1,000,000 + species)

Exploring A roundworm A scorpion (an arachnid)

invertebrate CYCLIOPHORA (1 species)


100 m
TARDIGRADA (800 species)

diversity
100 m

A cycliophoran (colorized SEM) Tardigrades (colorized SEM)

ONYCHOPHORA (110 species) HEMICHORDATA (85 species)

An onychophoran An acorn worm

ECHINODERMATA (7,000 species) CHORDATA (52,000 species)

A sea urchin A tunicate


Porifera
A review of animal phylogeny

Cnidaria
choanoflagellate
Ancestral colonial

Other bilaterians (including


Nematoda, Arthropoda,
Mollusca, and Annelida)
Eumetazoa

Echinodermata
Bilateria
Deuterostomia

Chordata
Hewan dibagi dua kelompok yaitu :

Invertebrata (tidak bertulang belakang)


Vertebrata (Bertulang belakang)
Invertebrata : Porifera, Coelenterata, PLatyhelminthes,
Nemathelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda,
Echinodermata.
Vertebrata : Chordata;kelas Chondrichthyes,
Osteichthyes,Amphibia,Reptilia,Aves dan Mamalia
INVERTEBRATA
CIRI UMUM
Eksoskeleton (rangka luar)
Ekskresi melalui membran sel
Peredaran darah terbuka atau difusi
Sistem sarafnya belum punya otak tapi dengan simpul-simpul
saraf
Pernapasan dengan ronga tubuh atau organ pernapasan
Diploblastik (dua lapisan tubuh)
Simetri tubuh yaitu simetri bilateral atau radial
Filum Porifera
Porus (lubang kecil) dan fera (mengandung). Porifera =
hewan yang memilliki pori.
Diploblastik : lap. Luar disusun oleh sel epidermis & lap
dalam disusun oleh sel koanosit berflagel
Bentuk tubuh seperti tabung (vas bunga)
Mesoglea diantara kedua lapisan dan didalamnya sel
amoboid, skleroblas, porosit, arkeosit, spikula
Hidup di laut, melekat dasar dan tidak berpindah tempat
Mengalami dua fase yaitu polip (saat larva) dan sesil
(dewasa)
Sponges are suspension feeders
Capturing food particles suspended in the water that passes
through their body
5 Choanocytes. The spongocoel
is lined with feeding cells called
choanocytes. By beating flagella, Flagellum
the choanocytes create a current that
Food particles Choanocyte
draws water in through the porocytes.
Collar in mucus

Azure vase sponge (Callyspongia Osculum


plicifera)
4 Spongocoel. Water
passing through porocytes
enters a cavity called the Phagocytosis of
spongocoel. food particles Amoebocyte
3 Porocytes. Water enters
the epidermis through 6The movement of the choanocyte
channels formed by flagella also draws water through its
porocytes, doughnut-shaped Spicules collar of fingerlike projections. Food
cells that span the body wall. particles are trapped in the mucus
coating the projections, engulfed by
2 Epidermis. The outer phagocytosis, and either digested or
layer consists of tightly transferred to amoebocytes.
packed epidermal cells. Water
flow 7 Amoebocyte. Amoebocytes
1 Mesohyl. The wall of this transport nutrients to other cells of
simple sponge consists of the sponge body and also produce
two layers of cells separated materials for skeletal fibers (spicules).
by a gelatinous matrix, the
mesohyl (middle matter).
Porifera
Struktur tubuh porifera
Tipe Saluran Air pada Porifera
1. Askon : sederhana. Leucosolenia
2. Tipe Sikon : ostium dihubungkan dengan saluran air
bercabang-cabang ke rongga-rongga sel koanosit.
Scypha
3. Tipe leukon : kompleks. Spongila.

Ascon Sicon Leucon


Rangka Porifera
Berdasarkan bahan penyusun menjadi
1. Porifera lunak : spongin
2. Porifera kapur : zat kapur (CaCO3)
3. Porifera silikat : kristal silikat (H2Si3O7)
Reproduksi : seksual (pertemuan spermatozoid & ovum)
& aseksual (pembentukan tunas (budding)
KLASIFIKASI PORIFERA
Filum porifera

Kelas Calcarea Kelas Hexatinellida Kelas Demospongiae

Contoh : Contoh :
Contoh :
Leucosolenia Euspongia
Euplectella
Grantia Spongilla
Pheronema
Sycon Cliona
Hyalonema
Scypha Microciona
FILUM COELENTERATA
Yunani, koilos (rongga) dan enteron (usus). Coelenterata : hewan
yang berongga
Triploblastik
Simetri radial
Mulut : tentakel
Belum alat pernapasan,peredaran dan ekskresi
Reproduksi : seksual & aseksual
Nematosista :proteksi diri dan alat pertahanan
Coelenterata: bentuk polip (menempel) dan bentuk medusa
(bebas,melayang di dalam air)
There are two variations on this body plan
The sessile polyp and the floating medusa
Polyp Mouth/anus Medusa
Tentacle
Gastrovascular
cavity
Gastrodermis
Mesoglea
Body Epidermis
stalk

Tentacle
Mouth/anus
Cnidarians are carnivores
That use tentacles to capture prey
The tentacles are armed with cnidocytes
Unique cells that function in defense and the capture of prey
Prey

Tentacle

Trigger
Discharge
Of thread
Nematocyst

Coiled thread Cnidocyte


The phylum Cnidaria is divided into four major classes
Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Cubozoa, and Anthozoa

(b) Many species of jellies (class (c) The sea wasp (Chironex (d) Sea anemones and other
Scyphozoa), including the fleckeri) is a member of members of class Anthozoa
species pictured here, are class Cubozoa. Its poison, exist only as polyps.
bioluminescent. The largest which can subdue fish and
scyphozoans have tentacles other large prey, is more
more than 100 m long potent than cobra venom.
dangling from a bell-shaped
(a) These colonial polyps are members of body up to 2 m in diameter.
class Hydrozoa.
Hydrozoans 2Some of the colonys
polyps, equipped with tentacles,
3Other polyps, specialized
for reproduction, lack
tentacles and produce tiny
4The medusae
swim off, grow, and
are specialized for feeding. medusae by asexual budding. reproduce sexually.

Most Reproductive
polyp
hydrozoans Feeding
polyp

Alternate Medusa
bud
MEIOSIS

between Medusa
SEXUAL
Gonad

polyp and 1
A colony of
interconnected
polyps (inset,
REPRODUCTION Egg Sperm

medusa LM) results


from asexual
reproduction Portion of
ASEXUAL
REPRODUCTION
(BUDDING)

forms by budding. a colony


of polyps FERTILIZATION

Zygote

Developing
polyp

Mature
polyp

Planula
(larva) Key

Haploid (n)
1 mm 6 The planula eventually settles 5 The zygote develops into a Diploid (2n)
and develops into a new polyp. solid ciliated larva called a planula.
KLASIFIKASI COELENTERATA
1. KELAS HYDROZOA
Contoh : a) Hydra
b) Obelia
2. KELAS SCYPHOZOA
Berbentuk seperti mangkok.
Hermafrodit: Aurelia sp.
Ubur-ubur :3 alat indra (tentakel, oselus, celah
olfaktorius)
Sistem saraf terdiri atas jaringan saraf utama, jaringan
difus dan delapan ganglia ropalial.
3. KELAS ANTHOZOA
Contoh : Anemon laut dan koral batu atau koral kapur

Anemon laut Struktur tubuh Anemon laut


4. KELAS CTENOPPHORA
ubur-ubur pesisir
Bertentakel dua dan berpapan dayung delapan dan
bersilia
Tubuhnya transparan
Reproduksi seksual
Hemafrodit : Mnemiopsis
FILUM PLATYHELMITHES
Struktur tubuh pipih
Bentuk : pita, lunak dan tidak bersegmen
Simetri bilateral
Triploblastik aselomata
Sistem pencernaan : mulut dan anus
Alat ekskresi : sel api
Hermafrodit
KLASIFIKASI PLATYHELMINTHES

1. KELAS TURBELLARIA
Meliputi cacing pipih bersilia. Contoh : Planaria.
2. KELAS TREMATODA (CACING ISAP)
Clonorchis sinensis
- Cacing hati parasit pada manusia
- Hospes perantara : siput dan ikan
Fasciola hepatica (cacing hati)
Parasit pada hati hewan (kambing, sapi atau kerbau)
Mempunyai alat isap
3. KELAS CESTODA

Proglotid (segmen-segmen)
Setiap proglotid mempunyai ovarium dan testis
Taenia solium, inang perantara babi dan parasit pada
usus manusia
Taenia saginata, parasit pada usus manusia, inang
perantaranya sapi
FILUM NEMATHELMINTHES
Cacing gilik
Ciri-ciri
Hidup di air laut, tawar, usus manusia.
Triploblastik (tiga lapisan tubuh)
Dioceous (berumah dua)
Pencernaan: mulut, kerongkongan, usus, dan anus
Rongga tubuh palsu (Pseudoselomata)
Kosmopolitan, parasit dan hidup bebas
Flatworms are divided into four classes
Turbellarians Turbellarian
Are nearly all free-living and mostly marine
The best-known turbellarians, commonly called planarians
Have light-sensitive eyespots and centralized nerve nets
Pharynx. The mouth is at the
Digestion is completed within the
tip of a muscular pharynx that
cells lining the gastro-vascular cavity,
extends from the animals
which has three branches, each with
ventral side. Digestive juices
fine subbranches that pro-vide an
are spilled onto prey, and the
extensive surface area.
pharynx sucks small pieces of
food into the gastrovascular Undigested wastes are
cavity, where digestion continues. egested through the mouth.

Gastrovascular
cavity

Eyespots

Ganglia. Located at the anterior end of the Ventral nerve cords. From the ganglia, a
worm, near the main sources of sensory input, is pair of ventral nerve cords runs the length
a pair of ganglia, dense clusters of nerve cells. of the body.
Monogeneans and Trematode
Monogeneans and trematodes
Live as parasites in or on other animals
Parasitize a wide range of hosts
Trematodes that parasitize humans
Spend part of their lives in snail hosts
1 Mature flukes live in the blood vessels of the human
intestine. A female fluke fits into a groove running
the length of the larger males body, as shown in Male
the light micrograph at right.

Female

5 These larvae penetrate


1 mm
the skin and blood 2 Blood flukes reproduce
vessels of humans sexually in the human host.
working in irrigated
The fertilized eggs exit the
fields contaminated
with infected human host in feces.
feces.
3 The eggs develop in
water into ciliated
larvae. These larvae
infect snails, the
Asexual reproduction intermediate hosts.
4
within a snail results in
another type of motile
larva, which escapes from Snail host
the snail host.
FILUM NEMATHELMINTHES
Ascaris lumbricoides (cacing perut)
Enterobius vermicularis (cacing kremi)
Ancylostoma duodenale (cacing tambang)
Wuchereria bancrofti (kaki gajah)
The cylindrical bodies of nematodes (phylum Nematoda)
Are covered by a tough coat called a cuticle

25 m
Some species of nematodes
Are important parasites of plants and animals
Encysted juveniles Muscle tissue 50 m
FILUM ANNELIDA
Ciri-ciri
Habitat air laut, tawar, darat, organisme lain
Simetri bilateral berbentuk gelang ('anellus' = cincin)
Triploblastik soelom
Hemafrodit, aseksual
Ekskresi : nefridia
Tubuh: segmen (Metameri): alat ekskresi (nefridium) lubang
reproduksi, otot dan pembuluh darah
Sistem pencernaan lengkap/sempuna
Sistem peredaran darah tertutup
The phylum Annelida is divided into three classes
Struktur tubuh Annelida
Anatomy of an earthworm
Each segment is surrounded by longitudinal muscle, which in Coelom. The coelom Metanephridium. Each
turn is surrounded by circular muscle. Earthworms coordinate segment of the worm
the contraction of these two sets of muscles to move (see
of the earthworm is
contains a pair of
Figure 49.25). These muscles work against the noncompressible partitioned by septa. excretory tubes, called
coelomic fluid, which acts as a hydrostatic skeleton. metanephridia, with
Epidermis Cuticle ciliated funnels, called
Circular Septum
Many of the internal structures nephrostomes. The
muscle (partition
are repeated within each metanephridia remove
between
wastes from the blood
segment of the earthworm. segments)
and coelomic fluid
Longitudinal through exterior pores.
Chaetae. Each segment has four Anus
muscleDorsal
pairs of chaetae, bristles that vessel
provide traction for burrowing. Intestine Tiny blood vessels are
abundant in the earthworms
skin, which functions as its
Nerve Ventral respiratory organ. The blood
cords vessel
Cerebral ganglia. The earthworm contains oxygen-carrying
nervous system features Nephrostome Clitellum hemoglobin.
Pharynx Esophagus
a brain-like pair of cerebral ganglia Crop Metanephridium
above and in front of the pharynx.
Giant Australian earthworm
A ring of nerves around the pharynx Intestine
connects to a subpharyngeal ganglion,
Mouth Gizzard
from which a fused pair of nerve Subpharyngeal
cords runs posteriorly. ganglion
Ventral nerve cords with segmental ganglia.
The circulatory system, a network of vessels, is closed. The dorsal
and ventral vessels are linked by segmental pairs of vessels. The
The nerve cords penetrate the septa and run
dorsal vessel and five pairs of vessels that circle the esophagus the length of the animal, as do the digestive
of an earthworm are muscular and pump blood through the tract and longitudinal blood vessels.
circulatory system.
Polychaetes
Members of class Polychaeta
Possess paddlelike parapodia that function as gills and aid in
locomotion

Parapodia
Leeches
Members of class Hirudinea
Are blood-sucking parasites, such as leeches
FILUM MOLUSCA
Ciri-ciri
Habitat air laut, tawar dan darat
Simetri bilateral, lateral
Triploblastik soelom
Seksual: hemafrodit
Ekskresi dengan nefridium
Lunak dan tidak memiliki ruas
umumnya memiliki mantel
Molluscs have a muscular foot, a visceral mass, and a mantle
Phylum Mollusca
Includes snails and slugs, oysters and clams, and octopuses
and squids
Most molluscs are marine
Though some inhabit fresh water and some are terrestrial
Molluscs are soft-bodied animals
But most are protected by a hard shell
All molluscs have a similar body plan with three main parts
A muscular foot
A visceral mass
A mantle
Most molluscs have separate sexes
With gonads located in the visceral mass
The life cycle of many molluscs
Includes a ciliated larval stage called a trochophore
Heart. Most molluscs have an open circulatory
system. The dorsally located heart pumps
Nephridium. Excretory organs circulatory fluid called hemolymph through arteries
called nephridia remove metabolic into sinuses (body spaces). The organs of the
wastes from the hemolymph. mollusc are thus continually bathed in hemolymph.

The long digestive tract is


Visceral mass coiled in the visceral mass.
Coelom Intestine Radula. The mouth
Gonads
Mantle region in many
Stomach
Mantle mollusc species
Shell
cavity Mouth contains a rasp-like
Radula
The nervous Anus feeding organ
system consists Gill called a radula. This
of a nerve ring belt of backward-
around the Nerve curved teeth slides
Foot Mouth
esophagus, from cords Esophagus back and forth,
which nerve scraping and
cords extend. scooping like a
backhoe.
There are four major classes of molluscs
Chitons
Class Polyplacophora is composed of the chitons
Oval-shaped marine animals encased in an armor of
eight dorsal plates
Gastropods
About three-quarters of all living species of molluscs
Belong to class Gastropoda

(a) A land snail

(b) A sea slug. Nudibranchs, or sea slugs, lost their shell


during their evolution.
Most gastropods
Are marine, but there are also many freshwater and
terrestrial species
Possess a single, spiraled shell
Slugs lack a shell
Or have a reduced shell
The most distinctive characteristic of this class
Is a developmental process known as torsion, which
causes the animals anus and mantle to end up above its
head Stomach
Mantle Intestine
cavity
Anus

Mouth
Bivalves
Molluscs of class Bivalvia
Include many species of clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops
Have a shell divided into two halves
The mantle cavity of a bivalve
Contains gills that are used for feeding as well as gas exchange
Hinge area Coelom
Mantle Gut
Heart
Shell Adductor
muscle
Mouth
Anus
Excurrent
siphon

Palp
Water
Foot flow
Mantle Incurrent
cavity Gill siphon
Cephalopods
Class Cephalopoda includes
squids and octopuses
Carnivores with beak-like
jaws surrounded by
tentacles of their modified
foot
Most octopuses
Creep along the sea floor in
search of prey (a) Octopuses are considered among the
most intelligent invertebrates.
Squids use their siphon
To fire a jet of water, which allows them to swim very quickly

(b) Squids are speedy carnivores with beaklike


jaws and well-developed eyes.
One small group of shelled cephalopods
`
The nautiluses, survives today

(c) Chambered nautiluses are the only living


cephalopods with an external shell.
FILUM ARTHROPODA
Ciri-ciri
Habitat di air laut, tawar, darat
Simetri bilateral
Triploblastik soelom
Pernapasan dengan trakea, insang, atau paru-paru
As arthropods evolved
The segments fused, and the appendages became more specialized
The appendages of some living arthropods
Are modified for many different functions
Cephalothorax Abdomen

Antennae Thorax
Head
(sensory
reception)

Swimming
appendages

Walking legs
Pincer (defense) Mouthparts (feeding)
Molecular evidence now suggests
That living arthropods consist of four major lineages that
diverged early in the evolution of the phylum
Cheliceriforms
Cheliceriforms, subphylum Cheliceriformes
Are named for clawlike feeding appendages called chelicerae
Include spiders, ticks, mites, scorpions, and horseshoe crabs
1. Crustacea
Air laut dan air tawar.
Kepala alat mulut, yaitu:
2 pasang antena
1 pasang mandibula, untuk menggigit mangsanya 1
pasang maksilla
1 pasang maksilliped
Struktur tubuh
2. Arachnida
Kalajengking, laba-laba, tungau atau caplak.
parasit
karnivora sekaligus predator.
Tempat hidupnya darat
Tubuh :kepala-dada (sefalotoraks) dan perut dapat
dibedakan, kecuali Acarina.
kepala-dada tidak terdapat antena, punyai beberapa pasang
mata tunggal, mulut, kelisera dan pedipalpus.
Mempunyai 4 pasang kaki pada kepala-dada.
Alat ekskresi dilengkapi dengan saluran malphigi dan
kelenjar coxal.
Alat pernafasan berupa trakea, paru-paru buku atau insang
buku.
Alat kelamin jantan dan betina terpisah, lubang kelamin
terbuka pada bagian anterior abdomen, pembuahan
internal (di dalam).
Sistem saraf tangga tali dengan ganglion dorsal (otak) dan
tali saraf ventral dengan pasangan-pasangan ganglia.
Habitat (tempat hidup) di darat
Most modern cheliceriforms are arachnids
A group that includes spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites
(c) Web-building spiders are generally
most active during the daytime.
(a) Scorpions have pedipalps that are pincers
specialized for defense and the capture of
food. The tip of the tail bears a poisonous 50 m
stinger.

(b) Dust mites are ubiquitous scavengers in


human dwellings but are harmless except
to those people who are allergic to them
(colorized SEM).
Arachnids have an abdomen and a cephalothorax
Which has six pairs of appendages, the most anterior of which
are the chelicerae
Intestine Stomach
Digestive Brain
gland Heart

Eyes

Ovary Poison
gland

Anus
Book lung
Spinnerets Gonopore Sperm
Chelicera Pedipalp
Silk gland (exit for eggs) receptacle
3. Myriapoda
Tubuh bersegmen (beruas) tidak mempunyai dada jadi hanya kepala
dan perut.
Pada setiap ruas perut terdapat satu pasang atau 2 pasang kaki. Pada
kepala terdapat 2 kelopak mata tunggal (ocellus), 1 pasang antena dan
alat mulut.
Susunan saraf tangga tali.
Sistem pernafasan dengan trakea
Sistem peredaran darah terbuka.
Alat kelamin jantan dan betina terpisah, cara perkembangbiakan
dengan cara bertelur.
Millipedes, class Diplopoda
Have a large number of legs
Each trunk segment
Has two pairs of legs

Centipedes, class Chilopoda


Are carnivores with jaw-
like mandibles
Have one pair of legs per
trunk segment
4. Insecta

Ciri-ciri Insecta
Tubuh : kepala, dada dan perut
Perut (abdomen) : 11 ruas atau beberapa ruas
Belalang betina, bagian belakang perut ovipositor:
meletakkan telur
Segmen pertama : alat pendengaran (membran
tympanum)
The internal anatomy of an insect
Includes several complex organ systems
The insect body has three regions: head, Cerebral ganglion. The two nerve
thorax, and abdomen. The segmentation cords meet in the head, where the
Heart. The insect heart
of the thorax and abdomen are obvious, drives hemolymph ganglia of several anterior segments
but the segments that form the head are fused. through an open are fused into a cerebral ganglion
circulatory system. (brain). The antennae, eyes, and
Abdomen Thorax Head
other sense organs are concentrated
Compound eye on the head.
Antennae
Ovary
Dorsal
artery Crop

Malpighian tubules. Metabolic wastes Anus


are removed from the hemolymph by
Vagina
excretory organs called Malpighian
tubules, which are out- pocketings of
the digestive tract.

Tracheal tubes. Gas exchange in insects is Nerve cords. The insect Insect mouthparts are formed from
accomplished by a tracheal system of branched, nervous system several pairs of modified appendages.
chitin-lined tubes that infiltrate the body and consists of a pair of The mouthparts include mandibles,
carry oxygen directly to cells. The tracheal which grasshoppers use for chewing.
ventral nerve cords
system opens to the outside of the body In other insects, mouthparts are
with several specialized for lapping, piercing, or
through spiracles, pores that can control air segmental ganglia.
flow and water loss by opening or closing. sucking.
Struktur belalang
.
Insects with complete metamorphosis
Have larval stages specialized for eating and growing that are
known by such names as maggot, grub, or caterpillar
The larval stage
Looks entirely different from the adult stage
Metamorphosis from the larval stage to the adult stage
Occurs during a pupal stage

(a) Larva (caterpillar)


(b) Pupa
(c) Pupa
(d) Emerging adult

(e) Adult
Insects are classified into about 26 orders
APPROXIMATE
ORDER NUMBER OF MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES
SPECIES

Blattodea 4,000 Cockroaches have a dorsoventrally flattened body, with legs


modified for rapid running. Forewings, when present, are
leathery, whereas hind wings are fanlike. Fewer than 40 cock- German
roach species live in houses; the rest exploit habitats ranging cockroach
from tropical forest floors to caves and deserts.

Coleoptera 350,000 Beetles comprise the most species-rich order of insects. They
have two pairs of wings, one of which is thick and leathery, the
Japanese
other membranous. They have an armored exoskeleton and
beetle
mouthparts adapted for biting and chewing. Beetles undergo
complete metamorphosis.

Dermaptera 1,200 Earwigs are generally nocturnal scavengers. While some


species are wingless, others have two pairs of wings, one of
which is thick and leathery, the other membranous. Earwigs
have biting mouthparts and large posterior pincers. They un-
dergo incomplete metamorphosis. Earwig

Diptera 151,000 Dipterans have one pair of wings; the second pair has become
modified into balancing organs called halteres. Their head is
large and mobile; their mouthparts are adapted for sucking,
piercing, or lapping. Dipterans undergo complete metamorpho- Horsefly
sis. Flies and mosquitoes are among the best-known dipterans,
which live as scavengers, predators, and parasites.

Hemiptera 85,000 Hemipterans are so-called true bugs, including bed bugs,
assassin bugs, and chinch bugs. (Insects in other orders are Leaf-
sometimes erroneously called bugs.) Hemipterans have two Footed
pairs of wings, one pair partly leathery, the other membranous. bug
They have piercing or sucking mouthparts and undergo
incomplete metamorphosis.

Hymenoptera 125,000 Ants, bees, and wasps are generally highly social insects. They
have two pairs of membranous wings, a mobile head, and
chewing or sucking mouthparts. The females of many species
have a posterior stinging organ. Hymenopterans undergo com-
plete metamorphosis.
Cicada-killer wasp

Isoptera 2,000 Termites are widespread social insects that produce enormous
colonies. It has been estimated that there are 700 kg of
termites for every person on Earth! Some termites have two
pairs of membranous wings, while others are wingless. They
feed on wood with the aid of microbial symbionts carried in
specialized chambers in their hindgut. Termite
Insects are classified into about 26 orders
APPROXIMATE
ORDER NUMBER OF MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLE
SPECIES

Lepidoptera 120,000 Butterflies and moths are among the best-known insects. They
have two pairs of wings covered with tiny scales. To feed, they
uncoil a long proboscis. Most feed on nectar, but some species
Swallowtail
feed on other substances, including animal blood or tears.
butterfly

5,000 Dragonflies and damselflies have two pairs of large, membran-


Odonata ous wings. They have an elongated abdomen, large, compound
eyes, and chewing mouthparts. They undergo incomplete meta-
morphosis and are active predators.
Dragonfly

Orthoptera 13,000 Grasshoppers, crickets, and their relatives are mostly herbi-
vorous. They have large hind legs adapted for jumping, two
pairs of wings (one leathery, one membranous), and biting or
chewing mouthparts. Males commonly make courtship sounds
by rubbing together body parts, such as a ridge on their hind
leg. Orthopterans undergo incomplete metamorphosis.
Katydid

Phasmida 2,600 Stick insects and leaf insects are exquisite mimics of plants. The
eggs of some species even mimic seeds of the plants on which the
Insects live. Their body is cylindrical or flattened dorsoventrally.
They lack forewings but have fanlike hind wings. Their Stick insect
mouthparts are adapted for biting or chewing.

Phthiraptera 2,400 Commonly called sucking lice, these insects spend their entire
life as an ectoparasite feeding on the hair or feathers of a single
Human
host. Their legs, equipped with clawlike tarsi, are adapted for
Body
clinging to their hosts. They lack wings and have reduced eyes.
louse
Sucking lice undergo incomplete metamorphosis.

Siphonaptera 2,400 Fleas are bloodsucking ectoparasites on birds and mammals.


Their body is wingless and laterally compressed. Their legs are
modified for clinging to their hosts and for long-distance
jumping. They undergo complete metamorphosis.
Flea

Thysanura 450 Silverfish are small, wingless insects with a flattened body and
reduced eyes. They live in leaf litter or under bark. They can also
infest buildings, where they can become pests.
Silverfish

Trichoptera 7,100 The larvae of caddisflies live in streams, where they make houses
from sand grains, wood fragments, or other material held to-
gether by silk. Adults have two pairs of hairy wings and chewing
or lapping mouthparts. They undergo complete metamorphosis.
Caddisfly
FILUM ECHINODERMATA
Ciri-ciri
Hidup: laut
Bergerak dengan kaki ambulakral
Simetri bilateral (larva) radial (dewasa)
Berongga tubuh sejati
Pernapasan dan ekskresi dengan papula
Unique to echinoderms is a water vascular system
A network of hydraulic canals branching into tube feet that
function in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange
A short digestive tract runs from the
mouth on the bottom of the central
disk to the anus on top of the disk.

The surface of a sea star is


Central disk. The central
Stomach Spine covered by spines that help
disk has a nerve ring and Anus defend against predators, as
nerve cords radiating from well as by small gills that
Gills
the ring into the arms. provide gas exchange.

Radial Madreporite. Water can flow


Digestive glands secrete
Gonads nerve in or out of the water vascular
digestive juices and aid in Ring
system into the surrounding
the absorption and storage canal Ampulla water through the madreporite.
of nutrients. Podium
Tube
feet

Radial canal. The water vascular Branching from each radial canal are hundreds of hollow, muscular tube
system consists of a ring canal in the feet filled with fluid. Each tube foot consists of a bulb-like ampulla and
central disk and five radial canals, suckered podium (foot portion). When the ampulla squeezes, it forces
each running in a groove down the water into the podium and makes it expand. The podium then
entire length of an arm. contacts the substrate. When the muscles in the wall of the podium
contract, they force water back into the ampulla, making the podium
shorten and bend.
Living echinoderms are divided into six classes
Struktur umum bagian tubuh bintang laut
Sea Stars
Sea stars, class Asteroidea
Have multiple arms radiating from a central disk
The undersurfaces of the arms
Bear tube feet, each of which can act like a suction disk

(a) A sea star (class Asteroidea)


Brittle Stars
Brittle stars have a distinct central disk
And long, flexible arms

(b) A brittle star (class Ophiuroidea)


Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars
Sea urchins and sand dollars have no arms
But they do have five rows of tube feet that function in
movement

(c) A sea urchin (class Echinoidea)


Feather stars Sea Cucumbers
Crawl about using their long, flexible arms

(d) A feather star (class Crinoidea)


Sea Cucumbers
Sea cucumbers
Upon first inspection do not look much like other echinoderms
Lack spines, and their endoskeleton is much reduced

(e) A sea cucumber (class Holothuroidea)


VERTEBRATA
Hewan bertulang belakang
dua pasang tungkai
Sistem respirasi : insang atau paru-paru
Memiliki notokord: kerangka berbentuk batangan keras
tetapi lentur
Kulit :epidermis dan dermis dan menghasilkan rambut,
sisik, bulu, kelenjar atau horn
KLASIFIKASI
Beberapa kelas (Super Kelas)
1. Super Kelas Pisces
2. Super kelas Tetrapoda
1. Kelas Amphibia
2. Kelas Reptilia
3. Kelas Aves
4. Kelas Mammalia
Pisces
Kelas Chondrichthyes
Mulut berahang kuat bagian bawah tubuh
Celah insang: lima, (tiga, enam, atau tujuh)
Kulit ulet dan kasar bergigi, sisik plakoid, ganoid
Klasper: hewan jantan berfungsi menyalurkan sperma
fertilisasi internal
Ovipar atau ovovivipar
Kelas Osteichthyes
Mulut bagian depan tubuh
Celah insang satu di masing-masing sisi kepala
Sirip ekor :panjang yang sama
Kulit licin
Gelembung renang
sistem gurat sisi
fertilisasi terjadi di luar
Mengeluarkan telurnya (ovipar)
Amfibi

Berkulit licin tidak bersisik


Hewan eksoterm
Katak hijau
Fertilisasi secara eksternal
Menghasilkan telur (bersifat ovipar) tidak
bercangkang
Larva bernapas dengan insang
Dewasa bernapas dengan paru-paru
Reptilia
Anggota tubuh berjari lima
Bernapas dengan paru-paru
Buaya
Hewan eksoterm
Fertilisasi secara internal
Menghasilkan telur (ovipar) telur amniotik
bercangkang
Tubuh dilapisi dengan sisik yang keras
Lepidosaurs
One surviving lineage of lepidosaurs is represented by two
species of lizard-like reptiles called tuataras
They live in islands on the outlying of New Zeland, where
rats were erradicated
The other major living lineage of lepidosaurs consists of the
squamates, the lizards and snakes
Lizards are the most numerous and diverse reptiles, apart from
birds
Snakes are legless lepidosaurs that
evolved from lizards

Wagler's pit viper

Australian thorny devil


Turtles
Turtles are the most distinctive group of reptiles alive today
All turtles have a boxlike shell made of upper and lower shields
that are fused to the vertebrae, clavicles, and ribs
Some turtles have adapted to deserts and others live entirely in
ponds and rivers

Eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina)


Alligators and Crocodiles
Crocodilians (alligators and crocodiles) belong to an archosaur
lineage that dates back to the late Triassic

American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

Crocodile (Crocodylus sp.)


Aves

Berparuh Burung pipit


Bernapas dengan paru-paru
Memiliki kantung udara
Fertilisasi terjadi secara internal
Bertelur bercangkang dan kuning telur besar
Berbulu dan sayap
Fig. 34-28

Finger 1
(b) Bone structure
Palm
(a) Wing
Finger 2
Forearm Finger 3
Wrist
Shaft
Shaft Barb
Vane
Barbule
Hook
(c) Feather structure
Flight enhances hunting and scavenging, escape from terrestrial
predators, and migration
Flight requires a great expenditure of energy, acute vision, and
fine muscle control
The Origin of Birds
Birds probably descended from small theropods, a group of carnivorous
dinosaurs
By 150 million years ago, feathered theropods had evolved into birds
Archaeopteryx remains the oldest bird known
Living Birds
Living birds belong to the clade Neornithes
Several groups of birds are flightless
The ratites, order Struthioniformes (ostrich, kiwi, rhea, emu)

Emu
Penguins, order Sphenisciformes

Spheniscus humboldti
Certain species of rails, ducks, and pigeons

flightless cormorant
from Galapagos Islands

The demands of flight have rendered the general body form of many flying birds similar
to one another
Foot structure in birds shows considerable variation
behavior also varies (mating, feeding, nest building, singing)
Mamalia
Menghasilkan susu
Berambut Kanguru

Geligi dengan berbagai ukuran dan bentuk


Bernapas dengan paru-paru
Diafragma
Endoterm dan homeoterm
Fertilisasi internal
Melahirkan anaknya (vivipar)
Klasifikasi mamalia
Bertelur (prototheria)
Berkantung (metatheria)
Berplasenta (eutheria)
Early Evolution of Mammals
Mammals evolved from synapsids in the late Triassic period
Two bones that formerly made up the jaw joint were
incorporated into the mammalian middle ear
By the early Cretaceous, the three living lineages of mammals
emerged: monotremes, marsupials, and eutherians
Mammals did not undergo a significant adaptive radiation until
after the Cretaceous
Fig. 34-31
Key

Articular
Temporal Quadrate
fenestra
Dentary
Jaw joint Squamosal

(a) In Biarmosuchus, an early synapsid, the articular and


quadrate bones formed the jaw joint.
Middle ear
Eardrum Middle ear
Eardrum Stapes Inner ear
Inner ear
Stapes
Incus (quadrate)
Sound Sound

Malleus (articular)

Present-day reptile Present-day mammal


(b) In mammals, the articular and quadrate bones are incorporated into the middle ear.
Monotremes

Monotremes are a small group of egg-laying mammals


consisting of echidnas and the platypus
Marsupials
Marsupials include opossums, kangaroos, and koalas
The embryo develops within a placenta in the mothers uterus
A marsupial is born very early in its development
It completes its embryonic development while nursing in a maternal
pouch called a marsupium
In some species, such as the bandicoot, the marsupium
opens to the rear of the mothers body

bandicoot adult
In Australia, convergent evolution has resulted in a
diversity of marsupials that resemble the eutherians in
other parts of the world

Marsupial Eutherian Marsupial Eutherian


plantigale deer mouse
wombat woodchuck

mole mole

tasmanian wolverine
devil

sugar glider flying squirrel

kangaroo patagonian cavy


Eutherians (Placental Mammals)

Compared with marsupials, eutherians have a longer


period of pregnancy
Young eutherians complete their embryonic development
within a uterus, joined to the mother by the placenta
Molecular and morphological data give conflicting dates
on the diversification of eutherians
Monotremata

ANCESTRAL Marsupialia
MAMMAL

Proboscidea
Sirenia
Tubulidentata
Hyracoidea
Afrosoricida (golden
moles and tenrecs)
Macroscelidea (elephant
shrews)
Xenarthra

Rodentia
Lagomorpha
Primates
Dermoptera (flying lemurs)
Scandentia (tree shrews)
Carnivora
Cetartiodactyla
Perissodactyla
Chiroptera
Eulipotyphla
Pholidota (pangolins)