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2016 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED 2016) Xian, 10-13 Aug, 2016

Simulation Analysis of Commutation Failure in a Multi-


infeed HVDC System

Zhou jun, Liu Chong, Zhao Jianjun

China Electric Power Research Institute, Chinese Society of Electrical Engineering

Abstract reactance of the external circuit, subscript I represent rectifier


This paper provides a detailed simulation of commutation side (j represent inverter side). Id represents the DC side current.
failures in line-commutated thyristor converters. Theoretical For a thyristor component, under normal circumstances, the
DQDO\VLVRIFRPPXWDWLRQIDLOXUHLVSUHVHQWHG,QXHQFLQJIDFWRUV voltage across the valve being turned off has to remain negative
for a certain period after the extinction of its current (denoted
(such as voltage drop, voltage decreasing velocity, phase shift
E\WKHH[WLQFWLRQDQJOH LVUHOHYDQWZLWKWKHVWUXFWXUHDQG
over zero of commutation voltage, HVDC controller) of both AC
parameters of the valve group.
system and HVDC system on commutation failure are discussed L
in this paper. Then improvement of the characterization of the
si
e x V V V
ULQJDQJOHFRQWUROLVXVHGWRDYRLGFRPPXWDWLRQIDLOXUH7KHRU\ a ci
1 3 5
I
d

validation by simulation is also given. e x


b ci V
di
e x
c ci
Index TermsHVDC transmission, commutation failure, V V V
VLPXODWLRQULQJDQJOHH[WLQFWLRQDQJOH
4 6 2

Fig.1 Equivalent circuit for three-phase full-wave bridge
I.INTRODUCTION converter
With the rapid development of HVDC transmission, more The bridge can be used for transporting power in two
and more HVDC integrated to power network. Failure of the directions, rectifier mode and inverter mode. This is achieved
commutation process is a serious malfunction in the operation by applying different firing angles to the valves. When the
of HVDC converters and is mainly caused by the ac side faults firing angle is less than 90 degrees, the dc current flows from
resulting in severe voltage drops [1-3]. AC system faults in WKHSRVLWLYHSRODULW\RIWKHGFFLUFXLWVRWKDWSRZHURZVIURP
the electrical proximity of the inverter station causing inverter WKHDFVLGHWRWKHGFVLGH:KHQWKHULQJDQJOHLVJUHDWHUWKDQ
AC bus voltage reductions in any or all phases may cause 90 degrees, the dc voltage Ud changes polarity, so that the dc
commutation failures in some or all of the connected valve FXUUHQWRZVIURPWKHQHJDWLYHSRODULW\RIWKHGFFLUFXLWDQGWKH
groups [4-5]. SRZHURZVIURPWKHGFVLGHWRWKHDFVLGH$Q+9'&V\VWHPLV
During the period of commutation failures, usually the fault essentially made up of two Graetz Bridge, which are connected
duration, the associated valve groups cannot deliver any power at the dc side, one in rectifier mode and the other in inverter
into the AC network [6]. The energy loss to the AC system mode.
during the fault is unavoidable. Continuous commutation failure Fig. 2 illustrates the work characteristics of the inverter.
will not only result in a HVDC transmission system blocking Anode (point ) of valves V2,V4, V6 are in the high potential
[7-8]. But also operating life of converter valve is more likely and the cathode of V1,V3,V5point is in a low potential.
to shorten due to the long term over current. Transformer DC 7KHFXUUHQWRZVLQWRIURPKLJKSRWHQWLDOYDOYHVDQGRZRXW
magnetic bias and resonance overvoltage will also be excited. from the low potential valves. This situation is exactly opposite
The organization of this paper is as follows. Theoretical of rectifier. The difference between rectifier and inverter is
Analysis of Commutation Failure is presented in Section II. caused by the trigger angle .At rectifier side, <90in the
Influencing factors of both AC system and HVDC system on conduction process valve V5 is substituted by V1.Voltage at
commutation failure are discussed in Section VI and V. Finally, point is positive, at the same time, V6 is conducting, voltage
brief remarks on the studies are presented in Section at point is negative.Thus positive voltage Vd is formed as
shown inFig.2.At inverter side, although t is under the range of
II. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF COMMUTATION 0~180, valve V1 is under positive voltage, the trigger pulse is
FAILURE sending out until >90, valve V5 is conduction before.Voltage at
point is negative, at the same time, V6 is conducting, voltage
The basic module of an HVDC converter is the three phase at point is positive. Thus reverse voltage Vd is formed. After
with full-wave bridge circuit shown in Fig. 1, where ea, eb and valve V1 is conduction, valve V5 will be turned off due to
ec represent the AC side phase voltage. Xci is the commutating the reverse voltage. Valve V6 is still conduction, current form

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2016 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED 2016) Xi'an, 10-13 Aug, 2016

pathway through the V6 and VI, voltage between CD and @ lII.TEST SYSTEM
is still reversed. It must notice that, when valve VI is tum on
instead ofV5, once over point C4, valve The commutation failure was investigated in Xiangjiaba to
Shanghai 800 kV HVDC transmission project. This project is
two 6400 MW HVDC links to transmit power from the hydro-
electric generation complex on the Jinsha River in Southwest
China to the Shanghai area in Eastern China. The dc link spans
1907 km from Fulong to Fengxian on China's east coast. A
model of the system along with its controls is developed in the
PSCAD/EMTDC.
Waves at point@ DC controller used is shown in Fig.3 and Fig.4. Constant
(al rectifier current control at rectifier side, constant current control and
constant extinction angle at inverter side. Setting value of is 17.

a rec

Fig.3 Constant current control at rectifier control

j1
Fig.2 Voltage curves at rectifier and inverter side /i"",
L
V'j will undertake positive voltage again.. In order to
",X_-.
-t
180 0

tum off the valve V'j correctly, the voltage across the
valve being tmned off has to remain negative for a
Fig.4 Constant current control and Constant extinction angle
certain period after the extinction of its current Control At inverter side
(denoted by the extinction angle 1)' Considering
r min is defined by simulation under this model. When the
commutation angle p., valve Vi should be triggered setting value of extinction angle y decreases from 17 to 8.4
before p at point C4(mt=1800). p=p. +y is called gradually, commutation failure does not happen. Once the setting
value of constant extinction angle y is less than 8.4, commutation
advance trigger angle. The angle of advance ~ is related in
degrees to the .~mgle of delay a ~: failure occurs. Hence r min is 8.4
Simulation shows that, in power system electromechanical
(1)
transient calculation, using r min =8 to judge commutation
The DC inverter therefore requires a minimum period failure is a bit more conservative, but it's suitable for general
of negative bias or minimum extinction angle y for forward engineering calculations.
blocking to be successful. Therefore the angle should not be
less than the minimum value O.Under actual operation, once the IV.IMPACT OF THE AC SYSTEM ON COMMUTATION
ac voltage dropping or dc current increasing due to some reason, FAILURE
commutation period will be extended. When < O,commutation
failure occurs. Commutation failures happen if the commutation of current
Commutation angle under symmetry situation can be also from one valve to another has not been completed before the
calculated. Its theoretical value depends on a, the DC current Id, commutating voltage reverses across the ongoing valve. This
UL and the commutation reactance XC: results in a short circuit across the valve group. The basic reason
for commutation failures is that the extinction angle during
y = arccos(.,fiKIdX c I U L + cos f3) (2) system disturbance is too small. The ac system fault affects the
commutation margin by voltage magnitude reduction, increased
When unbalanced fault OCCl.lTS, commutation overlap due to higher dc current, and phase angle shifts.
angle y can be obtained as fo1lows: The impact of the AC system on commutation failure will be
investigated from the following three aspects.
r= arccos( .J2KIdxc I UL + cosP) - q> (3) A.lmpact of the Voltage Drop of Converter Bus on
Commutation failure
K represents ratio of the converter ttansfonner, Two aspects are considered: voltage amplitude drops and the
Ul is the valid value of line voltage of converter bus. voltage decreasing velocity. First, through changing placement
of the ac fault to get a group of change values of the amplitude
t) is the phase shift over the zero point of converter bus voltage, meanwhile the voltage decreasing
velocity (the voltage drops to the time required at an certain
amplitude) can be obtained through the simulation of different

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2016 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED 2016) Xi'an, 10-13 Aug, 2016

types offaults. Simulation shows that if the ac system is strong, voltage


support is also strong under same fault. But under these three
Simulation results are as follows: When voltage short circuit current levels, voltage at inverter converter bus
IS decreased to 0.85 p.u. Tvc is 0.065 p.u!ms, is still dropped to 0.7p.u. Although the ac system is strong, it
still exist the risk of commutation failure when ac fault occurs.
commutation failure occurs, Tif is 28ms. When Simulation results are consistent with actual experiments.
voltage is decreased to 0.80 p.u. Tvc is 0.045 p.u!ms,
commutation failure occurs, Tif is 37ms. When
voltage is decreased to 0.7 p.u. Tvc is 0.028 p.u!ms,
commutation failure occurs, Tif is 41ms. Tif
represents the duration of commutation failure. Tvc
represents the voltage decreasing velocity of
commutation failure.

Fig.5 The impact of the voltage drop of converter bus on


commutation failure
Simulation shows that: When ac system occurs
fault, the more voltage amplitude drops, the more
commutation failure happens. Tif increases with the
decline of the voltage amplitude. When the voltage
decreased to a certain value, commutation failure is
more likely to occur with a big value of T vc.
B. Impact of Short Current Level of Ac System
c.Jmpact of Phase Shift Over Zero of Commutation Voltage
at Inverter Side on Commutationfailure
When ac network occur unbalanced fault, except for the
AC system strength can be characterized by its voltage drop in the commutation process, phase shift over zero
short circuit current level, big short circuit current of commutation voltage will also affect the commutation failure.
Taking phase A to ground fault for example, the duration of fault
value represents a strong system. Three levels of is O.ls. (a), (b), (c) represent without fault, fault is far away
from the inverter station, fault at inverter station respectively.
short-circuit current are used: 40kA, 52kA, 63kA. Simulation results are as follows;
In Fig.6(b), when fault is far away from the inverter station,
52kA is the actual short circuit current level. The
when voltage drops to 0.755p.u, commutation failure occurs, Tef
same three phase to ground fault simulation was is 47ms.
In Fig.6(c), when fault is at the inverter station, when
made under these three different levels of voltage drops to 0.617p.u, commutation failure occurs, Tef is
52ms.
short-circuit current Impact of short current level of Compared (b), (c) with (a), it shows that the more close to
ac system on commutation failure is shown in Tab. I the inverter station, the more impact on commutation failure.

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2016 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED 2016) Xi'an, 10-13 Aug, 2016

V.IMPACT OF THE HVDC SYSTEM ON COMMUTATION


FAILURE

A. Impact ofDc Current on Commutation Failure


When Xiangjiaba to Shanghai HVDC operate under normal
condition, the setting value of extinction angle y is 17. If the
DC current was increased suddenly. commutation failure will
happen. Simulation results made on EMTDC program are as
follows:
After Xiangjiaba to Shanghai HVDC occurs bipolar
blocking, DC current of Xiyou-Jinhua HVDC increased to I.OSp.
u. Commutation failure did not occur.
After Xiangjiaba to Shanghai HVDC occurs bipolar
blocking, DC current of Xiyou-Jinhua HVDC increased to 1.1 p.
u. Commutation failure occurs.
The above analysis shows that when the distance between
the converter stations is short, if one HVDC occurs bipolar
blocking. DC current will increase. Nearby HVDC is more likely
to commutation failure.
B.Jmpact of Control and Protection of HVDC on
Commutation failure
Actual control and protection system achieved control
through adjusting the firing angle. When an inverter station
occurs AC fault. voltage dips. extinction angle y decreases and
DC current increases. At this time, is increased to decrease
dc current at rectifier side andis reduced to provide enough
commutation margin. Impact of control and protection of HVDC
on commutation failure include two aspects as follows:
Advanced firing angle
Fig.6 Response of phase A to ground fault When three phase to ground fault is far away from the
Abcn."l! ~~s shov.'5 that when pbaSf' A to inverter station, converter bus voltage drops to O.SOp.u.
commutation failure occurs as shown in Fig.7(a).DC current is
ground &mt OCCur~L 1bree phaSf' voltage M~ increased to above 1.6p.u.
If the advanced firing angleis emergency promoted to 4S and
asymme1Jy. IntfSeCboo ~ phase A and phase lasting for 30ms as shown in Fig.7(b). DC current is only up to
B will shift 6xv,'ard. The more dose to me :tDv"trtes 1.3p.u. Commutation failure did not happen.
As shown in figure that advanced firing angle emergency
'taUOd, the more- voltage droppws of phase A valve promoting will help prevent commutation failure. but it should
be noticed that increasing will also increase the reactive power
Pi and Pi. Y.t and ~ :au men (iholy to bappm demand of the inverter station, the voltage at inverter station will
COOUWItaUOO f'.ai1uR.. further decrease. thus the promoting of should not too big.

Foc ~ same reason, when phase B [0 ground


DuLt 0CC'\l.fS. Tbroee pba~ voltage :are :a.symm.dJy.
I.nkrsertioo be~m phasr B and ph~ C will shift
bward. The more clost!' to the inverk:r station. the
mOR voltage droppin~ of plusc B. Val..~ Y3 3lld ~ ,
V. and ~ :an- more lIkdy to bappnl commtbtioo
&il.uce. "When ph:a5(! C to gromd f.w1t OCCUJ'S. Valve
p; and v., ~ and Pi are ~ likdy 10 happen
CODlIWIbUOO f.a.ilur"e.
Alxn.-e analysis showfi that when the AC sya.k:m
occuc a !illI~k phast gOlWd faull, dte two vaJ\'ero
connected to the- bulted pJusr. are mote lihty to
commutauon f.ailuce.

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2016 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED 2016) Xian, 10-13 Aug, 2016

Essentially, changing the characterization of the firing


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after failure to reached angle decreases rapidly in order to
increase the angle to avoid commutation failure.

VI.CONCLUSION
(d)Gamma
,QXHQFLQJIDFWRUVRIERWK$&V\VWHPDQG+9'&V\VWHP
on commutation failure are analyzed in this paper. Including
voltage drop, the voltage decreasing velocity, phase shift
over zero point of commutation voltage. Simulation shows
that voltage drops caused by ac fault is the main reason
for commutation failure. When ac system occurs fault,
the more voltage amplitude drops, the more commutation
(e) E at inverter side failure happens. Tcf increases with the decline of the voltage
awithoutpromotionbwith promotion amplitude.
Fig.7 Response of HVDC during three phase to groud which far When voltage is decreased to 0.85 p.u. Tvc is 0.065 p.u/
away from inverter station ms, commutation failure occurs, T cf is 28ms. Simulation
shows that, in power system electromechanical transient
ULQJDQJOHFRQWUROFKDUDFWHULVWLFDWLQYHUWHUVLGH FDOFXODWLRQXVLQJmin=8 to judge commutation failure is a
Firing angle control belongs to fast control of HVDC. bit more conservative, but its suitable for general engineering
,PSDFWRIULQJDQJOHRQFRPPXWDWLRQIDLOXUHFDQEHVLPXODWHG calculations.
DVIROORZV Impact of control and protection of HVDC on commutation
When three phases to ground fault occurs far away from the failure is also investigated. As shown in figures that
inverter station, commutation failure happens as shown in Fig.8. DGYDQFHGULQJDQJOHHPHUJHQF\SURPRWLQJZLOOKHOSSUHYHQW
The original firing angle control characteristic curve is commutation failure. but it should be noticed that increasing
divided into five segments. Remaining segment 3-5 the same. will also increase the reactive power demand of the inverter
Changing the control characteristic of segment 1 and 2, firing station, the voltage at inverter station will further decrease,
angle is shift from start at segment 15.2027s, 142 to end at thus the promoting of should not too big.
segment 2 (5.2056s,138). Segment 1 and 2 are combined into
one segment, the transition process of 1-2 was removed. At this REFERENCE
time commutation failure did not happen as shown in Fig.9.
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HVDC Systems, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 11, no 2,
Apr. 1996. pp. 946-957.
[2] Zou G, Jianchao Z, Xiangxum C, Study on Commutation
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[3] Thallam R S, Review of the Design and Performance
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2016 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED 2016) Xian, 10-13 Aug, 2016

1121-1128.
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Zhou Jun (1982- ) received the the M.Sc. degree from the
HuaZhong University of Science and Technology in 2008 and
P.h.D. degree in 2008. Now he is doing his study in China
Electric Power Research Institute. His research interests are in
power system analysis as well as power system simulation.

liu Chong (1982- ) received the the M.Sc. degree from the
China Electric Power Research Institute in 2009. Now she is
doing his study in China Electric Power Research Institute. Her
research interests are in power system analysis as well as power
system simulation.

Zhao Jianjun (1970- ) received the P.h.D. degree from the


China Electric Power Research Institute in 2005. Now he is
doing his study in Chinese Society of Electrical Engineering. His
research interests are in power system operation and control.

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