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UniSim Flare

Getting Started Guide


Copyright
November 2010 R400 Release

The information in this help file is subject to change over time. Honeywell may make
changes to the requirements described. Future revisions will incorporate changes,
including corrections of typographical errors and technical inaccuracies.

For further information please contact

Honeywell
300-250 York Street
London, Ontario
N6A 6K2
Telephone: (519) 679-6570
Facsimile: (519) 679-3977

Copyright Honeywell 2010. All rights reserved.

Prepared in Canada.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction ......................................................... 1-1
1.1 Introduction .................................................... 1-2
1.2 Overview ........................................................ 1-2

2 Developing the Model ........................................... 2-1


2.1 Overview ........................................................ 2-2
2.2 Data Requirements........................................... 2-2
2.3 Opening the Old Model...................................... 2-6
2.4 Updating the Model .......................................... 2-7
2.5 Defining the Scenarios .................................... 2-14
2.6 Defining the Sources....................................... 2-16
2.7 Design Calculations ........................................ 2-23

1
2
Introduction 1-1

1 Introduction

1.1 Introduction .................................................................................. 2


1.1.1 Related Documentation............................................................. 2

1.2 Overview ....................................................................................... 2


1.2.1 Data Requirements .................................................................. 2
1.2.2 Starting UniSim Flare ............................................................... 5
1.2.3 Starting a New Case................................................................. 6
1.2.4 Saving the Case....................................................................... 8
1.2.5 Building the Pipe Network ......................................................... 9
1.2.6 Defining the Scenarios.............................................................20
1.2.7 Defining the Sources ...............................................................23
1.2.8 Rating the Network .................................................................30
1.2.9 Printing Data and Results .........................................................33

1-1
1-2 Introduction

1.1 Introduction
The guide provides a step instructions to the most commonly used
features within UniSim Flare intended for process and process systems
engineers.

1.1.1 Related Documentation


Title Content
UniSim Flare Reference Reference guide for using UniSim Flare.
Guide

1.2 Overview
This Getting Started tutorial shows the fundamental principles involved
in using UniSim Flare to design and rate a new flare system. The
"guided tour" will expose you to most of the major features of UniSim
Flare.

This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the use of Windows and
have some prior experience in the design of flare systems.

The example consists of the following main parts:


1. Building The Pipe Network - Pipes and nodes will be added using
either the PFD or the Manager views.
2. Defining the Scenarios - Different scenarios will be set up to
simulate various process conditions.
3. Defining The Sources - Relieving sources will be added to each
scenario.
4. Sizing the Network - Finally, the pipe network will be simulated
and results will be viewed both in textual and graphical form.

1.2.1 Data Requirements


Before you can start to build a computer model of the flare header
system, you must first define all the data that will determine your
system.

1-2
Introduction 1-3

Pipe Segment Data


When you are sizing a
flare system, the initial Data Description
pipe diameters may affect
the solution when there is Connectivity You would normally have prepared a system
a liquid phase and the sketch that defines the nodes to which the pipe
liquid knockout drum is segments are connected.
modeled. You should Length and fittings loss These will be based upon either a preliminary or
initially size a network coefficients for each pipe detailed isometric drawing of the piping.
using vapor phase segment
methods. Diameter and pipe schedule If you are rating an existing network, these will
for each pipe segment normally be taken from the flare system P&ID. If
you are sizing a new flare system, the pipe
diameters that you define are relatively
unimportant since they will be overwritten by the
sizing algorithms. It is recommended that
reasonable diameters be defined, so that the
sizing algorithm initializes to a condition that will
give faster convergence.

The following diagram shows the connectivity of the system that you
will be designing in this example.

Figure 1.1

The piping in the network diagram is detailed in the following table:

Internal Wall Elevation


Length Fittings
Item Diameter Thickness change
(m) Loss
(mm) (mm) (m)
Flare Tip 3.0 0
Stack 100 876.3 19.05 0 100
Header 3 50 986.3 19.05 0 0
Tail Pipe 1 25 428.65 14.275 0 0
Tail Pipe 2 25 428.65 14.275 0 0

The flare tip is not a pipe segment, but rather a node that represents a
zero length piece of pipe with defined fittings loss coefficients. Since the
internal diameter is not specified it will assume the same diameter as

1-3
1-4 Overview

the upstream pipe segment. Fittings loss coefficients for the flare tip
exclude pipe enlargement and junction losses for the connect to the
upstream pipe which will automatically be calculated.

Relief Source Data


The following data must be specified for the sources:

Data Description
Flow and These may vary for each scenario that you are evaluating.
Composition If a relief source is not used in a particular scenario the flow
may be set to zero. The Flow refers to the quantity of fluid
that the source valve must pass as a consequence of the
plant upset condition. The Rated Flow refers to the quantity
of fluid that the source valve will pass due to its physical
construction. Rated flow must always be greater than or
equal to flow.
Maximum allowable This is the maximum pressure that can exist at the outlet of
Back Pressure the device (source) without affecting its capacity.
(MABP)
Downstream This temperature is used as the pressure independent
temperature temperature at which the source enters the network. This
temperature is used when ideal gas enthalpies are used to
calculate the heat balance, or as an initial guess when any
other enthalpy method is used.
Upstream pressure These are only used if Ideal Gas enthalpies are not used for
and temperature the heat balance. These may vary for each scenario that
you are evaluating. With relief valves, the flowing pressure
should be used.
Discharge flange size This will normally be determined from the relief valve sizing
calculations. If this value is unknown then the field should
be left empty to ignore the pressure change from the valve
to the downstream pipe due to the swage.

In this example, you will consider three scenarios that represent one
fire case and two single blocked discharge cases. The following tables
define the source data for each scenario.

Default Source Data


Flange
Flowrate US temp DS Temp US Pres. MABP
Source Name Size Mol Wt.
(kg/hr) (C) (C) (bar abs) (bar abs)
(mm)
Source 1 100000 300 20 15 15 10 5.0
Source 2 100000 300 25 15 15 10 5.0

Source 1 is a control valve while Source 2 is a relief valve.

1-4
Introduction 1-5

Source 1 Only Data


Flange
Flowrate US temp DS Temp US Pres. MABP
Source Name Size Mol Wt.
(kg/hr) (C) (C) (bar abs) (bar abs)
(mm)
Source 1 100000 300 20 15 15 10 5.0
Source 2 0 300 25 15 15 10 5.0

Source 2 Only Data


Flange
Flowrate US temp DS Temp US Pres. MABP
Source Name Size Mol Wt.
(kg/hr) (C) (C) (bar abs) (bar abs)
(mm)
Source 1 0 300 20 15 15 10 5.0
Source 2 100000 300 25 15 15 10 5.0

System Design Constraints


In this case, the following data is used for both Scenarios:
Maximum allowable mach number - 0.50 for both main headers
and tailpipes.
Maximum allowable noise - 100 dB for both main headers and
tailpipes.

1.2.2 Starting UniSim Flare


The installation process creates a short-cut to UniSim Flare in the Start
menu under Programs > Honeywell to start UniSim Flare.
1. Select the Start menu.
2. Navigate to and click UniSim Flare under Programs >
Honeywell > UniSim Flare Rxxx.

Now you are ready to begin working with UniSim Flare.

When you start UniSim Flare, the UniSim Flare Desktop appears. Before
setting up the Getting Started case, you should choose the UniSim
Flare units set for displaying information. You can check your current
units set by accessing the Preferences Editor:
1. Select File > Preferences and the Preferences Editor view will
open.
2. The current unit set is shown in the Units drop-down list. The
UniSim Flare default is Metric, which will be used for this example.
3. Confirm that the Edit Objects on Add checkbox is active
(checked). This option will open the object editor view each time a
new object is added.
4. Click the OK button to close the Preferences Editor view.

1-5
1-6 Overview

1.2.3 Starting a New Case


To start a new case, do one of the following:
1. Select File-New on the main program menu bar.
2. Click the New Case icon.
The Description Editor view appears.
3. Enter the appropriate data into the User Name, Job Code,
Project, and Description fields.

Figure 1.2

4. Click the OK button.


The Component Manager view then appears.

The Selected list is Figure 1.3


empty, indicating that no
components have yet
been installed in the case.

There are number of ways to select components for your simulation.


One method is to filter the database for a certain component type. In
this model, we will be using the following components: Methane,
Ethane and Propane.

1-6
Introduction 1-7

To add methane using the filter option:


1. Ensure that the HC checkbox in the Component Types group is
activated.
2. Start typing methane in the Selection Filter field. Notice that as
you are typing, the Database list will be filtered out to show only
the matching components.
3. Double click Methane in the Database list. Methane will now have
been selected and will be shown in the Selected list.
Initially, all the
checkboxes in the
Component Types group Figure 1.4
are active. You can
deactivate them by
clicking the Invert
button.

4. Repeat the previous step with Ethane and Propane. As an


alternative method, you may scroll through the Database list until
you see the desired component. Highlight the component by single
clicking on it and then click Add to place it in the Selected
Components list.

Notice that now all the


required components are
shown in the Selected
Components list,
indicating that they have
been installed in the case.

1-7
1-8 Overview

This Component Manager view will now appear as follows:

Figure 1.5

5. Click OK to close the Component Manager view and accept the list
of components.
6. Open the View menu and then the Data sub-menu. Select
Components from the sub-menu. The Components data view will
be displayed:

Figure 1.6

1.2.4 Saving the Case


You can use the
horizontal scroll bar at
It is good practice to periodically save your case by doing one of the
the bottom of the view to following:
view all of the component
properties. Click the Save icon on the toolbar.
Select File-Save from the menu bar.
Press Ctrl S.

As this is the first time you have saved your case, the Save UniSim
Flare Model view will be displayed.

1-8
Introduction 1-9

After selecting an appropriate disk drive and directory in the Save in


drop-down menu, enter the name of the file to which you want to save
the case in the File name field.

Note: You do not need to include the .ufnw extension;


UniSim Flare will add it automatically.

Click Save to close the view and save the file.

1.2.5 Building the Pipe Network


Since all scenarios have a common pipe network, you should first build
the pipe network model via the PFD.

Before proceeding any Click the Open PFD View icon on the toolbar. The PFD view will be
further, make sure that
the Edit Objects on Add displayed with its own toolbar.
checkbox on the General
tab of the Preferences Figure 1.7
Editor view is checked.

At this point the view should be blank, since we have not added a single
object yet.

The desired objects can be added by using either of the following


methods:

1-9
1-10 Overview

Clicking the Toggle Palette Display icon on the PFD view or


pressing the F4 key will open the Toolbox view, which displays
all the objects available in UniSim Flare. You can add an object
by clicking on it.

Figure 1.8

Objects can also be added via the Pipe Manager and the Node
Manager views. These are accessible through Pipes... and
Nodes... in the Build menu, respectively.

For the Flare Tip, click the Flare Tip icon on the Toolbox view. Since the
Edit Objects on Add checkbox is selected, the Flare Tip Editor view
will be displayed:

Figure 1.9

The fittings loss


coefficient basis should
be set to Total Pressure to
indicate that the loss
coefficient we are
defining will calculate the
pressure loss in the flare
tip including the velocity By default the Flare Tip has been named as 1, which can be changed to
pressure loss.
a more appropriate name as follows:

1-10
Introduction 1-11

1. Click in the Name field on the Flare Tip Editor view.


2. Delete the default name and type Flare Tip as the new name.
Since this example is of smaller size, the Location field will be left
blank. This field is only useful for larger cases with multiple sections
(areas) within a same plant. Now you need to specify the pipe,
which will be simulated as a flare stack, and it is attached to the
Tip.
3. Enter the name Stack in the Inlet field.
4. In the At drop-down list, select Downstream as the pipe end
connected to the Tip.
In order to complete the Flare Tip Editor view, you need to specify
the Diameter and the Fitting Loss values on the Calculations
tab.
5. On the Calculations tab, enter 876.3 as the diameter and 3 as the
fitting loss in the appropriate fields.

Figure 1.10

Now you have provided all the necessary information about the Tip.
6. Click OK to close the view.
Notice that two new objects have been added to the PFD view.
These may be drawn one on top of the other so you should either
manually arrange them by clicking and dragging the object icons or
let UniSim Flare auto-arrange the icons by selecting View-PFD-
Regenerate.
7. Open the Stack property view and move to the Dimensions tab.
8. Specify the Length as 100 m and the Elevation Change as 100
m.
This will result in a vertical pipe measuring 100 m tall.

1-11
1-12 Overview

9. Select the Nominal Diameter as 36 inch and the pipe Schedule as


40.

Figure 1.11

The default methods, as


defined in the Calculation 10. On the Methods tab, confirm that Vertical Pipe and VLE Method
Options Editor view, are set as default models.
should be Isothermal
Vapor Pressure Drop, In this example, every pipe segment uses the default models which
and Compressible Gas are specified on the Methods tab of the Calculation Options Editor
VLE.
view.
11. Click OK to close the Stack property view.
Now you need to add another pipe segment which will be added
using the Pipe Manager view.

1-12
Introduction 1-13

12. Select Build-Pipes from the menu bar. The Pipe Manager view will
be displayed.

Figure 1.12

13. Click the Add button.


The Pipe Editor property view will be displayed.

Figure 1.13

14. Change the default name to Header 3.

1-13
1-14 Overview

15. Move to the Dimensions tab and enter the following data in the
appropriate fields:

Field Value
Length (m) 50
Nominal diameter (inch) 36
Pipe Schedule 40

16. Click OK to close the Pipe Editor view.


17. Close the Pipe Manager view by clicking the OK button.
You need to attach Header 3 with Stack using a node. UniSim
Flare allows you to choose between a variety of nodes, since you
need a simple connection between the two pipes, a Connector node
will be used.
18. On the PFD Toolbox view click on the Connector icon.
This will open the Connector Editor view.

Figure 1.14

19. On the Connections tab, enter the new name as Con 1.


20. In the Downstream drop-down list, select Stack and specify the
connection at Upstream (of Stack) in the At drop-down list.
21. In the Upstream drop-down list, select Header 3 and specify the
connection at Downstream (of Header 3) in the At drop-down
list.

1-14
Introduction 1-15

22. Move to the Calculations tab.

Figure 1.15

Notice that by default the Angle has a value of 90 deg and the
Fitting Loss Method is set as Calculated. These and the other
entries may be left at their default values for this example.
23. Click the OK button to close the Connector Editor view.
Now, a tee will be added, using the Node Manager, to combine the
flow from the two sources.
24. Select Build-Nodes. The Node Manager view will be displayed.

Figure 1.16

25. Click the Add button and Select Tee from the pop up list.

1-15
1-16 Overview

The Tee Editor will be displayed.

Figure 1.17

26. Change the default name to Tee 1 in the Name field.


27. Specify the Downstream connection to be Header 3 and select
Upstream from the At drop-down list.
28. Move to the Calculations tab and change the Fittings Loss
Methods setting to Miller in the drop-down list. The remaining
fields may be left at their default values.
29. Close the Tee Editor property view by clicking the OK button.
30. Click OK to close the Node Manager view.
Now, you can add two pipe segments to the upstream and branch
section of Tee 1 using the Pipe Manager view.

1-16
Introduction 1-17

31. Open the Pipe Manager view by selecting Build-Pipes.

Figure 1.18

32. Click the Add button to add a new pipe segment.


33. Change the default pipe name to Tail Pipe 1.
34. Specify Tee 1 as the Downstream connection and select Branch
in the At drop-down list.

Note: Setting the tailpipe option to Yes will cause the


pressure drop to be calculated using the rated flows rather
than the actual flow. For this pipe which is a tail pipe to a
control valve source, the rated flow and actual flow will be
the same so the setting of this option will have no effect.

1-17
1-18 Overview

Figure 1.19

35. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 25 m.


36. Set Nominal Diameter as 18 inch from the drop-down list.
37. Click Next to add another pipe segment.
Notice that Tail Pipe 1 has been added to the Pipe Manager list.
38. Change the new pipe segment default name to Tail Pipe 2.
39. Specify Tee 1 as the Downstream connection and select
Upstream in the At drop-down list. Since this pipe is a tail pipe for
a relief valve set the Tailpipe option to Yes.
40. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 25 m.

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Introduction 1-19

41. Set Nominal Diameter as 18 inch from the drop-down list.

Figure 1.20

42. Click the OK button to close the Pipe Editor property view.
43. Close the Pipe Manager view by clicking the OK button.

You can also open the Select Data-Pipes from the View menu on the menu bar. The Pipes
Pipes view by clicking the
Open Pipe Tabular
view displays the data for all of the pipe segments:
View icon.
Figure 1.21

You could also check the PFD to ensure that the proper connections

1-19
1-20 Overview

have been made. A portion of the PFD is displayed below:

Figure 1.22

1.2.6 Defining the Scenarios


You now need to define the data for the entire scenario, the Default
Scenario, Source 1 Only and Source 2 Only scenarios. Since each
case must contain at least one scenario, a set of default scenario data is
created when you start a new case. We need to modify this data.
1. Select Scenarios from the Build menu on the menu bar.

The Scenario Manager view will be displayed.

Figure 1.23

1-20
Introduction 1-21

2. Double click Default Scenario in the Scenario list.

Figure 1.24

3. The Scenario Editor view will be displayed. Alternatively, you could


select Default Scenario in the Scenario list then click Edit.
Update the Headers Mach Number limit on the Constraints page
for the Default Scenario scenario as shown in Figure 1.25, then
click OK to close the Edit Scenario view and return to the Scenario
Manager.

Figure 1.25

Now we should add the data for the Source 1 Only scenario.

1-21
1-22 Overview

4. Click Add on the Scenario Manager. The Clone Scenario From


view will be displayed.

Figure 1.26

5. Select the only entry in the view, i.e. Default Scenario scenario.
6. On the General tab change the default name to Source 1 Only and
enter the data for the Source 1 Only scenario as shown in Figure
1.27.

Figure 1.27

7. To add a new scenario click Next on the Scenario Editor and select
the Source 1 Only scenario from the Clone Scenario From view.

1-22
Introduction 1-23

8. Change the default name for the new scenario to Source 2 Only.

Figure 1.28

9. Enter the data for the new scenario as shown in Figure 1.29.

Figure 1.29

10. Click OK to close the Scenario Editor view and return to the
Scenario Manager, then click OK to close the Scenario Manager.

1.2.7 Defining the Sources


You will now enter the source data for the sources in all scenarios.
Since for the first part of the example you will be defining the source
compositions in terms of molecular weight, the program preferences

1-23
1-24 Overview

must be set to accept the compositions on this basis.


1. Select Preferences from the File menu on the menu bar. The
Preferences view will be displayed.

Figure 1.30

Ensure that Mol. Wt. is selected in the Composition Basis drop-


down list on the Defaults tab.

Figure 1.31

2. Click OK to close the Preferences Editor view.


Before defining a set of source data, you must select the scenario

1-24
Introduction 1-25

which corresponds to this data. You will start by defining the data
for the Default Scenario.
3. Select the Default Scenario scenario from the drop-down list on
the main Toolbar. Any open data views would now display data for
this scenario.
You can now add the data corresponding to this scenario for each
source.
4. Select Nodes from the Build menu on the main menu bar (ALT B
N). The Node Manager view will be displayed:

Figure 1.32

5. Click Add and select Control Valve from the pop up list.

Figure 1.33

1-25
1-26 Overview

The Control Valve Editor view will be displayed:

Figure 1.34

6. Change the default name to Source 1. Select Tail Pipe 1 in the


Outlet drop-down list and set connection to be at Upstream (of
Tail Pipe 1).

Figure 1.35

1-26
Introduction 1-27

7. Move to the Conditions tab and set the Mass Flow as 100000 kg/
hr. In this example, the inlet pressure and temperatures are the
same as the default values but this will not normally be the case.
The Mole Fractions are
automatically estimated
from the Molecular Figure 1.36
Weight. Because HC is
selected from the drop-
down list, only
hydrocarbon components
will be used to match the
Molecular Weight.

8. On the Composition tab, specify the Mol. Wt. to be 20. Once you
have entered the Mol. Wt. and tabbed to the next field you will
notice the composition will be calculated to give the required Mol.
Wt.

Figure 1.37

9. Click OK.

1-27
1-28 Overview

10. If the Node Manager is not displayed, click Build-Nodes from the
toolbar. The Node Manager will again be displayed.
11. Select Relief Valve from the Add pop up menu and the Relief Valve
view will be displayed.
12. Name the new source as Source 2 on the Connections tab.
13. Select Tail Pipe 2 in the Outlet drop-down list and set connection
to be at Upstream (of Tail Pipe 2).

Figure 1.38

14. On the Conditions tab, check that the relief valve set pressure or
MAWP is set to the default value of 10 bar which is correct for this
source. Select the Auto checkbox next to the Relieving pressure
field. This tells UniSim Flare to calculate the relieving pressure from
the MAWP and the selected Contingency, which should be left as
Operating in this case. Check that the relieving pressure is
calculated as 10.89 bar.
15. Still on the Conditions tab, check that the MABP is set to 5.0 bar.
Then enter the required mass flow rate for this source of 100000
kg/ hr. Select the Auto checkbox next to the Rated flow field. This
tells UniSim Flare to calculate the rated flow for the valve from the
specified fluid conditions and properties, valve type and orifice area.
16. Still on the Conditions tab, use the drop-down list next to the
Orifice area field to select orifice code T. Check that the orifice area
is updated to 16774 mm2 and notice the rated flow calculation is
updated to reflect the increased orifice area.

1-28
Introduction 1-29

17. On the Composition tab specify the molecular weight of the fluid to
be 25. When you tab away from this field, UniSim Flare will
calculate the composition of the fluid from the mole weight. Click
back on the Conditions tab to confirm that the Rated flow
calculation has been updated to give a rated flow.

Figure 1.39

18. Click OK to close the Relief Valve Editor view.


The Node Manager view will now appear as follows:

Figure 1.40

1-29
1-30 Overview

19. Close the Node Manager view by clicking the OK button.


20. Select Data-Sources from the View menu on the menu bar.
The Sources data view for the Default Scenario will be displayed:

Figure 1.41

You must now add the source data for the other two scenarios.
21. Select the Source 1 Only scenario from the Scenario Selector
drop-down list on the toolbar (to the right of the icons). Any open
data views will now display data for this scenario.
22. Make the following changes to the flowrates in the Source 1 Only
Scenario (all other information remains the same):
Source 1 - 100000 kg/hr
Source 2 - 0 kg/hr
Finally reselect the Default Scenario from the Scenario Selector.
23. Next, select the Source 2 Only scenario from the Scenario
Selector drop-down list on the tool bar (to the right of the icons)
and make the following changes to the Source 2 Only:
Source 1 - 0 kg/hr
Source 2 - 100000 kg/hr
Finally reselect the Default Scenario from the Scenario Selector.

1.2.8 Rating the Network


We have now entered all the model data and can now make the sizing
calculations. We will need to set the calculation options before starting
the calculations.
1. Select Options from the Calculation menu on the menu bar. The

1-30
Introduction 1-31

Calculation Options Editor view will be displayed:

Figure 1.42

2. For this example we are going to use the default methods and
settings defined when UniSim Flare creates a new model. This
includes the following key options:
On the General tab, Calculation Mode should be set to
Rating, Enable Heat Transfer checkbox should be cleared,
Include Kinetic Energy checkbox should be cleared.
On the Scenarios tab, Calculate should be set to All
Scenarios.
On the Methods tab, the VLE Method should be set to
Compressible Gas, the Enthalpy Method to Ideal Gas and
all pressure drop methods to Isothermal Gas.
Click OK.
You can now start the calculations.

1-31
1-32 Overview

3. Select Calculate from the Calculation menu on the menu bar


(ALT C C or CTRL R). Alternatively, you could click the Calculate
icon.

Figure 1.43

Once the calculations are complete you can review the results.
4. Select Results-Messages from the View menu on the menu bar.
The Messages data view will be displayed.

The Problems tab may Figure 1.44


list mach number
violations. These
problems can be fixed by
doing design calculations
for the network but for
this example we will
ignore the problem.

The above view contains general information and warning messages


regarding the calculations.
5. Select Source 1 Only from the Scenario selector.
6. Click Pressure/Flow Summary icon on the toolbar.

The Pressure/Flow Summary view will be displayed:

Figure 1.45

With the Pressure/Flow Summary view open, select each scenario in

1-32
Introduction 1-33

turn using the Scenario selector on the toolbar.

Note: In the scenario Source 1 Only, the mach number


problem on Tail Pipe 1 is automatically highlighted.

7. At this point save the model using either the Save icon from the
main Toolbar or the File-Save menu option.

1.2.9 Printing Data and Results


To print data and results:
1. Select File-Print from the menu bar. The Print menu will be
displayed.
2. Click on the appropriate checkboxes to select the items that you
want to print. Also check the All Scenarios checkbox to print the
results for all of the scenarios instead of just the current scenario. If
you want to print to a file, check the Print To Text File checkbox,
then select the file type from the Text File Type drop-down list.
3. Click OK.

1-33
1-34 Overview

1-34
Developing the Model 2-1

2 Developing the Model

2.1 Overview ....................................................................................... 2

2.2 Data Requirements ........................................................................ 2


2.2.1 Pipe Segment Data .................................................................. 2
2.2.2 Relief Source Data ................................................................... 4
2.2.3 System Design Constraints........................................................ 6

2.3 Opening the Old Model................................................................... 6

2.4 Updating the Model........................................................................ 7

2.5 Defining the Scenarios..................................................................14

2.6 Defining the Sources.....................................................................16


2.6.1 Sizing the Network ..................................................................21

2.7 Design Calculations ......................................................................23

2-1
2-2 Overview

2.1 Overview
In this Getting Started tutorial you will change the network designed in
Getting Started to model the tie-in of two new control valves into our
current system. The modified system will be simulated for two new
scenarios, one each for the new sources.

This tutorial is a This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the use of Windows and
continuation of the one in
Getting Started and
have some prior experience in the design of flare systems.
requires that you complete
that tutorial before This example consists of the following main parts:
continuing with this one.
1. Building The Pipe Network - Pipes and nodes will be added using
either the PFD or the Manager views.
2. Defining the Scenarios - Different scenarios will be set up to
simulate various process conditions.
3. Defining The Sources - Relieving sources will be added to each
scenario.
4. Sizing the Network - Finally, the pipe network will be simulated
and results will be viewed both in textual and graphical form.

2.2 Data Requirements


Before you can start to upgrade a computer model of the existing flare
header system, you must first define all the data that will determine
your system.

2.2.1 Pipe Segment Data


Data Description
Connectivity You would normally have prepared a system
sketch that defines the nodes to which the new
pipe segments are connected.
When you are sizing a
flare system, the initial Length and fittings loss These will be based upon either a preliminary or
pipe diameters may affect coefficients for new pipe detailed isometric drawing of the piping.
the solution when there is segment
a liquid phase and the Diameter and pipe schedule If you are rating an existing network, these will
liquid knockout drum is for each pipe segment normally be taken from the flare system P&ID. If
modelled. You should you are sizing a new flare system, the pipe
initially size a network diameters that you define are relatively
using vapour phase unimportant since they will be overwritten by the
methods. sizing algorithms. It is recommended that
reasonable diameters be defined, so that the
sizing algorithm initialises to a condition that will
give faster convergence.

The following diagram shows the connectivity of the system which

2-2
Developing the Model 2-3

includes the new sources you will be adding in this example.

Figure 2.1

The pipe segments in the network diagram are detailed in the following
table.

Nominal
Segment Elevation
Length (m) Diameter Schedule Fittings Loss
Name Change (m)
(inch)
Stack 100 36 40 0 100
Header 1 50 28 30 0 0
Header 2 50 28 30 0 0
Tail Pipe 1 25 18 40 0 0
Tail Pipe 2 25 18 40 0 0
Tail Pipe 3 25 12 40 0 0
Tail Pipe 4 25 18 40 0 0

The new pipe segments Header 1, Header 2, Tail Pipe 3 and Tail Pipe 4
will be added.

2-3
2-4 Data Requirements

2.2.2 Relief Source Data


The following data must be specified for the sources:

Data Description
Flow and These may vary for each scenario that you are evaluating.
Composition If a relief source is not used in a particular scenario the flow
may be set to zero. The Flow refers to the quantity of fluid
that the source valve must pass as a consequence of the
plant upset condition. The Rated Flow refers to the quantity
of fluid that the source valve will pass due to its physical
construction. Rated flow must always be greater than or
equal to flow.
Maximum allowable This is the maximum pressure that can exist at the outlet of
Back Pressure the device (source) without affecting its capacity.
(MABP)
Downstream This temperature is used as the pressure independent
Temperature temperature at which the source enters the network. This
temperature is used when ideal gas enthalpies are used to
calculate the heat balance, or as an initial guess when any
other enthalpy method is used.
Upstream Pressure These are only used if the Ideal Gas enthalpies are not used
and Temperature for the heat balance. These may vary for each scenario that
you are evaluating. With relief valves, the flowing pressure
should be used.
Discharge Flange This will normally be determined from the relief valve sizing
Size calculations.

In this example, you will consider five scenarios that represent one fire
case and four single blocked discharge cases. The following tables
define the source data for each scenario.

The discharge flange size values are left undefined. In this case they
are assumed to have the same diameter as the attached pipes.

2-4
Developing the Model 2-5

Default Source Data


Source Flowrate US temp DS Temp US Pres. MABP
Mol. Wt.
Name (kg/hr) (C) (C) (bar abs) (bar abs)
Source 1 100000 20 15 15 10 5.0
Source 2 100000 25 15 15 10 5.0
Source 3 100000 30 15 15 10 5.0
Source 4 100000 35 15 15 10 5.0

Source 1 Only Data


Source Flowrate US temp DS Temp US Pres. MABP
Mol. Wt.
Name (kg/hr) (C) (C) (bar abs) (bar abs)
Source 1 100000 20 15 15 10 5.0
Source 2 0 25 15 15 10 5.0
Source 3 0 30 15 15 10 5.0
Source 4 0 35 15 15 10 5.0

Source 2 Only Data


Source Flowrate US temp DS Temp US Pres. MABP
Mol. Wt.
Name (kg/hr) (C) (C) (bar abs) (bar abs)
Source 1 0 20 15 15 10 5.0
Source 2 100000 25 15 15 10 5.0
Source 3 0 30 15 15 10 5.0
Source 4 0 35 15 15 10 5.0

Source 3 Only Data


Source Flowrate US temp DS Temp US Pres. MABP
Mol. Wt.
Name (kg/hr) (C) (C) (bar abs) (bar abs)
Source 1 0 20 15 15 10 5.0
Source 2 0 25 15 15 10 5.0
Source 3 100000 30 15 15 10 5.0
Source 4 0 35 15 15 10 5.0

Source 4 Only Data


Source Flowrate US temp DS Temp US Pres. MABP
Mol. Wt.
Name (kg/hr) (C) (C) (bar abs) (bar abs)
Source 1 0 20 15 15 10 5.0
Source 2 0 25 15 15 10 5.0

2-5
2-6 Opening the Old Model

Source Flowrate US temp DS Temp US Pres. MABP


Mol. Wt.
Name (kg/hr) (C) (C) (bar abs) (bar abs)
Source 3 0 30 15 15 10 5.0
Source 4 100000 35 15 15 10 5.0

2.2.3 System Design Constraints


In this case, the following data is used for all Scenarios:
Maximum allowable mach number - 0.50 for both main headers
and tailpipes.
Maximum Noise - 100 dB for both main headers and tailpipes

2.3 Opening the Old Model


1. Start UniSim Flare and open the previously stored case that you
have just saved in Getting Started.
2. Select Open from the File menu on the main program menu bar.
or
3. Press Ctrl O.
4. The Open Flare Model view will appear.

Figure 2.2

5. Use the Look in drop-down menu to select the appropriate drive


and directory.
6. Next select the file that you created in Getting Started from the list
and click the Open button.

2-6
Developing the Model 2-7

2.4 Updating the Model


You need to add new pipe segments to the existing model, but first you
must delete the connection between Tee 1 and Header 3. Open the PFD
and delete the connection as follows:
1. Click the Toggle Connect/Arrange Mode icon to switch to
connect mode and select the connection between Tee 1 and
Header 3.

Figure 2.3

2. Press the DELETE key.

To add a tee section after Header 3:


3. Open the Node Manager view, using the Build-Nodes menu option.

Figure 2.4

Click the Add button and select the Tee from the pop up list.

2-7
2-8 Updating the Model

4. The Tee Editor view will be displayed:

Since this example is of Figure 2.5


smaller size, therefore the
Location field will be left
blank. This field is only
useful for larger case with
multiple sections (areas)
within a same plant.

5. Specify the name to be Tee 3, the Downstream connection to be


Header 3 and select Upstream from the At drop-down list.
6. Move to the Calculations tab and change the Fittings Loss
Methods setting to Miller in the drop-down list.
7. Close the Tee Editor property view by clicking OK button.
8. Click OK to close the Node Manager view.
Now, you can add two pipe segments to the upstream and branch
section of Tee 3 using the Pipe Manager view.
9. Open the Pipe Manager view by selecting Pipes from the Build
menu.

Figure 2.6

2-8
Developing the Model 2-9

10. Click the Add button to add a new pipe segment.


11. Change the default pipe name to Tail Pipe 4.
12. Specify Tee 3 as the Downstream connection and select Branch
After clicking Next, you
will notice that Tail Pipe 4
in the At drop-down list.
has been added to the
Pipe Manager list. Figure 2.7

13. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 25 m.


14. Set Nominal Diameter as 18 inch from the drop-down list.
15. Click Next to add another pipe segment.
16. Change the new pipe segment default name to Header 2.
17. Specify Tee 3 as the Downstream connection and select
Upstream in the At drop-down list.
18. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 50 m.

2-9
2-10 Updating the Model

19. Set Nominal Diameter as 28 inch from the drop-down list.

Figure 2.8

20. Click the OK button to close the Pipe Editor property view.
21. Close the Pipe Manager view by clicking the OK button.
Notice that three new objects have been added to the PFD view. You
can either manually arrange them by clicking and dragging the
object icons or let UniSim Flare do the auto-arrangement by
selecting PFD-Regenerate from the View menu.
Now you will add a tee section using the PFD Toolbox.
22. Open the PFD Toolbox view (if it is not displayed) by clicking the
PFD Toolbox icon
23. Click the Tee icon on the Toolbox view.
Since the Edit Objects on Add checkbox is selected, the Tee Editor

2-10
Developing the Model 2-11

view will be displayed.

Figure 2.9

24. Change the default name to Tee 2.


25. Specify Header 2 as the Downstream connection and select
Upstream in the At drop-down list. On the Calculations tab set
Multiple pipe buttons with the fittings loss method to Miller.
different orientations will
appear when this is 26. Close the Tee Editor view by clicking the OK button.
selected.
Now, you can add two pipe segments to the upstream and branch
section of Tee 2 using the PFD Toolbox view.
27. Click the Pipe button to add a new pipe segment. A fly out menu of
4 buttons showing alternate pipe directions will appear to allow you
to select the orientation that you require for your PFD. This is only
the initial orientation and it may be changed later.
28. On the Pipe Editor view, change the default pipe name to Tail Pipe
3.

2-11
2-12 Updating the Model

29. Specify Tee 2 as the Downstream connection and select Branch


in the At drop-down list.

Figure 2.10

30. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 25 m.


31. Set Nominal Diameter as 12 inch from the drop-down list.
32. Close the Pipe Editor property view by clicking the OK button.
33. Click the Pipe button again to add another pipe segment.
34. Change the new pipe segment default name to Header 1.
35. Specify Tee 2 as the Downstream connection and select
Upstream in the At drop-down list.
36. Specify Tee 1 as the Upstream connection and select
Downstream in the At drop-down list.
37. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 50 m.

2-12
Developing the Model 2-13

38. Set Nominal Diameter as 28 inch from the drop-down list.

Figure 2.11

39. Click the OK button to close the Pipe Editor property view.
Select Data-Pipes from the View menu on the menu bar. The
Pipes view displays the data for all of the pipe segments:

Figure 2.12

At this point you might want to rearrange the new items on the PFD
manually or use the View-PFD-Regenerate menu option to
redraw the PFD automatically. The PFD should be similar to that

2-13
2-14 Defining the Scenarios

displayed in Figure 2.13.

Figure 2.13

2.5 Defining the Scenarios


You now need to define the data for the new scenarios, the Source 3
Only and Source 4 Only scenarios. The existing model already
contains three scenarios which you will still be using in this example. To
add the new scenarios:
1. Select Scenario from the Build menu on the menu bar.
The Scenario Manager view will be displayed.

Figure 2.14

2-14
Developing the Model 2-15

2. Click Add on the Scenario Manager. The Clone Scenario From


view will be displayed.

Figure 2.15

3. Select the Source 2 Only scenario from the list.


4. Change the default name to Source 3 Only and set the Mach
number data in the Headers and Tailpipes tab to 0.5 as shown in
Figure 2.16.

Figure 2.16

5. To add a new scenario click Next on the Scenario Editor and select
the Source 3 Only scenario from the Clone Scenario From view.

2-15
2-16 Defining the Sources

6. Change the default name for the new scenario to Source 4 Only.

Figure 2.17

7. Enter the data for the new scenario as shown in Figure 2.16.
8. Click OK to close the Scenario Editor view and return to the
Scenario Manager. Now select Default Scenario and click the
Current button to make this the working scenario. Click OK to close
the Scenario Manager.

2.6 Defining the Sources


You will now enter the source data for the sources in all scenarios. Since
for the first part of the example you will be defining the source
compositions in terms of molecular weight, the program preferences
must be set to accept the compositions on this basis as described in
Getting Started.

2-16
Developing the Model 2-17

1. Select Nodes from the Build menu on the main menu bar (Alt B
S).
The Node Manager view will be displayed:

Figure 2.18

2. Click Add and select Control Valve from the pop up list.

Figure 2.19

2-17
2-18 Defining the Sources

The Control Valve Editor view will be displayed:

Figure 2.20

3. Change the default name to Source 3. Select Tail Pipe 3 in the


Outlet drop-down list and set connection to be at Upstream (of
Tail Pipe 3).
4. Move to the Conditions tab and set the Mass Flow as 100000 kg/
hr.

Figure 2.21

2-18
Developing the Model 2-19

5. On the Composition tab, specify the Mol. Wt. to be 30.

Note: The composition will be calculated as soon as you


tab away from the Mol Wt field.
The Mole Fractions are
automatically estimated
from the Molecular Figure 2.22
Weight. Because HC is
selected from the drop-
down list, only
hydrocarbon components
will be used to match the
Molecular Weight.

6. Click Next to add a new source. The node pop up list will again be
displayed.
7. Again select Control Valve and the Control Valve Editor view will
be displayed.
8. Name the new source as Source 4.

2-19
2-20 Defining the Sources

9. Select Tail Pipe 4 in the Outlet drop-down list and set connection
to be at Upstream (of Tail Pipe 4).

Figure 2.23

10. Specify Mole Wt. to be 35 on the Composition tab.


11. Click the OK button to close the Control Valve Editor view.
The Node Manager view will now appear as follows:

Figure 2.24

12. Close the Node Manager view by clicking the OK button.


13. Select Data-Sources from the View menu on the menu bar.

2-20
Developing the Model 2-21

The Sources data view for the Default Scenario will be displayed:

Figure 2.25

14. You must now add the source data for the other four scenarios.
15. Select the scenarios from the selector on the tool bar. Any open
data views will display data for the selected scenario.
Make the following changes to the flowrates in all scenarios:

Source 1 Source 2 Source 3 Source 4


Scenarios
(kg/hr) (kg/hr) (kg/hr) (kg/hr)
Source 1 Only 100000 0 0 0
Source 2 Only 0 100000 0 0
Source 3 Only 0 0 100000 0
Source 4 Only 0 0 0 100000

For each scenario, ensure that the sources which have a flowrate of
zero are ignored (i.e. select the Ignore checkbox for the source).

2.6.1 Sizing the Network


You have now entered all the model data and can now make the sizing
calculations. You will need to set the calculation options before starting
the calculations.
1. Select Options from the Calculation menu on the menu bar. The

2-21
2-22 Defining the Sources

Calculation Options Editor view will be displayed:

Figure 2.26

2. For the first calculation of this example ensure that the following
options are set:
On the General tab, Calculation Mode should be set to Rating,
Enable Heat Transfer checkbox should be cleared, Include
Kinetic Energy checkbox should be cleared, Ignore Source to
Pipe Pressure Loss in Design Mode should be set.
On the Scenarios tab, the Calculate drop-down list should be
set to Current Scenario.
On the Methods tab, the VLE Method should be set to
Compressible Gas, the Enthalpy Method to Ideal Gas and all the
pressure drop methods to Isothermal Gas.
3. Ensure that the Default Scenario is selected using the Scenario
Selector drop-down list on the main toolbar.
You can now start the calculations.

2-22
Developing the Model 2-23

4. Select Calculate from the Calculation menu on the menu bar


(ALT C C or ctrl r). Alternatively, you could click the Calculations
icon.

Figure 2.27

Once the calculations are complete you can review the results.
5. Select Results-Problems from the View menu on the menu bar. The
Messages data view will be displayed.

Figure 2.28

The above view contains general information and warning messages


regarding the calculations. In this case the mach number exceeds the
design value of 0.5, which was defined for each scenario, for Tail Pipe
3. It also shows both upstream and downstream pipe segment mach
number for each violation. It is due to smaller pipe segments causing
very high fluid velocities across the pipe segment.

At this point, it is a good idea to save your case before doing detail
design.
6. Select Save As from the File menu and save the file as Get
Started 2 Rating.ufnw.

2.7 Design Calculations


1. We will now use UniSim Flare's design capabilities to redesign the
network to resolve the mach number problem we have identified in
the rating calculation we have just completed.
Use the Calculation Mode selector on the main toolbar to change
the calculation mode to Debottleneck. This calculation mode will
redesign the flare system to meet our defined system limits without
reducing the current sizes of any pipes.

2-23
2-24 Design Calculations

2. Click the Start Calculation icon on the toolbar.


After the calculation has been completed, you can review the new
results.

Figure 2.29

3. Open the Results - Messages view from the View menu and then
select the Sizing tab to see a list of the changes that UniSim Flare
You can also access the has made to the network. In this case it has increased the size of
Pressure/Flow Summary Tailpipe 3 from 12 inch to 14 inch.
view by clicking the Open
Pressure/Flow 4. Select Results - Pressure/Flow Summary from the View menu
Summary icon. on the menu bar.

The Pressure/Flow Summary view will be displayed:

Figure 2.30

Notice that the upstream and downstream mach numbers are now
within the design specification for the given scenario. You can use the
bottom scroll bar to move across the columns.

We now have a flare system that is designed correctly for the Default
Scenario where all sources are relieving but we have not yet checked
that it is adequate for all of the scenarios. To do this we will do a Rating
calculation for all of the scenarios.
5. Open the Calculation Options view and set the Calculation Mode
to Rating on the General tab. On the Scenarios tab, set the
Calculate option to All Scenarios. After closing the Calculation
Options view, click the Start Calculation icon to run the rating
check.

2-24
Developing the Model 2-25

6. When the calculations have finished, open the Results - Messages


view from the View menu. Click on the Problems tab where any
violations of our system design limits will be displayed. You will see
that UniSim Flare has detected a violation of the mach number
limits for the tail pipes in the single source scenarios.

Figure 2.31

The reason for this is that the lower back pressure in the system
when only a single source is relieving means that the gas density is
reduced resulting in higher velocities.
7. To fix this problem with our design we will re-run the Debottleneck
calculations for all the scenarios. Use the Calculation Mode
selector on the main toolbar to change the calculation mode to
Debottleneck and then click the Calculate icon.
8. When complete, review the Problems tab of the Messages view to
confirm that the flare system now meets all our design limits in all
scenarios. The Sizing tab will show which pipe sizes have been
increased.

Figure 2.32

Note: We could have run the Debottleneck calculations for all


scenarios immediately after our first rating calculation and
obtained the same results. While this might have been
faster, we have obtained a better understanding of which
scenarios have caused changes to pipe sizes by doing our
calculations in stages.

9. Select Results-Pressure/Flow Summary from the View menu on


the menu bar.

2-25
2-26 Design Calculations

The Pressure/Flow Summary view will be displayed:

Figure 2.33

Notice that the upstream and downstream mach numbers are now
within the design specification for the given scenario. You can use the
bottom scroll bar to move across the columns.
10. Press Ctrl A to save the case as a new file.
11. Enter the new file name as Get Started 2 Design.ufnw on the
Save UniSim Flare Model view and click the Save button.

2-26