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University of Sunderland

TEG International College

BEng(Hons) in Mechanical Engineering

EAT309 Design

Group No: 6

Name: Nur Mohammad Sonzu

Student number : 169056289
Email id:

A shaft is a rotating machine component which is used to transfer power
from one point to another. The power is transmitted to the shaft by a
driving force and connected to a driven- end, a resultant torque will be
linked to other machine member. [1]

There are many types of shafts but two main groupings are: [1]
1. Transmission shafts, which transfer power between source and
machine absorbing members; example are counter shafts and line
2. Machine shafts, which are integral parts of a machine; example
crank shafts.

The shaft material used should have the characteristics below: [1]

1. High strength.
2. Good machinability.
3. Low notch sensitivity factor.
4. Good Heat treatment properties.
5. High wear resistant.

Shaft materials are typically categorised as following:

1. Carbon Steel; ordinary use.
2. Alloy steel; high strength requirement. [1]

For the purpose of this project, 3 types of steel will be considered as


1. BS 970 070M20: This Low Carbon Steel has the following composition
(C-0.16/0.24, SI-0.10/0.40, MN-0.50/0.90, S-0.050max and P-
0.050max). With only 0.24% of carbon, this steel is generally strong
and tough but not readily tempered. Its malleable and ductile thus
easy to form. It has good weldability and machinability, and relative
low in price. However, it has relatively low tensile strength but can be
surface hardened through carburizing. After suitable hardening or
hardening/tempering, this steel is generally use when large amount is
needed for example construction and in automotive, its for making
sprocket, tie rod, shaft fork and rear hub.[2]
2. BS 970 709M40 This Chromium Molybdenum Steel is an alloy steel
with the following composition (C-0.36/0.44, SI-00.10/0.35, MN-
0.70/1.00, S-0.040max, P-0.035max, Cr-0.90/1.20, Mo-0.25/0.35). This
steel with 0.44% carbon content has a better balance of ductility and
strength with good wear resistance. Addition of Chromium and
Molybdenum will increase tensile strength, hardness and resistance to
wear. It also improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
However, welding in hardened and tempered condition is not advisable
and should be avoided if possible. This steel is mainly used for
crankshaft, shaft, spindle push rod, connecting rod and lightly stressed

3. BS 970 817M40 This Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Steel is an alloy

steel with following composition (C-0.36/0.44, SI-0.10/0.35, MN-
0.45/0.70, S-0.040max, P-0.035max, Cr-1.00/1.4, Mo-0.20/0.35, Ni-
1.30/1.70). This steel with 0.44% carbon content has a better balance
of ductility and strength with good wear resistance. With additional of
Nickel to Chromium/Molybdenum, material has high hardenability, high
tensile strength and good machinability (using recommended
manufacturer speed and feed). However, welding (hardened and
tempered condition) is not advised as mechanical properties will be
altered in heat affected zone. This material is commonly used in
making axle shafts, crankshaft, connecting rod, gears and high tensile

From manufacturers web pages and Ashby, the following data are
extracted and tabulated as follows:
BS 970 BS 970
Properties Unit 070M20 817M40 709M40
Tensile Strength Mpa 430 980 870
Youngs Modulus GPa 215 217 216
Density kg/m 7.8 7.8 7.8
Yield Strength MPa 300 870 740
Toughness MPa.m1/2 82 200 92
Production MJ/m3 193.44 267.54 209.82
CO2 burden kg/kg 2.1 2.2 2.1
Cost per unit cost $/kg 0.7 0.89 0.8

Listed next is the basic design requirement for the project.

Durability for uneven ground
Two-persons portable
Clutch torque tolerance +5%
Manufacturability 30 units/year
Increase load to 1.5 tonne
Smooth Transmission; rescue
Low Cost for retrofit
Environmentally Friendly
These requirements are reviewed against the desirable properties of a
shaft to develop the performance indices that will be used for the final

Materials performance index

The performance of a structural element is determined by three things:
the functional requirements, the geometry and the properties of the
material of which it is made. The performance P of the element is
described by an equation of the form
P = f [(functional requirements, F); (geometry, G); (materials
properties, M)]
P = f (F, G, M)
where P, the performance metric, describes some aspect of the
performance of the component: its mass, or volume, or cost, or life for
example; and f means a function of.
Optimum design is the selection of the material and geometry that
maximize or minimize P, according to its desirability or otherwise. The
three groups of parameters in equation are said to be separable when the
equation can be written
P = f1 (F) . f2 (G) . f3 (M)
where f1, f2, and f3 are separate functions that are simply multiplied
together. When the groups are separable, as they frequently are, the
optimum choice of material becomes independent of the details of the
design; it is the same for all geometries, G, and for all values of the
function requirement, F. Then the optimum subset of materials can be
identified without solving the complete design problem, or even knowing
all the details of F and G. This enable enormous simplification: the
performance for all F and G is maximized by maximizing f3 (M), which is
called the material efficiency coefficient, or material index for short. [5]

The next chart shows a model of how specification of function, objectives

and constraint leads to material index.

Based on the above method the following performance indices are

derived for shaft material selection:

1. Stiffness-limited design at minimum mass

Function - Shaft (loaded in torsion)
Constraint Stiffness, length and shape specified, section area
Objective Minimum mass (cost, energy, environmental
Thus, maximise index, M = E1/2/
2. Damaged-tolerant design Fracture toughness, K1C, against
Strength, f,
Function - Shaft (loaded in torsion)
Constraint Maximum flaw tolerance and strength, load-
controlled design
Objective Minimum mass (cost, energy, environmental
Thus, maximise index, M = K1C/ f

3. Stiffness-limited design at minimum relative cost, CvR ,

Function - Shaft (loaded in torsion)
Constraint Stiffness, length, shape specified, section area
Objective Minimum relative cost (cost, energy,
environmental impact)
Thus, maximise index, M = E1/2/ CvR

4. Strength-limited design at minimum Energy content, Hp,

Function - Shaft (loaded in torsion)
Constraint Strength, length and shape specified, section area
Objective Minimum energy content (cost, energy,
environmental impact)
Thus, maximum index, M = f 2/3 / Hp

Based on the performance indices above, the calculations result is

tabulated below:
Base on the ranking system 1-3 (1 being the best), each material is rank
as per the performance indices. The lowest overall score will be the
material best for the project.
Thus, BS 970 817M40 is the selected material for this shaft project.

1. Khurmi R S, (2014), A text book of machine design, Eurasia
publishing house(P)ltd, New Delhi, ISBN 9788121925372
5. Ashby, Michael F, (2005), Materials Selection in Mechanical Design,
USA: Elsevier Ltd, ISBN 978-0-7506-6168-3